You are on page 1of 21

PHILIPPINE NORMAL UNIVERSITY

THE NATIONAL CENTER FOR TEACHER EDUCATION MANILA

GENERAL EDUCATION
A REVIEWER FOR THE LICENSURE EXAMINATION FOR TEACHERS
GENERAL EDUCATION
Table of contents
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Page

1. ENGLISH

Study and Thinking Skills ........ 1 13


Prof. Merry Ruth M. Gutierrez

Writing in the Discipline ... 16 38


Prof. Ma. Conception Y. Raymundo
Prof. Matthew M. Nepomuceno

Speech and Oral Communication .. 39 65


Prof. Alice M. Karaan
Prof. Nenita C. Mojica

Philippine Literature ... 66 87


Prof. Victor Rey Fumar

Masterworks in World Literature .. 88 107


Dr. Ma. Antoinette C. Montealegre

2. FILIPINO

Komunikasyon sa Akademikong Filipino ... 108 124


Prof. Arsenia R. Emperado

Pagbasa at Pagsulat tungo sa Pananaliksik . 125 150


Prof. Arsenia R. Emperado

Masining na Pagpapahayag 151 169


Prof. Arsenia R. Emperado

3. MATHEMATICS

Contemporary Math
170 187
Atty. Antonio V. Ferrer

Fundamentals of Math ... 188 200


Dr. Gladys C. Nivera

4. SCIENCE

Natural Science 201 225


Dr. Leticia V. Catris

5. SOCIAL SCIENCE
Politics and Governance with the Philippine Constitution ... 226 242
Dr. Benjamin C. Domingcil Jr.

Philippine History .. 243 251


Prof. Remedios C. Ong

Basic Economics with Agrarian Reform .... 251 266


Dr. Dionesio C. Rivas, Dr. Benjamin C. Domingcil Jr.

Society and Culture with Family Planning .. 267 280


Dr. Diony V. Varela

Rizals Life and Works and other Heroes and Heroines ..... 281 290
Dr. Evangeline L. Martin

Philosophy ... 291 311


Prof. Michael M. Nael

Art Appreciation .. 312 321


Prof. Violeta B. Villanueva

Psychology .. 322 339


Dr. Priscila B. Dizon

6. INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATIONS TECHNOLOGY (ICT)

Fundamentals of Information and Communications .. 340 353


Dr. Alice D. Dioquino

7. Answer Key ..... 354 355


GENERAL EDUCATION: ENGLISH
FOCUS: Study and Thinking Skills
By. Prof. Merry Ruth M. Gutierrez
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Competencies:
General: Comprehend written text in English
Specific:
1. Use Strategies to efficiently search for information and learn from written texts in
English
2. Apply study and critical reading skills in comprehending English texts

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

PART I CONTENT UPDATE

1. What are study skills?

A. Study skills according to Graham and Robinson (1984) are specific abilities which
students may use alone or in combination to learn the content of the curriculum on
their own.
B. Harris and Smith (1986) state that study skills are those that enable a person to
gather information and to organize it in such a way that requires analysis,
interpretation, and evaluation
C. Klein, Peterson, and Simington (1991) claim that study skills are skills necessary for
acquiring critical information form a variety of texts and media sources for different
purposes and uses

2. What are important study skills?


The following skills and strategies are considered important in reading and learning from
a variety of text and media sources:
1. Establishing a mental set (framework) for studying
2. Adjusting reading rate for different reading tools, reading types and reading purposes
3. Previewing text
4. Skimming
5. Note-taking
6. Outlining
7. Interpreting graphic information (charts, graphs, etc.)
8. Portraying ideas graphically (illustrating, mapping, charting)
9. Summarizing

3. How does one learn to study well?


In studying, students need to:
1. Recall prior knowledge and previous experience.
2. Organize information while reading.
3. Organize information after reading.
4. Synthesize and articulate new learning
5. Learn vocabulary that labels important concepts, elements and relationships.
6. Produce or create something new and apply new information.

4. What method can be used for studying?

The PQ5R Study Method


PQ3R is the mnemonic for an effective student regulated approach to studying the kind of
material assigned every day textbooks. Gaining new information and ideas from a variety
of different textbooks demands a balanced and flexible network of study strategies

P Preview
Know where youre going first. You would never plunge in and try to cross rugged territory if
you could have in advance an accurate map of the region. Here is your mental map of a
textbook chapter: Example the title. Read the introduction. Glance at the pictures, charts,
and diagrams. Read the wrap-up of the chapter--- the summary and review questions

Q Question
Work through the chapter one manageable section at a time. A section marked off with a
bold face or italic side heading is likely to be the right size bite for you to digest. Be a
human question mark. Go into each section with a question in your mind. Turn headings,
and sometimes topic sentences, into questions. These should guide you to the main points.

R1 Read
Read to find the answer to your question and other important content. Unknown terms say,
STOP! LOOK UP! LEARN! Remove these roadblocks. Each pictorial aid is saying, This is
clearing up something important. Shift into back-and-forth reading for pictures, diagrams,
and charts. Shift your eyes (and thoughts) back and forth as needed from the printed words
to the pictorial aid

Speed up and slow down as needed within the passage. Do stop-and-go reading. Thought
time is needed in addition to reading time. Reread as often as necessary. Do stop-and-go
reading.

R2 Record
Jot down or mark important ideas. Make the key ideas stand out in some way so they will
flag you later. Use any combination of devices. Jot mini notes on a memo slip to be
inserted between related pages on in the books margin. Draw vertical lines in the margin
just to the left or right of important content. Bracket key ideas. Underline or color-accent
selectively. Now you wont have to reread the entire chapter when you return to review it
later. Make key ideas flag you

R3 Recite
Students exclaim, Ive read that chapter twice, but I still cant remember it. Solve this
problem by using the most powerful technique known to psychologists the technique of
self-recitation. As you complete a section or a paragraph, ask yourself, Just what have I
learned here?

Look away from the book while self-recite, or cover the passage with your hand or with a
convenient card (such as 5x8 index card). Can you recite the important points to yourself
in your own words? Now look back at the column of print, wherever you need to, and check
your accuracy. Knowing youre going to self-recite when you finish a section forces you to
concentrate while youre reading.

R4 Review
Add a last quick run through. Can you recall the broad chapter plan? Run through the
chapter to recall the plan. Next, run through it section by section, checking yourself once
more on the main points and the important subpoints. Use your cover card again. Make
some quick reviews later on from time to time. Long term memory does improve grades

R5 Reflect
As you read a passage, turn on your critical thinking. Ask yourself: What does this all
mean? Is it true? How can I apply it? Reading and reflecting should be simultaneously and
inseparable built right into every step of PQ3R

5. How helpful is scanning and skimming in reading?

Readers use different strategies based on what and why they are reading. To be an efficient
reader, students need to know when to read for full comprehension and when to use other
reading methods, such as scanning and skimming. Seyler (2001) discusses the difference of
the two, gives guidelines how to use them.

Scanning involves searching materials for a particular piece of information. Instead of


reading every word on a page, readers move eyes quickly, searching for what is needed.
You scan when you look up a word in a dictionary, or a phone number in the telephone
directory. To be an efficient reader, focus on finding just what you are looking for.

Guidelines for Scanning


1. Understand the Organization of the material
2. Stay focused on what you are looking for
3. Use whatever clues are available to speed your search
4. Confirm your information

Skimming is a strategy for getting an overview of the ideas contained in a particular piece
of writing. When you scan, you look for specific information; when you skim you overlook
details to learn just the gist or main ideas of the work

Skimming is like scanning, though, in two important ways. First, both reading strategies
depend on your understanding of the organization of the work. Second, both strategies are
alternatives to reading for full comprehension. Neither skimming nor scanning along will
produce success when you are reading to learn, but both can make you more efficient if you
use them appropriately.

When is skimming a useful reading strategy?

1. Skim some newspaper and magazine articles.


2. Skim some research materials
3. Skim supplementary readings.
4. Skim to locate articles for an assignment.
5. Skim to preview a work before reading it carefully.
6. Skim to review a section or chapter after you have read it.

Reasons for skimming

1. As part of preparing to read


2. As part of reviewing for tests
3. As an alternative to reading for full comprehension, when a general familiarity is
appropriate

Guidelines for Skimming

1. Establish your goal for skimming


2. Identify the type of work and study its organization
3. Skim newspaper articles by reading the first two paragraphs and then moving your eyes
quickly down the center of each column
4. Skim magazine articles by reading the first one or two paragraphs and then skimming
the rest of the article

6. How do students improve reading efficiency?

Good reading strategies help you to read in a very efficient way. Using them, you aim to get
the maximum benefit from your reading with the minimum effort. This section will show you
how to use four different strategies to read intelligently

Strategy 1: Knowing what you want to know

The first thing to ask yourself is: Why you are reading the text? Are you reading with a
purpose or just for pleasure? What do you want to know after reading it?

Once you know this, you can examine the text to see whether it is going to move you
towards this goal

An easy way of doing this is to look at the introduction and the chapter headings. The
introduction should let you know whom the book is targeted at, and what it seeks to achieve.
Chapter headings will give you an overall view of the structure of the subject
Ask yourself whether the book meets your needs. Ask yourself if it assumes too much or too
little knowledge. If the book isnt ideal, would it be better to find a better one?

Strategy 2: Knowing how deeply to study the material

Where you only need the shallowest knowledge of the subject you can skim material. Here
you read only chapter headings, introductions and summaries

If you need a moderate level of information on a subject, then you can scan the text. Here
you read the chapter introductions and summaries in detail. You may then speed read the
contents of the chapters, picking out and understanding key words and concepts. At this
level of looking at the document, it is worth paying attention to diagrams and graphs

Only when you need detailed knowledge of a subject is it worth studying the text. Here it is
best to skim the material first to get an overview of the subject. This gives you an
understanding of its structure, into which you can fit the detail gained from a full, receptive
reading of the material. SQ3R is a good technique for getting a deep understanding of a
text.

Strategy 3: Active Reading

When you are reading a document in detail, it often helps if you highlight, underline and
annotate it as you go on. This emphasizes information in your mind, and helps you to review
important points later

Doing this also helps to keep your mind focused on the material and stops its wandering.
This is obviously only something to do if you own the document! If you own the book and
find that active reading helps, then it may be worth photocopying the information in more
expensive texts. You can then read and mark the photocopies.

If you are worried about destroying the material, ask yourself how much your investment of
time is worth. If the benefit you get by active reading reasonably exceeds the value of the
book, then the book is disposable.

There are three important steps to active reading.

1. Identify the authors main idea


2. Identify the paragraph topics.
3. Note the supporting details

7. What is main idea?

The main idea:

Is the subject or major argument of a speech or composition


Is the theme, or the concise statements of the main points
Involves reducing textto its gist
8. How does a reader grasp the main idea of a selection?

1. Determine the topic of the text. Use the title to predict the topic.
2. Ask yourself, What about the topic is discussed? to point out the focus of the topic
3. Review the title to hypothesize about the writers pattern of text organization.
Generally, the rhetorical pattern chosen showcases the main idea and the
supporting ideas.

Doing the three steps given will help the readers to come up with a main idea even
prior to the reading of the actual text. The formula to construct or state the main idea
is:

mi = p + f + t

Where

mi = main idea
p = pattern of organization
f = focus of discussion
t = topic

Read the entire selection to confirm if the main idea you have predicted matches writers
main idea. If there is a match, the purpose of your reading is to look for the support
ideas. Jot down all the important notes that relate to the main idea. However, if there is a
mismatch between your main idea and the writers main idea, revise or change your
hypothesis before you gather the support ideas.

4. Evaluate the notes you have written, and synthesize the ideas you gathered from
steps 1-4 to summarize the informational text in two or three sentences. The formula
for summary of an expository text is:

Set = mi + si + (sd)

Where

Set Summary of Expository Text


mi = main idea (p + f + t)
si = support idea
sd = support detail (optional)

As visual organizer, readers may prepare a diagram shown below:


Topic:

Focus:

Main Idea:

Support Idea 1 Support Idea 2 Support Idea 3

Strategy 4: How to study different sorts of material

Different sorts of documents hold information in different places and in different ways. They
have different depths and breadths of coverage. By understanding the layout of the material you
are reading, you can extract useful information much more efficiently

Reading Magazines and Newspapers:

These tend to give a very fragmented coverage of an area. They will typically only concentrate
on the most interesting and glamorous pats of a topic this helps them to sell copies! They will
often ignore less interesting information that may be essential to a full understanding of a
subject. Typically areas of useful information are padded out with large amounts of irrelevant
waffle or with advertising.

The most effective way of getting information from magazines is to scan the table of contents or
indexes and turn directly to interesting articles. If you find an article useful, then cut it out and file
it in a folder specifically covering that sort of information. In this way you will build up sets of
related articles that may begin to explain the subject.

Newspapers tend to be arranged in sections. If you read a paper often you can learn quickly
which sections are useful and which ones you can skip altogether.

Reading Individual Articles

Articles within newspapers and magazines tend to be in three main types:


News Articles: Here the most important information is presented first, with information
being less and less useful as the article progresses. News articles are designed to
explain the key points first, and then flesh them out with detail.
Opinion Articles: Opinion articles present a point of view. Here the most important
information is contained in the introduction and the summary, with the middle of the
article containing supporting arguments
Feature Articles: These are written to provide entertainment or background on a
subject. Typically the most important information is in the body of the text.

If you know what you want from an article, and recognize its type, you can extract
information from it quickly and efficiently.

9. What is critical reading?

Critical reading is a study skill that is necessary for success in every subject area. It is the
process or result of making judgments in reading, evaluating relevancy and adequacy of
what is read, and scrutinizing new ideas and information.

Reading critically involves four conditions:

1. A knowledge of the field or fields in which is being don


2. A general attitude of questioning and suspended judgment, a habit of examining
before accepting
3. Some application of methods of logical analysis
4. Taking action in light of this analysis or reasoning

10. What are some critical reading/thinking skills?

1. Recognizing intent or purpose (public or obvious, less public or hidden, own or


readers purpose)
2. Distinguishing relevant from irrelevant information
3. Evaluating sources of information
4. Nothing points of view
5. Recognizing bias and slanted language
6. Assessing the accuracy of information and authors credibility
7. Identifying literary form, components, and devices (tone and mood)

Critical Reading Guide


Use the following questions regularly in reading:
1. Ha the writer use loaded, or emotionally charged, words? What are they?
2. Is the author a good source of ideas and information on the subject? Have you
checked his/her credentials? What are they?
3. Which statements are clearly factual? Which are opinions? How can you tell?
Which seem to predominate?
4. Does the writer seem to be deliberately trying to arouse your emotions? What are
some examples of emotional language?
5. Which statements are clearly inferences? Is there evidence to support them?
6.Has the writer referred to experts by name, or are the references based on
hearsay (They say or research proves)?
7. Is the writer biased? How do they know?
8. What assumptions are implied by the authors statements? What are they?
9. Does the author use any of the propaganda devices? Which? Who is being
served here? What emotions are being appealed to? (Some propaganda
devices are glittering generality, name calling transfer. Testimonial, plain
folks, card stacking bandwagon)
10. What is authors public purpose? Hidden purpose?

11. How do students improve test-taking skills?


Preparing for a test

1. Set up a regular study space with the equipment you need.


2. Homework is often reviewed. Consider the review as part of your homework.
3. Make flashcards to help you memorize information.
4. Learn to make and use outlines of the material you must learn.
5. You must learn to remember ideas and to memorize facts.
6. Outlines are especially useful when you study for an essay test.
7. 7. Use textbooks for review.
8. Read the chapter and topic headings.
9. Study all illustrations and captions.
10. Know or memorize important material in boldface or italics.
11. Read charts and graphs carefully. Decide if you need to memorize any of the
information.
12. Read the end-of-the-chapter summaries.
13. Read the end-of-the-chapter questions until you can answer them without looking
up the answers.
14. To practice for an essay test, turn the headings in your textbook into essay
questions. Practice writing answers.

Taking the test


1. Rest before a test so you are alert.
2. Listen to any oral instructions.
3. Decide if each part of the test gets the same number of points or if some parts of
the test are worth more points than others. Decide whether it will take you a
shorter or longer time to answer each question. Plan a timetable for yourself.
4. As soon as you have scanned and planned your time, begin to write your
answers.
5. Raise your hand if you need help.
6. Check the number of the problem and the number on your answer sheet each
time.
7. Answer the questions you find easiest first, or begin at number one. Most tests
are set up so the easiest question is number one.
8. Every ten minutes or so, sit back in your chair, breathe deeply, and relax for a
moment.
9. Be neat.

Same Test Items


Choose and copy the letter of the best answer for each item.\
Read the portion proposal on smoking written below. Then decide who could have
written each proposal.

1. Proposal A: I strongly propose that colleges and universities allow smoking among
students in the campus during break as a way of easing pressure and tension caused by heavy
academic demands.

A. A psychologist C. A student who smokes


B. A parent D. A student leader

This is a question on critical thinking, specifically on noting point of view. The proposal requires
sensitivity to the speakers word choice and stand on the issue. The words campus, break, academic
pressure and tension suggest that a person is very familiar with college life, and the stand is not
against, but for smoking. Although choices A, B, and D are also familiar with university life, not all of
them would fight for smoking. The best answer is C- the one is a university student and who smokes
would be the most likely to propose the idea.

2. Proposal B: Smoking increases the chances of having fire accidents not only in
schools, but also in all public places parks, hotels, markets, and villages. It could be a way of
endangering the lives of people who interest the government has promised to serve and protect.

A. A physician C. A fire chief


B. A store owner D. A teacher

The analysis done in 1 can be used here too. Word choice will a clue as to who is speaking words
such as accidents, places, markets, hotels government, serve, and protect. Take note the persons
stand is not for, but against smoking. Choice A, physician will not talk about the risks of smoking in
this manner and perhaps would not encourage smoking. Choice B, store owner, might cite other
reasons and might be ambivalent about the issue either to fight for or against smoking. A teacher,
choice, D might not advocate smoking, but will offer different explanations. The best answer is
choice C. Among the choices, only a fire chief would explain reasons the way it was done in the
proposal because of which smoking is not viewed positively.

3. How would a tobacco grower explain the reason of the proposal for smoking?

A. Smoking indirectly boosts the countrys economy.


B. Smoking relaxes the nerves and this helps control negative emotions.
C. Smoking has always been a part of male identity and superiority over women.
D. Smoking benefits the people who consider the plant as their source of income.

This is thinking skills question which requires an analysis of the persons character as basis for
identifying perspective and point of view. Notice that the person involved is a tobacco grower who
would encourage smoking for business reasons. Choice A is perhaps from an economists view,
while choice B could be made by a plain smoker trying to justify the act. Choice C might be a
statement by a sociologist talking about gender issues. Choice D is the correct answer, because the
tobacco grower depends on the plant for a living, and so he/she airs a view from a business or labor
perspective.
PART II ANALYZING TEST ITEMS
Reading the selection and answer the questions that follow. Write only the letter of the best
answer for each item.

1. For all his ability to travel over a sandy desert without water, the camel has a nasty temper
and the spirit of revenge. Hes not happy until he pays back a wrong, actual seeming.
Knowing this, camel drivers and other who use camels a lot have devised an interesting
way of letting the camel settle his scores without the person getting hurt.

2. When a driver has made a camel angry in some way or other, he immediately runs out of
sight. He hides near the road on which the camel will pass. He then take off his clothes and
throws them down on a heap, which vaguely resembles a sleeping person.

3. Along corners the camel. He sees and smells the clothes of the one who hurt him. Then he
pounces upon the pile, shakes every piece and tramples all over everything. Satisfied, he
walks away. The driver comes out of hiding, mounts the avenged beast, and rides off.

4. It makes one think of the baby who dumps its head against the leg of the table, turns
around, and hits the leg in punishment.
-from 1000 Stories You Can Use by Frank Mihalic

1. What is the passage mostly about?


A. a camel and his driver C. a camels when angry
B. a drivers way trick an angry camel D. a drivers to control anger

2. Who is referred to by the pronoun he in paragraph 1, sentence 2?


A. driver C. person
B. camel D. cloth

3. Who is referred to by the pronoun he in paragraph 2?


A. driver C. anger
B. camel D. sight

4. How does the writer regard the camel?


A. with respect and care C. with humility and love
B. with fear and love D. with contempt and criticism

5. What does the writer think about the camels driver?


A. The driver is wise and clever. C. The driver is loving and kind.
B. The driver is fool. D. The driver is a friend of a camel.

6. What is implied by the statement, Hes not happy until he pays back a wrong, actual or
seeming?
A. The camel does not seek revenge.
B. The camel never stops forgiving an offender.
C. The camels happiness depends on the kind of punishment.
D. The camel makes sure to punish anyone that offends him.
7. What happens after the camel has trampled all over the clothes of the driver?
A. The camel walks away. C. The driver comes out riding.
B. The camel smells the clothes. D. The driver walks away from the camel

A study made a number of years ago said the more education a man has, the less likely he
is to be an inventor. Now, the reason for that is quiet simple. From the time the boy or girl starts in
school, he or she is examined three or four times a year, and of course, it is very, very disastrous if
he-she fails. An inventor fails all the time and it is a triumph if he succeeds once. Consequently, if
education is an inhibition to invention, it is due entirely to the form by which we rate things and
not because of any intellectual differential.
I can take any group of young people any place, and teach them to be inventors, If I can
get them to throw of the hazard of being afraid to fail. You fail because your ideas are not right.
You should not be afraid to fail, but you should learn to fail intelligently. By that I mean, when you
fail, find out why you failed, and each time you fail it will bring you nearer to the goal.
-from 1000 Stories You Can Use by Frank Mihalic

8. What relationship is shown between education and invention?


A. The former is the cause of the latter.
B. Education is not useful for inventor.
C. Ones education guarantees an invention.
D. Education does not encourage a person to be an inventor.

9. According to the selection, what is true about an inventor?


A. An inventor succeeds in all endeavors.
B. An inventor always succeeds in the first attempts.
C. An inventor gives up on the first failure of the experiment.
D. An inventor experiences failures several times before he/she succeeds.

10. How are the ideas mentioned in this statement connected, If education is an inhibition to
invention, it is due entirely to the form by which we rate things?
A. The sentence enumerates reasons for invention.
B. The sentence conveys the result of being uneducated.
C. The sentence compares education and invention.
D. The sentence gives cause-effect relationship between education and invention.

11. What is the writers view about failure?


A. It is disastrous. C. It hinders ones desire to succeed.
B. It is an inhibition to invention. D. It helps people learn and get near their goal.

12. What could be the messages view about failure?


A. Success comes to those who persevere.
B. Failure reflects ones limited intellect.
C. Success brings pride to ones country.
D. Failure stops people from inventing things.
It said:
That there is hardly a bar of music which Beethoven did not rewrite at least a dozen times.
That Bryant rewrote THANATOPSIS a hundred times.
That Gibbon rewrote his AUTOBIOGRAPHY nine times.
That Plato wrote the first sentence of his REPUBLIC nine times.
That Virgil spent 12 years writing his AENEID.
-from 1000 Stories You Can Use by Frank Mihalic

13. What does the word bar mean in the selection?


A. A vertical line drawn to show division of notes
B. A strip of wood used for obstruction
C. A gate closing a road
D. A railing in a court

14. What could be the reason for capitalizing some words in the selection?
A. They show the importance of greatness.
B. The reflects in sight for human nature.
C. They stand for concepts difficult to understand.
D. They represent great works of persistent people.

15. What could inferred about the people mentioned in the selection?
A. They are gifted with power.
B. They are admired for who they are.
C. They are born to succeed life.
D. They are recognized in their discipline.

16. Which is the best statement that tells the main idea of the selection?
A. Ones greatness is the product of brilliance.
B. Perseverance makes one reach his or her goal.
C. Success is measured by ones effortless creation.
D. Success is for every person who waits for it patiently.

The Cooks Prayer

Lord of all the pots and pans and things,


Since Ive no time to be
A saint by doing lovely things,
Or watching late with Thee,
Or dreaming in the dawnlight,
Or storming heavens gates,
Make me a saint by getting meals
And washing up the plates.
-from 1000 Stories You Can Use by Frank Mihalic
17. Who is speaking in the poem?
A. A Saint C. A cook
B. The Lord D. A wife

18. Which of the following tells what the speaker does?


A. Watches late at night C. Storms heavens gate
B. Dreams in the dawnlight D. With Sympathy

19. How does the speaker in the poem regard the saints?
A. With Admiration C. With Understanding
B. With compassion D. With Sympathy

20. What do the last two lines mean? The speaker is saying that he__________
A. be given patience so he can do his work C. wants to be saint of pots and pans
B. like his job and praying to his saints D. does not like work at night

PART III. ENHANCING TEST TAKING SKILLS


Reading the selection and answer the questions that follow. Copy the letter of the best answer for each
item.

1. What must occur to enable us to remember a friends name, a fact from history, or an
incident from our past? The act of remembering requires the successful completion of three process:
encoding, storage, and retrieval. The process encoding, involves transforming information into a
form that can be stored in memory. Sometimes we encode information automatically, without any
effort, but often we must do something with the information in order to remember it. For example, if
you met someone named George at a party, you might associate his name with George Washington
or George Bush. Such simple associations can markedly improve your ability to recall names and
other information. The careful encoding of information greatly increases the chance that you will
remember it.

2. The second memory process, storage, involves keeping or maintaining information in


memory. For encoded information to be stored, some physiological change in brain must take place
a process called consolidation. Normally consolidation occurs automatically, but if a person loses
consciousness for any reason, the process can be disrupted and permanent memory may not form.
That is why a person who has been in a serous car accident could awaken in a hospital and not
remember what has happened.

3. The final process, retrieval, occurs when information stored in memory is brought to mind.
Calling George by name the next time you meet him shows that you have retrieved his name from
memory. To remember, we must perform all three processes encode the information, store it, and
then retrieve it. Memory failure can result from the failure of any one of the three.
4. Similar steps are required in information processing of computers. Information is encoded
(entered in some from the computer is able to use), then stored in disk, and later retrieved on the
screen. You would not able to retrieve the material if you had failed to enter it, if a power failure
occurred before you could save what you had entered, or if you forgot which disk or file contained
the needed information. Of course, human processing is far more complex than even the most
advanced computer systems, but computer processing provides a useful analogy to memory if not
taken too literally.

-from 1000 Stories You Can Use by Frank Mihalic

1. What was the selection mostly about?


A. remembering George Bush C. processing information using computers
B. processes in human memory D. steps improving retention

2. What rhetorical pattern was used in the selection?


A. chronological C. cause-effect
B. comparison-contrast D. enumeration

3. What do you think was the purpose of highlighting some words in the selection?
A. to enumerate effects of memory C. to emphasize the process involved
B. to discuss reasons of the process D. to relate the information to prior knowledge

4. Which of the highlighted words is not a major process memory?


A. retrieval C. storage
B encoding D. consolidation

5. Which of the process in memory should happen first?


A. retrieval C. storage
B encoding D. consolidation

6. What type of change in the brain is needed for the storage of information?
A. psychological C. physiological
B. psychosocial D. physical

7. Why does memory fail, according to the selection?


A. when encoding does not happen C. Improving Ones Memory
B. when any one of the three fails D. My Memory and I
8. Which of the following statements can be deleted from the selection?
A. if you met someone named George at a party; you might associate his name with George
Washington.
B. encoding, involves transforming information into a form that can be stored in memory.
C. storage is the second memory process
D. retrieval is the final process

9. Which of the following could be the best title for the selection?
A. Human Brain and the Computer C. Improving Ones Memory
B. Three Processes in Memory D. My Memory and I

Music Can Heal Mental Wounds but Only in the Right Hands
By Eva Dorothee Schmid

1 Human beings have known about the healing properties of music since Biblical times
according to the Old Testament for example. David soothed Kings Sauls aching brow by reaching for
his sharp.

2 There are also many references to the healing potential of music in texts left behind by the
ancient Greeks.

3 The same properties are not put to good use in the modern field of music therapy. Music
therapy is psychotherapeutic procedure which does not compete with traditional medicine but
rather tries to complement it.

4 Music arouse emotion, soothes, comforts and can lead changes in behavior? It can also
encourage the healing process, increase a persons ability to tolerate pain and help them overcome
their fears.

5 All of this can result in changes in the bodys chemistry.

6. Studies show that the right sort of music causes the body to release an increased amount
of so-called endorphins with the results that the person becomes less sensitive to pain and feels
much better.
-from Manila Bulletin, August 2007

10. The writer discusses


A. the causes of music therapy C. the music Biblical times
B. the effect of music D. the music for life

11. The ideas are arranged using _______ as a pattern of organization.


A. enumeration C. cause-effect
B. problem solution D. chronological
12. The writer defines a concept/term in paragraph
A. 1 C. 3
B. 2 D. 4

13. According to the selection, the following are the effects of music except
A. emotional healing C. academic excellence
B. pain tolerance D behavioral change

14. There are ____ effects of music mentioned in paragraph 4.


A. 2 C. 4
B. 3 D. 5

15. The writer wants to explain


A. that music can replace medicine C. academic excellence
B. how music can be useful for well-being D. behavioral change
The Dangers of Acid Rain

Acid rains refer to all types of precipitation rain, snow, sleet, hail, fog that is acidic in
nature. Acidic means that these forms of water have a Ph lower than 5.6 average of rain water. Acid
Rain kills aquatic life, trees, crops and other vegetation, damages buildings and monuments, corrodes
copper and lead piping, damages such man-made things as automobiles, reduces soil fertility and can
cause toxic metals to leach into underground water sources.

Rain is naturally acidic because carbon dioxide, found normally in the earths atmosphere,
reacts with water to form carbonic acid. While pure rains acidity if Ph 5.6 TO. 5.7 actual pH
readings vary from place to place depending upon type and amount of other gases present in the air,
such as sulfur oxide and nitrogen oxides.

The term pH refers to the free hydrogen ions (electrically charged atoms) in water and is
measured on a scale from 0 to 14. Seven is considered neutral and measurements below seven are
acidic while those above it are basic or alkaline. Every point on the pH scale represents a tenfold
increase over the more so than pH 6. Similarly, pH 9 is 10 times more basic than pH 8 and 100 times
more basic than ph7.

-from Manila Bulletin, October 2007

16. What is the average Ph of rainwater?


A. 5.6 C. 100
B. 14 D. 10
17. Why is rain naturally acidic?
A. because water reacts with atmosphere
B. because of carbon dioxides reaction with water
C. because of acid
D. because of the atmosphere

18. What effects the variation in the actual pH readings?


A. the types of gases C. the type and amount of gases
B. the amount of gases D. the kinds of plants in the area

19. What are free hydrogen ions?


A. electrically-changed ions C. water measured on a scale
B. electrically-charged atoms D. electronically-charged atoms

20. Which is not directly stated as an effect of acid rain?


A. death of marine life C. reduction of soil fertility
B. damage of monuments D. extinction of human race

PART IV BIBLIOGRAPHY/REFERENCES
Chaffe, John. 1994. Thinking critically 4th ed. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company.

English Writing Orange Level. 1990. Illionis: McDougal Littell and Company.

Literary Cavalcade. January 2005, p.32-33. How to Read on the SAT.

Mihalic, Frank 1996. 1000 stories you can use. Manila: Divine Word Publication.

Schmid, Eva Dorothee, Manila Bulletin, Aug 2007. Music can heal mental wounds but only in the right hands.

Seyler, Dorothy 2001. Steps to college reading 3rd ed Boston: Allyn and Bacon.

Vacca, Richard and vacca, Joanne. 2005, content area reading: literacy and learning across the curriculum 8th ed. Boston:
Pearson Education Inc.

Wright, Sue. 2002. Study skills: Instructors book. Critical reading. Boston: Allyn and Bacon.