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Vol 57. Issue No. 3 March 2017

Is Banning a Solution &

Can we do it? Pravita Iyer
Mahadevan Iyer
Hello and welcome once again. Of late there
has been a lot of discussion both from within Publisher & Editor-In-Chief
the power industry and officials in the Mahadevan Iyer
government on how to stop the import of
electrical equipment from China. And its
quite understandable, as it is perceived to be
Editorial Co-ordinator
threat to the Indian economy and security
Nafisa Kaisar
considering the vulnerability of the countrys
T & D networks to hacking as the Indian
power sector today is under modern SCADA
system which maintains the balance between
Advertising Department
demand and supply in the grid. Director Advertisement
Just last year, IEEMA had raised concerns Pravita Iyer
over the increasing exposure to Chinese
power equipment as according to them
individuals and companies of other countries may have access to their advantage. In Advertising Manager
response, the Central Electricity Authority introduced the domestic procurement norm by which Yasmeen Kazi
any equipment for government-funded power projects have to be procured locally. Then what
about power projects by private players? Can a nations security be divided into categories
-- government, semi-government, private etc. It cannot be. But then singling out only power Design
sector will not solve the problem. Nilesh Nimkar
Last week, the richest man in China increased his stake in Indian Paytm by a huge margin. I
remember the founder of Paytm, Mr Vijay Sharma saying at a press conference a few months
back that Paytm was as Indian as the once government-controlled Maruti, which is now 56% Sub-Editor
owned by Suzuki. Well, there is a stark difference betwen controlling an automobile company Dhanya Nagasundaram
and having access to every Indians bank account details and their buying habbits -- which is
a security threat? Its anybodys guess. After the de-monetisation drive in November last, there
was a huge push by the government to drive people to digital payment, mainly Paytm. Subscription Department
Nafisa Khan
Notwithstanding the above fact, can India ban the import of Chinese power equipment?
Considering the fact that as per international tariff and trade norms of which our country is a
signatory, you cant put any country under disadvantageous position. It is difficult to prove the
involvement of China even though that country is always found at the center of many Accounts
problems. Also as mentioned above, there are many private power producers, like Reliance, Dattakumar Barge
which sources most of its power equipment from China for its own and EPC projects. Recalling
what a senior member of a leading audit firm once said and I quote, the Chinese companies
are attractive because they have the capacities and are cost-competitive. Price competitiveness Customer Care
and limited manufacturing capacity of BHEL are main reasons for private players to do China Sonali Pugaonkar
shopping for their power equipment. What required is a complete re-think by the government
in the lines of what is being thought about in the US with regard to outsourcing. Probably a
White Paper could be brought out that evaluates the myths ruling in this crucial sector. The
nation which hopes to be a leading economic power in the world cannot grow without
affordable power on demand. Electrical India is also available online on For online enquiries
Do send in your comments at
contact at:

Publisher & Editor-In-Chief

Single Issue: ` 100 / Annual Subscription: ` 1000

Chary Publications does not take responsibility for claims made by advertisers relating to ownership, patents, and use of trademarks, copyrights and such other rights.
While all efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of the information in this magazine, opinions expressed and images are those of the authors, and do not
necessarily reflect the views/ collection of the owner, publisher, editor or the editorial team. Chary Publications shall not be held responsible/ liable for any consequences;
in the event, such claims are found - not to be true. All objections, disputes, differences, claims & proceedings are subject to Mumbai jurisdiction only.

Printed, Published and owned by Mahadevan Iyer from 906, The Corporate Park, Plot 14 & 15, Sector 18, Vashi, Navi Mumbai 400703 and Printed at Print Tech., C-18,
Royal Indl Estate, Naigaum Cross Road, Wadala, Mumbai - 400 031. Editor: Mahadevan Iyer


Vol. 57 | No. 3 | March 2017

Influence of the joint design Castrol, Romax Technology set-up Joint Venture . 26
30 Diego Cisilino
Siemens , Allguer berlandwerk in a
Curse of Dual Certification for Distribution
36 Transformers B Lal
partnership for smart grid expansion . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
Reactive Power Management & Voltage Control ADB, India sign $500 million loan for
40 to avoid Blackouts Rajesh Chourishi better Power Systems, Transmission . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
Solar Panel Cleaning System
54 Avipsa Dey, Nishi Shah, Sonali Ghatge, Vaishali Sapkal INTERVIEW
Capacitors - Get More Power & Save Money We are investing aggressively in
59 Anuraj Kumar R&D and planning to offer T&C
Analysis of Grid-Connected Photovoltaic Systems services to export market
62 Dr. L Ashok Kumar

An Overview of Superconducting Transformer 46
Technology Balasaheb Doiphode
Hambir Singh, Muvendra Kumar Singh CEO
Power Quality: A Growing Concern SCOPE T&M Pvt. Ltd.
76 Andrew Sagl

Publishers Letter. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 04
News . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 08
Appointments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
Awards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24

Statistics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
Event Calender . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
Product Avenue. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78
Index to Advertisers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84


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NEWS National News >>

EESL signs MoU with the Government of Andhra Pradesh

nergy Efficiency Services Limited (EESL), a company irrigation needs are intermittent, between 200 to 250
under the Ministry of Power signed multiple days in a year, leaving most of the days with additional
Memorandum of Understandings (MoUs) with the power available. Solar PV grid connected pump sets will
Government of Andhra Pradesh worth Rs. 24,700 crores for bridge the gap and the surplus power may be fed back to
energy efficiency and solar projects in the state. The the grid.
execution of projects through this MoU will help the state Chief Minister N. Chandrababu Naidu encouraged
reduce consumption of power and add over 80,000 jobs in EESL and this partnership. Naidu affirmed that EESLs
the state. Through this MoU, EESL will distribute energy partnership with the Government of Andhra Pradesh is
efficient domestic appliances like LED bulbs, LED tubelights essential for the states energy efficiency projects.
and 5-star rated fans under the Unnat Jeevan by Affordable Saurabh Kumar, Managing Director, EESL, said, The
Saurabh Kumar
LEDs and Appliances for All (UJALA). Andhra Pradesh was the state of Andhra Pradesh has been leading in energy
first state to execute the UJALA programme for LED bulbs in 2015. EESL will efficiency efforts and stands as an example to other states of the country to
continue to execute the programme in the state for a period of three years. emulate best practices. Such commitment will provide a conducive
EESL will also install of 50,000 Solar Photo-Voltaic (PV) grid connected environment for energy efficiency measures to be adopted all over the
agriculture pumps sets in each DISCOM area. It is acknowledged that country.

Solar manufacturing plant to be a game changer

in off-grid solar power scenario

ecently, Bhoomi Poojan and Foundation lamps. IIT Bombay believes that the sustainability
Stone Ceremony of Indias First Locally- of solar solutions can come only when local
Owned Solar Panel Manufacturing Plant communities are involved in various operations
was held. For the first time in India, a solar of solar technology implementation and
module manufacturing plant fully owned and distribution. To take this forward, IIT Bombay has
operated by local tribal communities is being set begun promoting local manufacturing of solar
up in Dungarpur, Rajasthan. The foundation Dungarpur, Rajasthan products in rural areas. The Institute has helped
stone laying ceremony was held a few days back. implement this first-of-its-kind solar PV module
Considering the importance of renewable energy in India, IIT Bombay manufacturing plant, which will be completely owned and operated by
had already started a Department of Energy Science and Engineering and tribal women in Dungarpur, Rajasthan.
established a National Centre for Photovoltaic Research and Education. In IIT Bombay will provide hand-holding support to the community till
order to identify and tackle the challenges in implementation and they become fully capable of technical and business operations. A corpus
dissemination of renewable energy technology in society, IIT Bombay has amount exceeding 24 lakhs was collected for set-up of the manufacturing
lead projects which provide solar lamps to school students across India. The plant by the tribal women. Additional funds were provided by Idea Cellular.
Institute has already distributed 1 million solar lamps and has been given The plant is expected to be operational within 4 to 5 months and will focus
the responsibility to plan and execute distribution of 7 million more such mainly on off-grid solar market.

NTPC installs Robotic Dry Cleaning System for Solar PV Plant at NTPC Dadri

TPC is Indias largest power utility with by A. K. Jha, Director (Technical), NTPC Limited in

an installed capacity of48,143MW, it presence of D.K. Sood, RED (DBF) & ED (CSR/R&R)
aims to become a 130 GW company by and S. K. Sinha, GGM (Dadri) and other senior
2032. Established in 1975, NTPC aspire to be the officials of NTPC recently.
worlds largest and best power major. The The system is first of its kind in India having
company is committed to generating reliable several unique features such as robo operation
power at competitive prices in a sustainable with seasonal tilt, energy independency, remote
manner by optimising the use of multiple energy monitoring & management, self-cleaning
sources with innovative eco-friendly mechanism etc. which makes it suitable for
technologies. remote solar sites. The system aims at conserving
Robotic Dry Cleaning System for Solar panels Robotic Dry Cleaning System water alongside reducing power generation loss
at Solar PV plant at NTPC Dadri was inaugurated due to soiling to the extent of 3-4%.

Up to 2000, 3000 and 5000 A





The subsidiary company, /^  / / W >     /^ / 


^ZK '&^EhW/
NEWS National News >>

Sikkim becomes 22nd State to join UDAY

he Government of India and the State of Sikkim signed a Distribution department of the State.AT&C losses and transmission losses
Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) under the Scheme Ujwal would be brought down through compulsory distribution transformer
DISCOM Assurance Yojana (UDAY) recently, for operational metering, consumer indexing & GIS mapping of losses, upgrade/change
improvement of the States Power Distribution Department. With the transformers, meters etc., smart metering of high-end consumers, feeder
signing of MoU, the total number of States covered under UDAY has audit etc., besides eliminating the gap between cost of supply of power and
reached twenty-two. Sikkim would derive an Overall Net Benefit of realisation.The reduction in AT&C losses and transmission losses to 15%and
approximately Rs. 207 crores through UDAY by way of cheaper funds, 3.50% respectively is likely to bring additional revenue of around
reduction in AT&C and transmission losses, interventions in energy efficiency, Rs.179crores.
etc.during the period of turnaround. The ultimate benefit of signing the MOU would go to the people of
The MoU paves way for improving operational efficiency of the Power Sikkim.

Cabinet approves the investment proposal for generation component

of Hydro Electric Project in Nepal

he Cabinet Committee on Economic Affairs chaired by the Prime
Minister Narendra Modi has approved:
Investment for generation component of Arun-3 HEP (900 MW) for an
The project is located on Arun River in Sankhuwasabha District of
Eastern Nepal. The Run-of-River scheme envisages about 70 metre high
concrete gravity dam and Head Race Tunnel (HRT) of 11.74 Km. with
estimated cost of Rs. 5723.72 crore at May 2015 Price Level. underground Power House containing four generating units of 225 MW each
ii. Completion period of the project shall be 60 months from the date of on Left Bank.
financial closure which is planned for September this year. SJVN limited bagged the project through International Competitive
iii. Ex-post facto approval for the existing implementing agency, already
Bidding. An MoU was signed between Government of Nepal and SJVN
incorporated in the name of SJVN Arun-3 Power Development Company
Limited for the project in March, 2008 for execution on Build Own Operate
(P) Limited (SAPDC) registered in Nepal as a 100% subsidiary of SJVN
Limited for implementing the project. and Transfer (BOOT) basis for a period of 30 years including five years of
iv. Any component of work already or being made by the Nepalese construction period. The Project Development Agreement (PDA) signed on
authorities shall be so certified by Central Electricity Authority (CEA) and 25.11.2014, which provides 21.9% free power to Nepal for the entire
shall be accordingly deducted from the project cost requirements, concession period of 25 years.

India has a 10-year window in which no new investments

likely in coal, gas or nuclear capacities
Current generation capacity and that being built will be enough to keep of renewables as well as the ability of the grid to absorb large amounts of
India power sufficient till 2026 All new investments in power generation renewable energy together with battery-based balancing power.
likely to go to solar/battery technology. TERIs demand scenario suggests that the current installed capacity and
The Energy and Resources Institute (TERI) unveiled the findings of its the capacity under construction and after taking into account retirements,
study report, Transitions in the Indian Energy Sector - Macro Level Analysis would be able to meet the demand till about 2026, or so. This suggests that
of Demand and Supply Side Options. This report was released alongside two there would be no new coal-based capacity investment that would be

others one by the Electricity Transitions Commission (ETC), and the other approved till about for years prior to that.
by the Indian National Academy of Engineering (INAE). Between 2014 and 2024, India has a 10-year window. If in this 10 year
The reports were released by Piyush Goyal, Minister of State (I/C) for window, the price of solar and battery reaches the Rs.5/ unit mark, all new
Power, Coal, New and Renewable Energy and Mines, Government of India, capacity additions would be in renewables. In case, this price goal would be
as part of a day-long conference organised by TERI on Energy Transitions. achieved, or nearly achieved, by 2023-24, if appropriate infrastructure to
The TERI report indicates that current installed capacity and the capacity absorb large amounts of renewable energy, together with battery-based
under construction would be able to meet demand till about 2026, keeping balancing power, is in place.
India power sufficient. The report estimates that no new investments are Piyush Goyal, Minister for Power, Coal, and Renewable Energy,
likely to be made in coal-based power generation in the years prior to that. Government of India, said, Universal access to electricity is one of the
The TERI report also estimates that beyond 2023-24, new power primary aims of the Government, and meeting demand is a major facet of
generation capacity could be all renewables, based on cost competitiveness this initiative. We see India becoming the energy capital of the world.

10 ELECTRICAL INDIA | March 2017

NEWS Company News >>

ABB India to deliver digital substation for Technopark

BB India will deliver a 110 Claudio Facchin, President of ABB
kilovolt (kV) digital Groups Power Grids division, said,
substation to Technopark, This will be among the first digital
the largest Information Technology substations in India and supports the
(IT) park in India, based on built-up countrys vision of smarter grids and
area, located in the southern state of cities. It highlights the increasing
Kerala and spanning an area of digitalisation of the grid, a key focus
930,000 square meters. Due to the area of our Next Level strategy and
nature of the industry, the campus is reinforces our digital thrust based on
highly dependent on reliable, round Technopark India our common ABB Ability offering.
the clock power to serve the 350 Pitamber Shivnani, President,
companies employing more than 50,000 people. Power Grids Division, ABB India, said, India is today a global hub for digital
Technopark is currently in an expansion mode and is envisioned to services and transitioning from conventional to the digital power grid is the
become a self-contained township with potential to employ a hundred need of the hour. Digital substations are more dependable and flexible
thousand people working in the fields of IT, biotechnology and while reducing life-cycle cost and physical footprint. ABB continues to
nanotechnology, increasing the need for reliable power supplies for pioneer technologies that support the future for Indias digital power grid
commercial and residential consumers. and the vision of Indias National Smart Grid Mission.

BHEL inaugurates its Solar PV manufacturing linesat Bengaluru

HEL is an integrated power plant Manufacturing Line and upgraded 105 MW
equipment manufacturer and one Solar Photovoltaic Cell Manufacturing Line
of the largest engineering and was inaugurated by Honble Union Minister
manufacturing company of its kind in India. for Heavy Industries & Public Enterprises,
It is engaged in the design, engineering, Anant Geete, at the companys
manufacture, construction, testing, manufacturing plants in Bengaluru. Atul
commissioning and servicing of a wide Sobti, Chairman & Managing Director,BHEL;
range of products and services for core Directors on the Board of BHEL and other
sectors of the economy, viz. Power, dignitaries were present on the occasion.
Transmission, Industry, Transportation Dignitaries at the inauguration...
With the commencement of commercial
(Railways), Renewable Energy, Oil & Gas, operation of these lines, the annual
Water and Defence with over 180 products offerings to meet the needs of manufacturing capacity of BHEL has been enhanced to 105 MW of Solar
these sectors. Cells and 226 MW of Solar Modules.
Recently, BHELs state-of-the-art 200 MW Solar Photovoltaic Module

Hartek Group bags PSPCL Smart Grid Order

he Chandigarh-based Hartek Group, one of Indias maximising operational efficiency through a more
fastest growing concerns catering to the power sector, responsive power system network.

has bagged a prestigious smart grid order from the Hartek Singh, Hartek Group Chairman and Managing
Punjab State Power Corporation Limited (PSPCL) for the Director (CMD), said, This prestigious order is our
supply, installation and commissioning of Supervisory Control stepping stone to establishing our leadership in smart
and Data Acquisition (SCADA) relays at 55 substations in the grid power solutions. It is an acknowledgement of our
upcoming Smart Cities of Ludhiana, Amritsar and Jalandhar. expertise in executing smart grid technologies. Known
By equipping these substations with SCADArelays, Hartek for world-class quality standards and timely completion
Group will enable collection and storage of information relating of projects, we at Hartek Group are proud to partner with
to any indications for troubleshooting and maintenance, thus the PSPCL for this important undertaking. A state-of-the-
Hartek Singh
making the power systems smart and robust. art Transmission and Distribution (T&D) network based
These smart grid-enabled substations, including 29 in Ludhiana, 14 in on smart grid applications like SCADA can go a long way in catering to
Amritsar and 12 in Jalandhar, will cater to a population of about 40 lakh by efficient power supply. Smart grids make Smart Cities.

12 ELECTRICAL INDIA | March 2017

NEWS Company News >>

JERA invests $200 million in ReNew Power

eNew Power, Indias well known renewable energy 6 GW of energy assets globally across North America, the Middle
independent power producer, revealed an equity fund East and SE Asia. This investment in ReNew Power marks its first
raise of $200 million for a 10 % stake in the company entry into Indias energy sector.
through the subscription of newly issued shares by JERA, a Sumant Sinha, Chairman and CEO of ReNew Power, said, We
leading Japanese power company with a global presence. are delighted that JERA has chosen to enter the Indian renewable
Following the companys founding six years ago, this latest energy sector by investing in our ever-expanding and fast-
investment round now values ReNew Power at $2 billion. growing company. Their belief and investment in us further
JERA is a joint venture between two of Japans largest utilities Sumant Sinha reinforces our capabilities and commitment towards changing
companies, Tokyo Electric Power Co., Inc. and Chubu Electric
Power Co., Inc. As one of the worlds leading energy firms its capabilities the future of India through transforming our countrys energy
expand across in the entire energy supply chain, from participation in LNG landscape. ReNew Power will continue to focus on developing sustainable
and other fuel resource projects and fuel procurement, through fuel and innovative solar and wind energy solutions and investing in high-
transportation to power generation. JERA currently operates approximately quality projects to create positive returns for our stakeholders.

Suzlon attains 10,000 MW wind energy installation in India

uzlon Group, a well known renewable energy solutions service capabilities. We are proud to have played a pioneering
provider in the world, achieved the 10,000 Megawatt role in providing clean energy solutions to the nation and
(MW) cumulative wind energy installations in India (over making a significant contribution to its energy security and
7,500 wind turbines installed pan-India). The companys 10,000 sustainability. We remain committed to enable the Government
MW of wind installation is capable of powering over 5 million in achieving its target of 40% renewable energy by 2030.
households per annum (p.a) and offsets ~21.5 million tonnes We are committed towards a ramp up in volumes, expand
of Carbon Dioxide (CO2) emission annually which is equivalent presence in focus markets, realising business efficiencies,
Tulsi Tanti
to planting over 1500 million trees. introduction of new generation products and enable
Two decades ago, the company embarked on a journey in digitisation to enhance services and continuous optimisation
the clean energy space from Gujarat. Today, with cumulative wind energy of the capital structure. We have established a multi-pronged strategy that
installations of over 15,500 MW worldwide, Suzlon operates across 17 covers continuous R&D and innovation in design, manufacturing and O&M
countries and has over 1700 customers across the globe. services. We also have a strong presence across customer segments. Our
Tulsi Tanti, Chairman and Managing Director, Suzlon Group, said, This team is looking forward to work collaboratively with our customers, bankers
landmark achievement is a testament of the customer confidence in and partners to scale new heights and contribute towards a greener
Suzlons technologically advanced products and project execution and tomorrow.

TPDDL introduces smart grid project as VAS to its consumers

ata Power Delhi Distribution (TPDDL) is committed to like AMI (Advance Metering Infrastructure), DA (Distribution
provide value-added services (VAS) to its consumers and Automation), ADR (Automated Demand Response), Distributed
with this in mind it has launched a Smart grid project Energy Resources (Solar), Street Light Management, Grid
involving setting up of Radio Frequency Mesh Communication Substation Automation Solution (GSAS) Backup Communication.
Project in its licensed area of 510 sq. km in North and North- The collaboration also includes deployment of 20 lakh

West Delhi. The project will help Tata Power-DDL to provide endpoints, comprised of communication card for smart meters
greater service options to customers and accurate information and automation of operational applications and integration with
on their energy consumption patterns, helping them to manage current & future applications like Advanced Distribution
their usage more efficiently and improve overall reliability by Praveer Sinha Management System (ADMS), SCADA and SAP etc.
reducing outage time. The project will also help in enhanced Praveer Sinha, CEO and MD, TPDDL, said, We at Tata Power
monitoring and control points throughout Tata Power-DDLs network on real DDL have always strived hard in bringing in the best technology and
time basis and will aid in reduction of commercial losses. solutions to our customers. The implementation of this advanced smart grid
The project will be implemented in partnership with the global energy project involving RF canopy technology in our entire area is the first in the
management pioneer Landis+Gyr. The contract covers the design, supply, country. I look forward to a great association with our partner Landis+Gyr
installation, testing, commissioning and AMC of a single RF mesh best in to help us in achieving the dream of setting up of the first Smart grid project
class Gridstream network platform that can support multiple applications in the country.

14 ELECTRICAL INDIA | March 2017

Abdulla Hakeem
Regional Application Specialist

Benet from our experience in

comprehensive power transformer
All of the experiences that I have as an regional application specialist ow
into our transformer test systems. Designed by engineers for engineers, our
solutions are reliable, portable and robust for daily eld use, with individual
wiring diagrams and an integrated assessment according to various
standards. Our wide range of transformer test sets covers everything from
conventional tests such as power factor up to modern methods like dielectric
frequency response and SFRA.
NEWS International News >>

Building Energy acquires 4energia

uilding Energy, an Italian multinational that operates as a and know-how. Encompass areas such as energy trading, the
Global Integrated IPP in the renewable energy industry, management and optimisation of its own and third-party energy
has signed a purchase agreement to acquire 4energia, an production portfolio, the development and coordination of the
independent energy trader founded to buy electric power from operational and IT processes needed to buy and sell energy from
small and medium scale plants for energy producers in Italy. independent producers.
The agreement will see the merger of these two established Fabrizio Zago, CEO of Building Energy, said, We are very
players in the energy industry. As part of the companys constant
pleased to announce the acquisition of 4energia. For us, this is a
development strategy, the acquisition will expand Building Fabrizio Zago
new piece in the strategic jigsaw to strengthen our business in the
Energys in the energy market.
Innovation has always been at the core of Building Energy, but this new energy industry. This transaction merges two dynamic companies known for
addition will drive this forward on the back of the synergies created with their innovative approaches and it will allow us to develop new growth
4energia. The latter has always offered a comprehensive approach to every strategies and synergies to further consolidate our positions in Italian and
aspect of managing an electric power portfolio and its substantial expertise international markets.

Gamesa strengthens its industrial presence in India

amesa recently inaugurated its Phase one of this new facility,
new factory in the Nellore region, already up and running, is earmarked
in the state of Andhra Pradesh, one for the manufacture of the blades for
of the countrys fastest-growing wind the G114-2.0 MW class S turbines, a
power producing regions. product custom-configured for Indias
Construction of this manufacturing wind conditions. Phase two, due to
facility, one of the companys largest in come online in the middle of this year,
India, is framed by Gamesas growth plans, will increase blade production capacity
The dignitaries at the inaugural function...
which contemplate capex of more than
as well as enabling the production of
100 million through 2017 to reinforce its
generators and photovoltaic inverters.
manufacturing presence in this market.
Ramesh Kymal, Gamesas CEO in India, said, Inauguration of this factory
The inauguration ceremony was presided by N. Chandrababu Naidu,
Chief Minister of Andhra Pradesh; Ramesh Kymal, CEO of India; Jos Antonio fortifies Gamesas industrial presence in India, a country in which we have
Cortajarena, Chief Corporate and General Secretary; Iaki Murgiondo, cemented our position as the leading OEM, which has made it one of the
Industrial Managing Director, and Enrique Pedrosa, Commercial Managing companys most important markets. We are certain that this new facility will
Director, among other executives, attended on behalf of Gamesa. generate wealth via job creation and purchases from local suppliers.

Georgia Power makes driving electric more convenient in 2017

eorgia Power continues to advance electric port Level 2, 208/240-volt charger. The charging
transportation inGeorgiathrough innovative islands accept either a Georgia Power Card, powered by
programs that make driving an electric vehicle ChargePoint and available at GeorgiaPower.
(EV) more convenient than ever in 2017. To, or an existing ChargePoint card.

accommodate the growing number of EVs on Georgia Both business and residential customers continue
roads and highways, the company installed 25 new to realise the benefits of driving electric with Georgia
public EV charging locations last year in 25 cities across Power. The company has issued more than 1,700
the state, with more to come in 2017. Since launching rebates to residential and business customers through
itsGet Current, Drive Electricinitiative in 2015, Georgia the Get Current, Drive Electric. The company also
Power estimates that approximately 2,500 EV chargers continues to encourage EV-driving customers to
have been installed statewide by the company and its consider its special Plug-in Electric Vehicle charging
customers. rate (PEV), which helps them save even more just by
From Savannah to Rome, Georgia Power public making simple changes like setting a timer to charge
charging islands feature multiple options for EV drivers their EV at night and shifting electricity usage as
including a DC fast charger (CHADeMo/SAE combo plugs) as well as a dual seasons and demand times change.

16 ELECTRICAL INDIA | March 2017

NEWS International News >>

Superconducting wire market to be worth 1,008.2 million USD by 2021

ccording to a report by Marketsandmarkets, the transformers, cables, generators, energy storage, and
superconducting wire market is expected to grid protection, and is expected to create new revenue
grow from an estimated USD 638.1 Million in pockets for the superconducting wire market during the
2016 to USD 1,008.2 Million by 2021, registering a CAGR forecast period.
of 9.6% from 2016 to 2021. The global market is set to HT superconductor to be the fastest growing
witness significant growth, due to the focus on energy segment in the superconducting wire market
application, high energy physics experiments in Europe With regard to the type segment, HT superconductors
and North America, and the growing demand for cost are expected to constitute the fastest growing market
effective and energy efficient MRI systems. from 2016 to 2021. This is because of cheaper cryogenic
The energy segment is expected to hold the largest share of the systems required for HT superconductor material, which makes the
superconducting wire market, by application, during the forecast superconductor devices cost effective. These are used in manufacturing of
period energy efficient superconducting cables and fault current limiters.
The research segment led the superconducting wire market in 2015, Europe: The leading market for superconducting wire
and is projected to dominate the market during the forecast period. The The superconducting wire market has been analysed with respect to
energy application segment is estimated to have a lesser market share than three regions, namely, North America, Europe, and Asia-Pacific. Europe is
research application segment in 2016 but projected to surpass the research expected to dominate the global superconducting wire market with
application segment during the forecast period. This segment is primarily maximum European countries investing in various applications to speed up
driven by the use of superconductors in a wide range of equipment such as the process of commercialisation of superconductor equipment.

Wrtsil to supply its first ever gas-fired power plant to China

rtsil will supply a 30 MW combined heat CGGC, established in 1970, is a state-owned
and power (CHP) plant to China Gezhouba enterprise engaged in construction, environmental
Group Cooperation (CGGC) UN Power in protection, real estate, cement ,civil explosive, finance
China. This will be the first gas-fired medium-speed and, equipment manufacturing . CGGC UN Power, as its
engine power plant in China, marking the entry of a key member, is focused on the integrated service for
new technology in the market. This is a landmark various distributed energy solutions such as gas engine
CGGC contract signing
project and proof that innovative, flexible and efficient power plants and is investing in power generation in
power generation plays a key role in the Chinese power system. The Smart China. CHP plants are gaining foothold in the Chinese market, supported by
Power Generation plant, consisting of three Wrtsil 34SG engines running the need for a reliable heat and power supply as the population increases.
on natural gas, is scheduled to be fully operational during 2018. Wrtsils The new Guangdong Huadian Panyu Wanbo CBD Distributed Energy Project
scope covers the equipment supply. The order is booked in the first quarter power plant will be located in Guangzhou. It will generate electricity that
of 2017. will be fed into the national grid.

World Bank approves $55.25 million grant toIndonesia

he World Banks Board of Executive Directors has Geothermal power is the second-largest
approved $55.25 million in grants to support the renewableenergyresource in Indonesiaafter hydropowerand a
Geothermal Energy Upstream Development Project in clean alternative to coal-fired power generation. Some 30

Indonesia, which aims to facilitate investment in geothermal millionIndonesians or 12 %ofthe population lackaccess to
power generation in the country. modern and reliable electricity.
The granthas two components with different objectives. The The Geothermal Energy Upstream Development Project will
Clean Technology Fund (CTF) is contributing $49 million to also support Indonesiascontinued efforts to shift to a greener
support infrastructure development and exploration Peter Johansen energy development path and reach its target of increasing
drilling. The Global Environment Facility (GEF) contributes an theshare of new and renewable energy in the primary energy
additional$6.25 million to support technical assistance aimed at building mixto 23 percent by 2025.
capacity in geothermal exploration, including safeguards due diligence.The Peter Johansen, Senior Energy Specialist, World Bank, said, The
Ministry of Finance and PT. Sarana Multi Infrastruktur, a state- Project has a special emphasis on the eastern part of Indonesia, where
owned infrastructure financing company, will match the CTF funding for the percentage of families lacking access to modern and reliable
theProject. electricityremains very high.

18 ELECTRICAL INDIA | March 2017



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N Chandrasekaran appointed as Tata Powers Chairman

ata Power, Indias well known integrated power sector employer in India with the highest retention rate in
company, has appointed Natarajan a globally competitive industry. TCS remains the most
Chandrasekaran as the Chairman and Additional valuable company in India with a market capitalisation of
Director of the company. over US $70 Bn. Under his leadership, TCS was rated as the
He is the Chairman designate of Tata Sons Limited and worlds most powerful brand in IT services in 2015 and
currently the CEO and Managing Director of Tata recognised as a Global Top Employer by the Top Employers
Consultancy Services, a well known global IT solutions and Institute across 24 countries.
consulting firm. He is the Chairman of Tata Steel Limited Chandrasekaransaid, I am honoured to be appointed
and Tata Motors Limited. He is also director of The Indian N Chandrasekaran as the Chairman of the Board of this historic organisation
Hotels Company Limited and the Reserve Bank of India. which has been serving the nation for the past 100 years
Chandrasekaran joined TCS in 1987 after completing his masters in with dedication. It will be my endeavour to help the management team
computer applications from Regional Engineering College, Trichy, Tamil fulfil Tata Powers commitment to light up the lives of our future
Nadu, India. Under his leadership, TCS has become the largest private generations.

Carolyn Greenwell joins Burns & McDonnell as Project Manager

ith a continued focus on strengthening and to rebuilds to retrofits.
building the electrical infrastructure in the Greenwell is a licensed professional engineer in
Southeast, Burns & McDonnell ranked the Connecticut, Florida, Georgia, New Hampshire, New York,
No. 1 firm in electrical power and transmission and Rhode Island and Utah. She graduated from North Carolina
distribution by Engineering News-Record hires State University with a bachelors degree in construction
Carolyn Greenwell to serve as a project manager in its engineering and management.
Orlando location. In this role, she will oversee civil and She said, My passion is uncovering creative,
structural design of transmission lines, as well as grow sustainable and cost-effective solutions to better
the global firms transmission line team in the region. Carolyn Greenwell strengthen our nations power delivery infrastructure. I
Greenwell has more than 18 years of industry love that Burns & Mac allows me to live out this passion
experience. Shes managed, developed and supported more than 40 and contribute to an incredible team of individuals focused on making
transmission line projects throughout her career ranging from design our clients successful.

Georgia Power chooses Pedro Cherryto lead Customer Service & Operations

eorgia Powers Chairman, President and CEO,Paul and performance management. He returned to Southern
Bowersrecently revealed thatPedro Cherryhas Company in 2006, serving as finance manager for
been elected Executive Vice President of the Southern Generation/Southern Power and then as
companys Customer Service and Operations (CSO) assistant to the CFO of Southern Company.
organisation by the companys Board of Directors, In 2010, Cherry became Metro West Region manager
effectiveMarch 31. for Georgia Power and in 2012 was named Vice President
Since March 2015, Cherry has served as Senior Vice of community and economic development. Prior to joining

President of the Metro Atlanta Region for Georgia Power. Southern Company, Cherry worked as an engineering and
In this role, he was responsible for the companys Pedro Cherry business analyst forCarolina Powerand Light Corp.
operations, sales, customer service, economic and community Cherry earned a bachelors degree in industrial engineering and an
development, and external affairs activities for 1.2 million customers MBA in operations management and finance fromAuburn University.
across metroAtlanta. He serves on the boards of theAtlantaPolice Foundation, the Georgia
Cherry began his career with Southern Company in 1997 at Department of Economic Development, the Atlanta BeltLine Partnership
Southern Energy Inc., the subsidiary that later became Mirant Corp., and Zoo Atlanta, among others. He is chair of the Aerotropolis Atlanta
where he held positions of increasing responsibility, including Chief Alliance and is also a member of the CFA Institute, 100 Black Men
Financial Officer (CFO)for South America and the Caribbean Region, ofAtlantaandAuburnsAlumni Engineering Council.
Vice President of international finance and Vice President of planning

20 ELECTRICAL INDIA | March 2017

Power minister felicitates Schneider Electric India MD & Country President

chneider Electric India, Managing providing access to energy in India.
Director (MD) and Country President, Anil Chaudhry, MD & Country President,
Anil Chaudhry was felicitated by Piyush Schneider Electric India, said, It is with great
Goyal, Honble Minister of State (I/C), Ministry honour that I receive this recognition given
of Power, Coal & Mines and Renewable, at to me by the Honble Minister. Schneider
Intelect 2017, in recognition of his special Electric has always been working closely
contribution towards the power sector in India. with the Government to achieve its vision to
Schneider Electric, a global specialist in provide safe, reliable and affordable power
the energy management and automation, has to its citizens. All our efforts are in sync with
Piyush Goyal felicitating Anil Chaudhry
set itself on a path breaking agenda in the the Governments overall agenda for the
area of energy management and energy efficiency in India. The power sector. We are aware of the Governments resolve to promote
company has listed out the current trends of Decarbonisation, clean energy in the country and are geared up to support its initiatives
Decentralisation and Digitisation as the growth pillars towards through our technology for the renewable sector.

Tata Powers MPL gets honoured by SAFEE

ata Powers Maithon Power Limited CEO & ED- MPL on behalf of the company.
(MPL), the companys 74:26 joint Other reputed industry players like National
venture with Damodar Valley Thermal Power Corporation (NTPC), Bharat
Corporation (DVC), has always stood out for Heavy Electricals Limited (BHEL) and Oil and
its exemplary efforts towards energy and Natural Gas Corporation (ONGC) also
environment conservation. In recognition of attended the event.
its excellence, MPL was bestowed by South K Chandrashekhar CEO & ED- Maithon
Tata Power gets recognised...
Asia Forum for Energy Efficiency (SAFEE) Power Ltd, Tata Power, said, It gives me
withGlobal Energy Management Award 2017. The South Asia Forum for great pleasure to be a recipient of such a prestigious award. We, at Tata
Energy Efficiency (SAFEE) was formed in 2009 as a joint initiative of Power always strive to lead the reform process for sustainable power
World Energy Council- Indian Member Committee and Energy Saving and we are committed to safeguarding the environment for future
Commission-World Foundry Organisation (WFO). It is a not-for-profit generations. Awards like these, act as an impetus for us and our teams
organisation registered under the Societies Act. to only continue walking on our path towards sustainability. I would
The award which was in recognition of MPLsactive contribution in like to extend my heartfelt congratulations to all team members who
the field of energy conservation was presented at a function by R K have constantly shown a commitment towards excellence. I am sure
Verma, Chairperson, Central Electricity Authority toK Chandrashekhar, that we will continue this journey in the times to come.

Vikram Solar conferred with two prestigious awards

ikram Solar, the globally recognised Gyanesh Chaudhary, Managing
solar energy solutions provider, Director and CEO of Vikram Solar, said,

marked the beginning of the new This is the third time that weve been
calendar year with a double award win at honoured at the ET Bengal Corporate
the 5th ET Bengal Corporate Awards 2017. awards and it gives us double the pleasure
The company bagged the prestigious to have won two of the most coveted
Fastest Growing Company award for the awards this year. Further, the award
Team receiving the award
second time in a row, along with the coming from the revered Association of
Highest Job Creator award (INR 300 100 Crore category). Corporate Advisers & Executives makes it an acknowledgement of our
Celebrating the 5th edition of ET Bengal Corporate awards 2017, efforts at the most respected circles. We would like to thank the
the Association of Corporate Advisers & Executives, Kolkata and The organisers and the jury for this valued and prestigious honour. This will
Economic Times, acknowledged the success of eminent organisations further inspire us to scale new heights and achieve greater success in
and individuals for their outstanding contribution to the society. our forthcoming endeavours.

24 ELECTRICAL INDIA | March 2017

Wind Energry

Castrol, Romax Technology set-up

Joint Venture
Castrol takes a controlling interest in Romax Technologys InSight business, combining Castrols
expertise in wind turbine lubrication with Romax Insights predictive maintenance, analytics and
software business. The deal will make leading physics-based and data-driven predictive analytics
available to more wind turbine operators, which could potentially result in a reduction of their
maintenance costs by up to 30%...
saving for its customers by up to 30% in
maintenance costs.
Mandhir Singh, COO, BP Lubricants,
said, Were incredibly excited about the
potential this joint venture will create, both
for the new business and also our existing
customers. By working together I believe
we will create a powerful, faster-growing
business in the wind sector and beyond.
Over the past two years Castrol has
supported the development of a number of
digital solutions which complement its core
lubricants business, including GreenSteam,
a data analytics company specialising in
fuel saving solutions for the marine
industry; Castrol OPTIS, a technology
company providing leading edge machine
and operational efficiency solutions to the
manufacturing industry; and Castrol

astrol, a well known lubricant brands, revealed the creation Carama a digital market place that connects
of a joint venture with Romax Technologys InSight business, consumers seeking car service and repair to trusted workshops,
a pioneer in predictive maintenance solutions. Andy Poon, Romax Technology, CEO, added by saying, Were

With over 30 years experience working in the wind sector, this always looking at ways to drive innovation at Romax. The aim of
deal will combine Castrols global reach and knowledge of wind Romax InSight is to combine our deep understanding of design and
turbine lubrication with Romax InSights expertise in predictive operation of wind turbines with advanced data analytics to provide
maintenance, software and data analytics for wind turbines. practical solutions that reduce operations and maintenance costs. We
The lubrication and maintenance of a wind turbines expensive are delighted to find in Castrol a partner who shares this vision and
gearbox is critical to optimising its performance and reliability. Romax can provide a platform for growth. We look forward to working closely
InSight is a rapidly growing predictive maintenance provider, designing alongside them to take InSight to the next level.
software and engineering services which monitor the condition of
wind turbines, and predict breakdowns potentially resulting in a Credits:

26 ELECTRICAL INDIA | March 2017


Siemens , Allguer berlandwerk in a

partnership for smart grid expansion
The joint venture's consulting services will focus on intelligence instead of copper solutions for
smart grid expansion. The primary action areas will be the integration of large capacities from
distributed generation plants and intelligent control of the distribution grid...
Michael Lucke, Managing Director of Allguer berlandwerk GmbH,
said, The results from the Wildpoldsried project and other egrid customers
have shown that the power grid has much larger reserves than previously
thought. This finding and the knowledge of why this is true form the basis
for our joint venture with Siemens.
Bernhard Rindt, Managing Director of egrid applications & consulting
GmbH, said, Egrid has demonstrated very positive growth in its first fiscal year.
Our customers include public works, municipalities and industrial
enterprises who have benefited from our experience gained through the
IRENE and IREN2 projects. With Siemens as our partner, we will be able to
expand this knowledge and offer new joint solutions for the grid of the
future, he further added.
Control system in focus: Project team members of IREN2 at the
workstation in the office container in Wildpoldsried... In Wildpoldsried, where both research projects are located, the amount
of electrical power generated from renewable sources is five times greater

iemens and Allguer berlandwerk GmbH (AW), based in Kempten,
than what the village needs. During the course of the first project (IRENE:
Germany, have formed a joint venture named egrid to commercially
Integration of Renewable Energy and Electromobility), Siemens and AW
implement the results from IRENE and IREN2, two joint smart grid
therefore worked together with partners from science and industry to build
research projects in Wildpoldsried. It was agreed that Siemens would
a smart grid in the town situated in the Allgu region from mid-2011 to the
acquire a 49% share in the AW subsidiary, egrid applications & consulting
end of 2013. The goal was to balance out power generation and consumption
GmbH. The transaction is subject to clearance by the competent competition
and thus keep the grid stable.
authorities. The joint venture will offer innovative consulting services for
These efforts established the main requirements for the new IREN2
distribution grid operators and will continue to refine existing offers. The
research projects (Future-Viable Grids for the Integration of Renewable
joint venture's consulting services will focus on intelligence instead of
Energy Systems), which has been in progress from 2014 to 2017. This project
copper solutions for smart grid expansion. The primary action areas will be
is aimed at scientific studies and practical testing of the best ways to operate
the integration of large capacities from distributed generation plants and
autonomous island systems and topological power plants. The researchers
intelligent control of the distribution grid.
are examining new types of grid structures and ways to manage them
Michael Schneider, Head of the Power Technologies International (PTI)
according to technical and economic criteria, with the goal of determining
Business Segment within the Siemens Energy Management Division, said,
how energy systems with distributed power generation and additional
The results of the two research projects IRENE and IREN2 have far exceeded
components can be technically and economically optimised.
our expectations.
Wildpoldsried offered the best conditions for verifying theoretical

I am very pleased about this, and it is an ideal starting point for our
results on the basis of a real-life smart energy system. Both research projects
new joint venture. Other grid operators will now be able to profit from our
in the Allgu region have established a basis not only for a future renewable
distributed infeed and storage solutions. It's from real-life practice and for
energy system between the conflicting priorities of regulation and the
real-life practice. Together with Allguer berlandwerk, we are thus actively
market but also for the new joint venture.
supporting the transition to a new energy mix, he further added.

28 ELECTRICAL INDIA | March 2017


Influence Of The
Joint Design

ith the steady increasing demands of this cost differential is accounted by the cable
Diego Cisilino of electric power in major cities itself. On the other hand around 60% of the
Product Manager around the globe combined with installation costs result from the civil works
HV Accessories the challenge for much greater system reliability required for the cable installation, while cable
Business Unit Power Accessories
of supply, utilities throughout the world are accessories themselves represent less than 2% of
Brugg Cables India Pvt. Ltd.
grappling with the inevitable increase in demand the total costs of the cable transmission lines.
for undergrounding high voltage cable For most installations, joints are required at
transmission lines and the need to improve the intervals along the route. This is because cable is
overall performance of this expensive asset. The supplied in fixed lengths given by the cable drum
The challenge is how to challenge is how to perform cable underground diameter and weight. The amount of cable on a
perform cable underground installations in the most cost effective manner. drum is in turn dictated by the cable diameter
The total costs of underground cable systems and transport options for the cable drum. For
installations in the most cost
can vary widely even for the same voltage, these reasons joints are required approximately
effective manner. The total power and length, making it difficult to every 500 m to 800 m of cable length. For long
costs of underground cable generalise. Using modern cable techniques, it cable transmission lines then the number of
systems can vary widely still costs approximately 4 to 15 times more joints and resulted joint bay infrastructure is
compared to an equivalent overhead line considerable. The trenching work and joint bay
even for the same voltage,
through normal / urban terrain. A major element construction of underground transmission lines
power and length, making it
difficult to generalise...

Picture 1: Cable and joint installations in open trench...

30 ELECTRICAL INDIA | March 2017

<< Cable
today be pre-fabricated type (Picture 2). The
advantage of the latter solution is that the total
execution time for civil work as well as
disturbances to public traffic, dust and noise are
drastically reduced.
For further cost optimizations for
transportation and installation work, the size of
the joint bay becomes the dominant
improvement factor. To solve the problem Brugg
has developed a new innovative vertical split-
box outer protection design, which, combined
with existing the gas cushion installation system
for pre moulded joint bodies, allows up to 50%
reduction of the necessary infrastructure and
therefore direct costs for the joint bay
infrastructure. A practical comparison illustrates
the advantages of the new joint type as well as
presents a recommendation to a standard joint
bay for cables systems up to 245 kV.
Impact of joint outer
protection design in the
size of a joint bay
Picture 2: Horizontal directional drilling and pre- fabricated joint bay... For underground cable projects the joint bay
location is selected in order to maximize each
causes great soil disturbances. In suburban and voltage cable transmission lines. In order to section length of cable. The size of the joint bay
rural areas where no space restrictions are a minimize excavation and trenching work will be determined by the density of existing
major problem, direct burial result the most horizontally directed drilling and cable services, likely disruption to traffic and space
economical option. In such cases the joint bay installation in pipes represent a cost effective requirements for cable drums and cable pulling
size normally play no a major infrastructure role alternative. The necessary joint bay infrastructure equipment. Therefore, are normally located
in the total cost (Picture 1). can then be performed on site or preferable within or adjacent to public roads. The ultimate
In contrast installations in urban or central
city areas, where there is a requirement to cross
major roads or go through high density
populated areas, the costs of major excavation
work in terms of traffic management and
construction can be considerable. Further
limitations for construction activities that are
imposed for reasons of noise, dust and traffic
impacts must also be considered since often
derive in further increase of the total cost as well
as delays in project execution plans. For these
reasons, power utilities and contractors are
striving for compact joint bays able to
considerably reduce the civil work costs as well
as to reduce the total installation time of high
Picture 3: Joint type MPFP with vertical split-box design...

ELECTRICAL INDIA | March 2017 31

Cable >>

Picture 4: Installation space for joint type MPSP with cylindrical metal casing and
horizontal split-box design...

dimensions of a joint bay infrastructure are During the assembly this joint outer protection
majorly governed by the space requirement of design requires first to bring the metal casing as
the joints to be constructed within the bay and well as the split-box joint outer protection into a
the minimum bending radius of the cables. As a parking position along the cable and therefore
consequence, the joint design has a direct impact the joint bay. After the assembly of the main joint
in the final join bay size and therefore direct body over the prepared cable distance, the metal
impact in the costs of the necessary civil work. casing as well as split-box is then assembled to its
While the joint bay width and depth are final position over the joint area. Considering a
determined by the necessary minimum clearance total joint length of approx. 2.8 meters, the
distances required for installation and safety necessary space to assemble the joint results
operational reasons, a particular attention is to approx. 6 meters considering necessary space for
be made to the necessary length for positioning final cable fixing into the joint bay with a cable
major components of the joint outer protection clamp. Considering the installation of 3 joints per
system in a parking positon as well as installation bay, a total length of at least 12 meters resulted
tools along the cable prior the final joint minimum necessary (Pictures 5).
assembly. As a result the total free length The new joint outer protection concept
required for the final joint assembly and therefore presents as improvement a simpler innovative
for the joint bay is majorly affected by the joint vertical split-box design for the joint outer

outer protection design. A new vertical split-box protection, which does not require any parking
design demonstrates to be advantageous while position at all. The total joint installation length
eliminating the problem (Picture 3). required in this case is determined mainly by the
For a better understanding and quantification necessary cable preparation distances. As a result,
a comparison between two types of joint outer the necessary total installation length per joint is
protection is presented in the case of a 245 kV reduced to practically the joint length of about
Picture 5: Joint bay dimensions for joint
cable circuit joint bay installation. A traditional only meters considering necessary space for final with metal casing and horizontal split-
joint type with cylindrical metal casing and cable fixing after the joint assembly (Picture 6). box design...
horizontal split-box design filled compound Accordingly, the total joint bay length can
(Picture 4) is considered. then be reduced to only 6 meters, thus

32 ELECTRICAL INDIA | March 2017

080 40390 600
Cable >>

Picture 6: Installation space for joint type MPFP with vertical split-box design...

Picture 7: Joint pit cabin made by 20 feet container...

savings due to less soil excavation work and its joint bay. The container is then transported to site
transportation, less necessary reinforced concrete and placed above the joint bay with help of a crane
for the joint bay, less back filling material as well (Picture 7). The advantage of the joint pit size
as less collateral damage to public pavements. optimization, combined with pre-fabricated joint
Further advantages are presented the state of the pit technic, is that the container joint pit cabin fits
art installation techniques without needing time perfectly to the suggested joint bay dimensions.
Picture 7b: Joint bay dimensions for a consuming plumbing or soldering work, allowing
joint with vertical split-box design... Conclusions

further faster and easier installations. This is The new vertical split-box design offers
particularly important in view of maintenance further cost savings in infrastructure and
representing a 50% length reduction compared and repairmen work in case of unexpected failure installation times compared to traditional
to the previous outer protection design (Picture 7) of the cable network. horizontal outer protection designs. In future,
Based on the joint pit dimensions presented For the joint installation, suitable clean this innovative design will majorly influence the
above, the volume saving of the joint bay is conditions must be established at the joint bay execution of underground high voltage
approximately 27 m3 per joint bay. As a result and location, including temporary power supplies transmission lines. In view of the highly compact
proportional to this volume difference the new conditioning. For this purpose a 20 feet container dimensions, a future standardization of a pre-
vertical split-box design offers further can easily be adapted to the joint bay cabin thus cast joint bay is possible for voltages systems
considerable installation and infrastructure costs creating a protective dust and rain protection to the from 72.5 kV and up to 245 kV.

34 ELECTRICAL INDIA | March 2017


Curse of Dual Certification

for Distribution Transformers

fter the enactment of Energy improved which is the main concern of BEE.
conservation Act 2001, BEE was Consequently a notification dated February
charged with the prime responsibility 2009 was issued by Ministry of Power specifying
of efficient use of energy in variety of equipment the energy consumption standard under S&L
B Lal particularly in the house hold appliances in a bid programme describing energy losses at 50% &
Director General to save electricity as per saying that a unit of 100 % loading of DTs up to 200 KVA rating units
Indian Transformer KWH saved is unit generated. This is of course, at 11KV level and labeled as star 1 to star 5
Manufacturers Association (ITMA) true for any equipment being operated on having progressively maximum to minimum
Ghaziabad electrical energy. The efficiency, performance losses respectively.
and conservation of energy depend upon Recently, BEE has issued an amendment to
quantum of energy losses in the equipment. By its February 2009 notification as per No. SO.4062
reducing the losses, the efficiency can be (E) dated 16th December 2016 effective from 1st
There is a conflict, the
manufacturers are requesting
Govt. of India to allow them
the compliance of one of the
authorities/ agencies
directive i.e. BIS or BEE for
the same goal of producing
Energy Efficient DTs, and
should not insist upon as in
both the cases, they have to
manufacture Energy Efficient
Distribution Transformers as
per only one standard
IS:1180 Part 1/2014

36 ELECTRICAL INDIA | March 2017

<< Downsides
January 2017 which, has been recommended for are equal to the load losses which is not at all the mandatory BEEs S&L programme to produce
extension by another 6 months wherein the adoptable economically. In a rough calculation of star 1 to 5 energy efficient DT s for the power
losses of Distribution Transformers (DTs) has 100 KVA Distribution Transformer, the efficiency sector after completing the necessaryformalities
further been reduced thereby assigning its at 100%, 75%, 50% & 25% loadings at unity of BEEs regulation and obtaining certification for
original star 4 (four) as star 1 (one)and star 5 power factor at fixed no load losses varies labeling the DT star 1 to star 5.
(five) as Star 2 (two) with further new losses for between 98.0% to 98.5 % but with power factor Concurrently CEA in its notification dated
Star 3,4 & 5 worked out by extrapolating. The of 0.8 the efficiency is again affected by about August 2010 issued technical standard for
transformer manufacturers are already producing 0.20% which can be exactly computed by the construction of electrical plant and electric lines
and supplying new Star 1 (one) transformer as designer of the transformer. Incidentally, in regulation for Distribution Transformers that:
per the requirement of the purchasers. contrast the efficiency of power transformer The maximum losses of oil filled DTs shall
The efficiency of any equipment i.e. say rather large power transformer, the efficiency not exceed asthat for at least 3 star transformer
Distribution Transformer can be worked out as level is very as high as 99.75% as the designer specifiedby BEE wherever applicable.
output in KW divided by sum of output and has to keep the fixed losses of core and variable Till 2009 the Distribution Transformers were
losses at a specified load and temperature. For load losses in optimum ratio generally between being manufactured and used as per specification
energy efficient transformer design, superior 1: 3 to 5 and lower the ratio the most economical of IS:1180/1989 which was under revision for the
grade active core material and copper winding operation of the power transformer can be last number of years and was finally notified in
are necessary to get the lower losses, greater obtained. The designer has to consider such 2014 as IS:1180/2014 (part-2) after 15 years
reliability and reduced heat output i.e. less aspects based on the given technical specification under 4th revision encompassing losses for 50%
carbon emission. Lower losses are most suitable and operational duties the unit has to perform & 100% up to 2500 KVA rating at 11/22/33 KV as
from the point of techno-economical electrical during its life time. level 1, 2 &3 equivalent to BEEs star 3,4, &5
distribution system. The maximum efficiency of It is very well known that 95% of the thereby necessitating amendment of CEAs
Distribution Transformer is when no load losses distribution segment is controlled by State technical standard for construction of electrical
Governments Discoms / Utilities and Electricity plant and electric lines through notification in
Boards, where political interference is not ruled 2015 as under:
out and is responsible for lot of ills of distribution The maximum losses of oil filled DTs shall
companies. One of the major concern of the be as per relevantIndian Standard i.e. IS: 1180
authorities was very high failure rate of /2014 (2014)
Distribution Transformers since the turn of the It may be noted the quality of any product is
country. Inefficient and bad quality of a prime concern even at the highest level of
Distribution Transformers cause 4 to 5 % of Honble P M who had declared a slogan Zero
losses in the distribution network. In this defect, Zero effect and implored on the industries
connection CEA, the Apex organisation of not to compromise on product and environment
Ministry of Power in consultation with experts in his address to the Nation from the rampart of
of transformer manufacturers worked out Red Fort on 15th August 2014 the Independence
detailed technical document and issued Day. Such like pronouncements were repeated by
guidelines for specification of energy efficient others including Cabinet Secretary in
outdoor type three phase and single phase International industrial fathering for attracting
distribution transformers in 2008 specifying all foreign investments coupled with lot of
technical parameter of losses including at 50% incentives for doing business with ease under
and 100% loading, raw material, insulation Make in India schemes which in fact is pet
level, testing, inspection, manufacturing, subject of our Honble P M.
procurement and installation etc. to be followed Even Ministry of Heavy Industries and Public
by all Discoms/Utilities at National Level, even Enterprises (DHI) issued a quality control order
when the prevalent IS:1180 /1989 did not on Electrical Transformer in 2014 for
specify the losses in the standard. In fact all manufacture/use of DTs in accordance with
Discoms/Utilities were specifying their own set IS:1180/1989 up to 100 KVA rating at 11 KV level
of losses at no load and full load and the other which was subsequently amended in 2015
parameters while issuing tenders for mandating the manufacture/sale & use up
procurement of transformers. 2500KVA at 11/22/33/ KV as per revised IS:1180
Accordingly all the transformer Part 1/2014 effective from 1st February 2016
manufacturers dutifully started implementing duly BIS marked only.

ELECTRICAL INDIA | March 2017 37

It will be thus observed that the 2. In fact BEE follows all the testing procedures that BEEs star labeling programme is generally
manufacturers of DTs have to obtain dual as laid down by BIS in their standards. for household itemswhichhelps inawareness of
certification from BEE & BIS for energy efficient 3. All the testing procedures to be followed for consumers before purchase of energy efficient
DTs under IS:1180 Part 1/2014. taking certification for any size/rating from electrical appliances/equipment from the open
Now there is a conflict, the manufacturers BEE and BIS are the same. marketas the consumer has nomeans to check
are requesting Govt. of India to allow them the 4. BEE having only one central office in Delhi is the quality/ efficiency of the product and
compliance of one of the `authorities/ agencies controlling whole Indian Transformer therefore he could mainlyrely on the star label
directive i.e. BIS or BEE for the same goal of Industry, whereas BIS has got its provided by manufacturer on the basis of BEE's
producing Energy Efficient DTs, and should not ownRegional and Zonal offices across India certification. Whereas the DTs are not a consumer
insist upon as in both the cases, they have to thus leading to a more efficient working. item but a capital goods item being procured/
manufacture Energy Efficient Distribution 5. BEE Charges Rs 100/- per transformer used by the Govt. utilities/discoms and EPC
Transformers as per only one standard IS:1180 irrespective of size of the same. BIS Charges contractors as per the approved technical
Part 1/2014. But Ministry of Power has shown its Rs 3 per KVA per job. e.g. for a 16 KVA Job BEE specifications contained in tender documents as
helplessness as in both cases it is mandatory would take Rs 100/- per job and BIS would per IS:1180 Part 1/ 2014 and are supplied by the
through Gazette Notifications, which obviously is take 16 KVA x Rs3 = Rs 48/- per job and on manufacturers onlyafter inspection and testing
not desirable as manufacturer has to observe and the contrary for a 200 KVA Job BEE would still of the transformer at the works of the
complete, all the formalities/ requirements of take Rs 100/- but whereas BIS would take manufacturer which are also being
both the agencies which not only create 200 KVA x Rs3 = Rs600/- per job. This double tested separately at the BIS recognised Test
hindrance in conducting the business with ease marking fee is ultimately a burden on State Laboratories before supply. It is prudent to note
but also involves lot of time and expenditure of Utilities or private customers. that one equipment i.e. DT is required to be
yearly renewal of license and hefty BEEs labeling/ 6. Till 31.12.2016 scope of BEE was limited from manufactured as per IS: 1180 Part 1/2014 but
BIS marking fees of each types of distribution 16 KVA to 200 KVA 11 KV Class Transformers has to be certified by two agencies i.e. BEE and
transformer produced. Besides the suggestion and BIS up to from 6.3 KVA to 2500 KVA 11, BIS for the same goal for providing Energy
shall save the administrative work of one of the 22 & 33 KV Class including single phase Efficient DTs as per the notifications in vogue.
Govt. Agencies. ITMA has requested to PMO to transformers as well. Since 01.01.2017 scope In view of the forgoing you are again
intervene, vide its letter No. ITMA/11/2016 dated of BEE has been raised from 16 KVA to 2500 requested to look into the matter and consider
13th October 2016. KVA 11 KV Class Transformers. BIS has much the applicability of only one of the agencies for
The PMO has forwarded the representation wider scope as compared to BEE. mandatory certification of DTs for manufacture
to MoP who has given stock reply that the matter 7. Till 31.12.2016 Transformer Losses of BEE 3 and supply of quality energy efficient DTs as per
has already been decided by Honble Union Star, 4 Star & 5 Star Transformers were IS:1180 Part 1/2014 which will afford the
Power Minister indirectly intimating that the equivalent to those of Level 1, Level 2 & Level manufacturers to deal with only one agency for
transformer manufacturers shall have to comply 3 Transformers as per BIS respectively. doing the business with ease. Besides this will
with the requirements of both the agencies with 8. From 01.01.2017 as per new table in further have following benefits and thus will
slight concession which is insignificant and of no notification Dt 16.12.2016ofBEE, 1 Star and reduce wastage of time andmoney.
consequence. 2 Star transformers losses now stand equal i. To save establishmentchargesof one of the
The transformer manufacturers are not to the losses of Level 2 & Level 3 Transformers Department of Govt. of India.
satisfied and again made representation to as per BIS. ii. To savethe drillof transformer manufacturers
Honble Union Power Minister to re-examine the 9. BEE is only concerned with end results of staff to attend to the requirements ofBEE &
issue and appreciate all the aspects transformer like losses whereas for a BIS.
dispassionately in order to give relief to the transformer to be certified by BIS the iii. To save additional expenditure of transformer

stakeholders, so that they are able to do the manufacturer has to take care of all the raw manufacturers by way of registration fee,
business with ease which slogan is hallmark of materials also which need to be of a marking/labeling fee for each unit of
the present day Govt. of India and finds particular standard or BIS certified as defined transformer produced/manufactured.
specialmention in the current budget. by BIS. iv. To save the transformer manufacturer from
In the representation the following point It would be appreciated from carrying out drill of getting
have been stressed/highlighted for rendering theabovecomparison of requirementsbetween renewalofregistration separately with BIS &
justice to the transformer industry at National BIS & BEE ultimaterigmaroleofBIS is the main BEE by incurringhefty fee.
Level. nucleus which takes care of BEE as well. As In the end, the Ministry of Power is requested
1. The DTs have to be manufactured, supplied such one agency which enforces to re-consider to do justice in order to mitigate
and purchased only as per IS 1180 Part rigorousrequirementsshould beopted. the hardship and harassment of the transformer
1/2014, for BIS & BEE. It has been emphasised time and again industry.

38 ELECTRICAL INDIA | March 2017


Reactive Power Management

& Voltage Control to avoid Blackouts

Rajesh Chourishi
Accredited Energy
Corporate Technical & Energy
Aditya Birla Group

Series compensation What is Reactive Power? Suppose an apparent power S is carried by a

In an alternating current (AC) power system, power feeder has phase difference between
increases the voltage and current waveforms. If it is resolved
Power comprises of two components,
transmission capacity activepower and reactive power. Useful work is into two mutually perpendicular components
and improves the accomplished by active power while reactive then its horizontal component along thebase of
power improves voltage stability and avoids power triangle is called active power, P (=S
stability of a power voltage collapse. The reactive power Cos)while its vertical component along the
system. Since phenomenon can be explained with the help of perpendicular is called reactive power, Q (=S
Power triangle given below. Sin). Where, = tan-| (Q/P).
transmission line itself
The following relationship can be shown by
consumes reactive Power Triangle.

2 2 j
power as it transmits the S = P + j Q = (P + Q ) X e
Usually, a power system network has a wide
active power... mix of active and reactive loads.Therefore, its
combined power factor varies from lagging to
leading through unity. Thus, the generation and
consumption of active and reactive components
of apparent power depend on nature of the load.
The inductive load consumes reactive power
Figure 1: Power Triangle while capacitive load generates it with their
(Relationship between S, P, and Q)
lagging and leading power factors respectively.

40 ELECTRICAL INDIA | March 2017

<< Strategy
Fast response of excitation system
Table1: Active & Reactive Power Scenario for pure loads
Large reactive range.
Power component Resistive load Inductive load Capacitive load Importance of reactive Power
Power factor Unity Lagging Leading By regulation of reactive power the following
Generation Nil Nil Nil parameters of a power system can be controlled:
Active power Utilisation of active power
Consumption 100% Nil Nil Voltage stability
Generation Nil Nil 100% Power factor
Reactive Power System efficiency
Consumption Nil 100% Nil
Energy cost
The quantity of reactive power depends on Dynamic compensation is ideal for an Power quality
thephase shift between the voltage and current instantaneous response like Synchronous Utilisation of Reactive
wave. The resistive load consumes only active condenser,Generators, and OLTC.
power in Operation
power at unity power factor. It is further classified as,
Over a long distance power transmission,
The scenario of active and reactive power in Dynamic shunt compensation
additional reactive power losses occur due to the
pure resistive, inductive and capacitive load is Dynamic series compensation
large reactive impedance of high voltage
summarised in the Table 1. Reactive Power Reserve (RPR) transmission system. To avoid excessive reactive
A physical analogy for reactive The RPR is spare reactive capability available power transmission, generation and
power in the system to assist the voltage control. consumption of reactive power should be as
A reasonably accurate analogy for reactive During the contingency like, an outage of a close as possible to each other, otherwise, it will
power is the process of filling a water tower tank transmission line or sudden change in demand result in inappropriate voltage profile.
with water - one bucket at a time. for reactive power,this capability will balance the Transmission lines, transformers, induction
This analogy is based on the facts that,In supply and demand of reactive power. motors, furnaces, reactors, chokes, wound
the power system useful work accomplishes by It helps to maintain steady state voltage, control gear, consumereactive power, and its
active power while reactive power supports the security of the bulk power system, secured transmission is highly localised.Therefore,
voltage. system operation against short-term & long- reactive power is provided to them by some
When you carry a water-filledbucket up the term voltage instability and collapse. localised sources. For LT Loads, it can be controlled
ladder, you have bucket and waterwhile coming The equipment which can maintain the RPR by 'Intelligent Power Factor Control Relay' (IPFC).
downafter dumping the water at the top you are synchronous condensers, 'spare shunt By excitation system of the Synchronous
have an empty bucket. In this case, the empty capacitors', 'spare shunt reactors' and Static Var generator,supply and demand of reactive power
bucket is a helping agency to do work, while Compensators. can be adjusted for desired voltage level.
carrying up the water is the desired work. When Generator supplied reactive power is an Generators also have capability curves which
going up the ladder you need an empty bucket effective source of RPRs because of: govern the combination of active and reactive
(reactive power) and water (active power), while Its superior performance at low voltage as power output.
come down you have the empty bucket (reactive compared to static reactive devices
power). Here the role of reactive power is
(helping agency) performed by the empty
bucket while the role of active power is
performed by water.
Another analogy of the reactive power says
that Reactive power is the froth on the Beer is
fairly good here because space in the glass is
occupied by the useless froth, leaving less room
for real Beer.
Reactive power sources
The reactive power compensation sources
are classified as,
Static compensation is ideal for a response
within seconds and minutes like shunt
capacitor, shunt reactor, and tap changer.

ELECTRICAL INDIA | March 2017 41

Strategy >>
Reduction in power losses Phenomenon of Voltage generator voltages, but increased reactive
through regulation of reactive Instability, Voltage Collapse, power flow would lower voltages at
power consumer end or elsewhere.
and Blackouts
Instead of changing voltage level, power and Under the capability curve,Generators would
Voltage Instability
energy losses can be reduced through regulation hit Var limits.
A system enters a state of voltage instability
of a reactive power. when thedemand of reactive power becomes Blackouts in a power system
Active power losses P and voltage drop V more than supply. It may happen due to A power system undergoes the voltage
may be obtained from the following equations: Increase in load / demand, collapse if the post-disturbance equilibrium
P = (P2 + Q2) x R / V2 A progressive and uncontrollable drop in voltages are below acceptable limits. This voltage
V = [3x (P2 + Q2)] x R / V voltage. collapse may be converted into a total or partial
Where: V, is system voltage, Deficiency of reactive power due to theflow blackout. A blackout in an electric system means
R is circuits resistance of active and reactive power from inductive that the complete system collapses. It originates
The above relations indicate active power reactance of transmission system. from several causes.
losses P and voltage drop V depend on Voltage Collapse Phenomenon Overloading of generators and transmission
transmission of reactive power Q. Consequently The process by which sequence of events lines creates a deficiency of reactive power which
to save power losses, distributed/ local sources of associated with voltage instability leads to loss of leads voltage collapse and resultant cascade
reactive power like shunt capacitors for an voltage in a significant part of the system is tripping can cause a blackout.
inductive load or shunt reactors for the capacitive called voltage collapse. One such example is the loss of generation,
load can be used. The phenomenon of voltage collapse is e.g. the tripping of a power plant leads to
Power transfer Limits created when the demand for reactive power overloading and under frequency over another
increases proportionate to active power. At this power plant. It may result in the further loss of
Approximate values of 1.0 SIL other generators.
moment, a fully loaded transmission line
kV MW generates extra inductive reactive power. Thus, Another example, is bottlenecking of
capacitive reactive power from local sources transmission lines, trips other overloaded power
69 10 lines, results in cascade trips. Finally, power
becomes insufficient. Therefore,the reactive
138 50 power will have to be delivered from more system undergoes the voltage collapse due to
distant places, as a consequence transmission of high impedance in the weakened grid.
230 150 In general, one initial minor event leads to a
more reactive power through the lines will
345 400 further increase the voltage drop on the customer second event, a third and so forth. Due to
side. Local control of voltage by means of auto increased stresses on the system, it finally
500 1000 collapses and leads to blackouts.
transformers will supply more reactive power,and
765 2000 this, in turn, will increase further voltage drops in Reactive power compensation
lines. In one moment this process can go like an Flexible AC Transmission System (FACTS)
The surge impedance loading or SIL of a technologies are used for reactive power
transmission line is the MW loading of a avalanche, thereby reducing thevoltage to zero.
In the meantime, most of the generators in compensation. It is classified as Dynamic shunt
transmission line at which a natural reactive compensation and series compensation.
power balance occurs. power plants will switch-off due to an
unacceptably low voltage which of course will Dynamic shunt Compensation
A line with 1.0SIL loading will have a flat Dynamic shunt compensation has the ability
voltage profile (same voltage from sendingto deteriorate the situation.
Possible Scenario of a Voltage Collapse to automatically support the voltage level in a
receiving end), with same current in phase with specific area of the power system. The voltage
Possible scenario for voltage collapse are

voltage along the line. The reactive power into level is an immediate image of the reactive
the line due to shunt capacitance charging will given below.
Generating units near load centres are out of power balance too high a voltage means a
exactly equal to thereactive power consumed by surplus of reactive power and vice versa. A
the series inductance losses. Approximate values service.
Heavily loaded lines having low Reactive dynamic shunt compensator automatically and
of 1.0 SIL are given in adjacent Table. instantaneously adjusts the reactive power
Power transfer limiting factors Power Reserves (RPRs).
Tripping of a heavily loaded line causes load output smoothly compared to the reference
There are three important factors which voltage level.
limittransmission of power. increases over other lines and loss of reactive
power and voltage. It improves transient stability by quickly
Thermal limit detecting and automatically adjusting its output
Voltage limit Load consumption would temporarily lower
to stabilise. AVRs would act to restore in response to system events.
Stability limit

42 ELECTRICAL INDIA | March 2017

Strategy >>
Currently two types of dynamic shunt converter, the STATCOM is able to vary its output result, the transmission line is utilised more
compensation technologies are commercially with respect to magnitude, frequency and phase effectively, and more active power can reach
available in the market: the static (non-rotating) angle to provide voltage and transient stability. consumers on the existing infrastructure. Series
Var compensator (SVC) and the static (non- This technology has been adopted for compensation supports the voltage, as long lines
rotating) compensator (STATCOM). approximately 20 installations worldwide. otherwise see a decaying voltage profile along
An SVC is built up with reactors and capacitors Series Compensation the line.
and it is controlled by Thyristors. To provide Series compensation increases the Challenges in Voltage Control
voltage and transient stability automatically, it transmission capacity and improves the stability and Related Security
measures the actual voltage and provides of a power system. Since transmission line itself A lot of research have been done for
reactive power to the system automatically consumes reactive power as it transmits the improving system reliability but still some of the
through its capacitor and reactor.This technology active power. It means transmission system is not challenges are considered as a subject for
has been adopted by more than 800 installations operated in an optimum way. By adding series research & development to avoid blackouts like,
worldwide. compensation technology to the transmission Global strategy for AVR set point, the best
STATCOM is based on Voltage Source system, the transmission capacity is drastically locations for Var control devices, determination
Converter (VSC) technology. A comparison with increased, as the capacitors will produce of 'acceptable' Var margins,fast contingency
an SVC yields that the capacitors and reactors are (capacitive) reactive power. Furthermore, it is a analysis for Var computation.
replaced withpower transistors IGBTs for self-regulating phenomenon; as more current is Although 'under voltage relays', have been
intelligent switching of semiconductors. IGBTs transmitted, the power system will consume developed but there are no relays in the system
operates at a frequency in the kHz range. By more reactive power and the capacitors will also to directly sense the problem that the voltage is
connecting DC capacitors on one side of the automatically produce more reactive power. As a about to collapse.

HARTING opens new production plant in India

HARTING Technology Group consolidates global production network: official
opening of new production plant in Chennai, India.

ARTING Technology Group is a well known provider of industrial
connection technology for the three lifelines of 'Data', 'Signal'
and 'Power'. It has 13 production plants and branches in 43
countries. In addition, the company also produces retail checkout
systems, electromagnetic actuators for automative and industrial series
use, as well as hardware and software for customers and applications in
automation technology, robotics and transportation engineering.
Andreas Conrad, Senior Vice President Operations, said,Step by
step, we are expanding the HARTING global production network. The
demand for HARTING products and solutions in India and the proximity
to other customers in the Asia region were the impetus for this

Opening the new building: Bernd Fischer, General

Manager Corporate Regional Management; Sudhanshu

Mani, General Manager Indian Railways; Andreas
Conrad, Senior Vice President Operations and Girish Rao,
CEO HARTING India (from left to right).

particular step, Conrad went on.

HARTING sees good potential for growth in the country, especially
in the important markets of machine and facilities manufacturing,
energy generation and transportation. The new production plant covers
1,200 square metres, accommodating the production of housings,
The new HARTING production plant in Chennai, India extruded cables and cable harnesses.

44 ELECTRICAL INDIA | March 2017

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We are investing
aggressively in R&D
and planning to
offer T&C services
to export market
SCOPE T&M Pvt. Ltd., popularly known as SCOPE, was incorporated on 13th January,
1988 to become Indias first organisation to design and develop Test & Measurement
products working in strong electromagnetic induction environment prevailing at EHV &
UHV substations. In e-interview with Electrical India, Balasaheb Doiphode, CEO - T&M
Business, speaks about his companys business and future plans

What kind of transformation has happened in the Indian Test art technology, so that it remains contemporary even after 10 years.
& Measuring (T&M) instruments segment (say) since 1990? Almost every instrument of ours now has very intuitive test set-up
After liberalisation and entry of foreign players, there have been and easy user interface. It has in-built non-volatile memory, in-built
technological advancements which, has helped power sector in thermal printer, graphical touch screen display, real-time clock, PC
achieving stabilised power supply. T & M instruments also has gone communication, self-check and debugging feature. This has greatly
through a gradual makeover. Instruments which, were manually helped user to save testing time, have safe tests on site and also
operated in good old days are now operated either through laptop or manage the test data more effectively.
tablet. Weights of instruments have come down to more than 50%. More importantly they are designed to work in live substations
User Interface where earlier you required an expert to operate is now up-to 765 kV / 1200 kV where harsh electromagnetic fields prevail.

replaced with user friendly interface which can be operated through Following are some of the innovative technologies used in our
a technician as well. instrument:
Instruments now have much advanced electronics, communication Light weight Contact Resistance (Micro-ohm) Meters using ultra
abilities which had helped getting test data at centralised places and capacitor technology.
Analysis & Trend Monitoring software are helping user do effective Multi-channel Dynamic Contact Resistance Meters doing
health assessment. simultaneous 6 channel measurements on EHV CBs.
What kind of innovations have you done in your products as On-line Surge Arrester Leakage Current Analysers using wireless
far as customers advantages are concerned? communication technology between sensors and main
In every new instrument we develop, with use latest, state of the instrument.

46 ELECTRICAL INDIA | March 2017

We had recently, done successful testing of some of our on-line successfully completed testing and commissioning of more than 400
and off-line instruments at 1200kV sub-station at Bina, Madhya nos. of substations which includes 4 nos. 765 kV & 100 nos. 400 kV
Pradesh, making SCOPE probably only T&M Company in the world to substations.
do so. Apart from regular T&C of substations, ISSPL has handled special
Our innovations are customer centric; they have been included projects like commissioning of Controlled Switching Devices (CSDs),
based on feedbacks received from customer. RTUs, PMUs; PLA study of 54 nos. substations of NDPL, Delhi (now
What kind of after-sales service do you offer to your TPDDL); RMU/DSS commissioning contract with Tata Power Mumbai
customers? for past 6 years etc.

After-sales service is always a focus area for SCOPE, since its Its contribution in SCOPE Group is continuously increasing. The
inception. Customer was facing the heat due to non-availability of the ready availability of pool of 80 trained engineers is great asset for
after-sales services from foreign manufacturer in earlier years. Also SCOPE as well for executing commissioning activity of some of the
the cost of the after-sales/repair services offered by foreign special T&M and Protection Solutions offered by SCOPE.
manufacturer was too high for the customers. SCOPE changed this Please tell me in brief about your Research & Development
with quick, on-site and at the same time very cost-effective after- (R&D) laboratory and its contribution to your business?
sales service. This was a welcome relief to the Utilities. SCOPE also Actually our R&D activities started one year before establishing
offers comprehensive Annual Maintenance Contracts including the company. So, SCOPE is always a R&D oriented company. Our R&D
annual calibration on-site at very attractive price. This is greatly lab has great role in establishing the brand SCOPE, as its our R&D
appreciated by Utility customers as it ensures 3 visits of our engineer which converted the problems / requirements of our customers into
in a year where he not only maintains the instrument, but more usable products. It created trust in mind our customers enabling
importantly gives training / re-training to new users and also helps in them to come to us with their demands.
interpretation of the results.
We believe that
We also offer upgradation After liberalisation and entry of foreign players,
indigenously developed
services for instruments of there have been technological advancements products and technologies
older generation to latest which, has helped power sector in achieving will greatly help our Utility /
level, so that customer gets stabilised power supply. T & M instruments also Industry customers and
value for his initial
has gone through a gradual makeover. overall our country as it will
investment, even after 10 see significant cost saving,
years of its use. We have well technical control remaining
established network of in our hands, greater adaptability to local problems, sustained
Service Centres spread at all metro cities to achieve this. But the focus availability and job creation.
in on providing on-site service.
The quality of our R&D team can be judged from the fact that till
Please tell me in brief about your venture into Test and now SCOPE has won 4 Best Product Awards at ELECRAMA exhibitions,
Commissioning (T&C) Services in field of testing Sub-station latest being in the last edition of ELECRAMA in Feb, 2016 at Bangalore,
from LV- HV- EHV & UHV and its contribution to your business? where our Wireless Surge Arrester Leakage Current Analyser won the
Aggressive expansion of power sector in India over past couple of Award for Best Overall Product in entire ELECRAMA.
decades had also witnessed dearth of good T&C Companies which Our major revenue and contribution comes from these
have technical competency of handling the niche T&C activity of EHV indigenously developed products which are not only sold in India, but
substations. Since we were manufacturers of T&M instruments, we are now exported to almost 40 countries.
were considered best people to do this activity. It was a friendly push
from our Utility customers that made us enter this field 10 years ago What would you like to suggest to the current and potential
and thus Isosceles Sales and Service Pvt. Ltd. (ISSPL) was formed. It is T&M instrument buyers?
headed by my counterpart Vivekanand Sindkar CEO (ISSPL), and Customer in India is quite learned. However, as there are various
had earned very good reputation of being a T&C company with a utilities and there are no standards available for most of the T&M
difference. We had worked with all major EPC Contractors and had products, following points may be noted by instrument buyers:

ELECTRICAL INDIA | March 2017 47


Testing instruments being a relatively niche area, thorough Do evaluate the past credentials of the seller and its product.
understanding of each technical parameter and its significance is Who are your major customers in India as well as abroad?
essential. Do not get carried away by selective positioning by
sellers of one parameter / range and ignore the other. All major Power Generation, Transmission & Distribution
Companies, Various Industries having their own substations, OEMs,
Select the product which have functions as per your need / Railways, Test Labs, T&C Companies are our major customers in India.
requirement and dont get carried away by features you may Similarly we have similar customers in 40 other countries.
never use.
Just to name few of them. Power Grid Corporation of India ltd
Actual field demo in environment where product is going to be (PGCIL), NTPC, NHPC, NPCIL, Tata Power, Reliance Energy, ADANI,
used is the best way to assess the capability of instrument. State TRANSCOs & GENCOs like MSETCL, MSPGCL; Industries like SAIL,
Dont be under ONGC, IOCL, Indian Railways,
impression that Foreign / Aggressive expansion of power sector in India Test Labs like CPRI, ERDA;
Western products are over past couple of decades had also witnessed OEMs / EPCs like ABB, BHEL,
better than Indian dearth of good T&C Companies which have CGL, SIEMENS, GE, ALSTOM,
products or for that technical competency of handling the niche T&C SCHENIDER, KEC, Techno-
matter products for some Electric etc.
activity of EHV substations. Since we were
specific countries are bad. Some of the major
manufacturers of T&M instruments, we were
Dont always look for considered best people to do this activity. foreign customers include
cheaper products, they Tenaga Nasional Berhard
may not be proven in EHV (TNB) Malaysia, PLN-
Switchyards Indonesia, EVN Vietnam, Dubai Electricity and Water Authority
Ensure that you had considered all required Accessories, Test (DEWA) UAE, Tri-Delta Germany etc.
Cables of adequate rating & length, all required software modules, What are your new plans in 2017?
carrying cases, transport trolleys etc. as per your requirement, in We are investing aggressively in R&D. We are looking at bringing
scope of supply and in cost. out more products to enable the customer do effective Asset
Look at the life cycle cost of product, not only initial cost. Look at Management of its substation equipment. We are working in the area
commissioning, after sales service, periodic calibration, of on-line monitoring solutions and will be also expanding our
consumable costs to arrive at this cost. activities in Protection Solutions. We are planning to offer T&C
Always ensure the seller has complete after-sales service / services to export market.
calibration facility in India. On-site service should be preferred as You can expect some new interesting T&M solutions from SCOPE.
it avoids unnecessary transportation of instruments. Also look at Above all ensuring continual customer satisfaction will be a permanent
time taken for services. part of our any plan.

48 ELECTRICAL INDIA | March 2017


ADB, India sign $500 million loan for

better Power Systems, Transmission
ADB, based in Manila, is dedicated to reducing poverty in Asia
and the Pacific through inclusive economic growth,
environmentally sustainable growth, and regional integration...

he Asian Development Bank (ADB) and the Government of India signed a $500
million loan to help improve large-scale power transmission from the northern to the
southern regions, while helping integrate renewable energy in the countrys power
The agreement was signed by Leonardus Boenawan Sondjaja, Deputy Country Director
of ADBs India Resident Mission; Raj Kumar, Joint Secretary (Multilateral Institutions),
Department of Economic Affairs, Ministry of Finance, Government of India; and I. S. Jha,
Chairman and Managing
Director of Power Grid
Corporation of India Limited
Sondjaja said, Expansion
of inter-regional connectivity
enables bulk power transfer to
the southern region which has,
at times, been affected by
power shortages. This loan will
also help strengthen the
transmission system to
During the loan signing ceremony accommodate renewable
energy-generation capacity.
Kumar said, The program will facilitate power transfers among states and regions, and
stabilise electricity supply and improve the quality of power. It will also help connect
renewable energy to interstate power system and enhance energy security in India.
The project, which is expected to be completed by December 2020, will help build 800
kilovolt (kV) and 320 kV High Voltage Direct Current (HVDC) converter stations and 765 kV
power transmission systems in India. It will also help POWERGRID add 6,000 MVA
transmission capacity between Raigarh in Chhattisgarh and Pugalur in Tamil Nadu; 2,000
MVA transmission capacity between Pugalur in Tamil Nadu and North Trichur in Kerala; and
3,000 MVA transmission capacity to accommodate renewable energy flows via Bikaner in

The $500 million loan from ADBs ordinary capital resources will make up around 19% of
the $2.581 billion total project cost, with POWERGRID providing counterpart financing of
$2.081 billion. The loan has a 20-year term, including a five-year grace period with an annual
interest rate determined in accordance with ADB's LIBOR-based lending facility.
ADB, based in Manila, is dedicated to reducing poverty in Asia and the Pacific through
inclusive economic growth, environmentally sustainable growth, and regional integration.
Established in 1966, ADB is celebrating 50 years of development partnership in the region. It
is owned by 67 members48 from the region.


50 ELECTRICAL INDIA | March 2017


Solar Panel
Cleaning System
The project was sponsored by Government of Gujarat for 10 MW Canal-top Solar Plant
at Vadodara. The students are thankful to their guide Asst. Prof. Avipsa Dey for her
support and encouragement during the project

Avipsa Dey
Assistant Professor

Institute of Technology &

Management Universe,
Gujarat, India.

Co-Authored by below mentioned

students of Department of
Electrical Engineering of ITM
Universe, Vadodara

Nishi Shah

It is significantly important to clean the panels at regular intervals

Sonali Ghatge of time for maintaining a constant efficiency of the panels

The increasing popularity of renewable 7 kWh/m2 with about 15002000 sunshine

sources of energy, in the energy deficient world hours per year, depending upon location. While
has made a remarkable contribution in installing the PV panels appropriate installation
Vaishali Sapkal shortening the energy gap up to a certain extent. design such as orientation, exposure, sun tracers
The awareness regarding global warming, CO2 to maximise solar insolation can potentially

emissions (greenhouse gases), peaking of most ensure sustained yield (electricity). However, the
oil reserves and impending climate change are panels are vulnerable to often overlooked, on
critically driving the adoption of solar photo site omnipresent practicalities such as deposition
voltaic as a sustainable renewable and eco of dust, bird droppings and water stains which
friendly alternative. Solar panels are the most significantly degrade the efficiency of the solar
favorite among the entire renewable sources, installations. Dust is a lesser acknowledged
because of the abundance of solar energy and its factor responsible for decreasing the efficiency of
free and easy availability. In India with about 300 PV installations. As we know solar panels are left
clear sunny days in a year, the daily average solar under open sky in dusty environment. When not
energy incident over India varies from 4 to cleaned for a long duration of time (from few

54 ELECTRICAL INDIA | March 2017

<< Automation

Figure 1: Dust accumulated Solar Cooker (Photo Courtesy- Figure 2: Dust prone solar water heater (Photo Courtesy-
Gujarat Institute of Solar Energy (GISE), Gandhinagar) Gujarat Institute of Solar Energy (GISE), Gandhinagar)

cleaning of the installed panel can help us to save the power losses to a great
extent, which otherwise if neglected can result into a huge monetary loss.

Figure 4: Table showing the experiment results of dust

affecting the power output of PV panel

Figure 3: Dust laden PV panel (Photo Courtesy - Gujarat

Institute of Solar Energy (GISE), Gandhinagar)

days to many months), the dust gets accumulated on the front surface of the
panels which block the direct incident light from the sun. Thus it is
significantly important to clean the panels at regular intervals of time for
maintaining a constant efficiency of the panels Fig.5 Graph showing the experiment results Power Output
(kWh) vs. Time (Week)
Experiment on Effect of Dust on PV Panels
According to an experiment conducted on a PV panel to study the effect Design & Development of the Cleaning
of dust for time duration of 8 weeks in the month of January to February. The Mechanism
radiation measured was during the peak solar insolation hours from 11AM Solar Panels are generally cleaned by human interference but it is quite
to 2PM. The power output per hour initially was 1.98kWh and at the end of tedious as well as time consuming and ultimately is not much effective.
8th week it was 1.49kWh, the total loss in power was of 0.49kW in duration Hence, designing and developing an automated system for cleaning the
of 1 hour. If we consider the losses to be steady taking an assumption of panels is significantly imperative to be implemented. The figure below
same operating environment throughout the year, this power loss can range shows the block diagram of the proposed mechanism. The components
up to 4,292.4kW (approx.) for 1 year. The amount of this loss is approximately highlighted in the diagram are micro controller (L293D-ARDUINO), DC Motor
equal to 4,292.4*4.34 Rs, if we consider the tariff rate of solar energy per with a motor driver, solid state relay, RTC (real time clock). L293D is a typical
unit as 4.34Rs. Thus this experiment leads to the conclusion that a regular Motor driver or Motor Driver IC which allows DC motor to drive on either
ELECTRICAL INDIA | March 2017 55
Automation >>
direction. L293D is a 16-pin IC which can control a set of two DC motors
simultaneously in any direction. It means that we can control two DC
motor with a single L293D IC. Dual H-bridge Motor Driver integrated
circuit(IC). It works on the concept of H-bridge. H-bridge is a circuit which
allows the voltage to be flown in either direction. As we know voltage needs
to change its direction for being able to rotate the motor in clockwise or
anticlockwise direction, Hence H-bridge ICs are ideal for driving a DC motor.
In a single L293D chip there are two h-Bridge circuit inside the IC which can
rotate two dc motor independently. Due its size it is very much used in
robotic application for controlling DC motors.
When supply is given to the micro controller it drives the motor
with the help of the motor driver circuit. The motor starts rotating in
the forward and backward direction as commanded by the micro
controller using rack & pinion linear mechanism. The micro controller Figure 7: PROTEUS Simulation of the cleaning mechanism
is a timer based and can be programmed as per the desired interval of
time required for cleaning. Therefore it is mandatory to determine the mainly to understand the motor mechanism. When pin no. 8 of two inputs
amount of dust which will be accumulated on the panels at a specific is made HIGH and another is LOW pin no. 9 then the motor will run in
location prior installing the system and according to the site survey forward direction (i.e. from HOME to EXTREME). If the delay is given for
results the interval for cleaning the module can also be programmed some seconds then the motor will stop automatically without giving any
or changed. The cleaning interval can also vary with respect to the command and if both the pins are made LOW then the motor will force stop.
seasons along with the geographic locations. Now if the inputs are reversed i.e. pin no.8 is LOW and pin no.9 is HIGH then
the motor will rotate in reverse direction (i.e. EXTREME to HOME).
3D Model

Fig. 6 Block Diagram of the cleaning mechanism

Design of the system using the software Figure 8: 3D Model of the cleaning mechanism
Proteus The 3 D model (Fig.8) shows the schematic of the actual model. The
Figure 7 shows 3 switches called HOME, MIDDLE AND EXTREME. These model is designed with rack and pinion gears which are used to convert
three switches indicate the portions of the PV Panel to be cleaned. HOME rotation into linear motion.The flat, toothed part is the rack and the gear is
and EXTREME stands for the two edges of the PV panel and MIDDLE the pinion. A piston coaxial to the rack provides hydraulic assistance force,
indicates the intermediate part of the panel. The IC L293D Arduino is and an open centered rotary valve controls the assist level. A rack and pinion

programmed and connected to these 3 switches which act as an input to it. gears system is composed of two gears. The normal round gear is the pinion
L293D is a typical Motor driver or Motor Driver IC which allows DC motor to gear and the straight or flat gear is the rack. The rack has teeth cut into it and
drive on either direction. L293D is a 16-pin IC which can control a set of two they mesh with the teeth of the pinion gear. A ring and pinion gear is the
DC motors simultaneously in any direction. It means that we can control differential's critical point of power transfer. A ring and pinion gear set is one
twoDC motorwith a single L293D IC. The pins numbered from A0 to A5 are of the simplest performance modifications that can be performed on a
the analog pins whereas pins 0 to 13 are the digital pins. The switches vehicle. The most common reason to change ring and pinion ratios from the
HOME, MIDDLE & EXTREME are connected to the analog inputs of the original equipment is to retain power when bigger tires are put on a vehicle.
Arduino i.e. A0, A1, A2 respectively. The digital pin no 8 and 9 of the Arduino The torque can be increased by a ratio change when there is enhanced
are acting as the input to the motor driver. The pin 8 & 9 are given to the pin pulling or higher take off power from a dead start. A well designed
no. 2 and 7 of the motor driver circuit and the output pins of motor driver i.e. mechanism such as the rack and pinion gears save effort and time. Rack and
pin no.3 and 6 is given to the motor. The PROTEUS simulation is provided pinion gears provide a less mechanical advantage than other mechanisms,

56 ELECTRICAL INDIA | March 2017

Mecc Alte India PVT LTD, Plot No. 1, Talegaon Dhamdhere, S.O.,
Tal. Shirur, Dist. Pune - 412208, Maharashtra, India

T: +91 2137 619619 F: +91 2137 619699 E:

Automation >>
wheel to the side to side motion in the wheels. The steering wheel rotates a
gear which engages the rack. As the gear turns, it slides the rack either to
the right or left, depending on which way the wheel is turned. Rack and
pinion gears are also used in some scales to turn the dial that displays a
weight. This rack & pinion is driven by the supply which it is connected to the
sprinkler. The sprinkler sprinkles the water on the panels which is cleaned by
the brushes moving on the panels. The water for the sprinkler is drawn from
a water reservoir but if this system is installed at canal top solar plants then
no added water reservoir is required as it can draw water from the canal for
cleaning purpose.
Figure 9: Actual connections of the Arduino with the motor Thus, the system developed is very easy to install, it can be used for
driver standalone PV systems. It is fully automated which saves time and human
but greater feedback and steering sensation. A rack and pinion gear gives a labour. The motor can be driven from the PV panel supply as well which
positive motion especially compared to the friction drive of a wheel in results in power saving. The system can be programmed as per the location
tarmac. The rack and pinion is also used in railway, a central rack between of the PV panels, in terms of interval of time of cleaning needed. At the end
the two rails engages with a pinion on the engine allowing a train to be it would be concluded that dont let the dirty panels contribute to the power
pulled up very steep slopes. Rack and pinions gears are commonly used in loss and economic loss, which may act as a hindrance in the expected
the steering system of cars to convert the rotary motion of the steering contribution in the development and growth of India in long run.

Company Snippet: Seva Switchgear

Seva Switchgear have been in the low voltage switchgear field for
over 4 decades now, we started in 1970 as a proprietorship firm in
Matunga, Bombay and were founded as a private limited company in
About 80% of our revenues comes from exports to Europe
and the US. We have three lines of business
Motor control and motor protection equipment contactors and
motor starters sold in the Indian market
Crane control stations for overhead cranes, port cranes and Our motor starters and contactors are better suited to Indian
material handling machines sold in the Indian market conditions than most competition. SevaSPL specialises in making
Custom switchgear for exports selector, rotary, cam switches, rugged, custom starters that are built to spec.
plastic injection molded parts, machined parts.

58 ELECTRICAL INDIA | March 2017

<< Efficiency

Get More Power & Save Money

ndustrial Consumer has to pay to
Anuraj Kumar utilities for the power that he is
Deputy Manger - not using. The power we connect
Strategy at load has mixed of real power and
BCH Electric Limited apparent power, we can use only
real power to run our equipment but
bill is charged on total power but
there are means by which Kilowatt
hours can be reduced slightly and
that is done by improving power
Power Factor
Lets understand power factor
first, it is the ratio between the KW
and the KVA drawn by an electrical
Power factor is the ratio load. Where the KW is real power to
between the KW and the load and KVA is the apparent load
KVA drawn by an electrical power. It is the measurement how
an electrical equipment getting
load. Where the KW is real current in actual. A load with power
power to load and KVA is the factor of 0.85, results much higher lead to significant reduction in losses since losses
losses in supply system and consumer has to pay are proportional to square of the current.
apparent load power. It is the higher bill. Little improvement in power factor When power factor is less than one the lost
measurement how an
electrical equipment getting
current in actual. A load with
power factor of 0.85, results
much higher losses in supply
system and consumer has to
pay higher bill

ELECTRICAL INDIA | March 2017 59

Efficiency >>
power is known as reactive power or you can call
it waste power. A poor power factor is result of
phase difference between voltage and current,
generally inductive load like induction motor,
power transformer, induction furnace is main
cause for poor power factor.
Causes of poor Power factor
Main causes of poor power factor is inductive
load, most common ones are;
1. Single phase and three phase induction
motor, usually induction motor works at
poor power factor i.e full load pf=0.8-
0.9,small load pf =0.2-0.3,no load pf =0
2. Varying load in power system, as we know
that load on power system is varying. During Benefits by adding
low load period, supply voltage is increased,
which increase the magnetising current,
By adding capacitor in circuit to correct
which causes the decreased power factor
power factor, we can get benefits;
3. Industrial heating furnaces
Minimise reactive losses in system
4. Welding machines
Generate torque in single phase motor
5. Electrical discharge lamps
Prevent self excitation in asynchronous
6. Transformer
7. Harmonic currents
Limit harmonics in system
Increased load
carrying capabilities
The dielectric material
determines the type of
capacitor. Common types
of capacitors are; 1. Type : All poly propylene ( APP) , Metallised
MICA capacitors: polypropylene (MPP) , Mix Dielectric,
used as high frequency 2. Box , Can type body
and telecommunication 3. Line Load characteristics
capacitors. Inductive (Motor), Resistive (Lighting),
capacitors: used in Rated load current
Correcting the power factor telecommunication applications when there 4. Power factor

Inductive load require a magnetic field to is not enough space. At peak demand
operate and while creating such magnetic load ELECTROLYTIC capacitors: used mainly for Compensation required (demanded
current lags the voltage. We need to compensate direct current rectifications. power factor)
these lagging current by leading current and this TRIM capacitors: their capacitance can be 5. Frequency
is done by capacitors. modified depending on the needs of the 6. System voltage and permissible over/under
Power factor correction is done by connecting application. voltage
the capacitors in parallel in motor circuit. The Capacitors Selection for 7. Ambient temperature and altitude from MSL
resulting capacitive current is leading current 8. Current & Voltage THD
power factor compensation:
and it cancels the lagging inductive current 9. Expected life
To identify the requirement of a capacitor
flowing from the supply. you require following details:

60 ELECTRICAL INDIA | March 2017

Power Quality

Analysis Of Grid-Connected
Photovoltaic Systems

Dr. L Ashok Kumar

Dept. of EEE
PSG College of Technology,

Conventionally, grid connected

photovoltaic energy conversion
systems are composed of a
DC-DC converter and an
inverter. The DC-DC converter
is controlled to track the
maximum power point of the
photovoltaic array and the
inverter is controlled to
produce current in such a way
that the system current has
low Total Harmonic Distortion

hotovoltaic (PV) energy has great significantly from a sinusoidal waveform and this
(THD) and it is in phase with potential to supply energy with minimum distorted current can also lead to distortion in
the utility voltage. The impact on the environment, since it is the line voltage. Moreover, many modern
efficiency of the conventional clean and pollution free. A large number of solar equipment use digital controllers, based on
cells connected in series and parallel set up the microprocessors sensitive to variations in the

system is low because the photovoltaic or solar arrays. One way of using voltage and current waveforms. Therefore, to
DC-DC converter and the photovoltaic energy is in a distributed energy increase the PV system utilisation the power
inverter are connected in system as a peaking power source. conversion can be designed to also provide
On the other hand, strict regulations have functions of a unified power quality conditioner.
series. The purpose of this been applied to the equipment connected to the The utilisation of two DC/AC fully controlled
article is to design a utility lines. Some of these regulations are converters make the system have the most
photovoltaic generation system related to harmonics distortion and power factor. versatile structure of converters applied as
for connection in a three-phase However, with the development of power energy conditioner. In this case, depending on
electronics, many equipment tend to increase the controller, the converters can have different
system using only a DC/AC the levels of harmonic distortion. The line current functions of compensation. For instance, they
inverter... at the input to the diode bridge rectifier deviates can realise active series and shunt filters

62 ELECTRICAL INDIA | March 2017

<< Power Quality
combined to compensate simultaneously load generation. Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) can be
current and harmonics of the supplied voltage. In The use of photovoltaic (PV) systems as a used to improve efficiency of PV systems.
this way, the equipment is called Unified Power safe and clean source of energy from the sun has In such controllers, both the produced voltage
Quality Conditioner (UPQC). An active shunt filter been rapidly increasing. The application of PV and the current of the PV array should be
is a suitable device for current-based systems in power systems can be divided into controlled. This may complicate the PV system
compensation. This configuration includes two main fields: off-grid or stand-alone structure with increased possibility of failure while
current harmonics and reactive power applications and on-grid or grid-connected tracking maximum power in unexpected weather
compensations. The active shunt filter can also applications. Stand-alone PV systems can be conditions. With respect to system protection
balance unbalancing currents. used to provide power for remote loads that do scheme, the PV system-based Distributed
The active series filter is normally used for not have any access to power grids while grid- Generations (DGs) should energise the local loads
voltage-based compensation. In this case, connected applications are used to provide after the system has been disconnected from the
voltage harmonics and voltage sags and dips are energy for local loads and for the exchange power utility grid during faulty conditions.
compensated. Other applications can be found in with utility grids . In these situations, any unintentional islanding
literature for purposes of compensation of the The first large grid-connected PV power may increase the risk of safety problems or damage
fundamental frequency, such as reactive power plant with 1 MW capacity was installed in Lugo, to other parts of the system components, which
compensation, flux control of active power and California, USA. The second plant with 6.5 MW can decrease system reliability.
voltage regulation. In this case, it is called Unified capacity was installed in Carissa Plains, California, These problems mean that accurately
Power Flow Controller (UPFC). USA. Currently, many large grid-connected PV analysing the effects of installing large grid-
Conventionally, grid connected photovoltaic systems with different ranges of power are connected PV systems on the performance of the
energy conversion systems are composed of a operating in various countries. electric network is necessary.
DC-DC converter and an inverter. The DC-DC PV systems can enhance the operation of This evaluation is important because it can
converter is controlled to track the maximum power systems by improving the voltage profile provide feasible solutions for potential
power point of the photovoltaic array and the and by reducing the energy losses of distribution operational problems that grid-connected PV
inverter is controlled to produce current in such a feeders, the maintenance costs, and the loading systems can cause to other components in
way that the system current has low Total of transformer tap changers during peak hours. distribution systems.
Harmonic Distortion (THD) and it is in phase with Nonetheless, in comparison with other In the literature, many works focus on
the utility voltage. The efficiency of the renewable technologies, PV systems still face steady-state modeling and analysis of PV
conventional system is low because the DC-DC major difficulties and may pose some adverse systems. However, no attempt has yet been
converter and the inverter are connected in effects to the system, such as overloading of the made to study the effects of grid-connected PV
series. The purpose of this article is to design a feeders, harmonic pollution, high investment systems on the dynamic operation and control of
photovoltaic generation system for connection in cost, low efficiency, and low reliability, which the system before real-time implementation.
a three-phase system using only a DC/AC inverter. hinder their widespread use. Moreover, variations
The proposed system increases the conversion in solar irradiation can cause power fluctuation
PV System Modeling
efficiency and also provides useful function any and voltage flicker, resulting in undesirable High-penetrated grid-connected PV
time, operating as power supply as well as effects on high penetrated PV systems in the systems, which are known as a type of DG in the
harmonic and reactive power compensator when power system. Some control methods, such as megawatt range, are rapidly developed. These
the sun is available. At low irradiation, the system
operates only as harmonic and reactive power
compensator. Other DC/DC converter is used to
provide voltage harmonic compensation. Cost
estimation shows that the use of additional
components increases the cost in less than 12%
to have another function to improve power
quality. Also, this converter does not change the
efficiency of the PV energy conversion since the
converters are connected in parallel.
The control was implemented with the
Synchronous Reference Frame (SRF) method. The
system and controller were design and simulated.
Different Pulse-Width-Modulation (PWM)
techniques have been compared to suggest a
configuration with optimal efficiency. The system
provides approximately 2.8 kW of photovoltaic Figure 1: Simplified diagram of the grid-connected PV system...

ELECTRICAL INDIA | March 2017 63

Power Quality
interest. Nonetheless, the connection of large PV
systems to utility grids may cause several
operational problems for distribution networks.
The severity of these problems directly
depends on the percentage of PV penetration
and the geography of the installation. Hence,
knowing the possible impact of large grid-
connected PV systems on distribution networks
can provide feasible solutions before real-time
and practical implementations.
The aim of this section is to introduce
possible effects that PV systems may impose on
distribution systems. Inrush Current. The small
inevitable difference between PV systems and
Figure 2: Equivalent circuit of the PV module... grid voltages may introduce an inrush current
that flows between the PV system and the utility
cover the majority of the PV market in different Figure 2 shows the equivalent electrical grid at connection time, and decays to zero at an
countries worldwide. circuit of a crystalline silicon PV module. In this exponential rate. The produced inrush current
The main components of a grid-connected model, I is the output terminal current, IL is the may cause nuisance trips, thermal stress, and
PV system includes a series/parallel mixture of light-generated current, Id is the diode current, other problems.
PV arrays to directly convert sunlight to DC power Ish is the shunt leakage current, Rs is the internal Grid Connected
and a power-conditioning unit that converts DC resistance, and Rsh is the shunt resistance.
Photovoltaic System
power to AC power; this unit also keeps the PVs In practice, the value of Rs strongly depends
The proposed PhotoVoltaic (PV) energy
operating at maximum efficiency. Figure 1 shows on the quality of the used semi-conductor.
conversion system has high efficiency, low cost
the general diagram of grid-connected PV Therefore, any small variation in Rs value can
and high functionality. Figure 3 shows the block
systems. dramatically change the PV output.
diagram of the proposed system. The converter 1
Notably, in many cases, energy storage
devices such as batteries and super-capacitors
Possible Effect Of Grid- (PV converter) in Figure 3 is responsible to
are also considered the third component of grid- Connected PV Systems On convert the PV energy to the grid as well as to
connected PV systems. Distribution Systems compensate current harmonics and reactive
These devices enhance the performance of Renewable energy sources, especially PV power. The converter 2 (Dynamic Voltage Restorer
PV systems, such as power generation at night, systems, have become more significant sources DVR converter) in Figure 3 is responsible to
reactive power control over the PV systems, peak of energy, attracting considerable commercial compensate voltage harmonics or voltage sags.
load shifting, and voltage stabilising of grids.
To provide proper interface between grid-
connected PV systems and the utility grid, some
conditions must be satisfied, such as phase sequence,
frequency and voltage level matching. Providing
these conditions strongly depends on the applied
power electronics technology of PV inverters.
The electric characteristics of a PV unit can

generally be expressed in terms of the current-

voltage or the power-voltage relationships of the
The variations in these characteristics directly
depend on the irradiance received by the cell and
the cell temperature.
Therefore, to analyse the dynamic
performance of PV systems under different
weather conditions, a proper model is required to
convert the effect of irradiance and temperature
on produced current and voltage of the PV arrays. Figure 3: PV generation with UPQC function...

64 ELECTRICAL INDIA | March 2017

<< Power Quality
to frequency fluctuation. The small size of PV
systems causes the frequency fluctuation to be
negligible compared with other renewable
energy based resources. However, this issue may
become more severe by increasing the
penetration levels of PV systems. Frequency
fluctuation may change the winding speed in
electro motors and may damage generators.
Limits Of Grid Transmission
Conventional design of a power grid
Figure 4: Conventional load with voltage minimum at end of line... considers a load flow directed from the
transformer to the load. Passive loads with
The utilisation of two controlled converters fluctuations, and voltage flickers. sinusoidal currents have been assumed for the
makes the system to have the most versatile rating of transformers and distribution lines.
structure applied as energy conditioner. In this
Output Power Fluctuation
The fluctuation of the output power of PV Figure 4 shows the voltage decreasing with the
case, depending on the controller, the converters distance from the transformer.
systems is one of the main factors that may cause
can have different functions of compensation. Therefore, the design is usually made to keep
severe operational problems for the utility
For instance, they can realise active series the voltage at the transformer above the nominal
network. Power fluctuation occurs due to
and shunt filters combined to compensate voltage in order to achieve a voltage drop which
variations in solar irradiance caused by the
simultaneously load current and harmonics of is below the minimum specified value. In the last
movement of clouds and may continue for
the supplied voltage. few years the usage of distribution grids has
minutes or hours, depending on wind speed, the
Safety type and size of passing clouds, the area covered changed heavily as many devices are using
Safety is one of the major concerns in PV by the PV system, and the PV system topology. uncontrolled bridge rectifiers at the mains input
systems due to unintended islanding at the time Power fluctuation may cause power swings in side. In many rural areas large decentralised
of fault occurrence at the grid side. Here, PV lines, over- and under loadings, unacceptable power generation (e.g. photovoltaic, wind, micro
systems continue to feed the load even after the voltage fluctuations, and voltage flickers. turbines and combined generation) has been
network is disconnected from the utility grid, installed. In some areas the installed generation
which may lead to electric shock of workers.
Harmonic power is significantly higher than the
Harmonic distortion is a serious power consumption and often reaches the rated grid
Over-voltage quality problem that may occur due to the use of power. Due to high levels of generated power
PV systems usually are designed to operate power inverters that convert DC current to AC from decentralised generation stations the load
near unity power factor to fully utilise solar current in PV systems. The produced harmonics flow may change its direction. Particularly in
energy. In this case, the PV system only injects can cause parallel and series resonances, high solar gain periods, when solar plants feed
active power into the utility grid, which may overheating in capacitor banks and transformers, their highest power levels into the grid, while the
change the reactive power flow of the system. and false operation of protection devices that power consumption can be fairly low, reverse
Therefore, voltages of nearby buses can be may reduce the reliability of power systems. power flow may occur. Therefore, solar generated
increased because of the lack of reactive power. power is fed into the medium voltage grid over
The produced over-voltage can have negative Frequency Fluctuation the transformer of that branch. If the power is in
effects on the operation of both the utility and Frequency is one of the more important the range of the nominal power of the branch,
customer sides. Output power fluctuation, The factors in power quality. Any imbalance between the voltage at the connection point of the
fluctuation of the output power of PV systems is the produced and the consumed power may lead generation plant may significantly increase. If
one of the main factors that may cause severe
operational problems for the utility network.
Power fluctuation occurs due to variations in
solar irradiance caused by the movement of
clouds and may continue for minutes or hours,
depending on wind speed, the type and size of
passing clouds, the area covered by the PV
system, and the PV system topology. Power
fluctuation may cause power swings in lines,
over- and under loadings, unacceptable voltage Figure 5: Voltage maximum or minimum at the end of line...

ELECTRICAL INDIA | March 2017 65

Power Quality
the use is not restricted to this application. In all
networks with controllable feed-in installations
and loads network efficiency can be increased by
distributed network services.
The operational status of the grid has to be
measured continuously at connection points of
large loads and decentralised generation. Solar
inverters are equipped with data acquisition
capabilities because they need to synchronise
their voltage and frequency to the grid voltage.
For load connection points measuring technology
is to be installed. As shown in Figure 6 a main
Figure 6: Data acquisition and control structure... computer is networked to a number of data
the voltage exceeds the tolerance of usually 10% installation or operating costs promotes further acquisition devices and solar inverters. Data
above nominal voltage, other devices and growth in decentralised power generation. In the acquisition devices and solar inverters monitor
equipment might be damaged. past grid extension was required to increase the voltage, current and power flow at their locations
Figure 5 shows the possible voltage variation transmission capacity, resulting in additional on the grid. Data acquisition devices are located
with the distance from the transformer for cabling and higher investment cost, even if the at large loads (e.g., industrial plants) and grid
different load and generation conditions. additional capacity is only being used for a few nodes. The main computer receives the grid
Therefore, the design is usually made to keep the operating hours per year, usually on solar gain days, status data and then calculates the values for the
voltage at the transformer above the nominal when additional grid capacity is actually needed. In required reactive power for the individual solar
voltage in order to reduce voltage drops below the short term, additional connection of solar inverters that will be sent over the data network
the minimum specified value. generation systems can often not be permitted to the inverters.
With decentralised generation the voltage until grid extension had been carried out. The control structure consists of three
may increase at the connection point as shown in different controls. The first part is the limitation
Figure 5. With the voltage at the transformer
Increasing Voltage Quality of the grid voltage by reactive power absorption
being set above the nominal value it is very likely And Grid Capacity of the inverters. To avoid unnecessary losses only
to exceed the specified maximum voltage. In While the grid capacity and grid quality have as many inverters as needed have to absorb only
Germany, a maximal voltage increase of 2 or 3% primarily been provided by network expansion so as much reactive power as needed to limit the
in the future caused by distributed power plants far, this project aims to use the installations grid voltage. Thus, the main computer only
in low voltage grids is recommended. In case of which are distributed in the grids effectively. This activates the inverters with the highest voltage
reverse power flow the maximum permitted is done by the use of distributed measurement levels in the grid. Additionally, voltage
voltage will be reached even below nominal technology, intelligent control of power fluctuations due to fast load and generation
power of the grid branch. electronics, new information and communication changes e.g., moving clouds can be compensated
Therefore, the grid needs to be improved to technology and the possibilities of the grid and smoothed by injecting and absorbing
offer new services and new functionality to deal control. The concept is developed and tested on reactive power through the solar inverters. The
with the new requirements. Avoiding high the example of distributed PV systems. However, inverters can also be used for local compensation
of reactive power required by other loads in order
to minimise power losses in the grid.
Voltage Limitation
Solar inverters above 8 to 10 kW are usually

connected by three phases to the grid. They can

operate in all four quadrants thus being able to
inject or absorb reactive power while active
power is fed into the grid. Figure 7 shows in a
qualitative way the voltage drop at a transmission
line. While the voltage at the end of the line U2 is
lower than the voltage U1 at the beginning
(transformer side) in case of normal load
conditions, this changes when active power is fed
in at the end of the line (left part of Figure 7).
Figure 7: Voltage drop at a line when feeding in active (left) as well as active and
reactive power (right)...
The voltage may be significantly higher at

66 ELECTRICAL INDIA | March 2017

<< Power Quality
requires additional equipment and associated
installation and commissioning costs which
should be recovered by greater efficiencies. So
far, compensation is mainly used in large
industrial plants. Therefore, generating
decentralised reactive power for compensation
significantly lowers the power losses due to short
transmission distances of the reactive power. For
generating reactive power short term energy
storage is required. This can be done with
capacitors or inductors. Voltage link based solar
inverters usually have capacitors, so the already
installed capacity can be used for reactive power.
The existing reactive power reserves which are
inherently present by the distributed inverters
can be used to provide reactive power to the
overlaid middle voltage grid or to reduce the
Figure 8: Voltage increase due to PV power plants...
reactive power consumption of the low voltage
the end of the line than at the transformer. By Fluctuations grid to minimise the losses.
additionally absorbing reactive power (or Fluctuating power input to PV systems due
current) the overvoltage can be decreased (right Field Test
to passing clouds or highly fluctuating loads
hand side of Figure 7). This is also the case in low The field testing is done in a real low-voltage
cause voltage fluctuations in the low voltage
voltage distribution grids with a relative high R/X grid with a high penetration of PV power plants.
grid. Reactive power consumption (capacitive) at
ratio especially when taking the transformer negative voltage peaks and reactive power Overview Of The Test Grid
impedance into consideration. absorption (inductive) at positive voltage peaks Figure 8 shows the structure of the test grid.
The reactive power flow results in an by the distributed solar inverters can smooth The grid is fed by two transformers (rated power
additional current that has to be driven from the voltage fluctuations in the grid. The risk of flickers 630 kVA) and operated meshed. The installed PV
inverter. Studies on the reactive power have can be reduced by such an additional control that system capacity is 400 kWp and is already higher
shown that a minimum power factor of cos y = is implemented locally in the inverters. The than the average network load. On sunny days,
0.9 in typical low voltage grids is sufficient to smoothing does not need any communication of active power is fed back regularly in the medium
keep the voltage within the permissible limits. A the inverters with a central computer. voltage grid. There are numerous relatively large PV
power factor cos y = 0.9 provides reactive power power plants in the grid due to the high number of
of 43% of the active power. This causes a 10 % Reactive Power Compensation agricultural buildings with large roof areas.
higher current of the inverter. If the reactive Reactive power compensation to this date
power is only absorbed at increased voltage
levels, the higher rating of the solar inverter may
be lower or it may even not be necessary. If
reactive power is used for limiting the grid
voltage additional power losses are generated in
the inverter and in the grid lines due to the
higher grid current. But the benefit is that higher
active power can be transmitted and the surplus
solar generated electrical power can be fed in to
the grid. Therefore, it is appropriate to provide
the reactive power not by a static characteristic of
the inverters, but to minimise the reactive power
absorption by individually activating those
inverters which have the most significant effect
to the grid voltage. The communication of each
inverter with a central computer ensures the
optimisation of the reactive power absorption.
Figure 9: Number of 10-minute averages depending on the active power flow of
Smoothing Of Voltage the test grid...

ELECTRICAL INDIA | March 2017 67

Power Quality
Two measurement points at the inverters of PV
power plants were available to evaluate the state of
the test grid in advance. One is at a PV power plant
which is at the end of a critical long line and the
other is located between the transformers.
The upper chart of Figure 10 shows the
developing of the PV-feed-in in p.u. based on the
rated power of the inverter, which was a sunny
summer day. The rated power is not achieved
because of the strong heating of the PV modules.
The lower chart of Figure 10 also shows the
corresponding voltages at both measurements
points (green: measuring point at the critical grid
extension, red: measurement point between the
two transformers). The zero values of voltage and
power are the result of short-term transmission
errors in the measurement. The voltage profile
follows the PV feed-in very well. The left
transformer was out of service due to
Figure 10: PV feed-in and voltage... maintenance on this day. That is the reason why
there are high voltage increases. These values
The voltage distribution and the loadings of voltage increase the transformers and cables in
correspond well with the results of the grid
cables and transformers were calculated by a the grid are loaded at 40%.
calculation. Figure 11 shows a close-up of the PV
commercial power system analysis software.
Figure 8 also shows the voltage distribution in the
Premeasurements feed-in and the corresponding voltages, an
Data from both transformers have been unsettled day (green: measuring point at the
grid area as a result of PV power plants. According
available in 10 minute averages over a period of critical network extensions, red: measurement
to the VDEW recommendations, the voltages are
a year. Figure 9 shows the number of measured point between the two transformers).
calculated without loads and with the inverters
10 minute averages depending on the reactive On this day, the left transformer was also out
feeding in their rated power. It is evident that in
power flow of the grid. On sunny days the power of service due to maintenance. The gradients of
this grid a voltage increase < 2 % is observed only
generated by the PV power plants in the grid the voltage peaks or drops are usually smaller
near the transformers. The increase is above 2%
exceeds the load. Thus, there is an active power than the gradients of power peaks or drops. This
between the transformers and over 3 or 4 % at
flow from the test grid to the overlaid middle is due to the distribution of the PV systems in the
the critical network extensions. Despite the
voltage grid. test grid. Thus, the power drops caused by
passing clouds are staggered. These staggered
power drops cause staggered voltage drops.
The largest power gradient measured so far
is 0.07 p.u./s relative to the rated power. The
largest voltage gradient measured is so far 0.002
p.u./s relative to the rated voltage. The concept
described in this paper provides an improved
voltage quality and higher transmission
capacities in low voltage grids with a high

penetration of PV power plants. The technology

described above is currently under development
and being tested with solar inverters on the low
voltage grid. Generally speaking, the technology
can be applied to any power electronic inverter
which is either permanently or temporarily
connected to the grid. Due to the inbuilt data
communication and data acquisition facilities the
system can be automatically configured after
connecting a new inverter to the grid.
Figure 11: Detail of PV feed-in and voltage...

68 ELECTRICAL INDIA | March 2017

Facts & Figures
Electricity Generation for Jan, 2017 (BU)
Type Achievement Targets Achievement % Change
Jan-16 Jan-17 Jan-17 w.r.t. 2016
Thermal 82.835 89.761 85.856
Hydro 6.159 7.603 6.331
Nuclear 3.057 3.422 3.039
Bhutan Import 0.078 0.277 0.105
All India 92.129 101.063 95.331 3.48

Electricity Generation During April 2015 to Jan 2016 & April 2016 to Jan 2017 (BU)
Type Apr '15 - Jan'16 Apr '16 - Jan '17 % Change
Thermal 778.009 824.003 5.91
Hydro 108.304 107.609 -0.64
Nuclear 30.827 31.294 1.51
Bhutan Import 5.159 5.516 6.92
All India 922.299 968.422 5.00
Source: Central Electricity Authority

Forthcoming Events At A Glance

National International
Power-Gen India & Central Asia 2017 Power & Electricity World Africa 2017
Venue: Pragati Maidan Exhibition Centre Delhi, India Venue: Sandton Convention Centre, Johannesburg, South Africa
Date: 17-19 May, 2017 Date: 28-29 March, 2017
Website: Website:

Automation 2017 Windpower Anaheim

Venue: Bombay Convention & Exhibition Centre, Mumbai Venue: Anaheim, California, USA
Date: 09-12 August, 2017 Date: 22-25 May, 2017
Website: Website:

Renewable Energy India Expo 2017 Wire & Cable Guangzhou

Venue: India Expo Centre, Greater Noida Venue: China Import and Export Fair Complex, Guangzhou, China
Date: 20-22 September, 2017 Date: 9-11 June, 2017
Website: Website:

Intersolar India 2017 12th International Wire & Cable Trade Fair for Southeast Asia
Venue: Bombay Exhibition Centre, Mumbai Venue: BITEC Bangkok, Thailand
Date: 5-7 December, 2017 Date: 19-21 September 2017
Website: Website:

ELECTRICAL INDIA | March 2017 71

Transformer Technology

An Overview of Superconducting
Transformer Technology

Hambir Singh
Asst. Shift Manager

Production Department, National

Fertilizers Ltd., Vijaipur, MP

Muvendra Kumar
Student, B-Tech
Rajkiya Engineering College,
Chandpur, Bijnor, UP

Electrical energy is a major

source of the entire process
of evolution and modern

orldwide, demand of fossil fuels and point, electrical energy is wasted in the form of
lifestyle. This paper electrical energy for the growing heat in the Cu and Al wires/coil, iron core and
human luxurious life style and cooling tank. After the discovery of high
highlights the developments economic growth are increasing with 2% annual temperature superconductors (HTSrs),
of the high temperature growth rate. Due to the technical and non- commercial applications of 1st, 2nd and 3rd
superconducting (HTSting) technical reasons, in India, electrical power generation (G) of HTSrs are being demonstrated
losses due to theft and technical losses are about and implemented all over the world; where high
power transmission and 26% compared to international norms of 6-7%. temperature superconducting (HTSting)

distribution equipments such Technical losses include power transmission and equipments and machines (such as lossless
as transformer. Demand of distribution (T&D) and end user which need transformers, generators, motors, pumps, cables,
more energy efficient electricity generation bearings etc) offer many benefits (Such as energy
energy, electricity generation machines and demand side efficiency. In the efficiency improvement, low pollution, low
and power transmission and power utility, transformer is the most important losses, ecological balance etc) over conventional
devices in T&D network. From power plants, electrical equipments and machines. HTSrs
distribution system require power of high voltages is transported into the provide highly efficient transformer with halved
energy efficient equipments grid and to the end user, where electrical size and weight, elimination of hazard oil, reduce
and machines... appliances operate at lower voltages (100-200 leakage reactance, possible fault current limiting
volts). So, transformer must be required for feature for improved system performance,
voltage conversions where at each conversion reliability and safety. In 1996, world's first

72 ELECTRICAL INDIA | March 2017

<< Transformer Technology
Table 1: Jc of HTSrs, LTSrs and conductor

Sr. Name of elements and compounds Types of Jc Critical field Cryogenic or cooling Tc (K)
No. fabrication (Amp/cm2) Hc (Tesla) temperature (K)
1. YBaCuO(123) with NdCaO3 substrate Thin film 1.2x106 - 77 88.9
2. TBCCO (2212) with LaAlO3 substrate Thin film 5.8 x106 - 77 91.8
3. YBCO/15 wt.% Ag Composite 8.6x 104 0 77 93
4. YBCO Wire >2 x106 Selffield 77 93
5. Bi-2212 / Ag Tape >107 5 77 -
6. MgB2 Sample 1.5x107 - - 39.6
1. Nb3Sn Wire 6x104 28 4.2 18.5
2. NbTi Wire 5x105 11 4.2 9.5
3. V3Ga Wire 107 25 4.2 15
4. Ti2Nb Wire 8x106 105 4.2 9
5. Nb3Ge Wire 4x106 5 4.0 -
6. Pb Wire 4.4x104 550 4.2 7.7
Normal Conductor:
1. Cu Wire 100-500 - - -
HTSting transformer was established in Geneva Today, 1G (BSCCO) and 2 G (344-YBCO) and 3G provided the opportunity to reduce refrigeration
(Switzerland) by ABB. HTSting materials at and (YBCO- multi-filament) of HTSrs have been costs compared to LHe cryogenic systems.
above liquid nitrogen (LN2, 77 K) temperature developed for long length wires and power Thereafter, many types of HTSting electrical
have the ability to transport electricity with zero cables with higher current carrying density Jc, equipments and machines came into existence in
resistance. Now, new HTSting materials (Such as (>100-300 times) than Cu wire (Table 1). the electricity generation and power T&D
Tl7Sn2Ba2TiCu10O20+ with Tc ~65 C; (Tl5Pb2) systems. One of them is power transformer. When
HTSr in the Developments
Ba2Mg2Cu9O17+ with Tc ~ 28 C etc) are also transformers are under a loaded condition, Joule
being tested to conduct electricity at and above of Transformer heating (I2R losses) of the conventional conductor
the room temperature so called room temperature Developments of superconducting Cu coil gives more energy losses causing fossil
superconductors which can carry many times transformers began in the early 1960s when fuels resources depletion and emissions of the
more current than HTSting wires. Losses in HTSrs liquid helium (LHe) cooling based low pollutants especially greenhouse gases.
wires and cables are also significantly lower than temperature superconductors (LTSrs) NbTi and Since the discovery of HTSrs, technology of
the losses in conventional power T&D lines. HTSrs Nb3Sn were discovered and were available for the HTSting transformer has been investigated for
are being operated at 77 K promise to replace the commercial and power applications (Table 1). reduction of energy losses. The four major
Cu winding of transformers to reduce losses by as But, uneconomical power devices of LTSrs and techniques used to manufacture HTSting
much as 70-80%. Technical losses in conductors high cost of LHe (4.2 K) cooling systems were conductors are: (1) powder in tube method, (2)
and equipment (e.g., transformers) of power T&D more difficult to afford for all nations. But, ray of dip coating and other ceramic coating methods,
system are responsible for inefficiency of systems. hope was seen in 1986, when La and Cu oxide (3) deposition of bi-axially textured thin films on
Here, in this paper author highlights the materials came into existence with the high textured buffer layers or substrates, and (4) bulk
comparison of the efficiency of HTSting (from 2nd transition temperature (>35-90 K) and high growth techniques. Now, 2nd and 3rd G of HTSrs
and 3rd G HTSrs) and conventional transformers. critical density (Jc) at and above 77 K which have (Bi,Pb)2Sr2Ca2Cu3Ox (Bi2223) ;Bi2Sr2CaCu2Ox
Table 2: Characteristics of the HTSting compounds
(Sources: AMSC, University of Houston, IGC, HTS-10 USA; ISTEC, Sumitomo, Hitachi Japan; Siemens, FZK Germany).

Sr. No. Name of HTSrs compounds Critical current , Ic ( A) Critical current density, Jc (kA/cm2) Cryogenic/cooling condition and Hc
1. Bi2223 /Ag sheath 34-70 12-55 77K, 0T
2. Bi-2212/Ag sheath 225-500 107-490 4.2K, 0T & 23T
3. Bi-2212 coated ~130 >170 4.2 K, 0T & 12T
4. Tl-1223 coated 4-25 8-100 77 K, 0T &12T
5. Y-123 coated 13-200 90-1100 77 K, 0T, IBAD/PLD

ELECTRICAL INDIA | March 2017 73

Transformer Technology
Table 3: Cost comparison of the conductor Cu (1 meter length and 6 mm dia; cost $10-20) and 3G HTSrs (1 meter length
and 0.06 mm dia; conservative cost $0.30) (Source: 3G HTS Corporation, July 2012).
Sr. Name of wires Current carrying Cost Comparison
No. capacity (Jc) kA/cm2 Cost performance Wire Wire One elementary filament (Strand)
ratio C/P, $/kA-m 1mxd* (=1Cm), $ 1mxd* (= 0.6Cm), $ 1mxd* (=0.006 Cm), $
1. Cu 0.2-0.4 15-20 10-20 4.8-24 0.05-0.24
2. 1G HTSr 11-13.5 NA NA NA NA
3. 2G HTSr 8-12 75-90 450-600 NA NA
4. 3G HTSr* 15-20 7-9 110 50 0.5
*Estimated selling price of 3G HTSrs 1 m length x 0.06 mm dia wire = $ 10-20; d* indicates dia.

(Bi2212); (Tl,Pb) (Ba,Sr)2Ca2Cu3Ox (Tl1223) and operating temperature and service conditions. (Table 4). And economic benefits for consumers
YBa2Cu3Ox (Y123) are being used for all large- Because of the LN2 cooling based HTSrs winding, and businesses will increase many fold by the
scale power applications (Table 2 and 3). 3G modern HTSting transformers have very long life 2020 (Fig.1). Scientific studies have reported that
HTSting multi-filament (round) wire technology if it always operates at cryogenic temperature, positive impacts of HTSrs include an additional
realise a 5 to 10 times decrease in cost, weight 77K even during overload conditions. 35% saving in total owning cost over conductor
and size of electrical machines & equipment and and LTSrs based designs. And life-cycle cost
Environmental and
yet can transmit power at room temperature like analysis indicates that cost of HTSting transformer
Cu and Al (Source: HTS10, AMSC USA, etc). The Economic Benefits of HTSr may be 30-60% less of conventional transformer.
annual energy loss of a transformer in power T&D Transformers IEA estimates that if HTSrs devices are used in
system depends on the load and load-dependent Generally, transformers are installed in the USA then the emissions reduction of carbon, SOx
efficiency of transformer. In a conventional population dense city and town, which restrict and NOx would be 1.64 million metric tons,
power transformer, load losses are about 80% of the use of oil-filled hazardous transformers and 16891 metric tons and 8351 metric tons
total losses. Of this load loss, 80% are I2R losses numerous accidents have been reported all over respectively. For an example: the 50MVA HTSting
which are due to the resistance of winding wire. the world. But, HTSrs eliminate hazards of oil- transformer is expected to be about half the size
The remaining 20% consists of stray and eddy filled devices by the LN2 based HTSting technology and weight of a similar rated conventional
current losses. A study of US has estimated that because nitrogen is an inert and environmental transformer. It is capable of carrying 50%
annual energy losses are 839.7 MWh for the friendly gas, possess no fire hazards and no overload if cooled to 70K by providing extra
conventional and 160.3 MWh for the HTSting threat to the environmental conditions cooling and it could carry 100% overload if
transformer. It would save about 679.4 MWh of comparable to flammable oils and toxic chemicals operated at 66K. A comparable rating
energy per year. The use of HTSrs windings in such as PCBs and paint. Scientists have estimated conventional transformer 50MVA has volume W
transformers promise to reduce transformer that increasing energy efficiency of the power 2.29m x L 6.40m x H 4.57m. HTSting transformer
losses (12R). Total life of transformer is estimated generation and electrical machines by HTSrs width and length are about 1.26m x 3.31 m; and
by the life and characteristic conditions of could reduce energy consumption as much as height is about 3.26m (~30% less) of the
electrical insulation, which depends on the 20% by 2020 and will save million KW of power conventional transformer; weight is about 26
tonnes which is about 1/3rd of the conventional
transformer (Source: A general cable
superconductors white paper, Kalsi Green Power
System, 2009). HTSting transformers provide
several other benefits compared to a conventional

Smaller size transformers are more beneficial in

congested city substations, high rise buildings,
wind turbine nacelles and railway network.
Lighter weight is easy for transportation,
installation and maintenance.
Higher efficiency and other conditions save
operating cost by reducing feed fuels in
power generation, accessories,
transportation load, greenhouse gas
Fig 1: Future market comparison of HTSrs and conventional conductor (Source:
emissions and other pollution load.
IEEE/CSC&ESAS European superconductivity news forum, No.4, April 2008).

74 ELECTRICAL INDIA | March 2017

<< Transformer Technology
Table 4: Estimated saving of power by the HTSting equipments (Source: IEA). acceptable conditions and mechanical tolerance.
Sr. No. Name of HTSting equipments Energy saving , GWhr Now, 2nd and 3rd G HTSting machines and
2011 2025 equipments have achieved higher levels of
1. Generators 11 5785 durability and reliability into a power utility and
2. Transformers 0 1194 electricity generation system. However, HTSrs is
3. Cables 3 3326 valuable for natural resource & energy
4. Motors 0 468 conservation and environmental pollution
reduction (especially GHGs emissions). Many
HTSrs transformers are free from oil cooling Conclusion scientific results show that HTSting technology
and can be installed inside multistory Progress in the HTSting technologies has can raise the efficiency of power transformer
buildings. developed many energy efficient electrical much higher than conventional Cu technology.
More compact and lighter HTSrs transformers machines and power equipments. Higher level of Further research on the commercial application
save natural resources (like fossil fuels, Jc of HTSrs promises lower cost and better of room temperature superconductors will
underground water, forest wood etc) and curb manufacturability of the electrical machines. change the scenario of power generation and
greenhouse gases emissions generated during Operation of transformer at 77 K gives system utilisation in future.
manufacturing of equipments and its accessories. performance improvement, lower life-cycle cost,

ELECTRICAL INDIA | March 2017 75


Power Quality: A Growing Concern

he modern power distribution grid is hours of peak demand. To help address these
Andrew Sagl
Product Manager
changing rapidly and these changes can changes, smart-grid technology, designed to
Power Quality, Megger US be expected to have an impact on power make the grid more efficient and more flexible, is
quality, which is the concept of powering being introduced.
sensitive equipment in a manner that is suitable It might be tempting to think that the spread
to the operation of that equipment. In the short of smart-grid technology will alleviate power
The power grid is being forced term at least, the impact is likely to be negative, quality problems, with a consequent reduction in
to change as the result of not with power quality problems becoming more the need for power quality investigations.
one but many simultaneous rather than less troublesome. Unfortunately, this isnt the case. A primary
developments. These include The power grid is being forced to change as objective of the smart grid is to increase the
the result of not one but many simultaneous reliability of power delivery it is unlikely to have
the growing need to connect
developments. These include the growing need any significant impact on the quality of the power
green energy sources, such as to connect green energy sources, such as wind being delivered. In fact, the new types of loads and
wind and solar power, and the and solar power, and the steady reduction in the sources continually being added to the grid will
steady reduction in the number number of traditional bulk generation plants that inevitably create new power quality challenges.
of traditional bulk generation rely on fossil fuels as their energy source. Loads Some of the most common power system
on the grid are also changing, with new fluctuations impacting power quality include
plants that rely on fossil fuels technologies like electric vehicles leading to an under- and over-voltage, dips (sags) and swells,
as their energy source. even greater demand for power and a shift in the transients, unbalance, flicker, harmonics and

76 ELECTRICAL INDIA | March 2017

<< Technology
rapid voltage changes. To innovation MPQ1000 be used in any location. Additionally, the
help readers refresh their and MPQ2000. MPQ2000 measures ac and dc simultaneously up
understanding of power The MPQ1000 is in to 1000V.
quality and to stay up to compliance with The MPQ2000 is an easy-to-use advanced
date with the latest IEC61000-4-30 Class A portable 3-phase power analyzer housed in a
thinking, we are currently and is rated CATIV at 600V. ruggedized weatherproof enclosure. It comes
preparing a series of articles, It can be used for a wide with a field-replaceable, rechargeable battery
starting with the variety of applications with backup/ride-through time up to 5 hours,
fundamentals of PQ and including substation making the MPQ2000 the ideal tool for outdoor
progressing to topics such monitoring, equipment use. The unit can be left at remote locations and
as what is a Class A and breaker tripping, load data can be viewed from the users locations at
recording, transient and studies and load balancing the convenience of the user.
harmonic impacts on as well as for switchgear The analyzer comes equipped with self-
motors & transformers, and component failure. identifying, four range flexible current clamps
energy fundamentals, and This highly intuitive which are powered by the unit. No batteries are
the truth about energy unit delivers unmatched required. Additionally, the analyzer comes
saving devices. The first of capability in a smart equipped with real-time scope and DVM modes.
these timely and well informed series of articles ergonomic platform. In both the scope and DVM View RMS data, wareforms, demand data, phase
will appear in the next edition of Electrical Tester modes, the versatile MPQ1000 can record power, angles, vector diagrams, harmonics, inter-
and will look at the foregoing types of power energy, RMS, sags, swells, transients down to 1 harmonics, unbalance, flicker, and more in real
system fluctuations, explaining why and how microsecond, harmonics, inter-harmonics, time.
they occur, examining the effects they have on harmonic direction, THD, TDD, flicker, unbalance, When data needs to be recorded, the
the power distribution network and on loads, rapid voltage change (RVC), mains signalling, MPQ2000 record-verification feature
and discussing how they can be measured and phase angle deviation, as automatically identifies the
evaluated. well as performs current clamps being used,
Megger has been working extensively to waveform analysis to the recognises the range they are
address these concerns and with its latest 128th harmonic in real in, and verifies the unit is
time. connected properly. The
Data gathered during analyzer verifies that all
testing can be recorded voltage and current
with the MPQ1000 record connections are correct prior
verification by simply to the start of the recording.
pushing a button. This This eliminates the possibility
feature automatically of the recording of 'bad' data.
detects the current From utilities, to
clamps, recognises its commercial and industrial, to
range, identifies the nominal voltage and sets residential monitoring, the MPQ2000 is your
the triggers, as well as verifies that the unit is comprehensive intuitive tool for analyzing and
connected properly to what it is testing. solving power quantity and power quality
The MPQ1000 unit also features flexible problems.
current clamps that have four selectable ranges Megger is one of the world's leading
from 0 to 6000A. manufacturers and suppliers of electrical test and
The MPQ2000 Megger Portable Power measurement equipment. With research,
Quality Analyzer, with its latest software and engineering and manufacturing facilities in the
enhanced capabilities, addresses the USA, UK, Germany, and Sweden, combined with
international IEC61000, IEEE1159, IEEE519 and sales and technical support in most countries,
EN50160 series of power quality and delivery Megger is uniquely placed to meet the needs of
standards used around the world. Powered off of its customers worldwide.
either the phase A voltage input or an auxiliary
For more information, please visit
input that operates off of 115 V 60 Hz or 230 V 50
Hz makes the unit highly versatile, allowing it to

ELECTRICAL INDIA | March 2017 77

Product Avenue
FLIR launches New Generation of Advanced Thermal Imaging Cameras for
Electro-Mechanical, Plant and Building Professionals

LIR Systems, Inc. has three new Exx-Series advanced significant improvement to FLIRs MSX technology, which
thermal imaging cameras for electrical, mechanical, now utilises a 5-megapixel visual camera for improved
and building applications: the FLIR E75, E85, and image clarity and readability. These improvements,
E95. The redesigned, Wi-Fi-enabled Exx-Series features combined with a display that is 33 % brighter and 30 %
intelligent interchangeable lenses, laser-assisted autofocus larger than previous Exx models, yield more vibrant and
modes and area measurement functionality, improvements detailed thermal imagery.
to FLIRs patented MSX imaging technology, and a larger, The Exx-Series cameras also feature a rugged, water-
more vibrant 4-inch touchscreen. These distinctive features, resistant design, and scratch-resistant Dragontrail cover
combined with increased sensitivity and increased native glass over an optically-bonded, projected capacitive (PCAP)
resolution, will help professionals identify hot spots or touchscreen. A simplified user interface delivers faster,
building deficiencies before potential problems become more intuitive operation, and coupled with enhanced Wi-Fi,
expensive repairs. Bluetooth and Meterlink connectivity, archiving and report
In redesigning the Exx-Series, FLIR developed a new generation has never been easier.
range of compact intelligent, interchangeable lenses that Andy Teich, President and CEO at FLIR , said,Redesigned
the camera automatically recognises and calibrates, from the handle up, the new series of Exx cameras is a significant
eliminating the need for manual calibration. The Exx-Series now also achievement in terms of advanced functionality, performance, and ease of use
features laser distance measurement that assures precise autofocus to in thermal cameras for electro-mechanical, plant, and building inspections."
improve temperature measurement accuracy, and specifically for the With an ever-broadening base of users who demand thermal cameras that
FLIR E85 and E95 models, provides the data for on-screen area are compact, capable and easy to use, the advanced Exx cameras check every
measurement in square feet or meters. In addition, the FLIR E85 and E95 box,he further added.
models offer increased thermal detector resolutions with up to 464348 The FLIR E75, E85, and E95 cameras will be available for sale in
(161,472 pixels), and measure temperatures up to 1,500 degrees Celsius. March through established FLIR distribution partners.
In conjunction with FLIR Tools, the FLIR E75, E85, and E95 are the
first Exx cameras to offer UltraMax, FLIRs embedded, super-resolution For further information:
process that improves effective resolution by four times up to 645,888
pixels and thermal sensitivity by up to 50 %. All models also feature

New igus servo cables with the world's smallest bend radius

t the 2016 SPS IPC Drives, igus presented years. In order to offer its customers an even
its new CF29 servo cable series one of better selection, igus is now expanding its
several new high-end cable families for high-end range with this new servo cable and
continuous motion in e-chains with an outer an additional series for data and bus cables.
jacket made of halogen-free TPE. This product Even more choices
range extension offers completely new guaranteed to last
possibilities for energy supply to drives, for users All cables were successfully tested in a
with very tough requirements such as ambient climatic test chamber with real-world
temperatures or small installation space. World's first: The igus servo cables of the mechanical loads and temperatures, within the
A core structure optimised for motion CF29 series offer guaranteed safety for the 2,750-square-metre-large test laboratory at

smallest bend radii and extreme

combined with a gusset-filling extruded TPE temperatures. (Source: igus GmbH) igus. This allows the cable manufacturer to
inner jacket that provides even more stability as guarantee a service life of 36 months for all
well as a highly flexible TPE outer jacket are the features of the new CF29 cables. And this applies even for cables for the highest dynamics and the
chainflex servo cable series. The high-end series is suitable for the most complicated movements. The chainflex service life calculator
smallest bending factors for servo cables down to 6.8xd and is therefore ( helps you to make the
unique on the market. The new series offers a guaranteed solution in a ideal selection, and gives you the expected service life of each cable in
temperature range of -35C so can be even used for moving applications double strokes after entering the respective application parameters. This
in deep-freeze warehouses. This is made possible by the igus halogen- allows customers to choose the cable that works reliably in their
free TPE outer jacket material, which offers an almost unlimited applications without having to spend too much.
resistance to oil. This has been used for other chainflex cable series for For further information:

78 ELECTRICAL INDIA | March 2017

<< Opinions

Post Budget Perspective

Anil Chaudhry, Country President and Managing
Director, Schneider Electric India reacts to budget
2017-18 and shares his opinion...
With India being the fifth largest energy the rural electrification drive of the Government,
consumer in the world, the country needs to make a which is now planned to be completed by May 1,
concerted effort in promoting energy efficiency by 2018. Secondly, by strengthening its focus on
reducing its dependence on fossil fuels and renewable energy forms with the inflow of another
curtailing carbon footprints. 20 GW in the next fiscal.
While access to energy is a basic human right, This however, will require investments in grid
we need to make it sustainable. Todays budget management and digitisation of the grid to ensure
gave a clear indication of the governments focus to supply of quality reliable and safe power. It is
achieve sustainable energy for all, with two of its important to stress that along with rural
critical steps; firstly, by providing a boost to rural Anil Chaudhry electrification, it is equally important to provide
electrification with a 25% increase in the outlay for reliable and quality power which requires investments
key power schemes like Integrated Power Development Scheme and towards modernisation of the countrys transmission and distribution
Deen Dayal Upadhyaya Gram Jyoti Yojna. This is expected to fast track power networks and use of digitisation in grid management.

ELECTRICAL INDIA | March 2017 79

Product Avenue
Digital Multifunction and Insulation Continuity-Voltage Tester

USAM-MECO has introduced a new Digital and electrical installations are protected by MOVs
Medium Voltage Insulation Resistance Tester and GAS arresters. The 1152MF can test these devices
Model 1152MF. Which has range 250/500/ to establish if the devices are still operating correctly
1000V, 0-80 Giga Ohms with Polarisation Index & or not. EnerSaveTM limits the test duration to about
Dielectric Absorption Ratio . 10 seconds to save energy.
The KUSAM-MECO 1152MF packed with It has Digital EE Calibration. Calibration can be
features such as Insulation resistance testing, Voltage done at any calibration facility around the world,
(AC-DC) measurements (0-700V) with Automatic without the need for dedicated calibration
Hold facility, Continuity Test range 0.01 to 1999 equipment. All calibration are saved internally in a
with a short circuit current of minimum 200mA. non volatile memory. It is supplied complete with
Two very unique features in the Multifunction Test Leads, Batteries & Manual.
Tester Model 1152MF is MOV and GAS Arrester testing. Most equipments For further information:

Megger takes hand-held insulation testing to 2.5 kV

n response to customer demand for a features rugged construction, with resilient
dependable and versatile handheld insulation rubber over-moulding, and an IP54 protection
tester capable of operating at up to 2.5 kV, rating. Designed from the outset with safety in
portable test equipment specialist, Megger, has mind, they incorporate live circuit detection and
introduced its new MIT2500 instrument, which protection functionality, and they have a CATIV
offers accurate measurements up to 200 G. 600 V safety rating in line with IEC 61010.
The MIT2500 insulation tester has feedback- Typical applications for Meggers new 2.5 kV
stabilised test voltages to ensure that tests are insulation tester include testing of cables, motors
always carried out to Meggers market leading and generators. In addition, as users can adjust
tight specification. The MIT2500 also incorporates the test voltage in 10 V steps from 100 V to 2.5 kV,
a guard terminal that makes it possible to the instrument can also be used for testing
compensate for the effects of surface leakage electrical installations, verifying the ESD of
currents. materials and testing of control panels, to name
Designed to offer long reliable service even but a few.
when used in tough on-site conditions, MIT2500 insulation tester For further information:

The first multimeter with automatic measurement parameter recognition

he testo 760 digital multimeter family comprises three models of the appropriate function keys. The testo 760-1 model is the standard
for all important electrical measuring tasks. Function keys version for virtually all daily measuring tasks. The testo 760-2 is
replace the differentiated by a larger current measurement range, the true root
traditional dial on all three mean square measurement - TRMS - and a low-pass filter. The testo

instruments, which means 760-3 is the model with the highest specification and, in addition to the
easier operation and features of the other two models; it has a voltage range of up to 1,000 V,
greater reliability. Incorrect along with higher measuring ranges for frequency and capacitance.
settings are now Easy, modern operation with function keys instead of a dial
impossible, because the Measurement parameter detection and selection via the socket
measurement parameters assignment
are detected automatically Prevents incorrect settings
via the assignment of the True root mean square measurement - TRMS
measuring sockets and also Large, backlit display
shown by the illumination
For further information:

80 ELECTRICAL INDIA | March 2017

Product Avenue
CorDEX Instruments unveils its MN4000 Panel Mounted Thermal Imager

orDEX Instruments has launched its new MN4000 panel mounted software. MN4000 can also be incorporated into a PLC or SCADA based
thermal imager. It is aimed at the industrial electrical market. network with its Industrial MODBUS/TCP communications protocol,
MN4000 is intended to solve the problem associated with enabling greater control and integration into your existing plant control
infrared inspection of liveelectrical equipment which could be potentially network.
fatal in the event of electrocution or arc-flash.
Incorporating dual vision;
Power supply: 12/24VDC (2W, 3Wpeak)
thermal and visual cameras, MN4000
Power Input range: 11VDC to 30VDC
captures fully radiometric data every
Power Connector: 3.81mm plug (3-pin)
second. One need not waste time
For: Vin, Vchassis, GND
travelling from location to location,
IR Resolution: 80x60 pixels (4800 measuring points)
but can log into ones MN4000
Visible Resolution: 640x480
remotely and inspect a panel from
Low Light Illumination: LED Flash (800 Lumens)
office using its onboard web server or
using the dedicated MONITIR For further information:

Inverter and motor testing with PX8000

lectric and hybrid vehicles have many electrical and mechanical De-skew functionality
components, and overall performance evaluation requires Because the PX8000 provides a de-skew function, differences
measuring the efficiency of both.The PX8000s flexibility, between voltage and current that are introduced by sensor and input
accuracy and wide bandwidth make it ideal for drawing together the characteristics can be compensated for and therefore eliminated from
range of power readings needed to optimize the efficiency of boost the analysis of low-power-factor systems.
circuits and inverters two key elements in overall electric vehicle Simultaneous three-phase data capture
performance. To evaluate three-phase electrical systems, at least three power
measurement inputs are
required. The PX8000 not
only has four inputs but also
enables the simultaneous
capture and display of
voltage and current across
all three phases.
Specific time-
For a true evaluation of
distribution protection, it is
necessary to measure a full cycle of voltage, current and power values
The PX8000 advantage

half a cycle after the recovery from a short circuit. The PX8000 can easily
To evaluate the efficiency of wireless transfer (including inverters), be set up to focus on such a specific period.
at least three power measurement elements are required. The PX8000,
Harmonic and FFT analysis
with its four input channels, can analyze the performance of the whole
The PX8000 has capabilities for both harmonic measurement and
system simultaneously.
FFT for frequency analysis. The harmonic function can measure
Low-power-factor device measurement fundamental frequencies from 20 Hz to approximately 400 kHz, and FFT
The PX8000s higher sampling rates and broad bandwidth make it has 1 k to 100 k points calculation across up to two channels. Such
ideally suited for wireless power transfer systems. (The PX8000 supports measurements are vital for identifying harmonic currents and identifying
12-bit resolution, sample rates of up to 100 MS/s and a 20 MHz sources of noise.
bandwidth.) Crucially, this means the PX8000 supports the measurement
of low-power-factor systems operating at very high frequencies. For further information:

82 ELECTRICAL INDIA | March 2017

Index to Advertisers
Company Name Page No.
Declaration FORM IV
Statement about ownership & other particulars of the newspaper Allied Power Solutions 81
entitled ELECTRICAL INDIA required to be published under
Rule 8 of the Registration of Newspapers (Central Rules, 1956). Apar Industries Ltd. 49
1. Place of Publication : 906, The Corporate Park,
Plot 14 & 15, Sector 18, Dynamic Cables Pvt. Ltd. 61
Vashi, Navi Mumbai 400703.
Electrical Research & Development Association 25
2. Periodicity of Publication : Monthly (5th of every month)
3. Publisher's Name : Mahadevan Iyer Eltel Industries 75
Nationality : Indian
Address : As above Epcos India Pvt. Ltd. 33
4. Printer's Name : Mahadevan Iyer
Nationality : Indian
Flir Systems India Pvt. Ltd. 19
Address : As above Frontier Technologies Pvt. Ltd. 53
5. Editor's Name : Mahadevan Iyer
Nationality : Indian Greatwhite Global Pvt. Ltd. 13
Address : As above
6. Name and addresses : Mahadevan Iyer Gupta Power Infrastructure Ltd. 3
of individuals who Sole Proprietor Hindustan Petroleum Corporation Ltd. 21, 22
own the newspaper As above
7. I, Mahadevan Iyer, hereby declare that the particulars given HPL Electric & Power Ltd. 27
above are true to the best of my knowledge and belief.
Igus India Pvt. Ltd. 45
Navi Mumbai Mahadevan Iyer
ISA Advance Instruments (I) Pvt. Ltd. 9
5th March, 2017 Sign of Publisher Jindal Electric & Machinery Corp 84
Kusam Electricals Pvt. Ltd. 61
Kvtek Power Systems Pvt. Ltd. 29
Kyoritsu Kew India Instruments Pvt. Ltd. 79
Larsen & Toubro Ltd. IFC
M&I Material India Pvt. Ltd. 23
M/s Ramakrishna Electrical Winding Works 85
Meccalte India Pvt. Ltd. 57
Megger (India) P Limited 86
Mersen India Pvt. Ltd. 17
Nextgen Equipment Pvt. Ltd. 83
Omicron Energy Solutions Pvt. Ltd. 15
PS Power Controls 35

Riello Power India Pvt. Ltd. 11

RS Components & Controls (India ) Ltd. 7
Scope T&M Pvt. Ltd. 5
Seva Switchgear Pvt. Ltd. 53
Siemens Ltd. IBC
Sterlite Power BC
Vishay Components India Pvt. Ltd. 43
Yokogawa India Ltd. 39

84 ELECTRICAL INDIA | March 2017

The multifunctional testing
solution for transformer and
substation testing.

Transformer and Substation Test System
TRAX is a complete solution for Transformer and Substation Testing. With high-performance software and an intuitive app-based
interface, Megger has selected the best from its range of power testing equipment, added unmatched functionality and packed
it all into one easy-to-transport box. Visit to know more about the TRAX.

State-of-the-art measurement methods for advanced diagnostic testing

True dynamic resistance measurements on load tapchangers

Winding resistance measurements capability

Adaptive algorithm for optimized transformer demagnetization

250 V transformer turns ratio measurements capability

12 kV dissipation factor and capacitance testing capability

CT and VT testing

3-phase circuit-breaker analysis

User-friendly interface reduces training and testing time

Megger India P Ltd, 211, Crystal Paradise Mall, Andheri West, Mumbai 400 053.
T: 022 26740465 / 68 E: W:
We made it even smaller
The cost-effective, reliable and easy-to-use
converter for basic applications in various
power-optimized frame sizes.

Today, an increasing number of applications in plant and machinery

construction require individual solutions that automate simple motion
sequences with low associated requirements. With the compact
SINAMICS V20 basic performance converter, Siemens offers a simple
and cost-effective drive solution for these types of applications. Now,
even the smallest SINAMICS converter from Siemens is making a big
SINAMICS V20 making the choice easy for you
Easy to install Easy to use Easy to save money
For more information call us on 1800 209 1800