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supposed to have the angle B right, then one side DF will be a quadrant (34); therefore DFE is called a

quadrantal triangle. As the sine, cosine, and tangent of an arc are the same in magnitude as the sine,

cosine, and tangent of its supplement, the equations for the triangle ABC will apply to its supple mental

triangle DEF. Therefore a quadrantal triangle may be resolved by the preceding rules, if we consider as

circular parts, the two angles adjacent to the side of 90, the comple ment of the other angle, and the

complements of the other two sides. Hence, in the triangle ZPS, if the side Z ZS =90, the circular parts

will succeed one another in this order; the angle Z, the comp. ZP, the comp. P, the comp. SP, the angle S.

P Consequently all the equations for the solution of a quadrantal triangle are contained in the following

table. S Mid. Part Equation 1. Z R x s Z =_ 3.Stan. S... x cot. ZP 2. S Rx s =_ };";%: Stan. Z x ;cot. SP tan. Z x

cot. P cos. S x s. SP 4. comp. SP Rxcos. SP = 3. S x cot. P 3. comp. ZP Rxcos. ZP = cos. Z x s. ZP _ Scot. SP x

cot. ZP 5. comp. P R x cos. P = }: S x cos. P 104. When any two parts are given to find a third, the case

may be resolved by the rules in art. 100, or by seeking that equation in the table, which contains the

three parts. If SP and Z.P be given to find the angle P, these three parts are found in case 5, and the

equation is Rx cos. P =cot. SP x cot. PZ; therefore log, cos. P= log, cot. SP+log, cot. PZ 10. - SPHERICAL

TRIGONOMETRY. 107 * 105. Def. The angle opposite to the quadrantal side is called the hypothenusal

angle, and the other parts are called simply the sides and angles. Affections of a Quadrantal Triangle.

106. The sides are of the same kind as their opposite an gles, and conversely. 107. The hypothenusal

angle is greater or less than 90, according as a side and its adjacent angle, or the two sides, or the other

two angles, are like or unlike. - 108. An angle at the quadrant (or arc of 90) is obtuse or acute, according

as its adjacent side and the hypothenusal an gle, or the other angle and the hypothenusal angle, are like

or unlike. 109. A side is greater or less than 90, according as its ad jacent angle and the hypothenusal

angle, or the other side and the hypothenusal angle, are like or unlike. Other Properties of Quadrantal

Triangles. 110. If the hypothenusal angle be 90, one of the other an gles and its opposite side will be

each 90, and the other side and angle will be measured by the same number of degrees. 111. If an

angle, or a side, be 90, the opposite side, or angle, and the hypothenuse will be each 90, and the other

angle and side will be measured by the same number of de eese s. If an angle at the quadrant be less

than the hypothe nusal angle, their sum will be less than 180, and if greater, their sum will be greater

than 180. 113. If a side be less than its opposite angle, their sum will be less than 180; and if greater,

their sum will be greater than 180. 114. The difference of the two sides is less than 90, and their sum is

greater than 90, and less than 270. 115. Each of the three angles is equal to or less than 90, or two

angles are greater than 90, and the third angle is less than 90. 116. The proofs of these properties

follow immediately from the properties of a right-angled spherical triangle (p. 80). If ABC be a spherical

triangle, right-angled at B (fig. p. 80), then its supplemental triangle DEF will have one side DF, 108

SPHERICAL TRIGONOMETRY. opposite to B, equal to 90. and those parts which are of the same or

different affections in the triangle ABC, will have their corresponding parts of the same or different

affections in the triangle DEF. By substituting 180 one side or angle in DEF for the supplemental angle

or side in ABC, we shall obtain the limits of the angles and sides in DEF. Because R x cos. AC = cos. AB x

cos. BC (100), if AC be less than 90, its cosine will be positive; therefore R x cos. AC, or cos. AB x cos. BC,

is positive. Hence AB, BC must be both less or both greater than 90; for in the first case their cosines

will be positive, and in the second negative (35 Pl. Tr.); therefore in both cases their product will be

positive, as it ought. If AC be greater than 90, its cosine is negative; there fore cos. AB X cos. BC is

negative. Hence one of the sides AB, BC must be less than 90, and the other greater; for then the cosine

of one will be negative, and the cosine of the other positive; therefore their product will be negative, as

it ought. Again, R x s. BC =cot. C x tan. AB (100). Now s. BC is always positive, therefore cot. C x tan. AB is

always positive; consequently AB and C must both be less or both greater than 90; for in the first case

the signs of cot. C and tan. AB will be positive, and in the second negative; therefore in both cases their

product will be positive, as it ought. Hence the angles are of the same affections as their opposite sides.

117. Both in right-angled and in quadrantal triangles, if the value of the quantity required be expressed

by its sine, it is impossible to determine whether that quantity ought to be less or greater than a

quadrant; for the sine of an arc is the same as the sine of its supplement (34. Pl. Tr.). Hence the case is

said to be ambiguous. In a right-angled spherical tri angle the case is ambiguous when a side and its

opposite angle are given to find any of the other parts; and in a quadrantal triangle the case is

ambiguous when a side and its opposite angle are given to find any of the other parts, the given side not

being the quadrantal side. In all other cases the ambiguity is taken away by consider ing whether the

sign of the quantity required is positive or negative (110 Pl. Tr.). In the equation R x cos. C = cot. AC x

tan. BC, if the angle C and the side AC be given, and TXC be required, then tan. BC =****** Now if C and

AC be of the same affection, tan. BC is + , and therefore BC is less than 90, but if C and AC be of

different affections, tan. BC is , and therefore BC is greater than 90. SPHERICAL TRIGONOMETRY. 109

In like manner, in all other cases where the quantity required is not expressed by its sine, the cosine,

tangent, and cotangent indicate an arc less or greater than 90, according as the sign of those quantities

is positive or negative. The ambiguity is often taken away by this property of a right-angled spherical

triangle, that the sides are of the same affections as their opposite angles (35). S

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