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# Tutorial: Partially Premixed Combustion in a Co-axial

Combustor

Introduction
The purpose of this tutorial is to provide guidelines and recommendations for setting up
and solving a reacting flow using the partially premixed combustion model.
This tutorial demonstrates how to do the following:

## Define ANSYS Fluent inputs for PDF chemistry modeling.

Use the partially premixed Zimont turbulent flame speed model to simulate the com-
bustion system.

## Postprocess the results to investigate the premixed and non-premixed properties.

Prerequisites
This tutorial is written with the assumption that you have completed Tutorial 1 from
the ANSYS Fluent 14.5 Tutorial Guide, and that you are familiar with the ANSYS Fluent
navigation pane and menu structure. Some steps in the setup and solution procedure will
not be shown explicitly.
In this tutorial, you will use the partially premixed combustion model. The partially pre-
mixed model is based on both non-premixed (mixture-fraction based) and premixed (reac-
tion progress variable based) combustion models. If you have not used these models before,
it would be helpful to first refer to ANSYS Fluent 14.5 Users Guide.

Problem Description
The coaxial combustor considered is shown in the following figure. A swirler at the center
of the combustor introduces the lean methane/air mixture (equivalence ratio=0.8) of tem-
perature 300 K with an axial velocity of 50 m/s and swirl velocity of 30 m/s. Pure air at
an axial velocity of 10 m/s and temperature 650 K is introduced from the outer tube to
stabilize the flame. The major species involved in the combustion process are CH4 , O2 ,
CO2 , CO, H2 O, and N2 .

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## Figure 1: Schematic Figure

The key to the premixed combustion model is the prediction of the turbulent flame speed,
the turbulent flame speed normal to the mean surface of the flame. The turbulent flame
speed is influenced by the following:

Laminar flame speed, which is, in turn, determined by the fuel concentration, tem-
perature, and molecular diffusion properties, as well as the detailed chemical kinetics

Flame front wrinkling and stretching by large eddies, and flame thickening by small
eddies

Numerous turbulent flame speed models have been derived. You will be using the the Zimont
Turbulent Flame Speed Model (for details refer to section 9.4.1 of the ANSYS Fluent 14.5
Theory Guide).

Preparation

## 3. Enable Double Precision from the list of Options.

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Step 1: Mesh

Figure 2: Mesh

General

General Check

## 2. Scale the mesh to inches.

General Scale...

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## (a) Select in from the Mesh Was Created In drop-down list.

(b) Click Scale.
(c) Close the Scale Mesh dialog box.

## 3. Reorder the mesh to speed up the computations.

Mesh Reorder Domain
Perform this step twice to get a bandwidth reduction of the order of 1.00.

## 5. Select Axisymmetric Swirl in the 2D Space list.

Step 3: Models

Models

Note: The energy equation will not be enabled since adiabatic flow is assumed with no heat
transfer and the temperature will come from the PDF table.

## 1. Select the Standard k-epsilon (2 eqn) turbulence model.

Models Viscous Edit...

## 2. Select Partially Premixed Combustion in the Model list.

Models Species Edit...
Note: You can choose to skip the following steps and directly read the pdf file, par-premixed.pdf.gz
provided with the solution files.

(a) Click the Chemistry tab.

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## i. Retain the default selection of Chemical Equilibrium and Adiabatic.

ii. Enter 1 for Fuel Stream Rich Flammability Limit.
(b) Click the Boundary tab.

i. Ensure Mass Fraction is selected from the Specify Species in group box.
ii. Enter the composition of Fuel and Oxid for Species as shown in the following
table:
Species Fuel Oxid
ch4 0.0453 0
n2 0.7283 0.767
o2 0.2264 0.233
iii. Enter 300 K for Fuel and 650 K for Oxid.
(c) Click the Table tab.
i. Retain the default settings.
ii. Click Calculate PDF Table.
iii. Examine the relationship between Mean Temperature and Mean Mixture Frac-
tion by clicking on Display PDF Table....

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(d) Click the Premixed tab and examine the properties of Unburnt Mixture and Lam-
inar Flame Speed.
(e) Write the pdf file, par-premixed.pdf.gz.
File Write PDF...
(f) Ensure that zimont is selected from the Flame Speed Model drop-down list in the
Turbulent Flame Speed Model group box.
(g) Click OK to close the Species Model dialog box.

Step 4: Materials

Materials
ANSYS Fluent will automatically select pdf-mixture under Mixture Materials, and the mixture
species as defined in the pdf. The Density will be set as pdf and the Laminar Flame Speed
as prepdf-polynomial.
Step 5: Boundary Conditions

Boundary Conditions

## 1. Set the boundary conditions for air inlet.

Boundary Conditions air Edit...

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(a) Select Components from the Velocity Specification Method drop-down list.
(b) Enter 10 m/s for Axial-Velocity.
(c) Select Intensity and Hydraulic Diameter from the Specification Method drop-down
list.
(d) Enter 10 % for Turbulent Intensity.
(e) Enter 0.0254 m for Hydraulic Diameter.
(f) Click OK to close the Velocity Inlet dialog box.
Note: The Progress Variable (c) = 0 specifies reactant mixture, but since you
have specified the Mean Mixture Fraction (f) as 0, this will be treated as a
non-combustible mixture. You can use either values of c (0 or 1). The air
inlet results should not vary.

## 2. Set the boundary conditions for air-fuel inlet.

Boundary Conditions air-fuel Edit...

(a) Select Components from the Velocity Specification Method drop-down list.
(b) Enter 50 m/s for Axial-Velocity and 30 m/s for Swirl-Velocity.
(c) Select Intensity and Hydraulic Diameter from the Specification Method drop-down
list.

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## (d) Enter 10 % for Turbulent Intensity.

(e) Enter 0.0254 m for Hydraulic Diameter.
(f) Click the Species tab and enter 1 for Mean Mixture Fraction.

## 3. Set the boundary conditions for outlet.

Boundary Conditions outlet Edit...
(a) Select Intensity and Hydraulic Diameter from the Specification Method drop-down
list.
(b) Enter 10 % for Backflow Turbulent Intensity.
(c) Enter 0.13 m for Backflow Hydraulic Diameter.
(d) Click the Species tab and enter 1 for Backflow Progress Variable.
The 1 for Backflow Progress Variable is changed since complete combustion or
equilibrium conditions at the outflow is expected.

## Step 6: First Order Solution

1. Retain the default under-relaxation factors and solve for Flow, Swirl Velocity, and
Turbulence equations.
Solution Controls Equations...

## 2. Initialize the solution.

Solution Initialization Initialize
Hybrid Initialization is the default Initialization Method in ANSYS Fluent 14.5. Refer to
the section 28.11 Hybrid Initialization, in the ANSYS Fluent 14.5 Users Guide.

## 3. Save the case file, zimont-partially-premixed.cas.gz.

File Write Case...

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## 4. Start the calculation by requesting 1000 iterations.

Run Calculation Calculate
The solution converges in approximately 610 iterations (Figure 3).

## 5. Save the data file, zimont-partially-premixed.dat.gz

File Write Data...

## 6. Define a region with the following values:

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## Input Coordinates Value

X Min (m) 0.10
X Max (m) 0.14
Y Min (m) 0
Y Max (m) 0.03

(a) Click Mark and close the Region Adaption dialog box.

## 7. Patch a region close to fuel-air inlet.

Solution Initialization Patch...

## (a) Select Progress Variable from the Variable list.

(b) Retain the default Value of 0.
(c) Select the marked region hexahedron-r0 from the Registers To Patch selection list.
(d) Click Patch.
(e) Close the Patch dialog box.

## 8. Solve for all the equations.

Solution Controls Equations...

## 9. Request for an additional 500 iterations.

Run Calculation Calculate
The solution converges in approximately 390 additional iterations, (Figure 4.)

## 10. Save the case and data files, zimont-partially-premixed-1st.cas.gz.

File Write Case & Data...

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## 1. Change the solution methods for following parameters:

Solution Methods

Parameter Value
Pressure Second Order
Turbulence Kinetic Energy Second Order Upwind
Turbulence Dissipation Rate Second Order Upwind

(a) Check that the rest of the parameters are set to Second Order Upwind.

## 2. Request for an additional 500 iterations.

Run Calculation Calculate
The solution converges in approximately 135 additional iterations, (Figure 5).

## 3. Save the case and data file, zimont-partially-premixed-2nd.cas.gz.

File Write Case & Data...

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## Figure 5: Scaled Residuals

Step 9: Postprocessing

## 1. Display velocity vectors, (Figure 6).

Graphics and Animations Vectors Set Up...

## (b) Close the Vectors dialog box.

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## 2. Display filled contours of stream function, (Figure 7).

Graphics and Animations Contours Set Up...

(a) Select Velocity... and Stream Function from the Contours of drop-down lists.

## 3. Display filled contours of mean progress variable, (Figure 8).

(a) Select Premixed Combustion... and Progress Variable from the Contours of drop-
down lists.

## Figure 8: Contours of Progress Variable

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## 4. Display filled contours of static temperature, (Figure 9).

(a) Select Temperature... and Static Temperature from the Contours of drop-down
lists.

## 5. Display contours of species mass fractions.

(a) Select Species... and Mass fraction of h2o from the Contours of drop-down list
and click Display (Figure 10).

## Figure 10: Mass Fraction of H2 O

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(b) Select Mass fraction of ch4 from the Contours of drop-down list and click Display
(Figure 11).

## Figure 11: Mass Fraction of CH4

(c) Select Mass fraction of co2 from the Contours of drop-down list and click Display
(Figure 12).

## Figure 12: Mass Fraction of CO2

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(d) Select Mass fraction of co from the Contours of drop-down list and click Display
(Figure 13).

## 6. Display filled contours of turbulent flame speed.

(a) Select Premixed Combustion... and Turbulent Flame Speed from the Contours of
drop-down lists.

## 7. Close the Contours dialog box.

Results

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The partially premixed model in ANSYS Fluent can be used to simulate a combustion system,
where the combustion process is neither purely premixed nor purely non-premixed. Both
premixed and non-premixed properties can be investigated using the postprocessing results.

Summary
This tutorial demonstrated the application of the partially premixed model, based on both
non-premixed (mixture-fraction based) and premixed (mean progress variable based) mod-
els.

Turbulent flame speed modeling is a complex topic and numerous models have been devel-
oped. It is not possible to say that one model is better than another, in general. However,
one model may be more appropriate for a given application, while another model is better
for another application. Carefully evaluate results obtained with both models to decide
which model you will use. If you wish to implement another turbulent flame speed, you
can do so by using a DEFINE TURB PREMIX SOURCE user defined function. (For more
information, see section 2.3.34 of the ANSYS Fluent 14.5 UDF Manual).

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