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How to Calculate the Suitable Capacitor Size in Farads & kVAR for Power

factor Improvement (Easiest way ever)

Hi there! With a very important tutorial.. I hope you will find it very useful because I have
already spent two days to prepare this article. I think all of those who have sent messages
calculate the proper Size of Capacitor bank in kVAR and micro-farads for power factor
correction and improvement in both single phase and three phase circuits. I think its too
much..
Now lets begin

Consider the following Examples.

Example: 1
A 3 Phase, 5 kW Induction Motor has a P.F (Power factor) of 0.75 lagging. What size
of Capacitor in kVAR is required to improve the P.F (Power Factor) to 0.90?

Motor Input = 5kW

From Table, Multiplier to improve PF from 0.75 to 0.90 is .398
Required Capacitor kVAR to improve P.F from 0.75 to 0.90
Required Capacitor kVAR = kW x Table 1 Multiplier of 0.75 and 0.90
= 5kW x .398
= 1.99 kVAR
And Rating of Capacitors connected in each Phase
1.99/3 = 0.663 kVAR

Solution # 2 (Classical Calculation Method)

Motor input = P = 5 kW
Original P.F = Cos1 = 0.75
Final P.F = Cos2 = 0.90
1 = Cos-1 = (0.75) = 41.41; Tan 1 = Tan (41.41) = 0.8819
2 = Cos-1 = (0.90) = 25.84; Tan 2 = Tan (25.50) = 0.4843
Required Capacitor kVAR to improve P.F from 0.75 to 0.90
Required Capacitor kVAR = P (Tan 1 Tan 2)
= 5kW (0.8819 0.4843)
= 1.99 kVAR
And Rating of Capacitors connected in each Phase
1.99/3 = 0.663 kVAR

Tables (Capacitor sizing in kVAr and Farads for PF correction)

The following tables have been prepared to simplify kVAR calculation for power factor
improvement. The size of capacitor in kVAR is the kW multiplied by factor in table to
improve from existing power factor to proposed power factor. Check the others Examples
below.
Table from 0.01 to 0.09 (Click image to enlarge)

Table from 0.31 to 0.49 (Click image to enlarge)

Table from 0.50 to 0.74 (Click image to enlarge)
Table from 0.75 to 1.00 (Click image to enlarge) The whole Table from 0.10 to 1.0 (Click
image to enlarge)
Example 2:

An Alternator is supplying a load of 650 kW at a P.F (Power factor) of 0.65. What size
of Capacitor in kVAR is required to raise the P.F (Power Factor) to unity (1)? And
how many more kW can the alternator supply for the same kVA loading when P.F
improved.

Solution #1 (By Simple Table Method)

Supplying kW = 650 kW
From Table 1, Multiplier to improve PF from 0.65 to unity (1) is 1.169
Required Capacitor kVAR to improve P.F from 0.65 to unity (1)
Required Capacitor kVAR = kW x Table 1 Multiplier of 65 and 100
= 650kW x 1.169
= 759.85 kVAR

We know that P.F = Cos = kW/kVA . . .or

kVA = kW / Cos
= 650/0.65 = 1000 kVA
When Power Factor is raised to unity (1)
No of kW = kVA x Cos
= 1000 x 1 = 1000kW
Hence increased Power supplied by Alternator
1000kW 650kW = 350kW

Solution # 2 (Classical Calculation Method)

Supplying kW = 650 kW
Original P.F = Cos1 = 0.65
Final P.F = Cos2 = 1
1 = Cos-1 = (0.65) = 49.45; Tan 1 = Tan (41.24) = 1.169
2 = Cos-1 = (1) = 0; Tan 2 = Tan (0) = 0
Required Capacitor kVAR to improve P.F from 0.75 to 0.90
Required Capacitor kVAR = P (Tan 1 Tan 2)
= 650kW (1.169 0)
= 759.85 kVAR

How to Calculate the Required Capacitor bank value in both kVAR and
(How to Convert Farads into kVAR and Vice Versa)

Example: 3

A Single phase 400V, 50Hz, motor takes a supply current of 50A at a P.F (Power
factor) of 0.6. The motor power factor has to be improved to 0.9 by connecting a
capacitor in parallel with it. Calculate the required capacity of Capacitor in both

Solution.:

(1) To find the required capacity of Capacitance in kVAR to improve P.F from 0.6 to
0.9 (Two Methods)

Motor Input = P = V x I x Cos

= 400V x 50A x 0.6
= 12kW

From Table, Multiplier to improve PF from 0.60 to 0.90 is 0.849

Required Capacitor kVAR to improve P.F from 0.60 to 0.90
Required Capacitor kVAR = kW x Table Multiplier of 0.60 and 0.90
= 12kW x 0.849
= 10.188 kVAR

Motor Input = P = V x I x Cos

= 400V x 50A x 0.6
= 12kW
Actual P.F = Cos1 = 0..6
Required P.F = Cos2 = 0.90
1 = Cos-1 = (0.60) = 53.13; Tan 1 = Tan (53.13) = 1.3333
2 = Cos-1 = (0.90) = 25.84; Tan 2 = Tan (25.50) = 0.4843
Required Capacitor kVAR to improve P.F from 0.60 to 0.90
Required Capacitor kVAR = P (Tan 1 Tan 2)
= 5kW (1.3333 0.4843)
= 10.188 kVAR

(2) To find the required capacity of Capacitance in Faradsto improve P.F from 0.6 to
0.9 (Two Methods)

Solution #1 (Using a Simple Formula)

We have already calculated the required Capacity of Capacitor in kVAR, so we can easily
convert it into Farads by using this simple formula
C = kVAR / (2 f V2) in microfarad

Putting the Values in the above formula

= (10.188kVAR) / (2 x x 50 x 4002)
= 2.0268 x 10-4
= 202.7 x 10-6
= 202.7F

kVAR = 10.188 (i)

We know that;
IC = V/ XC

Whereas XC = 1 / 2 F C

IC = V / (1 / 2 F C)
IC = V 2 F C
= (400) x 2 x (50) x C
IC = 125663.7 x C

And,
kVAR = (V x IC) / 1000 [kVAR =( V x I)/ 1000 ]
= 400 x 125663.7 x C
IC = 50265.48 x C (ii)

Equating Equation (i) & (ii), we get,

50265.48 x C = 10.188C
C = 10.188 / 50265.48
C = 2.0268 x 10-4
C = 202.7 x 10-6
C = 202.7F

Example 4
What value of Capacitance must be connected in parallel with a load drawing 1kW at
70% lagging power factor from a 208V, 60Hz Source in order to raise the overall
power factor to 91%.

Solution:

You can use either Table method or Simple Calculation method to find the required value of
Capacitance in Farads or kVAR to improve Power factor from 0.71 to 0.97. So I used table
method in this case.
P = 1000W
Actual Power factor = Cos1 = 0.71
Desired Power factor = Cos2 = 0.97
From Table, Multiplier to improve PF from 0.71 to 0.97 is 0.783
Required Capacitor kVAR to improve P.F from 0.71 to 0.97
Required Capacitor kVAR = kW x Table Multiplier of 0.71 and 0.97
= 1kW x 0.783
=783 VAR (required Capacitance Value in kVAR)
Current in the Capacitor =

IC = QC / V
= 783 / 208
= 3.76A

And
XC = V / IC
= 208 / 3.76 = 55.25
C = 1/ (2 f XC)
C = 1 (2 x 60 x 55.25)
C = 48 F (required Capacitance Value in Farads)

Good to Know:
Important formulas which is used for Power factor improvement calculation as well
as used in the above calculation

Power in Watts
kW = kVA x Cos
kW = HP x 0.746 or (HP x 0.746) / Efficiency (HP = Motor Power)
kW = ( kVA2 kVAR2)
kW = P = VI Cos (Single Phase)
kW = P =3x V x I Cos (Three Phase)

Apparent Power in VA
kVA= (kW2+ kVAR2)
kVA = kW/ Cos

Reactive Power in VA
kVAR= (kVA2 kW2)
kVAR = C x (2 f V2)

Power factor (from 0.1 to 1)

Power Factor = Cos = P / V I (Single Phase)
Power Factor = Cos = P / (3x V x I) (Three Phase)
Power Factor = Cos = kW / kVA (Both Single Phase & Three Phase)
Power Factor = Cos = R/Z (Resistance / Impedance)

XC = 1/ (2 f C) (XC = Capacitive reactance)

IC = V/ XC (I = V / R)

C = kVAR / (2 f V2) in microfarad
Required Capacity of Capacitor in kVAR
kVAR = C x (2 f V2)