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# Youngs Modulus

## What is stress? Give its unit.

The force applied on a body per unit area is known as stress. Its unit is N/m2.

## What is strain? Give its unit.

The ratio of change in dimension to original dimension is called strain. It is a ratio, hence it has
no unit.

What is elasticity?
The property of the body to regain its original shape and size, after the removal of the applied
stress.

## What are the factors affecting the elasticity of a material?

Effect of stress Effect of change in temperature Effect of Impurities Effect of hammering, rolling
and annealing Effect of crystalline nature.

## What is uniform bending?

The beam is loaded uniformly on its both ends, the bent forms an arc of a circle and elevation is
made on the beam. This bending is called uniform bending.

## What are the elastic bodies?

The bodies which regains its original shape or size after removal of the deforming force are
called elastic bodies.

## Define the term Youngs modulus.

Youngs modulus is defined as the ration of longitudinal stress to the longitudinal strain.

## State Hooks law?

It states that within the elastic limit, the stress generated within the body is proportional to the
strains. Stress/strain = constant.

## What is modulus of elasticity?

The ratio of stress to strain is a constant and is known as modulus of elasticity.

## What is Youngs modulus?

Youngs modulus is defined as the ratio of the longitudinal stress to the longitudinal strain.

What is a beam?
When the length of the rod of uniform cross-section is very large compared to its breadth such
that the shearing stress over any section of the rod can be neglected, the rod is called a beam

## How the longitudinal strain and stress produces?

Due to depression, the upper or concave side of the beam becomes smaller than the lower or
convex side of the beam, As a result longitudinal strain is produced. The change in length will be
dure to forces acting along the length of the beams. These forces will give rises to longitudinal
stress.

How do you ensure that in your experiment your elastic limit is not exceeded?
The consistency in the readings of depression both for increasing and decreasing the loads
indicates that in the elastic limit is not exceeded.

## What do you mean by neutral layer of bend beam?

When a beam is bent, its top surface becomes concave while the bottom surface becomes
convex. Between the two surfaces of the bent beam there is a layer, whose length remains
unaltered. This is called neural layer.

What is the change produced in depression when the thickness of the bar is doubled?
If thickness is doubled, then the depression is reduced to 1/8 of its previous value.

What is the change produced in depression when the breadth of the bar is doubled?
If breadth is doubled, then the depression is reduced to l/2 of its previous value.

Which dimension breadth, thickness, or length of the bar should be measured very
carefully and why?
The thickness of the bar should be measured very carefully since its magnitude is small and it
occurs in the expression in the power of three. An inaccuracy in the measurement of the
thickness will produce the greatest proportional error in Youngs modulus.

Newton/m^2