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IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRY APPLICATIONS, VOL. 28, N O 4.

JULY / AUGUST 1992 I67

Modeling and Analysis of Rural Electric


Distribution Feeders
W. H. Kersting, Fellow, IEEE, and W. H. Phillips

Abstract-The quality of service provided rural electric cus- studies of the system, it is imperative that a program other
tomers can be improved with the accurate modeling and analy- than that used for transmission system power flow studies
sis of a distribution feeder. With the use of an analysis program
developed for a personal computer, it is possible for an engineer
be used. This paper will describe and demonstrate the
to solve existing feeder voltage profile and loss problems and to RDAP that satisfies this need [ 2 ] ,131.
plan feeder additions that will improve the quality of service to
the customers with reduced losses to the cooperative. This paper THERADIAL
DISTRIBUTION PROGRAM
ANALYSIS
describes the accurate model of a distribution feeder and its RDAP models all three phases of a radial system. Any
devices that are incorporated into a radial distribution analysis degree of unbalance caused by loading and/or line con-
program (RDAP) developed for the personal computer. An ex-
ample rural distribution feeder is modeled to demonstrate how figurations is taken into account. The data preparation
the program is used to solve typical design and operational utility provides the following functions:
problems.
Building feeder data files
computation of overhead and underground line
INTRODUCTION impedances and shunt admittances
allocation routine to scale loads to match a given
R
0
ADIAL. distribution systems are characterized by
having only one path for power to flow from the feeder demand.
source (distribution substation) to each customer. A typi- The analysis program has the following three analysis
cal distribution system will consist of one or more distri- routines:
bution substations with each substation consisting of one Radial flow
or more feeders. Each feeder will consist of one or more 0 motor starting
of the following components:
short circuit.
Three-phase primary main feeder
RADIAL
FLOW
three-phase, two-phase (V phase) and single-phase
laterals The radial power flow routine models all three phases
0 step-type voltage regulators of a system with the following attributes:
0 in-line transformers Segments
shunt capacitor banks Radially connected starting with a designated source
three-phase, two-phase, and single-phase spot and 0 may be lines, transformers, or switches (voltage regu-
distributed loads. lators are handled separately).
The loading of a distribution feeder is inherently unbal-
Load Locations
anced because of the large number of unequal single-phase
loads that must be served. An additional unbalance is Spot (at a node point)
introduced by the nonequilateral conductor spacing of the distributed (represented at the center if a line seg-
three-phase overhead and underground lines. ment).
Because of the nature of the distribution system, con- Load Input Data
ventional power flow programs used for transmission sys-
tem studies are not adequate. Such programs display poor kW and kVar
convergence characteristics for radial systems [ 11and make kW and power factor
the basic assumption of a perfectly balanced system. If a kVA and power factor
distribution engineer is to be able to perform accurate REA A and B factors (number of consumers and kW
hr) used with the distributed model only
Paper IPCSD 91-103, approved by the Rural Electric Power Commit- utilization factor (kW hr) used with the distributed
tee of the IEEE Industry Applications Society for presentation at the
1990 IEEE Rural Electric Power Committee Technical Conference.
model only.
Orlando, FL, April 29-May 1. Manuscript released for publication
September 17, 1991.
Load Connections
W. H. Kersting is with the College of Engineering, New Mexico State Either wye (any phase to neutral combination) or
.
University, Las Cruces, NM 88003.

W. H. Phillips is with WH Power Consultants, Las Cruces, NM 88003 delta (any phase to phase combination) configura-
IEEE Log Number 9108225. tions.

0093-9994/92$03.00 0 1992 IEEE

..
768 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRY APPLICATIONS, VOL. 28, NO. 4, JULY / AUGUST 1992

Load Representation Available MOTORSTARTING


Constant real and reactive power The motor starting routine analyzes the system
constant current before, during, and after the startup of an induc-
constant impedance. tion motor. The motor is modeled as a fixed impedance
based on the nameplate rating.
Shunt Capacitors Again, the emphasis is on user interaction. After select-
0 Modeled as constant susceptance either wye or delta
ing this option, the program prompts the for the
connected. node where the motor is to be located as well as its
horsepower rating. The user can call for a solution or
Voltage Regulators adiust a number of parameters that define how the motor
Complete modeling of up to 25 step-type voltage wiil be modeled. Loads and capacitors can even be added,
regulators modified, or deleted.
all possible combinations can be modeled for wye Analysis results that give complete detail of flows and
systems voltages at each bus can be selected. In addition, a sum-
three open-delta models are provided for delta sys- report that presents the bus for each
tems. stage of motor starting is available.
Options for individual tap position control:
SHORTCIRCUIT
Specifying the load center bus voltage to main-
tain and voltage to be held (compensator R and X The short circuit analysis routine uses the same system
settings are calculated by the program) line models as the radial flow routine. Loads are ignored,
specifying the compensator R and X settings and and all voltage regulators are assumed to be in the neutral
voltage level to be held position. In addition, the system source impedance and
specify the tap position. equivalent voltage must be provided. The routine will
determine all possible types of short circuits with and
The program is completely interactive with the user without fault resistance. The output from this routine can
setting the course of analysis for studying a feeder. Among be directed to either the screen or the line printer. The
the items that can be adjusted interactively are the follow- values of the short circuit currents are given in amps and
ing: , degrees.
Loads and capacitors can be added, deleted, or modi-
IEEE 34 Bus RADIAL
REA DISTRIBUTION
FEEDER
fied.
Loads can be globally changed. The application of RDAP will be demonstrated using
All the parameters of the voltage regulators can be the IEEE 34 Bus REA radial distribution feeder [41. This
modified as can the method for determining the tap feeder is characterized by the following:
setting. Load Types
The designated source node can be changed as well
as the voltage at the source. 0 Spot and distributed loads
all wye connected
Output from the program may be directed to either the
all constant kW, kVAr.
screen or a line printer. The user can select all or any
combination of the following output reports: Line Types
System Summary: summarizes the total input complex Three-phase overhead
power, total load complex power, total system losses single-phase overhead
and total shunt capacitance ( a - n, b - n, and c - n).
Bus Voltages: a list of all buses in the system giving
Voltage Regulators-single-phase regulators wye-con-
the voltage magnitude and angle for each phase
physically present at the bus nected
Power Flow: a complete listing of bus voltages, loads Shunt Capacitors-balanced three-phase.
and shunt capacitors, line flows, and losses. The user Substation
may request the line flow output in kilowatts and 0 Three-phase short-circuit MVA and angle at the
kVAR or amps and degrees high-voltage terminals of the substation transformer
Voltage Regulator: listing of the location, load center substation transformer ratings and impedance
bus, compensator settings ( R , X , V-hold, bandwidth) substation transformer output voltages.
and tap positions for all regulators in the system
Line Ouerload: summary of all lines operating above a In-line 24.9- to 4.16-kV autotransformer.
user-designated limit The circuit diagram (which is not to scale) for this
Under/Overvoltuge: summary of all bus voltages oper- feeder is shown in Fig. 1.
ating above or below user selected limits. The substation transformer serving this feeder is rated
KERSTING AND PHILLIPS: MODELING AND ANALYSIS OF RURAL ELECTRIC DISTRIBUTION FEEDERS 769

TABLE I
IEEE 34 Bus RADIAL
REA DISTRIBUTION
SYSTEM
LINESECTIONDATA
BUS BUS LENGTH CONFIG.
A B (FT.) CODE
800 802 2580.0 301
802 806 1730.0 301
806 808 32230.0 301
808 810 5840.0 303
808 812 37500.0 301
812 814 29730.0 301
814 850 10.0 301
816 818 1710.0 302
816 824 10210.0 301
818 820 48150.0 302
820 822 13740.0 302
824 826 3030.0 303
824 828 840.0 301
828 830 20440.0 301
830 854 520.0 301
832 858 4900.0 301
832 888 0.0 55
834 860 2020.0 30 1
834 842 280.0 301
836 840 860.0 301
836 862 280.0 301
842 844 1350.0 301
844 846 3640.0 301
846 848 530.0 301
850 816 310.0 301
852 832 10.0 301
854 856 23330.0 303
854 852 36830.0 301
858 864 1620.0 302
858 834 5830.0 301
860 836 2680.0 301
Fig. 1. 34 bus circuit diagram. 862 838 4860.0 304
888 890 10560.0 300

as follows:
TABLE I1
2500 kVA IEEE 34 Bus RADIAL
REA DISTRIBUTION
SYSTEM
OVERHEAD
LINECONFIGURATIONS
115 delta-24.9 grounded-wye kV ~

Z = 1.0 + jS.O%. CONF


PHASE NEUTRAL
COND COND SPACING
ID PHASING ACSR ACSR ID
The three-phase short circuit MVA on the 115-kV bus ~ _ _ _ ~

300 BACN 1/0 1/0 500


of the substation is 1800 MVA at an angle of 85". 301 BACN #26/1 #26/1 500
The output voltages from the transformer are balanced 302 AN #46/1 #46/1 510
three-phase of a 1.03 per unit. 303 BN #46/1 #46/1 510
304 AN #26/1 #26/1 510
Table I gives the line section data for this system.
Table I1 gives the overhead line configuration codes for
this system. TABLE 111
Spacing ID 500 is for REA VC1 crossarm construction, IEEE 34 Bus RADIAL
REA DISTRIBUTION
FEEDERSHUNTCAPACITORS
and ID 510 is for REA VA1 single-primary support con- BUS PHASE A PHASE B PHASE C
struction [51. Configuration Code 55 is an in-line three- NO. KVAR KVAR KVAR
phase grounded-wye-grounded-wye connected autotrans-
former rated as follows:

150 kVA
24.9-4.16-wye kV
2 = 1.90 + j4.08%. The voltage regulator data for the feeder is shown in
Table VI:
Table I11 gives the shunt capacitor data for this feeder.
Table IV gives the spot load data for this system. DISTRIBUTION
FEEDER
ANALYSIS
Table V gives the line section distributed loads. This The IEEE 34 Radial REA distribution feeder will be
load data is given in number of customers (#) and kWH used to demonstrate how RDAP can be used to improve
and will be converted to kW and kVAr by RDAP using the performance of an existing feeder. Data for the test
the REA A and B Factors [6]. system is the based on actual data of a rural feeder in
~

770 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRY APPLICATIONS, VOL. 28, NO. 4, JULY / AUGUST 1992

TABLE IV tion. A different approach is used in this analysis with the


IEEE 34 Bus RADIALREA DISTRIBUTION
SYSTEM SPOTLOADSAS KW
AND KVAR BEFORE
ALLOCATION
loads derived by allocation without capacitors and regula-
tors. The resulting allocated loads are slightly different
BUS PH-1 PH-1 PH-2 PH-2 PH-3 PH-3
NO. KW KVAR KW KVAR KW KVAR from those given for the IEEE 34 bus test system.
In order to make a fair comparison of the before and
860 24.57 18.43 24.57 18.43 24.57 18.43
840 10.93 8.20 10.93 8.20 10.93 10.93 after cases, the spot and distributed loads are allocated
844 164.69 123.52 164.69 123.52 164.69 123.52 (scaled) to match a given substation kW and kVAR read-
848 24.00 18.00 24.00 18.00 24.00 18.00 ing. To do this allocation, the voltage regulators were
890 33.33 25.00 33.33 25.00 33.33 25.00
* * Total******************************** k e d in the neutral position, and the capacitors were
257.52 193.15 257.52 193.15 257.52 193.15 switched off. RDAP has an allocation procedure where
the metered substation kW and kVAR are input by the
TABLE V user. The distributed loads, which have been specified as
IEEE 34 Bus RADIAL FEEDER
REA DISTRIBUTION LINESECTION number of customers and kWH, are converted to kW and
LOADSBEFOREALLOCATION
DISTRIBUTED kVAR using the REA A and B factors and an assumed
BUS BUS PH-1 PH-1 PH-2 PH-2 PH-3 PH-3 power factor of 0.9 lag. Following this, the analysis pro-
A B # KWH # KWH # KWH gram is run, and the spot and distributed loads are auto-
802 U06 0 0, 68 10375 67 U465 matically scaled until the calculated substation input, in-
808 U10 0 0 7 3415 0 0 cluding losses, is within 1.0% of the specified metered
818 U20 6 7706 0 0 0 0
820 822 101 53860 0 0 0 0 input. For purposes of this paper, the metered input was
U16 824 0 0 1 39 0 0 specified as 1500 kW and 750 kVAR. The results of the
U24 826 0 0 36 14325 0 0 allocation are shown in Table VII.
824 828 0 0 0 0 3 390
828 830 5 1073 0 0 0 0 The individual spot and distributed loads that give the
854 856 0 0 1 500 0 0 totals listed in Table VI1 will be held constant for the
832 858 10 1420 2 127 4 864 remainder of this paper.
858 864 2 69 0 0 0 0
858 834 11 813 15 3205 14 3233
834 860 13 3980 14 5602 104 42985
FEEDER
ORIGINAL ANALYSIS
860 836 16 7844 U 2235 14 12369 With the loads set, the two shunt capacitor banks and
836 U40 4 3294 8 5077 0 0
862 838 34 8840 0 0 0 0 the two voltage regulators were activated, and RDAF was
842 U44 1 1380 0 0 0 0 run assuming a substation output voltage of 1.03 per unit
844 U46 0 0 61 7928 35 6934 (123.6 V on a 120-V base). The radial flow summary is
846 848 0 0 2 3953 0 0
** Total******************************** given in Fig. 2. Note in this summary that the total system
203 90279 223 56781 241 75240 power loss is 147 kW.
The voltage profile of the feeder giving voltages
TABLE VI based on 120 V is shown in Fig. 3. Note the extremely low
VOLTAGE
REGULATOR
DATA and unbalanced voltages at Bus 814. The 113 V on phase
Regulator I d 1 A and the 5-V variation between the phase-A and phased?
Bus A: 814 Bus B: 850 voltages are of concern. Note in this figure that the
Bandwidth Setting: 2.0 V distance of each bus from the substation is listed in the
Three single-phase connected in wye
Phase A Phase B Phase C right-hand column. The most remote three-phase bus
PT Ratio 120.0 120.0 120.0 (Bus 848) is located 35.9 mi from the substation with
CT Ratio 100.0 100.0 100.0 voltages of 124.8, 123.1, and 124.6.
R-Setting 4.2 7.4 9.6
X-Setting 6.2 4.2 4.6 The voltage regulator data is shown in Fig. 4. This
Voltage Level 124.0 124.0 124.0 figure shows the regulator compensator settings and the
Regulator ID. 2 final tap positions. Note that two of the three regulators
Bus A: 852 Bus B: U32
Bandwidth Setting: 2.0 located at Bus 814 have reached their maximum boost
Three single-phase connected in wye position ( + 16).
Phase A Phase B Phase C Space does not permit showing the line flows for this
PT Ratio 120.0 120.0 120.0
C T Ratio 100.0 100.0 100.0 case.
R-Setting 2.1 2.1 2.1 A review of these summary reports indicates that the
X-Setting 1.2 1.2 1.2 feeder has two operational concerns: the voltages at Bus
Voltage Level 124.0 124.0 124.0
814 and the pegging of the regulator taps at Bus 814. Note
also that the feeder is operating at a leading power factor
Arizona. The spot loads listed in Table IV represent at the substation (-108.9 kVAR).
maximum kW and kVAR metered readings, whereas the
distributed loads of Table V came from customer billing FEEDER
MODIFICATION
records for a specific month. The bus and distributed The modification of the feeder will consist of the possi-
loads provided in the IEEE test system are those derived ble replacement of the shunt capacitors and the locations
after allocation with capacitors and regulators in opera- and control settings of the voltage regulators.

r -
KERSTING AND PHILLIPS: MODELING AND ANALYSIS OF RURAL ELECTRIC DISTRIBUTION FEEDERS 771

TABLE VI1 ...............................................................................


- R A D I A L F L 0 I? S U M U A R Y - DATE: 9-17-1991 AT 11:28: 9 HOURS ---
IEEE 34 Bus RADIAL
REA DISTRIBUTION
FEEDERALLOCATED
LOADS IEEE 3 4 BUS RADIAL SYSTEM
.____________________________
ITERATION TIME: 1.60 SECONDS
Feeder Input kW: 557.0 452.8 497.3 1507.1 SYSTM PHASE TOTAL
kVAR: 216.6 223.2 255.2 154.0 K w : 532.620 436.777 463.605 1433.001
-38.651 -108.879
Dist. Loads kW: 272.7 199.1 213.5 685.3 KVAR : -18.479
532.940
-51.749
439.832 465.213 1437.132
KVA :
kVAR: 130.6 95.4 102.3 328.3 PF : -.9994 -.9931 -.9965 -.9971

Spot Loads kW: 200.3 200.3 200.3 600.9 LOAD .O ---WYE-----DELTA--


--(A-N)----(A-B)- --(B-N)----(B-C)- --(C-N)----(C-A)- 1286.0 .O
kVAR: 148.6 148.6 148.6 446.8 Kw : 472.9 .o 399.3 .o 413.7
TOT : 472.950 399.310 413.730 1285.990
Losses kW: 84.0 53.4 83.5 220.9 .o 773.9 0
KVAR : 279.2 .O 243.9 .O 250.8
TOT : 279.170 243.920 250.820 773.910

KVA : 549.2 .O 467.9 .O 483.8 .O 1500.9 0


TOT : 549.197 467.916 483.821 1500.902
Before starting the modification procedure, the ground PF : .a612 ,0000 ,8534 .OOOO .e551 .OOOO ,8568 .OOOO
rules for what will constitute a solved case must be TOT : ,8612 ,8534 ,8551 ,8568

MSSES ------(A)------- -------(B)------- -------(C)------- -----____---------


established. The loads have been specified and modeled at K w : 59.670 37.467 49.875 147.012
WAR : -27.103 -32.455 -20.111 -79.669
the high-voltage terminals of the distribution transform- KVA : 65.537 49.569 53.777 167.211

ers. With this in mind, the acceptable voltage limits at the


load points will be 119 V minimum and 126 V maximum.
These limits are selected so that all voltages at the cus-
tomer meters will be within 5% of 120 V. The minimum
acceptable voltage of 119 is selected, bearing in mind that Fig. 2. Original feeder radial flow summary.
during peak load conditions, there will be additional volt-
age drop (assumed to be 5 V) through the distribution ________-___________-----------------
___ V 0 L T A G E P R 0F I L E
p
----
1
DATE: 9-17-1991 AT 11:28:19 HOURS ----
transformer, secondary, and service drop. IEEE 3 4 BUS RADIAL SYSTM

The second constraint for a solved case is to have the


substation input close to a unity power factor.
The first step in the modification is to remove the shunt 800
802
123.5958
123.3402
AT
AT
.OO
-.07
123.6040 AT -120.00
123.4412 AT -120.06
123.5937
123.3717
AT
AT
120.00
119.95
,000
.489
capacitors and voltage regulators. When RDAP is run, it 806
808
123.1678
119.9375
AT
AT
-.11
-.98
123.3395 AT -120.10
121.5849 AT -120.82
123.2271
120.6097
AT
AT
119.91
119.27
,816
6.920
810 121.5684 AT -120.82
............. 8.027
is observed that the feeder loading is slightly unbalanced 812 116.1897 AT -2.05 119.7080 AT -121.64 117.5034 AT 118.52
814 113.2330 AT -2.92 118.2148 AT -122.29 115.0413 AT 117.92
-557.2, 452.9, and 497.4 kW. An inspection of the feeder 850
816
124.5554
124.5272
AT
AT
-2.92
-2.93
126.3416 AT -122.29
126.3269 AT -122.30
126.5446 AT
126.5214 AT
117.91
117.91
reveals that some of this unbalance can be corrected by 818
820
124.4241
121.7848
AT
AT
-2.93
-3.02
20.038
29.157
reconnecting the single-phase lateral 862-838 from phase 822
824
121.4459
124.0518
AT
AT
-3.03
-3.12 125.7178 AT -122.48 125.7867 AT 117.68
31.760
21.648
826 125.6953 AT -122.48 22.222
a to phase b. With this reconnection, the phase loads are 828 124.0114 AT -3.14 125.6789 AT -122.50 125.7211 AT 117.67 21.807

I 1 I
830 123.0853 AT -3.56 124.6769 AT -122.84 124.2147 AT 117.22 25.678
now 520.3, 493.3, and 493.3 kW. RDAP now shows the 854
856
123.0621 AT -3.57 124.6512
124.6434
AT
AT
-122.85
-122.86
124.1764 AT 117.21 25.777
30.195
following: 852
832
121.4229
125.2169
AT
AT
-4.32
-4.32
122.8463
123.6136
AT
AT
-123.45
-123.45
121.4433 AT
125.2377 AT
116.39
116.39
32.752
32.754
858 125.0389 AT -4.42 123.4046 AT -123.53 124.9239 AT 116.28 33.682
864 125.0387 AT -4.42 33.989
Substation input: 1507 kW and 754 kVAR 834
860
124.8324
124.7879
AT
AT
-4.53
-4.53
123.1650
123.1378
AT
AT
-123.63
-123.62
124.5615 AT
124.4985 AT
116.15
116.16
34.786
35.169
feeder power loss: 219.7 kW 836 124.7435 AT -4.53 123.1236 AT -123.63 124.4801 AT 116.16 35.677

voltages at Bus 890: 100.2, 101.4, 97.8.


840
862
838
124.7396
124.7415
124.7241
AT
AT
AT
-4.53
-4.54
-4.54
123.1198
123.1241
AT
AT
-123.63
-123.63::::I AT
AT
116.16
116.16
35.839
35.730
36.650
842 124.8281 AT -4.54 123.1587 AT -123.63 124.5571 AT 116.15 34.839
844 124.8100 AT -4.56 123.1269 AT -123.66 124.5364 AT 116.12 35.095
The first corrective action is to install some shunt 846
848
124.8447
124.8496
AT
AT
-4.61
-4.61
123.1292
123.1329
AT
AT
-123.71
-123.71
124.5699
124.5756
AT
AT
116.07
116.06
35.784
35.885
capacitors. There are many theories of shunt capacitor 888
890
122.1523
120.2592
AT
AT
-5.09
-5.05
120.5108
118.6816
AT
AT
-124.23
-121.28
122.1684
120.2490
AT
AT
115.62
115.63
32.754
34.754
placement that can be used. One such theory is to install
capacitors at the bus with the lowest voltages and that the Fig. 3. Original feeder voltage profile.
capacitor ratings should equal the total substation input
kVAR. Applying that theory, 250-kVAR/phase capacitors p 1 .....................................
____________________----------------
are installed at Bus 890. The results are terrible. The ___--______
VOLTAGE REGULATOR
IEEE 34 BUS IUDIAL SYSTM
DATA ---- DATE: 9-17-1991 AT 11:28:31 HOURS --
system loss climbs to 381.6 kW, and the voltages at Bus ...............................................................................
VRG-ID( 1) CNCT-ID( 7) O F T ( 2) FROM( 814) TO( 850) BDWIDTH(2.00 VOLTS)
890 rise to 137.1, 142.9, and 136.1. ........................................................................
PHASE LDCTR VOLT HOLD R-VOLT X-VOLT PT RATIO CI RATE TAP
1 0 124.000 4.2000 6.2000 120.00 100.00 16
A better theory of capacitor placement is to install 2
3
0
0
124.000
124.000
7.4000
9.6000
4.2000
4.6000
120.00
120.00
100.00
100.00
11
16
capacitors along the feeder so that they will supply the VRG-ID( 2) CNCT-ID( 7) OPT( 2) FROM( 852) TO( 832) BDWIDTH(2.00 VOLTS)
reactive power requirements of the loads. Scanning the ........................................................................
PHASE LDCTR VOLT HOLD R-VOLT X-VOLT PT RATIO CT RATE TAP
1 0 124.000 2.1000 1.2000 120.00 100.00 5
line flows of the system without any capacitors reveals the 2
3
0
0
124.000
124.000
2.1000
2.1000
1.2000
1.2000
120.00
120.00
100.00
100.00
1
5
reactive power flows into Bus 834 are 159.4, 185.8, and
208.4 kVAR. This suggests that 200-kVAR/phase might Fig. 4. Original feeder voltage regulator data.
be installed at Bus 834. When this is done, the voltage
profile is improved, but the lowest bus voltages are 103.5,
105.2, and 101.4 at Bus 890. kVAR input at the substation to be 754 kVAR. Again,
Keeping in mind that it is desired to have the substation scanning the line flows reveals that the reactive power
operate at near unity power factor, an additional 150 flow into Bus 816 are 83.0, 53.5, and 81.2 kVAR. Capaci-
kVAR of capacitors can be placed. This figure comes tors of 50-kVAR/phase are installed at Bus 816.
from the first run with no capacitors that showed the With a total of 750 kVAR of capacitors installed, the
~

772 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRY APPLICATIONS, VOL. 28, NO. 4, JULY / AUGUST 1992

feeder still has severe low voltages. The lowest of these


are 104.0, 105.7, and 101.9 at Bus 890. Since the input at
the substation is now only 87 kVAR, no further placement
of capacitors will be attempted. 123.5857 AT 120.00 .ooo
In order to correct the low-voltage problems, automatic 123.3477
123.1925
AT
AT
119.96
119.93
.489
,816
120.3724 AT 119.46 6.920
tap changing voltage regulators will be installed along the 8.027
14.023
117.0065 AT 118.91
feeder. Bearing in mind the lowest acceptable bus voltage 114.3433 A
111.3424
ATT
118.47
118.47
19.653
19.655
is 119 V, the voltage profile of the system is scanned 114.3146 AT 118.47 19.714
20.038
29.157
looking for the first three-phase bus out of the substation 822 109.8912 AT -2.25 31.760
115.5776 AT -122.09 113.3806 AT 118.30 21.618
112.7682 AT -2.24
where the voltage has dropped to 119 V or lower. The 824
826 115.5531 AT -122.09
113.2944 AT 118.28
22.222
21.807
828 112.7208 AT -2.25 115.5089 AT -122.10
voltage profile with the two installed capacitor banks is 830 111.6483 AT
8 5 4 111.6214 AT
-2.50
-2.51
114.0058
113.9674
AT
AT
-122.33
-122.34
111.3879 A T
111.3394 AT
117.94
117.94
25.678
25.777
30.195
shown in Fig. 5. 856
109.7098 AT -2.95
113.9574
111.2416
AT
AT
-122.34
-122.74 107.8700 AT 117.31 32.752
832 109.7093 AT
852 111,2408 AT -122.74 107 .E690 AT 117.31 32.754
In Fig. 5, note that the voltages at Bus 812 have 858 109.4952 AT
-2.95
-3.01 110,9137 AT -122.79 107.4515 AT 117.22 33.682
33.989
864 109.4951 AT -3.01
dropped below 119 V. These voltages can be raised by 834 109.2461 AT -3.00 110.5318
110.1809
AT -122.86
AT -122.86
106.9667
106,8975
AT
AT
117.11
117.11
34.786
35.169
860 109.2110 AT -3.08
installing a voltage regulator at Bus 808. 836 109,1808 AT
840 109.1763 AT
-3.07
-3.07
110,4375
110.1334
AT -122.86
AT -122.86
106.8822
106.8805
AT
AT
117.11
117.11
35.677
35.839
106.8827 AT 117.11 35.730
In a step-type voltage regulator, the tap settings are 862 109.1807 AT
838
-3.07 110.4352
110.4084
AT -122.86
AT -122.86 36.650
110.5169 AT -122.86 106.9534 AT 117.12 34.839
842 109.2339 AT -3.08
determined by the compensator settings that consist of 844 109.1777 AT -3.07 110.4152
110,3887
AT -122.86
AT -122.86
106.8899
106.8662
AT
AT
117.12
117.12
35.095
35.784
846 109.1594 AT -3.06
the equivalent R and X values to the load center, the 848 109.1565 AT
888 106.1530 AT
-3.06
-3.97
110.3812
107.7374
AT -122.86
AT -123.73
106.8637
104.2340
AT
AT
117.12
116.25
35.885
32.754
101.9259 116.25 34.754
bandwidth, and the desired voltage to hold at the load 890 103.9846 AT -3.94 105.7093 AT -123.78

center. RDAP has an option that will determine the


Fig. 5. Capacitor only corrected voltage profile.
correct R and X settings when a load center bus is
designated. To determine the load center, again, the
voltage profile of Fig. 5 is scanned looking for the first bus ~
-
~ ~ ~
R A D I A L P L 0U S U UN A R Y -
.
DATE:
_ ~
9-17-1991 AT 12: 3:39 HOURS
~
---
~ ~

downstream from Bus 808 where the voltage has dropped IEEE 34 BUS RADIAL SYSTEM

ITERATION TIME: .70 SECONDS


an additional 5 V. This bus is found to be Bus 824 (phase SYSTEM PHASE PHASE PHASE TOTAL

b = 115.6 V).
A voltage regulator is installed at Bus 808 with Bus 824
designated as the load center, RDAP determines that the
R and X settings for the regulator should be R = 20 V,
and X = 10 V. WAR :
TOT z
266.7
266.710
.O 256.8
256.810
.O 251.0
251.040
.O 774.6
774.560
.O

These settings are based on the PT ratio of 120:l and KVA : 520.4 .O 497.6
497.558
.O 484.2
484.243
.O 1502.2
1502.180
.O
TOT : 520.385
CT rating of 100 A. The bandwidth was set at 2 V, and the PP : ,8587 .
0000 ,8565 ,0000 .E551 .0000 ,8568 .OOOO
desired voltage level set at 122 V. TOT : .8587 ,8565 ,8551 ,8568

MSSES ------(A)------- -------(8)------- -------(C)------- ------------------


With the regulator installed and the tap settings deter- K w : 47.564 44.346 45.717 137.627
-88.360
KVAR : -36.330 -31.842 -20.188
mined by the compensator setting, the feeder voltage 54.594 49.976 163.550

.I .I .I
KVA : 59.852

profile is greatly improved. The voltages at Bus 824 are U p A C --(A-N)----(A-B)- --(B-N)----(B-C)- --(C-N)----(C-A)- ---HYE-----DELTA--
R-KVA: 250.0 .O 250.0 .O 250.0 .O 750.0 .O
TOT : 250.000 250.000 250.000 750.000
being held at 122 V as desired. Bus 890 continues to
A-WA: 268.4 270.3 270.8 809.5 .O
display the lowest voltages (114.4, 114.1, and 111.8). In TOT : 268.397 270.285 270.784 809.466

addition, the voltages at Bus 848 are slightly low (119.2,


Fig. 6 . Optimized system radial flow summary.
118.4, and 116.3). A n additional voltage regulator is going
to be needed to correct these problems.
A n inspection of the feeder shows that Bus 890 is at the the bus voltages were raised by the regulators, the kVAR
end of a 2-mi-long 4.16-kV lateral. The feeder has an output of the capacitors was also raised. With the capaci-
in-line stepdown autotransformer connected between tors operating slightly above rated voltage, they now sup-
Buses 832 and 888. In order to raise the voltage at Bus ply more than the 750-kVAR nameplate rating. It would
890, it will be necessary to boost the high-side voltage of be possible to consider removing some capacitors, but
the autotransformer at Bus 832. The installation of a since the original feeder had 750 kVAR installed, no
regulator at Bus 852 should make this possible. For this further fine tuning will be done.
regulator, the compensator R and X settings will be set to The final solved case reports are shown in Fig. 6
zero and the desired voltage level set at 125 V. This will (radial flow summary), Fig. 7 (voltage profile), and Fig. 8
cause the voltage regulator to adjust taps to keep the (voltage regulator data). Note that the feeder loss is 137.6
regulator output voltage to 125 V. By doing this, the input kW (down from the original 147.0 kW). Not only are all
voltage to the autotransformer will be boosted, as will all the bus voltages within the specified limits, but there are
other bus voltages downstream from the regulator. also no drastic voltage unbalances. The worst voltage
With the installation of the regulator at Bus 852, all bus unbalance is at bus 852, where there is a 1.95 voltage
voltages on the feeder are within the 119- to 126-V limits. variation between phase a and phase c. This is much
The only violation of the constraints is that the input improved over the 5-V variation of the original system. No
reactive power at the substation is now -123 kVAR. As voltage regulators are approaching their maximum tap
KERSTING AND PHILLIPS: MODELING AND ANALYSIS OF KUKAI. ELECTKIC DlSTKlBUTlON FEEDERS 773

___ V 0L T A G E P R 0F I L E ---- DATE: 9-17-1991 AT 12: 4: 8 HOURS ----


one voltage regulator. In addition, the compensator set-
IEEE34 BUS RADIAL SYSTEU
______._______._________________________----.------------- tings of the regulators were changed.
I P H A S E A - N I P H A S E B - N I P H A S E C - N UILES
FROU
SUB
Further studies of the feeder are possible using RDAP.
___-..
Voltage flicker as the result of starting induction motors
AT .ooo
800
802
123.6009
123.3696
AT
AT
.OO
-.06
123.5997
123.4093
AT
AT
-120.00
-120.06
123.5973
123.3845 AT
120.00
119.94 ,489 and short circuit analysis are two such studies. Space
806 123,2134 AT -.lo 123.2891 AT -120.10 123.2462 AT 119.91 .816
808 120.2835 AT -.91 121.1915
121.1749
AT
AT
-120.88
-120.88
120.7463 AT 119.22 6.920
8.027
limitations did not allow the inclusion of these studies in
810
812
814
125.3708
122.8426
AT
AT
-1.76
-2.45
125.8374
124.1164
AT
AT
-121.67
-122.30
125.5130
123.3016
AT
AT
118.52
117.95
14.023
19.654
this paper.
850 122.8417 AT -2.45 124.1158 AT -122.30 123.3008 AT 117.95 19.655
816
818
122.8154
122.7106
AT
AT
-2.45
-2.46
124.0979 AT -122.31 123.2777 AT 117.95 19.714
20.038 REFERENCES
820 120.0288 AT -2.55 29.157
822 119.6845 AT
~~

AT
-2.56
~

-2.59 123.3289 AT -122.47 122.4975 AT 117.74


31.760
21.648
C. Trevino, Cases o f difficult convergence in load-flow problems,
(123.3059 AT -122.47 22.222 IEEE Paper N.71-6?-PWR, presented at Summer Power h4tg., LOS
AT -2.60 123.2749 AT -122.48 122.4300 AT 117.73 21.807
AT -2.90 121.9583 A6 -122.78 120.8293 AT 117.33 25.678 Angeles, CA. 1970.
AT AT 120.7886 AT 117.32 25.777
-2.91 121.9247
121.9163 AT
-122.78
-122.79 30.195 W. H. Kersting and D. L. Mendive, A n application of ladder
AT
AT
-3.43 119.5475 AT -123.29 117.8855 AT
125.9893 AT
116.58
116.58
32.752
32.754
network theory to the solution of three-phase radial load-flow
832 125.0787 -3.43 125.5242 AT -123.29
858 124.9097 AT -3.50 125.2545 AT -123.36 125.6640 AT 116.49 33.682 problcms, IEEE Conf. Paper, presented at the Winter Power Mtg.,
864 124.9096 AT -3.50 33.989
834 124.7143 AT -3.58 124.9417 AT -123.43 125.2882 AT 116.38 34.786 New York, NY, Jan. 1976.
860
836
124.6831
124.6565
AT
AT
-3.58
-3.58
124.8968
124.8585
AT
AT
-123.43
-123.43
125.2295
125.2168
AT
AT
116.38
116.38
35.169
35.677
W. H. Kersting and W. H. Phillips, A radial three-phase powcr
840 124.6525 AT -3.57 124.8548 AT -123.43 125.2154 AT 116.38 35.839 flow program for the PC, Conf. Paper, presentcd at 1987 Fron-
862 124.6563 AT -3.57 124.8565 AT -123.43 125.2173 AT 116.38 35.730
838 124.8329 AT -123.43 36.650 tiers Power Conf., Stillwater, OK. Oct. 1987.
842 124.7037 AT -3.58 124.9287 AT -123.43 125.2770 AT 116.38 34.839
844 124.6540 AT -3.57 124.8652 AT -123.43 125.2234 AT 116.39 35.095 Radial distrihution test feedcrs, IEEE Distribution Planning
846
848
124.6378
124.6353
AT
AT
-3.57
-3.57
124.8152
124.8113
AT
AT
-123.43
-123.43
125.2037
125.2016
AT
AT
116.39
116.39
35.784
35.885
Working Group Rep., IEEE Trans. Power App. Syst., vol. 6, pp.
888 122.0128 AT -4.20 122.4682 AT -124.05 122.9421 AT 115.83 32.754 975-985, Aug. 1991.
890 120.1174 AT -4.17 120.6851 AT -124.09 121.0186 AT 115.83 34.754
Specifications and drawings for 14.4/24.9 kV line construction,
REA Form 803, Rural Electrification Admin.
Fig. 7. Optimized system voltagc profile. Demand tahles. REA Bulletin 45-2, Rural Electrification Ad-
min., June 1963.

___________
IEEE 34 BUS
VOLTAGE REGULATOR DATA
RADIAL S Y S T M
---- DATE: 9-17-1991 AT 12: 4:12 HOURS --
__________--__---_______________________-------.------.----- W. H . Kersting (SM64pF89) was horn in Santa
VRG-ID( 1) CNCT-ID( 71 OPT( 2) FROU( 808) TO( 812) BDWIDTH(2.00 VOLTS)
........................................................................ Fe, NM. He received the B.S.E.E. degree from
PHASE LDCTR VOLT HOLD R-VOLT X-VOLT PT RATIO CT RATE TAP
1 0 122.000 20.0000 10.0000 120.00 100.00 11 New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, and
2 0 122.000 20.0000 10.0000 120.00 100.00 9 the M.S.E.E. degree from Illinois Institute of
_ _ _ _ ~ ~ ~ 0~ ~ _ _ _ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
3 122.000 20.0000 10.0000 120.00 100.00 10
_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ ~ ~ Technology.
~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~
VRG-ID( 21 CNCT-ID( 7) OPT( 21 .
FROUl . 8521 TO1 832) BDWIDTHf2.00 VOLTS1
........................................................................ He joined the faculty at New Mexico State
PIWSE LDCTR VOLT HOLD R-VOLT X-VOLT PT RATIO CT RATE TAP
1 0 125.000 .OOOO .OOOO 120.00 100.00 7
University in 1962 and is currently Professor of
2
3
0
0
125.000
125.000
,0000
,0000
.OOOO
.OOOO
120.00
120.00
100.00
100.00
8
11
Electrical Engineering and Director of the Elec-
tric Utility Management Program there. Prior to
Fig. 8. Optimized system voltagc regulator data joining NMSU, hc was employed as a distrihu-
tion engineer by El Paso Electric Company.
Mr. Kersting is a member o f E t a Kappa Nu and Tau Beta Pi. He has
been an active member of the IEEE Power Engineering Societys Power
positions. This indicates that the feeder load can grow and Engineering Education Committee. serving as Chairman of the commit-
the regulators will continue to hold the voltages within tee and several subcommittees.
limits. As a matter of fact, RDAP was run with the loads
projected to grow at a 3% rate for 10 yr, and only at the
tenth year do the regulators finally hit their maximum tap
position. W. H. Phillips is a native of Las Cruces, NM. He
received the B.S.E.E. and M.S.E.E. degrees from
New Mexico State University in 1972 and 1979.
CONCLUSION He has worked in the planning and operations
The radial distribution analysis program has been used areas for electric utilities from 1972 to 1984,
both in the United States and overseas. He was
to demonstrate how an existing feeders performance can a researcher at NMSU from 1987 through 1Y88.
be improved. In the case studied, it was shown that the He is currently a partner in WH Power Consul-
overall voltage profile was improved and the feeder power tants.
losses reduced by relocating shunt capacitor banks and