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# Reinforced Concrete Element

## Fakultas Teknik Sipil dan Perencanaan

Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember Surabaya

## (ITS Surabaya) Reinforced Concrete First Ed Sept 2014 1 / 16

Design of Rectangular Beams and One-Way Slabs

## In the previous chapter, the behaviour of reinforced concrete beams

(and one-way slabs) was explained, and procedures given for the
analysis of sections.
Unlike the analysis problem, the design problem does not have a
unique solution because the flexural strength of a section is dependent
on its width and effective depth, and on the area of reinforcement; and
there are several combinations of these which would give the required
strength. Different designers may come up with different solutions, all
of which may meet the desired requirements.
A complete design of a beam involves considerations of safety under
the ultimate limit states in flexure, shear, torsion and bond, as well as
considerations of the serviceability limit states of deflection,
crack-width, durability etc.

## (ITS Surabaya) Reinforced Concrete First Ed Sept 2014 2 / 16

Required strength

## Required strength U shall be at least equal to the effects of factored

loads in Eq. (9-1) through (9-7). The effect of one or more loads not
acting simultaneously shall be investigated.

U = 1.4D (9 1)
U = 1.2D + 1.6L + 0.5(Lr or S or R) (9 2)
U = 1.2D + 1.6(Lr or S or R) + (1.0L or 0.5W ) (9 3)
U = 1.2D + 1.0W + 1.0L + 0.5(Lr or S or R) (9 4)
U = 1.2D + 1.0E + 1.0L + 0.2S (9 5)
U = 0.9D + 1.0W (9 6)
U = 0.9D + 1.0E (9 7)
Where: D = dead load, L = live load, Lr = roof live load, S = snow load,
R = rain load, W = wind load, E = seismic load

## (ITS Surabaya) Reinforced Concrete First Ed Sept 2014 3 / 16

Example:4.1
The compression gravity axial loads for a building column have been estimated with the
following results: D = 150 k; live load from roof, Lr = 60 k; and live loads from floors, L = 300 k.
Compression wind, W = 70 k; tensile wind, W = 60 k; seismic compression load = 50 k; and
tensile seismic load = 40 k. Determine the critical design load using the SNI load combinations.
Solution:
(9 1)U = 1.4D = (1.4)(150k) = 210k
(9 2)U = 1.2D + 1.6L + 0.5(Lr or S or R) = (1.2)(150k) + (1.6)(300k) + (0.5)(60k) = 690k
(9 3)(a)U = 1.2D + 1.6(Lr or S or R) + (L or 0.5W ) = (1.2)(150k) + (1.6)(60k) + (300k) = 576k
(b)U = 1.2D + 1.6(Lr or S or R) + (L or 0.5W ) = (1.2)(150k) + (1.6)(60k) + (0.5)(70k) = 311k
(c)U = 1.2D + 1.6(Lr or S or R) + (L or 0.5W ) = (1.2)(150k) + (1.6)(60k) + (0.5)(60k) = 246
(9 4)(a)U = 1.2D + 1.0W + L + 0.5(Lr or S or R) = (1.2)(150k) + (1.0)(70k) + (300k) + 0.5(60k) =
(b)U = 1.2D + 1.0W + L + 0.5(Lr or S or R) = (1.2)(150k) + (1.0)(60k) + (300k) + 0.5(60k) =
(9 5)(a)U = 1.2D + 1.0E + L + 0.2S = (1.2)(150k) + (1.0)(50k) + (300k) + (0.2)(0k) = 530k
(b)U = 1.2D + 1.0E + L + 0.2S = (1.2)(150k) + (1.0)(40k) + (300k) + (0.2)(0k) = 440k
(9 6)(a)U = 0.9D + 1.0W = (0.9)(150k) + (1.0)(70k) = 205k
(b)U = 0.9D + 1.0W = (0.9)(150k) + (1.0)(60k) = 75k
(9 7)(a)U = 0.9D + 1.0E = (0.9)(150) + (1.0)(50k) = 185k
(b)U = 0.9D + 1.0E = (0.9)(150) + (1.0)(40k) = 95k
(ITS Surabaya) Reinforced Concrete First Ed Sept 2014 4 / 16
Design of Rectangular Beams
Before the design of an actual beam is attempted, several
miscellaneous topics need to be discussed :
(1) Beam proportions, ratio d to b, in 1 12 to 2
(2) Deflection, from best practice h l/10 to l/14 this value is higher
than SNI.
(3) Estimated beam weight. The weight of the beam to be selected must
be included in the calculation of the bending moment to be
resisted. Reinforced concrete weigth is 240 kN/m3 .
(4) Selection of bars. After the required reinforcing area is calculated.
(5) Cover. Use SNI 7.7 for requirements.

## (ITS Surabaya) Reinforced Concrete First Ed Sept 2014 5 / 16

Design Procedure:

1. Set Mu = Mn = Rn bd2
2. Assume = (0.4 0.6)b

f0
 
600
b = 0.85 c 1
fy 600 + fy

fy
 
 m 
Rn = fy 1 m=
2 0.85fc0

Mn Mu
bd2 = =
Rn Rn

## (ITS Surabaya) Reinforced Concrete First Ed Sept 2014 6 / 16

5. Determine the required steel area for the chosen b, d

As = bd
s !
fy
 
1 2mRn Mn
= 1 1 , Rn = 2 , m=
m fy bd 0.85fc0
6. Check for minimum steel reinforcement area
p
f0 1.4
As,min = 0.25 c bd bd
fy fy

4
if As,provided As,required not need to use As,min
3
7. Check for strain ( t 0.005) tension-controlled section.
8. Check for steel bars arrangement in section.

## (ITS Surabaya) Reinforced Concrete First Ed Sept 2014 7 / 16

Values of b , min , at t for various strength

fc0 20 25 30 35 40
1 0.85 0.85 0.84 0.80 0.76
fy = 240 balanced 0.0430 0.0538 0.0634 0.0708 0.0773
at = 0.004 0.0258 0.0323 0.0381 0.0425 0.0464
at = 0.005 0.0226 0.0282 0.0333 0.0372 0.0406
min 0.0058 0.0058 0.0058 0.0062 0.0066
fy = 320 balanced 0.0294 0.0368 0.0434 0.0485 0.0530
at = 0.004 0.0194 0.0242 0.0285 0.0319 0.0348
at = 0.005 0.0169 0.0212 0.0250 0.0279 0.0305
min 0.0044 0.0044 0.0044 0.0046 0.0049
fy = 400 balanced 0.0217 0.0271 0.0320 0.0357 0.0390
at = 0.004 0.0155 0.0194 0.0228 0.0255 0.0278
at = 0.005 0.0135 0.0169 0.0200 0.0223 0.0244
min 0.0035 0.0035 0.0035 0.0037 0.0040

## (ITS Surabaya) Reinforced Concrete First Ed Sept 2014 8 / 16

Reinforcement Area Table

## (ITS Surabaya) Reinforced Concrete First Ed Sept 2014 9 / 16

(ITS Surabaya) Reinforced Concrete First Ed Sept 2014 10 / 16
Minimum beam width

## (ITS Surabaya) Reinforced Concrete First Ed Sept 2014 11 / 16

Example:4.2
Calculate the area of steel reinforcement required for the beam
300x650mm. Mu = 360 kN-m, with fc0 = 30 MPa and fy = 400 MPa.
Assume D25 with one layer arrangement, and 10 for stirrup.
Solution:
d = h decking stirrup D25 25
2 = 650 40 10 2 = 587.5 mm
take = 0.9 for tension controlled.
Mn Mu 360 106
Rn = 2 = = = 3.86 MPa
bd bd2 0.9 300 587.52
fy

400
m= 0
= = 15.69
0.85fc s 0.85 30 ! !
r
1 2mRn 1 2 15.69 3.86
= 1 1 = 1 1 =
m fy 15.69 400
0.0105
min = 0.0035 From table. req > min ok
As = bd = 0.0105 300 587.5 = 1850.625 mm2
(ITS Surabaya) Reinforced Concrete First Ed Sept 2014 12 / 16
Use 4D25, with As = 1963.50 mm2 (from steel area table)
Check for strain:
A s fy 1963.50 400
a= 0
= = 102.66 mm
0.85fc b 0.85 30 300
f 0 28

1 = 0.85 0.005 c = 0.836
7
a 102.66
c= = = 122.8 mm
1 0.836 
dc 587.5 122.8
  
t = 0.003 = 0.003 = 0.01135 > 0.005 Ok.
c 122.8
Check for bar placement:
300 40 2 10 2 4 25
Sb = = 33.33 > 25 mm. Ok.
3

## (ITS Surabaya) Reinforced Concrete First Ed Sept 2014 13 / 16

Example:4.3
Select an economical rectangular beam sizes and select bars . The beam
is a simply supported span of a 12 m and it is to carry a live load of 20
kN/m and a dead load of 25 kN/m including beam weight. Select
fc0 = 28 MPa and fy = 400 MPa. Assumed d 2b
Solution:
Wu = 1.2DL + 1.6LL = 1.2 25 + 1.6 20 = 62 kN/m
Wu l2 62 122
Mu = Mmax = = = 1116 kN-m
8 8
Take = 0.9 for tension controlled section.
take = 0.4  table), = 0.4 0.032 = 0.012
b , b= 0.032 (from
fy 400
m= = = 16.807
0.85fc0 0.85 28
0.012 16.807
 
 m 
Rn = fy 1 = 0.012 400 1 = 4.36 MPa
2 r 2
Mu 1116 106 3 1116 106
bd2 = = = 4b3 so that b = = 414.28 mm
Rn 0.9 4.36 4 0.9 4.36
(ITS Surabaya) Reinforced Concrete First Ed Sept 2014 14 / 16
Take b = 400 mm, and d = 2 b = 800 mm
Mu 1116 106
Rn = = = 4.84 MPa.
bd2 s0.9 400 800
!
2
!
r
1 2mRn 1 2 16.807 4.84
= 1 1 = 1 1 =
m fy 16.807 400
0.01367
min = 0.0035 (from table)
As = bd = 0.01367 400 800 = 4374.54 mm2
Use 4D28 + 4D25 two layers, with
As = 2463.01 + 1963.5 = 4426.25 mm2
Check for strain.
A s fy 4426.25 400
a= 0
= = 185.99 mm
0.85fc 0.85 28
a 185.99
c= = = 218.81 mm
1 0.85
dt = d + S2 + d2b = 800 + 25 28
2 + 2 = 826.5 mm
dt c 826.5 218.81
t = 0.003 = 0.003 = 0.00833 > 0.005 Ok.
c 218.81
(ITS Surabaya) Reinforced Concrete First Ed Sept 2014 15 / 16
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