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Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember Surabaya

Design of Rectangular Beams and One-Way Slabs

(and one-way slabs) was explained, and procedures given for the

analysis of sections.

Unlike the analysis problem, the design problem does not have a

unique solution because the flexural strength of a section is dependent

on its width and effective depth, and on the area of reinforcement; and

there are several combinations of these which would give the required

strength. Different designers may come up with different solutions, all

of which may meet the desired requirements.

A complete design of a beam involves considerations of safety under

the ultimate limit states in flexure, shear, torsion and bond, as well as

considerations of the serviceability limit states of deflection,

crack-width, durability etc.

Required strength

loads in Eq. (9-1) through (9-7). The effect of one or more loads not

acting simultaneously shall be investigated.

U = 1.4D (9 1)

U = 1.2D + 1.6L + 0.5(Lr or S or R) (9 2)

U = 1.2D + 1.6(Lr or S or R) + (1.0L or 0.5W ) (9 3)

U = 1.2D + 1.0W + 1.0L + 0.5(Lr or S or R) (9 4)

U = 1.2D + 1.0E + 1.0L + 0.2S (9 5)

U = 0.9D + 1.0W (9 6)

U = 0.9D + 1.0E (9 7)

Where: D = dead load, L = live load, Lr = roof live load, S = snow load,

R = rain load, W = wind load, E = seismic load

Example:4.1

The compression gravity axial loads for a building column have been estimated with the

following results: D = 150 k; live load from roof, Lr = 60 k; and live loads from floors, L = 300 k.

Compression wind, W = 70 k; tensile wind, W = 60 k; seismic compression load = 50 k; and

tensile seismic load = 40 k. Determine the critical design load using the SNI load combinations.

Solution:

(9 1)U = 1.4D = (1.4)(150k) = 210k

(9 2)U = 1.2D + 1.6L + 0.5(Lr or S or R) = (1.2)(150k) + (1.6)(300k) + (0.5)(60k) = 690k

(9 3)(a)U = 1.2D + 1.6(Lr or S or R) + (L or 0.5W ) = (1.2)(150k) + (1.6)(60k) + (300k) = 576k

(b)U = 1.2D + 1.6(Lr or S or R) + (L or 0.5W ) = (1.2)(150k) + (1.6)(60k) + (0.5)(70k) = 311k

(c)U = 1.2D + 1.6(Lr or S or R) + (L or 0.5W ) = (1.2)(150k) + (1.6)(60k) + (0.5)(60k) = 246

(9 4)(a)U = 1.2D + 1.0W + L + 0.5(Lr or S or R) = (1.2)(150k) + (1.0)(70k) + (300k) + 0.5(60k) =

(b)U = 1.2D + 1.0W + L + 0.5(Lr or S or R) = (1.2)(150k) + (1.0)(60k) + (300k) + 0.5(60k) =

(9 5)(a)U = 1.2D + 1.0E + L + 0.2S = (1.2)(150k) + (1.0)(50k) + (300k) + (0.2)(0k) = 530k

(b)U = 1.2D + 1.0E + L + 0.2S = (1.2)(150k) + (1.0)(40k) + (300k) + (0.2)(0k) = 440k

(9 6)(a)U = 0.9D + 1.0W = (0.9)(150k) + (1.0)(70k) = 205k

(b)U = 0.9D + 1.0W = (0.9)(150k) + (1.0)(60k) = 75k

(9 7)(a)U = 0.9D + 1.0E = (0.9)(150) + (1.0)(50k) = 185k

(b)U = 0.9D + 1.0E = (0.9)(150) + (1.0)(40k) = 95k

(ITS Surabaya) Reinforced Concrete First Ed Sept 2014 4 / 16

Design of Rectangular Beams

Before the design of an actual beam is attempted, several

miscellaneous topics need to be discussed :

(1) Beam proportions, ratio d to b, in 1 12 to 2

(2) Deflection, from best practice h l/10 to l/14 this value is higher

than SNI.

(3) Estimated beam weight. The weight of the beam to be selected must

be included in the calculation of the bending moment to be

resisted. Reinforced concrete weigth is 240 kN/m3 .

(4) Selection of bars. After the required reinforcing area is calculated.

(5) Cover. Use SNI 7.7 for requirements.

Design Procedure:

1. Set Mu = Mn = Rn bd2

2. Assume = (0.4 0.6)b

f0

600

b = 0.85 c 1

fy 600 + fy

fy

m

Rn = fy 1 m=

2 0.85fc0

Mn Mu

bd2 = =

Rn Rn

5. Determine the required steel area for the chosen b, d

As = bd

s !

fy

1 2mRn Mn

= 1 1 , Rn = 2 , m=

m fy bd 0.85fc0

6. Check for minimum steel reinforcement area

p

f0 1.4

As,min = 0.25 c bd bd

fy fy

4

if As,provided As,required not need to use As,min

3

7. Check for strain ( t 0.005) tension-controlled section.

8. Check for steel bars arrangement in section.

Values of b , min , at t for various strength

fc0 20 25 30 35 40

1 0.85 0.85 0.84 0.80 0.76

fy = 240 balanced 0.0430 0.0538 0.0634 0.0708 0.0773

at = 0.004 0.0258 0.0323 0.0381 0.0425 0.0464

at = 0.005 0.0226 0.0282 0.0333 0.0372 0.0406

min 0.0058 0.0058 0.0058 0.0062 0.0066

fy = 320 balanced 0.0294 0.0368 0.0434 0.0485 0.0530

at = 0.004 0.0194 0.0242 0.0285 0.0319 0.0348

at = 0.005 0.0169 0.0212 0.0250 0.0279 0.0305

min 0.0044 0.0044 0.0044 0.0046 0.0049

fy = 400 balanced 0.0217 0.0271 0.0320 0.0357 0.0390

at = 0.004 0.0155 0.0194 0.0228 0.0255 0.0278

at = 0.005 0.0135 0.0169 0.0200 0.0223 0.0244

min 0.0035 0.0035 0.0035 0.0037 0.0040

Reinforcement Area Table

(ITS Surabaya) Reinforced Concrete First Ed Sept 2014 10 / 16

Minimum beam width

Example:4.2

Calculate the area of steel reinforcement required for the beam

300x650mm. Mu = 360 kN-m, with fc0 = 30 MPa and fy = 400 MPa.

Assume D25 with one layer arrangement, and 10 for stirrup.

Solution:

d = h decking stirrup D25 25

2 = 650 40 10 2 = 587.5 mm

take = 0.9 for tension controlled.

Mn Mu 360 106

Rn = 2 = = = 3.86 MPa

bd bd2 0.9 300 587.52

fy

400

m= 0

= = 15.69

0.85fc s 0.85 30 ! !

r

1 2mRn 1 2 15.69 3.86

= 1 1 = 1 1 =

m fy 15.69 400

0.0105

min = 0.0035 From table. req > min ok

As = bd = 0.0105 300 587.5 = 1850.625 mm2

(ITS Surabaya) Reinforced Concrete First Ed Sept 2014 12 / 16

Use 4D25, with As = 1963.50 mm2 (from steel area table)

Check for strain:

A s fy 1963.50 400

a= 0

= = 102.66 mm

0.85fc b 0.85 30 300

f 0 28

1 = 0.85 0.005 c = 0.836

7

a 102.66

c= = = 122.8 mm

1 0.836

dc 587.5 122.8

t = 0.003 = 0.003 = 0.01135 > 0.005 Ok.

c 122.8

Check for bar placement:

300 40 2 10 2 4 25

Sb = = 33.33 > 25 mm. Ok.

3

Example:4.3

Select an economical rectangular beam sizes and select bars . The beam

is a simply supported span of a 12 m and it is to carry a live load of 20

kN/m and a dead load of 25 kN/m including beam weight. Select

fc0 = 28 MPa and fy = 400 MPa. Assumed d 2b

Solution:

Wu = 1.2DL + 1.6LL = 1.2 25 + 1.6 20 = 62 kN/m

Wu l2 62 122

Mu = Mmax = = = 1116 kN-m

8 8

Take = 0.9 for tension controlled section.

take = 0.4 table), = 0.4 0.032 = 0.012

b , b= 0.032 (from

fy 400

m= = = 16.807

0.85fc0 0.85 28

0.012 16.807

m

Rn = fy 1 = 0.012 400 1 = 4.36 MPa

2 r 2

Mu 1116 106 3 1116 106

bd2 = = = 4b3 so that b = = 414.28 mm

Rn 0.9 4.36 4 0.9 4.36

(ITS Surabaya) Reinforced Concrete First Ed Sept 2014 14 / 16

Take b = 400 mm, and d = 2 b = 800 mm

Mu 1116 106

Rn = = = 4.84 MPa.

bd2 s0.9 400 800

!

2

!

r

1 2mRn 1 2 16.807 4.84

= 1 1 = 1 1 =

m fy 16.807 400

0.01367

min = 0.0035 (from table)

As = bd = 0.01367 400 800 = 4374.54 mm2

Use 4D28 + 4D25 two layers, with

As = 2463.01 + 1963.5 = 4426.25 mm2

Check for strain.

A s fy 4426.25 400

a= 0

= = 185.99 mm

0.85fc 0.85 28

a 185.99

c= = = 218.81 mm

1 0.85

dt = d + S2 + d2b = 800 + 25 28

2 + 2 = 826.5 mm

dt c 826.5 218.81

t = 0.003 = 0.003 = 0.00833 > 0.005 Ok.

c 218.81

(ITS Surabaya) Reinforced Concrete First Ed Sept 2014 15 / 16

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