Challenges of ultrasonic quantum measurement of natural gas

Per Lunde
University of Bergen (UoB), Dept. of Physics and Technology
Christian Michelsen Research AS (CMR), Bergen The Michelsen Centre for Industrial Measurement Science and Technology

NFOGM Temadag, Grand Hotel, Oslo, March 19, 2010
Norwegian Society of Oil and Gas Measurement (NFOGM)

Per Lunde, UoB, NFOGM Temadag, March 19, 2010

Contents
• Introduction • Some developments 2000 - 2010 • Factors influencing on accuracy, reliability and traceability • Possible approaches to improve on accuracy, reliability and traceability • Extended measurement functions and applications • Conclusions
Per Lunde, UoB, NFOGM Temadag, March 19, 2010

1

Introduction

Per Lunde, UoB, NFOGM Temadag, March 19, 2010

Fiscal gas flow measurement
"Measurement in connection with buying, selling and calculation of taxes" a): • Sales measurement • Allocation measurement • Fuel gas measurement • Flare gas measurement • Simplified measurement system for gas
Addressed here

(Class A) (Class A) (Class B) (Class C) (Class D)

(ISO: Class 1) (ISO: Class 2)

(ISO: Class 4)

a)

NPD Regulations (2001) ("Måleforskriften")

Per Lunde, UoB, NFOGM Temadag, March 19, 2010

2

March 19. such as orifice and turbine meters Per Lunde. UoB.The gross majority of new volumetric fiscal gas flow meters installed in the North Sea are USMs . 2010 Sick FLOWSIC600 3 . March 19.USM fiscal gas flow measurement • Brief (and simplified) gas USM development history: 1985 .1995: 1995 . 2010 Examples of USM fiscal gas flow meters in the market Emerson Daniel SeniorSonic FMC Technologies MPU 1200 Elster Instromet Q-Sonic 5 Per Lunde. UoB. NFOGM Temadag. NFOGM Temadag.USM technology has taken over for more traditional fiscal gas flow metering technologies.2010: Development / testing of the first multipath fiscal ultrasonic meters (USMs) for natural gas Early industrialization Maturing of USM technology • Current situation (2010): .2000: 2000 .

l.4 % of volume (large meters.Questions.7 – 1.measurement quantities? Per Lunde. etc.0 % of volume (large meters.4 % of volume (large meters. March 19.reliability. < 12") a) Confidence level not specified Per Lunde.functionality.4 % of volume (small meters. .7 – 1. USM fiscal gas flow measurement • Do the industry and national authorities (NPD) consider the present-day USM fiscal gas metering technology to be sufficient. UoB.accuracy. < 12") Class 2 meters: 1.? • Has the USM technology development reached its full potential with respect to . ≥ 12") 1.) Class 1 meters: 0. < 12") 1 % of mass (95 % c.0 – 1. NFOGM Temadag.l.0 – 1.) AGA-9 (2007) a) 0. 2010 4 . with respect to . UoB.7 % of std.robustness. ≥ 12") 1. .0 – 2. ≥ 12") 1. . 2010 Uncertainty requirements.0 % of volume (small meters.4 % of volume (small meters. NFOGM Temadag. volume (95 % c. . March 19.5 – 2. Fiscal measurement of natural gas (flow laboratory calibrated) Gas metering station NPD (2001) ISO/FDIS 17089-1 (2009) a) USM Instrument 0.accuracy.

NFOGM Temadag.Importance of accurate gas measurement (Example: Ormen Lange gas. with respect to . UoB. UK) Gas export Norway → UK: 70 MSm3/day (≈ 25 billion Sm3/year) 20-25 % of Norway’s gas export 20 % of UK’s gas import Assume sales price of 2 NOK/Sm3 => 140 MNOK/day (≈ 50 billion NOK/year) Importance of measurement error: Example: 0. March 19. export station at Easington.Challenges . 2010 5 .5 % systematic error 255 million NOK/year Represents: 700 000 NOK/day Per Lunde. 2010 The present talk • Addresses some of the important factors influencing on USM fiscal gas flow metering. March 19.Recent developments . NFOGM Temadag.Unexploited potentials • Not intended to represent a complete overview of this topic Per Lunde. UoB.

March 19. "Fiscal measurement systems for hydrocarbon gas" • ISO Technical Report ISO/TR 12765:1997. "Forskrift om måling av petroleum for fiskale formål og for beregning av CO2-avgift" • NORSOK Standard I-104. UoB. "Measurement of gas by multipath ultrasonic meters" Per Lunde.Methods using transit time ultrasonic flowmeters” • AGA Report No. 9 (1998). NFOGM Temadag. 2010 2000 Regulations and "standardization type" documents available in 2000: • NPD Regulations (1997).2010 Per Lunde. NFOGM Temadag. 2 (1998).Some developments 2000 . 2010 6 . “Measurement of fluid flow in closed cirquits . Rev. UoB. March 19.

UoB.Part 1: Meters for custody transfer and allocation measurement” • AGA Report No. Rev. "Measurement Instrument Directive (MID)" Per Lunde. March 19. 2010 2010 Regulations and "standardization type" documents available in 2010: • NPD Regulations (2001) (updated 2006). "Fiscal measurement systems for hydrocarbon gas" • ISO/FDIS 17089-1 (2009). "Handbook of uncertainty analysis. NFOGM Temadag. March 19. Frøysa. UoB. PRV noise. (2007). 3 (2005). 2010 7 . Wear.Ultrasonic meters for gas . NFOGM Temadag. "Forskrift om måling av petroleum for fiskale formål og for beregning av CO2-avgift" • NORSOK Standard I-104. Ultrasonic fiscal gas metering stations" • Directive 2004/22/EC (2004).Installation effects. 9. “Measurement of fluid flow in closed conduits . "Measurement of gas by multipath ultrasonic meters" • NFOGM Handbook (2001). Deposits. P&T effects • Challenges with respect to achieving traceability (flow calibration → field operation) • Need for uncertainty analysis of USM gas metering stations (aid to improve traceability) a) Lunde. Vestrheim: "Challenges for improved accuracy and traceability in ultrasonic fiscal flow metering". Second ed. NSFMW 2000 Per Lunde.2000 Some challenges pointed at a): • Need for accepted international standard on USM gas flow meters • Need for improved control with systematic effects which are not necessarily eliminated by flow calibration: . Drift.

2010 Factors influencing on accuracy. UoB. 2010 8 . March 19. of increasing importance in recent years • Increasing focus on "Integrated Operations" (IO): . NFOGM Temadag. March 19. in relation to NPD regulations • Roles of NDP / Justervesenet / Klif (formerly SFT) in relation to regulation of fiscal measurements on the NCS Per Lunde.Remote operation .Some other influencing factors. UoB.Technical personnel on site covering a wider range of tasks • Exchange of personnel connected to fiscal measurement of oil and gas (some operators) • MID (EU Directive). reliability and traceability Per Lunde. NFOGM Temadag.

chords. UoB. 2010 9 . traceability. UoB.Sudden and large pressure changes.g. reliability. March 19. e. Receiving transducer y Receiving cables & electronics Pulse detection L pi x φi 2R yi Signal generator Transmitting cables & electronics Transmitting transducer Discussed here: • Transducers • Factors influencing on transit time determination • Installation effects (flow profiles) • P & T effects (body. angles. 2010 Transducers Transducer failure • Seems to be less of a problem today than earlier • Can still be experienced e. March 19. in connection with "shut-down" (imposing "mechanical shock") .g. NFOGM Temadag. in connection with: .Factors influencing on measurement uncertainty.Steaming of the pipe / meter . transit times) Per Lunde.Exposure of transducer epoxy front to condensate (liquid "carry-over" at outlet of 1st and 2nd stage separators) • Change of a single transducer instead of a transducer pair is desireable Per Lunde. etc. NFOGM Temadag. transducers.

March 19. grease) . 6") Per Lunde. Time • • • • • • • Transducer deposits / liquid film Transducer wear (exposure e.May impose severe challenges for the transducers • Transducer properties: . 2010 Factors influencing on Transit time determination • “Dry calibration” parameters: a Cable / electronics / transducer time delay a Diffraction time shift a Δt-correction Discussed here • Variation of “Dry calibration” parameters with: a P & T. interference) Time detection (clock frequency.wear (condensate. NFOGM Temadag. in case of epoxy front) .deposits (liquid film. 4".Ageing . Electrical impedance. March 19. UoB.. .Change with P & T ("drift") . 2010 10 .Bandwidth (signal form). Path length. UoB. . Transducer time delay. averaging) Turbulence Profile effects (refraction) Per Lunde. Diffraction correction.May change if subject to .g. Directivity.. NFOGM Temadag. to condensate) Incoherent noise (PRV) Coherent noise (cross-talk.Transducers • In the North Sea: Several applications with gas metering at very high pressures (several hundred bars) .Changes increasingly important for small meters (3".

GERG Technical Monograph 11. UoB. (eds.0 − ticavity measured eltr Downstream: t2i = t2i − t1i .0 dif + t1i . NFOGM Temadag.USM functional relationship (extract) A single path in a USM: (ex. NFOGM Temadag.0 Diffraction time shift Upstream: measured t1i = t1i − ( el cab t1i . 2010 Transit time corrections (1): Time delay Cable / electronics delay Transducer delay tr + t1i . March 19. 2010 [After: Lunde. 2000 ] 11 .0 Estimated in “dry calibration” procedure Δt-correction Per Lunde.: downstream propagation) Receiving transducer y Receiving cables & electronics Pulse detection L pi x φi 2R yi Signal generator Transmitting cables & electronics Transmitting transducer Q ≈ 7200πR 2 Transit time corrections (possible formulation): Upstream: measured t1i = t1i PT0 Z 0 N ∑ wi P0TZ i =1 R 2 − yi2 ( t1i − t2i ) t1i t2i | sin 2φi | Cable / electronics / transducer / diffraction time delay eltr − t1i .0 )− ticavity Transducer delay measurements: 200 bar pressure chamber Per Lunde. Frøysa.): “GERG project on ultrasonic gas flow meters. Phase II”. Vestrheim.. M. March 19. UoB.0 + Δticorr − ticavity .

March 19. (eds. GERG Technical Monograph 11. M. Frøysa. 2010 [After: Lunde. Phase II”. simplified 2000 Consequences (example): If “dry calibration” time delay valid for 16” USM is used in 6” USM: 15 deg / 03 bara 15 deg / 20 bara 15 deg / 50 bara 15 deg / 100 bara 50 deg / 03 bara 50 deg / 20 bara [ns] .4 % Control of systematic changes in transducer delay with P & T is very important …… and possible ! 7. T & Path length) Upstream: measured t1i = t1i − ( el cab t1i .5 7. NFOGM Temadag. 2000 ] 12 .Transit time corrections (1): Time delay Transducer time delay Upstream: measured t1i = t1i − (Systematic changes with P & T ) el cab t1i .): “GERG project on ultrasonic gas flow meters. Frøysa.. 2000 ] Transit time corrections (1): Time delay Diffraction time shift (Systematic changes with P.): “GERG project on ultrasonic gas flow meters. NFOGM Temadag.0 )− ticavity Measurement + calculation.5 8.0 6.. Vestrheim.0 3 bar 20 bar 50 bar 100 bar 3 bar 20 bar 50 bar 100 bar 15 oC 15 oC 50 oC 50 oC Per Lunde. Vestrheim.0 dif + t1i .0 dif + t1i .5 2 x 32 cm 2 x 42 cm 6. Phase II”.0 6” USM: If time delay deviates 1 μs from “dry calibration” value: USM shift of 0. UoB. March 19.0 Consequences (example): Measurement Transducer time delay [us] 8.0 tr + t1i .0 ( )− ticavity 9.0 tr + t1i . GERG Technical Monograph 11. 2010 [After: Lunde..Diffraction time shift 1800 1600 1400 1200 1000 800 600 400 200 0 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 USM shift of 0. M. UoB. and possible ! 50 deg / 50 bara 50 deg / 100 bara Acoustic path length [cm] Per Lunde. (eds.2 % Control of systematic changes in diffraction time shift with path length is important …….

2010 [After: Lunde. Vestrheim: "Transient diffraction effects in ultrasonic meters for volumetric. NFOGM Temadag. 31 – 50 oC (2) Measured sound velocity y (VOS) data Without diff. with and without diffraction correction FMC Kongsberg Metering MPU 1200 2 Deviation from reference [%] 1. Frøysa.5 1 0. With diff. 32 °C 86 bar. Kippersund.5 -1 -1.1.Flow testing (K-Lab). NSFMW 2003 ] Flow testing (K-Lab). NSFMW 2003 ] 13 . UoB.5 -2 2 5 m 10 m/ 0 m/ /s s s 32 bar. corr. 51 °C 5m /s 10 5m /s 10 2 m/ 0 m/ s s 5m /s 10 2 m/ 0 m/ s s 6”. Vestrheim: "Transient diffraction effects in ultrasonic meters for volumetric. mass and energy flow measurement of natural gas". NFOGM Temadag. 50 °C Per Lunde.5 -2 5 m 10 2 m/ 0 m/ /s s s 32 bar. 31 °C 2 5 m 10 m/ 0 m/ /s s s 34 bar. UoB. 50 °C Per Lunde.5 1 0.5 0 -0. March 19. 31 °C 2 m/ 0 m/ s s 34 bar. With diff. 32 – 86 bar. with and without diffraction correction FMC Kongsberg Metering MPU 1200 2 Deviation from reference [m/s] 1. 2010 [After: Lunde. corr. Diffraction correction used: ~ . corr. Frøysa.4 μs 82 bar. March 19.1. mass and energy flow measurement of natural gas". 32 °C 86 bar. corr.5 0 -0. Kippersund. Diffraction correction used: ~ . 31 – 50 oC y (1) Measured flow velocity data Without diff.5 -1 -1. 5 – 20 m/s. 32 – 86 bar. 5 – 20 m/s.4 μs 82 bar. 51 °C 5m /s 10 2 m/ 0 m/ s s 2 5 m 10 m/ 0 m/ /s s s 6”.

expanded uncertainty. NFOGM Temadag.6 0.9 Using reciprocity 0. NFOGM Temadag.5 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Axial flow velocity [m/s] Per Lunde.7 0.4 -0. corr. UoB. T & Path lengths 1. 31 °C 2 m/ 0 m/ s s 34 bar. Diffraction correction used: ~ .6 0.1.2 -0. expanded uncertainty.Flow testing (K-Lab). 5 – 20 m/s. March 19. Frøysa. 31 – 50 oC y (3) Calculated density from measured VOS Without diff. mass and energy flow measurement of natural gas". corr. 2007) (Manufacturer dependent procedure) Reciprocal operation realized • Optimize electro-acoustic system with respect to reciprocity • Reduced or no need for “dry calibration” (Δt-correction) • Valid for all P.8 -1 2 5 m 10 m/ 0 m/ /s s s 32 bar.8 0.5 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 0. with and without diffraction correction FMC Kongsberg Metering MPU 1200 1 0.6 0. March 19. Kippersund.4 0. 51 °C /s 5m 10 2 5 m 10 m/ 0 m/ /s s s 5 m 10 2 m/ 0 m/ /s s s 6”.9 Reciprocity not used Rel.8 0.7 0.0 • Δt-correction may vary with P&T 1.8 Deviation from reference [%] 0.2 0 -0. 2010 [After: Lunde.4 μs 82 bar. E Q [%] 0. 50 °C Per Lunde.0 0.6 -0. NSFMW 2003 ] Transit time corrections (2): Δt-correction Reciprocal operation not realized • “Dry calibration” / "Zero flow verification" (AGA-9. UoB. Vestrheim: "Transient diffraction effects in ultrasonic meters for volumetric. 2010 Axial flow velocity [m/s] 14 . EQ [%] Rel. 32 °C 86 bar. 2007) • Active Δt-correction (AGA-9. 32 – 86 bar. With diff.

165 Bar 25 oC. NFOGM Temadag. 55 Bar 55 .5 0. 55 Bar 25 oC.0 -1.165 barA TX gain = 1 0. over P-T range investigated [After: Lunde.0 Delta-T [ns] Delta-T [ns] 1 -0. Abrahamsen: "Reciprocity and its utilization in ultrasonic flow meters".5 2 3 4 5 6 -2. UoB. NSFMW 2005 ] Per Lunde. March 19.Reciprocal operation 21 oC. 165 Bar 65 oC.5 10 .0 -1.0 2. 0. 55 Bar 1. Vestrheim. 9. All results: Δti < 2.6 Ω Electronics boards Transducer (Gas USM) [After: Lunde. 9. UoB.0 1 -0.0 -1. Smørgrav.5 Series a1 Series a2 Series a3 Series a4 Series b1 Series b2 Transducer pair no. 2010 Measurement results . NFOGM Temadag.5 21 C. Smørgrav.0 Transducer pair no. 2010 15 .5 0.Reciprocal operation of USM gas flow meter Realization of ”sufficient reciprocal operation” Z S − Z L < 0.5 barA 1.5 2 3 4 5 1. 10 oC. Vestrheim. Bø. Bø. NSFMW 2005 ] Per Lunde. Abrahamsen: "Reciprocity and its utilization in ultrasonic flow meters".5 barA TX gain = 1 o 2.65 oC.0 10 oC.4 ns ”Sufficient reciprocal operation” achieved. March 19.

correction in field operation • Independent of P & T. to flow profile • Pipe bends (single. March 19. upstream length. etc. double.) • Flow profile at bend inlet • Possible use of Flow conditioner (FC) • Pipe roughness (effects on flow profile) • Possible pipe deposits / wear (effects on flow profile) • Integration uncertainty: One of the large and essentially unknown uncertainty contributors when going from flow calibration to field operation Per Lunde. UoB. UoB. NFOGM Temadag. NFOGM Temadag. etc.Reciprocal operation. gas. 2010 16 . a Reduces “false flow” reading at low flow velocities & Does not affect reading at higher flow velocities ⇒ Improves linearity (low flow velocities) a No need for transducers to be equal in their characteristics Per Lunde. March 19. 2010 Installation effects / USM integration methods • USM integration method influenced by: • Axial and transversal flow profiles • Meter orientation rel. .Consequences for USMs If “sufficient reciprocal operation” is achieved for the USM measurement system: a Eliminates the need for factory “dry calibration” of Δti • Cost reduction • Independent of gas used for “zero flow verification” (no gas properties needed) a Eliminates the need for active Δt .

INTEGRATED + 0. diameter change & changed transducer port orientation) Change of the length of the ultrasonic transducer ports Change of the length of the ultrasonic transducers Change of the Reynolds number Affects acoustic path lengths and thus transit times.041 % Contribution [After: Lunde.057 % -0. NSFMW 2007 ] Per Lunde. 2010 Contributions to measurement error – Ormen Lange Contributions to USM measurement error. UoB. due to P&T effects 0. NFOGM Temadag. Affects acoustic path lengths and thus transit times. March 19. caused by Influences on the numerical integration method. March 19.Pressure and temperature (P-T) effects • In the North Sea: Several applications with gas metering at very high pressures • Flow calibration laboratories: Limited to 60 bar pressure • Change of P-T conditions from flow calibration to field operation introduces systematic errors: Direct P&T effect A B Change of the meter body cross-sectional area Indirect P&T effect Affects amount of gas flowing through the flow meter Change of the ultrasonic path geometry (changed Affects acoustic path lengths and thus transit times. UoB.246 % Cross-sectional area and acoustic path geometry Transducer port expansion Transducer expansion Reynolds number correction (assumed) TOTAL ERROR.10 % 0.05 % 0.20 % 0. Frøysa and Folkestad: "Pressure and temperature effects for Ormen Lange ultrasonic gas flow meters".30 % 0. 2010 17 .26 % due to P&T effects.262 % Error (%) + 0.25 % 0.05 % -0.00 % 1 + 0.0.15 % 0. inclination angles and lateral chord positions. C D E • Example: Ormen Lange (Nyhamna). being corrected for Per Lunde. NFOGM Temadag. Westerbork to Ormen Lange conditions. Influences on the numerical integration method. extensive study indicated systematic error of the order of 0.10 % .

2010 Possible approaches to improve on accuracy. chords. etc. transit times) • Use of USM diagnostic tools. for fiscal gas metering systems Per Lunde. reliability. March 19. UoB. UoB. for condition based monitoring • Use of USM "foot-print" • Improved use of uncertainty modelling / evaluation. March 19. transd. NFOGM Temadag. Receiving transducer y Receiving cables & electronics Pulse detection L pi x φi 2R yi Signal generator Transmitting cables & electronics Transmitting transducer Discussed here: • P & T correction (body.. traceability. reliability and traceability Per Lunde. angles. 2010 18 . NFOGM Temadag.Possible approaches to improve on accuracy.

such as: . relative to use of more accurate FEM (finite element modelling) based approach Per Lunde.VOS. UoB.1 % • NPD requirements (2001): . and carried out by CMR in cooperation with UoB • Ormen Lange study initiated important revised approach for P-T correction in ISO/FDIS 17089-1 (2009) • The work is continued to investigate practical and still relatively accurate approaches for P-T correction.5 m/s ≈ 0. NFOGM Temadag. UoB. ------. calculation (AGA-10): ." -------- • Key question from users: .Condition based parameters shall be verified Per Lunde.Max VOS path spread: ± 0.Gain.VOS deviation re. March 19. March 19.What should the alarm limits be (e. for VOS and Gain)? • AGA-9 (2007) recommendations: . 2010 19 . at every path .Accuracy of simplified correction approach (including use of thick-shell theory). NFOGM Temadag.2 % ≈ 1 m/s 0.Shall use information available in the instrument . 2010 Use of diagnostics tools.Pressure and temperature (P-T) effects • Ormen Lange study initiated by NPD in cooperation with Norsk Hydro (now Statoil) and Norske Shell. for Continuous condition based monitoring (1) • Diagnostic tools (examples): .g.

ageing) . tentatively . use of USM "foot-print": . P. used before (or at) field installation.Gather long time operational information (history).UK: Recalibration after a certain period of time .Check of meter characteristics in a standardized measurement set-up (with respect to installation and operational conditions). March 19. and after some time in duty .The potentials of such methods may be evaluated on current installations .Serves to check to which extent the meter has changed over time (reproducability. long time drift. standardized. for given operational cond.Use of diagnostics tools.May not indicate drift from flow calibration to field operation Per Lunde. T): lim lim σ VOS . UoB. and preferably application independent (field and installation independent) Per Lunde. NFOGM Temadag. (gas. 2010 20 . 2010 Use of USM "foot-print" • National regulations: . UoB. March 19. NFOGM Temadag. for Continuous condition based monitoring (2) • Possible additional approach (tentatively): . σ Gain . σ Gain .Does not represent a flow calibration . σ Gain > N ⋅ σ Gain Alarm N = 3.Can indicate whether a new flow calibration is needed or not . to establish typical "standard deviation" limits.Norway: Recalibration when available information indicates need • Recalibration in flow calibration lab.If lim lim σ VOS > N ⋅ σ VOS .Methods should be real-time. with full "installation piping": time consuming and expensive • Possible alternative.Continuously monitor "short-time standard deviations": σ VOS .

empirical data. Per Lunde. "Handbook of uncertainty analysis. meter orientation. etc. UoB. NFOGM Temadag. March 19. pipe wear. Δt-corr. Ultrasonic fiscal gas metering stations" • For improved utility of the uncertainty Handbook: . flow conditioner.) (time delay. 2010 Uncertainty analysis of USM gas metering system Factory Normal procedure: Dry calibration Flow lab Flow calibration/ K-factor Field Duty Deviation: Flow Calibration to Field Operation: • Installation effects (axial profile. Δt-corr.Improved information on input uncertainties desirable. transversal flow. operators. UoB. dimensions) Uncertainty analysis. Δt-corr. 2010 21 . pipe deposits) • Transducer wear • PRV noise • Drift • Pressure effects (transit times) • Transducer deposits (transit times) (transit times) (time delay. Improved traceability • Temperature effects (time delay. bend in-flow profile. bend type..Uncertainty modelling and evaluation • Changes of the USM instrument from flow calibration to field operation may be treated using uncertainty models and evaluation • An accepted uncertainty model and analysis of USM gas metering systems can be a valuable tool in the work to achieve improved traceability (flow calibration → field operation) • An internationally accepted uncertainty description may eventually become an integrated part of international standards on fiscal measurement of natural gas • Basis already available: NFOGM Handbook (2001).. dimensions) Per Lunde. from manufactures. NFOGM Temadag. March 19. pipe roughness.

UoB. UoB. 2010 Extended measurement functions and applications Receiving transducer y Receiving cables & electronics Pulse detection L pi x φi 2R yi Signal generator Transmitting cables & electronics Transmitting transducer Discussed here: • Mass and energy flow measurement using USMs • Activity data and CO2 emission factor • Based on USM measurement of sound velocity (VOS) Per Lunde.Extended measurement functions and applications Per Lunde. NFOGM Temadag. March 19. March 19. NFOGM Temadag. 2010 22 .

Paulsen and Jacobsen: “Density and calorific value measurement of natural gas using ultrasonic flow meters. UoB. UoB. NFOGM Temadag. NSFMW 2006 ] Mass flow rate measurement – CMR method Volumetric Flow Rate (m3/h) x Density = Mass Flow Rate (kg/h) Ultrasonic flow meter (USM) (meter independent) Pressure & Temperature + Velocity of sound (VOS) + Gas composition knowledge (optional) Gas Analyzer (connected to flow computer) [Ref. Lunde. Lunde. 2010 Frøysa. 2010 Frøysa. March 19. NSFMW 2006 ] 23 .Energy flow rate measurement – CMR method Std.: Per Lunde. Paulsen and Jacobsen: “Density and calorific value measurement of natural gas using ultrasonic flow meters. March 19. Results from testing on various North Sea gas field data”. Volumetric Flow Rate (Sm3/h) x Gross calorific value (GCV) = Energy Flow Rate (MJ/h) Ultrasonic flow meter (USM) (meter independent) Pressure & Temperature + Velocity of sound (VOS) + Gas composition knowledge (optional) Gas Analyzer (connected to flow computer) [Ref. NFOGM Temadag. Results from testing on various North Sea gas field data”.: Per Lunde.

2010 Conclusions Per Lunde. 2010 24 . NFOGM Temadag. UoB.CO2 emission factor Per Lunde.Replacement for one GC in stations where two GCs are used • Allocation metering stations • Metering stations without GC / densitometer (check metering) • Fuel gas metering: . UoB. March 19.Backup for online GCs . March 19. NFOGM Temadag.Activity data (accumulated mass) .Applications (examples) • Custody transfer USM gas metering stations: .

Δt-correction / reciprocal operation. 2010 Conclusions (2) • A number of topics still represent challenges.. PRV noise Per Lunde. March 19. March 19.Current international standards [ISO 17098-1 (2009). . and should be an integrated part of the standards . as a result of extensive R&D.. Gain.Optimum and standardized use of USM diagnostic tools.Description and use of diffraction correction.Installation effects. . UoB. .g. requiring expertise for reliable and accurate operation • A number of advances have been achieved in recent years.Optimum use of uncertainty analysis. flow calibration → field operation.. deposits. AGA-9 (2007)] are still insufficient on uncertainty modelling and evaluation of USM gas metering systems Per Lunde.Conclusions (1) • USMs and USM fiscal gas metering systems are complex. UoB. e. high-tech instruments. NFOGM Temadag. real-time condition based monitoring / alarm (VOS.Methods for check of USM reproducibility and long-time drift • An accepted uncertainty model can be a valuable tool in the work to achieve traceability. influencing on traceability: ..Uncertainty modelling and evaluation.Pressure and temperature (P-T) correction.Change of conditions. . NFOGM Temadag. such as: .Robustness vs.National & international standardization and regulations.: . . . to improve traceability . .g. 2010 25 . transducer drift with P&T. . e. .Reduction of transducer failures.) .

a Integration methods a Use of VOS for extended measurements • Energy measurement.. and further development of the technology • Continuous development / upgrading of national and international standards. (b) further technology development. Mass & CO2 emission factor (fuel gas)... and other documents bringing the industry forward Per Lunde. to reach the full exploitation potential of the USM technology: • Market driven development / manufacturer competition (..Conclusions (3) • There are clearly un-exploited potentials to further optimize USM technology to provide: a Technically improved meters a Improved operational cost/benefit ratio a Extended measurement functions and applications • Further R&D is recommended. reliable and accurate fiscal measurement systems • Expertise in user companies (oil and gas industry. Diffraction correction for real transd. UoB. Potentials of improvement include: a Transit time corrections • P&T induced drift.. etc. a Improved use of USM diagnostics (condition based monitoring) Per Lunde. . with capabilities of questioning the technology in their dialogue with manufacturers • Independent organisations with high expertise on USM technology (universities / research institutes / service companies). 2010 26 . NFOGM Temadag. to better exploit the full potentials of USM technology.. UoB. NFOGM Temadag.. pipeline operators) on USM technology. March 19. with capabilities of questioning the technology. we need to have what they have . March 19.) • Focus from national authorities (NPD) to ensure safe. 2010 Conclusions (4) Some important prerequisites for (a) gradually closing the challenge gaps.

UoB.Acknowledgements In the preparation of the talk. Kjell-Eivind Frøysa. Anfinn Paulsen. NFOGM Temadag. Steinar Vervik. March 19. 2010 27 . Intertek West Lab AS / Statoil NPD CMR Gassco FMC Technologies are highly acknowledged Per Lunde. useful discussions with • • • • • Rolf Skatvedt. Skule Smørgrav.

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