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Review Notes: Building Materials - Paints & Protective Coatings, Hardware


Paint a mixture consisting of vehicles or binders, with or without coloring pigments, adjusted and
diluted with correct amounts and types of additives and thinners, which when applied on a surface,
forms an adherent continuous film which provides protection, decoration, sanitation, identification and
other functional properties.

Components of an oil base paint are:

1. body that solid, finely ground material which gives a paint the powder to hide, as well as color
a surface.
2. vehicle a nonvolatile fluid in which the solid body material is suspended. The vehicle should
consists of from 85 to 90 percent drying oil and the remainder thinner and drier.
3. pigment material which give the paint its color
4. thinners are volatile solvents, materials which have a natural affinity for the vehicle in the
paint. They cause the paint to flow better. Most common thinner is turpentine.
5. driers organic salts of various metals such as iron, zinc, cobalt, lead manganese, and calcium,
which are added to the paint to accelerate the oxidation and hardening of the vehicle.

Varnishes a group pf more-or-less transparent liquids which are used to provide a protective surface
coating, at the same time they allow the original surface to show but add a lustrous and glossy finish to

Enamels when pigment is added to a varnish, the result is enamel.

Shellac the only liquid protective coating containing a resin of animal origin. The resin is an exudation
of the lac insect of India and Southeast Asia, deposited on the branches of the tree.
Lacquers a new product made from synthetic materials to take the place of varnish for clear finishes.
The ingredients are dissolved in a mixture of volatile solvents which evaporate, leaving a film to form the
protective coating. When another class of material, pigments are added to clear lacquer, the result is
lacquer enamel, available in wide range of colors.

Stains materials used to apply color to wood surfaces. They are intended to impart color without
concealing or obscuring the grain and not to provide a protective coating.

Fillers are finishing materials which are used on wood surfaces, particularly those with open grain, to
fill the pores and provide a perfect smooth, uniform surface for varnish or lacquer. It is also used to
impart color to the wood pores and so emphasize the grain.
Sealers to seal the surface of the wood and prevent the absorption of succeeding finish coats. It may
be applied to bare wood in essentially the same way as paste filler but has much less filling capacity.

Silicone Water Repellant used on all non-painted concrete, synthetic finishes, rubble, brick, and wash-
out finishes as a protection from absorption of water and prevent moss, alkali, fungi to destroy the


Hardware metal products used in construction, such as bolts, hinges, locks, tools. Etc. they are
classified as:

Finishing hardware hardware such as hinges, catches, etc. that has a finished appearance as well as
function, especially that used with doors, windows, and cabinets, maybe considered part of the
decorative treatment of a room or building.

Rough hardware in building construction, hardware meant to be concealed, such as bolts, nails,
screws, spikes, rods, and other metal fittings.

Types of Doors:

Flush a smooth surface door having faces which are plane conceal its rails and stiles or other structure
when used inside, it is of hollow core when used for exterior, it is of solid core.

Panel door a door having stiles, rail and sometimes muntins, which form one or more frames around
recessed thinner panels.

Overhead Swing-up door a rigid overhead door which opens as an entire unit.

Overhead Roll-up garage door - a door which, when open, assumes a horizontal position above the door
opening, made of several leaves.

Roll-up door a door made up of small horizontal interlocking metal slats which are guided in a track;
the configuration coils about an overhead drum which is housed at the head of the opening, either
manual or motor-driven.

Accordion door a hinge door consisting of a system of panels which are hung from an overhead track.

Bi-fold door one of two or more doors which are hinged together so that they can open and fold in a
confined space.
Revolving door an exterior door consisting of four leaves which pivot about a common vertical axis
within a cylindrically shape vestibule, prevents the direct passage of air through the vestibule, thereby
eliminating drafts from outside.

Sliding door a door mounted on track which slides I a horizontal direction usually parallel to one wall.

By-passing sliding door a sliding door which slides to cover a fixed door of the same width or another
sliding door.

Sliding pocket door a door which slides inside a hollow of the wall.

Dutch door a hinge door which is divided into two. The upper part can be opened while the lower
portion is closed.

Example of Finishing Hardware:

Hinge - a movable joint used to attach support and turn a door about a pivot, consists of two plates
joined together by a pin which the door and connect it to its frame, enabling it to swing open or closed.

1. Butt hinge consists of two rectangular metal plates which are joined with a pin. In large hinge,
the pin is removable, in small hinges, it is fixed.
2. Fast pin hinge a hinge I which the pin is fastened permanently in place.
3. Full surface hinge a hinge designed for attachment on the surface of the door and jamb
without mortising.
4. Loose joint hinge a door hinge having two knuckles, one of which has vertical pin that fits in a
corresponding hole in the other, by lifting the door up, off the vertical pin, the door maybe removed
with unscrewing the hinge.
5. Loose pin hinge a hinge having a removable pin which permits its two parts to be separated.
6. Paumelle hinge a type of door hinge having a single joint of the pivot type, usually of modern
7. Olive knuckle hinge a paumelle hinge with knuckles forming an oval shape.
8. Spring hinge a hinge containing one or more springs, when a door is opened, the hinge returns
it to the open position automatically, may act in one direction only, or in both directions.
9. Vertical spring pivot hinge a spring hinge for a door which is mortised into the heel of the
door, the door is fastened to the floor and door head with pivots.

Example of Rough Hardware:

CW- common wire nail with head and for strength; box nail also used for strength.

FIN finishing nail without head; casing nail also without head.
Screws classified by gauge (diameter), length, head-type, and metallic make-up.

Bolts have threaded shafts that receive nuts. To use them, a hole is drilled, pushing the bolt through
and adding a nut.

Flush bolt a door bolt so designed that when applied it is flush with the face or edge of the door.

Chain door fastener a device attached to a door and its jamb limits the door opening to the length of
the chain.

Lockset a complete lock system including the basic locking mechanism and all the accessories, such as
knobs, escutcheons, plates, etc.

Latch a simple fastening device having a latch bolt, but not a dead bolt containing no provisions for
locking with a key, usually can be open from both sides.
Lift latch a type of door latch which fastens a door by means of a pivoted bar that engages a hook on
the door jamb, a lever which lifts the pivoted bar used to unfasten the door.

Button - a small rejecting member used to fasten the frame of a door or window.

Knob a handle, more or less spherical usually for operating a lock.

Escutcheon a protective plate surrounding the keyhole of a door switch or a light switch.

Plates a thin flat sheet of material

Strikes a metal plate or box which is et in a door jamb and is either placed or recessed to receive the
bolt or latch of a lock, fixed on a door.

Lip strike the projection from the side of a strike plate which the bolt of a lock strikes first, when a
door is closed; projects out from the side of the strike plate to protect the frame.

Hasp a fastening device consisting of a loop or staple and a slotted hinge plate normally secured with a

Key-padlock a device which fastens in position maybe operated by a key.

Hasplock a kind of hasp that has a built-in locking device which can be opened only with a key.

Friction catch any catch which when it engages a strike, is held in the engaged position by friction.
Magnetic catch a door catch flat that uses a magnet to hold the door in a closed position.

Bullet catch a fastener which holds a door in place by means of a projecting spring arctuated steel hall
which is depressed when the door is closed.

Hospital arm pull a handle for opening a hospital door without the use of hands, by hooking an arm
over the handle.

Panic exit device fire exit bolt a door locking device used on exit doors; the door latch releases when a
bar, across the inside of the door is pushed.

Eye bolt a bolt having its head in the form of a loop or eye.

Concrete insert a plastic, wood fiber, or metal usually leads plug either built in a wall or ceiling or
inserted by drilling, used as an anchor or support to hold attached load.

Hook bolt a bolt having one end in the form of a hook.

Door stopper to prevent the door with its lockset from harming the wall or tiles.