You are on page 1of 10

PRACTICAL 1

AIM:-To study about computer system basic.

Computer definition:- Computer system is a programeable


machine Or device and computer is an electronic device.

The computer is a programeable device that can store retrieve


and process data.

A computer is a machine that manipulates the data according to


a list of instruction.

A computer is an electronic device which has capacity to accept


store process and retrieve data.

In other words a computer is an electronic devise that accept


information and manipulate it for some results base on a
programme or sequence of on instruction on how the data is to
be process.

A computer is an electronic machine or device which accepts


data from barrier input devices like keyboard, mouse, Cdrom,
pen drive, scanner etc.

Hardware:- the computer hard wear refers to be physical


component of the computer such as keyboard , mouse, monitor,
different drives like hard disk drive, floppy disk drive zip drive,
Cdrom drive .

We can see the hardwear and also physical touch the hardwear.
Software:- the software is referring to set of instruction
programme that directs the hardwear to perform their particular
task.

We can see the software but we can not touch the software.

Software is the set of instruction that tell a computer what it


needs to do, there are two kind of software 1. System software
2. Application software

System software which include operating system

Operating system :- it is the resource manager which transform


sectors by its, interrupts , and port into files, folder, process, and
the user interact with which you can inter face.

Application software:- it is also called user programme, piece of


application software do the specific things you want. The
operating system runs the computer and the application software
it make sure that hardware and the application software
understand each other thise make it the most important piece of
software on the computer. Example:- windows media player,
VLC media player, Google.

Firmware:-it is low level software often store on electrically


memory device.

Firm wear is given its name because it is treated like hardwear


and run by software programme.

The firmware is combination of software and hardwear.


Computer cheap that have data or programme that are recorded
on them are firmware the cheap include the following
Rom - read only memory, prom:-programmable read only
memory, e-prom:-erase programmable read only memory.

There are two type of computer:-


Analog
Digital

Analog Computer :-
An analog computer are analog devices.they have continous states .rather then
discreats no states.

An anlog computercan represent fractional or erasenal values.Analog computer


almost never uses outside of exp[erimental satics.

Digital Computer:-
A Digital computer is programeable clocked squencial state machine . A
digital computer uses discreats states . Abvinarruy digital computer uses
to discreat states like as positive/negative, on/off use to represent binary
digits 0 and 1.

Components of computer
1. Moniter

2. Modem

3. System-unit

4. Mouse

5. Printer

6. Speaker
7. Keay board

SYSTEM UNIT

System unit is core of computer system the most important of this components
is the central processing unit or micro processor witch act as brain of your
computer. Another component is random accessed memory(ram),which
temporary stores information that this CPU uses while the computer is on the
information store in ram is erased when the computer is off. Almost evry other
part of your computer connect to the system unit using cable, the cable plug in
into specific parts, typically on the back of the system unit hardwear that is not
the part of system unit is some time called peripheral devise .

Storage

1. Hardisk drive:- the computer Hardisk drive store information on


Hardisk , are riged platter or stack of platter with a magnetic surface.

The Hardisk drive normally located inside the system unit.

2. CD-DVD DRIVE:- All computers today comes with a CD or DVD


drives .usually located on the front of the system unit.

CD drive use laser to retrieve data from CD and many CD drive can also
record data on CD.

If you also have recordable disk drive you can store copy of your file
On blank CD.

You can also use CD drive to play music CD on your computer.

DVD drive can do everything that CD drive can do + read the DVDs.
If you have a DVD drive you can each movie on your computer. Many
DVD drives can record data on to blank DVDs.

3. Floppy disk drive:- it store information on floppy disk, also called


floppies or diskatters compare to CD or DVD drive floppy disk drive
can store only a small amount of data .

They also retrieve information more slowly .

For thise reason floppy disk drive are less popular then they use to be and
some computer still include the floppy disk.

4. Mouse:- A mouse is a small devise use to point and select an item on


your computer screen .

The mouse terms in shape, the typical mouse base look bit like an actual
mouse it is small oblong and connected to the system unit by a long wire.

A mouse usually have two buttons


Primary
Secondary

Many mouse also have wheel between the two buttons which allows
scrolling smoothly phrough screen information.

When you move the mouse with your hand a pointer on your screen move
in the same direction. When you want to select a item you point to the
item then click the primary button.
Pointing, clicking, with your mouse is the main way to interact with your
computer.

5. Keyboard:- A keyboard is use for typing a text into your computer


like the keyboard on the typewriter it has a key for letter and number
but it has also special keys .
The function keys found on the top row perform different function
depending on where they are use.

The numeric keyboard:- located on the right side of the keyboard allow
you to enter number quickly.

The navigation key:- such as the arrows key allows you to move your

Position with in a document or web pages.

6. Monitor:-A monitor display information in visual form uses text


and graphic the portion of the monitor that display information is
called the screen.

Like a TV screen pc and show the still or moving a picture.

CRT:- cathode grade view

LCD:- liquid distal display

Both type produce sharp images but, LCD monitor has advantage of
being much thinner and lighter.

CRT monitor are generally affordable

7. Printer:- It transfer data from computer to a paper you dont need a


printer to use your computer but having 1 allows you to print e-mail,
cards, invitation and other materials.

Many people also like being able to print their own photo at home.

There are two types of printer


A. Inkjet printer:- they are most popular for the home, they can print
in black an white or in full colour or can produce high quality
paper can print high quality colour photo .

B. Laser printer:- They are faster and generally better to able to


heavy use.

8. Speaker:-They are use to play sound maybe built into the system unit
or connect with cable.

Speaker is use to listen sound and music.

9. Modem:- To connect your computer to internet you need a modem .

A modem is a device that send and receive info over a telephone line or
high speed cable, modem are some time built into a system but higher
speed modem are usually separated component.
PRACTICAL 2
AIM:- To study about history of computer .

1. First generation:- vacuum tube ,the computer of the first


generation were physically very large machine characterised
by the vacuum tube they were very unreliable required a lot
of power to run and produce to much heat that adequate air
conditioning was critical to protect the computer parts it is
used punch card as storage medium compare to today
computer, they had slow input and output devices where
slow in processing and had small storage capacity
The first generation computer has following main features.

1. Vacuum tube as there main logic element


2. Punch card use for input and externally storage data.
3. Rotating magnetic taps for internal storage of data and programmes.
4. Programmes is written into machine language

Second generation transition


The computer of the second generation were characterise by transistor
instead of vacuum tube. Transistor was less expensive generated less heat
and required very little power. They use small long lactic transistor also
increase processing speed and reliability. Internal processing speed
increase
The second generation computer has following main features
Vacuum tubes replace by transistor as main logic elements.
Magnetic tape and disk began to replace punch card as external storage
devise.
Third generation integrated circuit

The transistor are generating heat which damage the computer


sensitive internal parts, thise problem of second generation of
computer is almost solved by third generation computer after
developing the integrated circuit. The small scale integrated and
medium scale integrated technology is involved it was possible to
develop more than one transistor on single silicon chip which is
called IC users iteracted third generation computer through the
keyboard and monitor and interface with the operating system.
The third generation computer has following main features:-

1. Individual transistor belt replace by IC.

2. Magnetic taps and disk completely replace punch card as external storage
devise.

Fourth generation micro processor:-


The microprocessor brought out using large scale integrated and very
large scale integrated technology which can built thousands of integrated
circuit on to a single chip it is not only increase the number of component
but also improve there power efficiency and reliability.
It has following main features:-

1. Large scale and very large scale integrated circuit.


2. Micro processor that contain memory logy and control circuit.