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Jnstitute of Open and


6 fuErug
(Communication Skitls &
Personality Development)




(Communication Skills & Personality
rPGDcAs, 4FEftrFr fuq w *lE Edt

Edition: .luly 2015

Compiled, reviewed and edited by subiect Expert team @ aisect

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Section - A

Chapter l
Chapter 2 Listenang

Chapter 3 Speech
............... lt-13
Chapter 4 Prcnunciation ..........

Chapter 5 Reading
Chapter 6 Spelling.......
Chapter 7 WriUng Right
............. 27-38
Chapter I Developing Ability of euestion and
Ansrer. ...39-42
Chapter 9 Body language and Its Use in Speaking..
Chapter 10 Grcup Discussions
Chapter 11 Intervierr Skitts
................ 48-50
Chapter 12 I{ouns : Countabte and Uncountabte....................................
Chapter t3 Pronouns : personat, RelaUve and Others........
Chapter 14

Chapter 15

Chapter t6 The PreposiUons.......................

Chapter 17 Clauses : Coordinate, Suboldinate, Relative Adverbs """"" 11 1'Ir3

Chapter 18 Adiectives and Adiective Phrases........ 114-120

chapter 79 verb ........... t,2l't,24

Chapter 20 The Modal Auxiliaries

Chapter 27 Adverb, Adverb Phrases Comparisons and 129-134

Intensification................... """""
Chapter 22 Linking Devices

Agreement......"""""""-"""""":' 142-A45
Chapter 23 Subiect Verb
Chapter 24 Tenses........

trrorc........... 162't75
Chapter 25 Common
Chapter 26
Chapter 27 Vocabulary
Chapter 28 Synonyms, antoiryms and Homonyms """-"-"'

Sedion ' B ComPosition

Chapter 1 Making a Technlcal RePort
Chapter 2 E-Mails and Text Messages Composing
ChaPter 3 Letter Wrl6ng
Chapter 4 ParagraPh Writing
Chapter 5 E-mail Writing

Chapter 6 Writing Resume ""'232'233

Chapter 7 Writing a Cover Letter
Section A : GRAMMAR Section A : Grammar

English Language NOTES

Language is the means by which human beings communicate their thoughts,

feelings and various emotions to other human beings. The sign languagei
those means of communication where the body, face, fingers movements
gestures are used. In course of time man has modified and developed
these as
witnessed in the elaborate sign language of the indigenous communities
tribals from Americ4 Australia, Africa and India. They use smoke and coloured
flags to deliver a messages. Traffic signals where hand movements coordinate
with the light arc of great significance the world over. For acquiring a driving
license knowledge of these communication system is a essentiat. Importance
these sign language lies in communicating without a spoken or written
When a hunter lost or injured in the woods seeks heip, he fires three shots
from his gun-he is calling for help. When a truck driveiabout to be passed by
a faster truck blinks his lights, it means "safe to pass". Thus the firc signal used
by ancient Romans, smoke puffs used by the American Indians and smoke
used by African tribes were all the telegraphic or instant communication.
Persians led by Xerxes at sea first used the signal flags. shakespeare in
book "The comedy of errors" wrote,
"We discovered two ships from a far making amain to us.',
He was aware of ships signals. At that time the signal demanding surrender was
called "waving amain" derived from a Spanish word meaning iower the sails.
Communication Skills & The simplest of the sound language are the groan, cries and exclamations. The
Personality Development exclamations like "ooh","ah" and "ouch" convey very specified meaning. Be-
sides, mimicking the sound created by the birds and animals was also a very
convenient mode of communication adopted by man. Man uses the most elaborate
NOTES of the sound languages that is speech. When the speech is accompanied by
various body gestures , facial expressions ; it becomes a combination of signs
and sound. And the communication becomes more effective'
How? When ? and Where ? of language is not known , yet , people have
made guess ever since the time of Greeks and Egyptians. Linguists are the
scientists who study languages and they believe that it is not worthwhile to
srudy ancient langunges to find out about origin of languages' Since, man has
Ueen tiving in groups and communities for million of years, language must
be that old. Therefore, language must have been existing thousand of
before its oldest record is available. The oldest record available of a language
is approximately 8000 Years old.
It is estimated that more than 3000 known languages exist today' Some of
these are no longer spoken and are known only from written records'
the most
languages are spoken in course of day to day life' However' English
wid-espiead of all these languages, followed by Chinese' Most of
the languages
spoken can be traced to a common source of language' All the languages
derived from one common source or ancestor belong to one family of lan-
guages. English is a member of Indo-European family of languages'
i*gliug"t b-elonging to this family are French , Italian, German'
and each,La aruuiian-. These languages are different from one another
tu,tot" rcu*t separately. Yet, ihere is abundant proof that they all came from
an common ancestral language.

Language changes constantly, the socio-political upheavals

and other significant
ir,roou"-" new words. During world war I I words like- blitz,
radar and
jeep became a part of English language' With the, exploration of the outer
,pu"" n"* ,"or& rk" astronaut, coimonaut, spaceship' count down and
off huu" been added to the language. Over the years English language has
added words like television, medicare which are derived
from Latin and Greek'
Freeway is derived from two English words' Further spoken languages
the language de-
Whereas, the written languages change rather slowly' When
u"iop, *ri,,"n literature ' itilows down change even more' It is to be noted
. here that pronunciation changes more rapidly than !o9s
the written form of a
t*guug". Thit is because of English literature, English words today are spelled
*r".ft i'. they were spelled 500 years ago but they are pronounced with new
foreigners learning English have trouble spelling words like cough'
bough, buy, women, deaf, knight' and knee'
To leam English one must know the difference in intonation and
lot of prac-
of different countries. To understand each of them would call for
It is estimated that more than 270 million people speak english. It is the prin- Section A : Grammar
cipal language of Great Britain, Canada, the United States, New Zealand,
Australia and South Africa. Besides , it has great importance in international
affairs. In many countries English is used as second language in the schools.

The first period of English, from +OO to tiSO is called otd English or
The literature of this period is called Old English or Anglo_Saxon. The
Anglo-Saxon or Old English literature was quite different from the English
which is used today. The Angles, Saxons and Jutes brought with ilem
songs and poems that reflected their lives as warriors. However, this formed
the oral tradition of these peopre . By 6r century Romans introduced
o,,ly christianity in England but also Latin Alphabets. with the introduc-
tion of alphabets the Anglo-Saxons wrote their history and poems.
the spread of christianity the poetry dealt less with heroic deeds
of the
warriors and more with biblicar subjects. The most important
of these
poeins is about the Beowulf. The other poems which
still exist are the
religious lyrics written by Cynewutf and a hymn by a yorkshire
farm hand
named Caedmon. Anglo-Saxon Chronicle is the major
surviving prose
work of this period, it had been written by rhe monks.
By 1066 *iitiurn
of Normandy conquered the Anglo-saxons and Norman French
the language of the court and polite society. French was
taught in the
monastery schools, native poetry almost disappeared.
Old Eri lish was
spoken only by middle and lower classes of thi society.

The period from I 150 to I 500 is called period of Middle
During the middle English period , rhe literature was writren
in Latin,
French, and English. Latin was the language mainly
of scholars and writ_
ers..Most of the poetry during this period was written
in French. The
writing in English was mainly religious and was intended
for less educated
people. Gradualry English language was taken over
by the court and the
scholars. By 14 th century English was wefl estabrished
in coun and 6ut-
s.i{. During this period ttre statesman Geoffrey Chaucer was writing
in English and prodrced firsl ereat wo* of Enghstr ftLranre.His Cante6ur]
Tales a collection of stories in verse is famoui.
OrcckYour hrogrces
1. Write down the first
The grammar of modgrn English has been simplified. period of Enslish,
It comes from the
language spoken by the Anglo-Saxon-Jute invaders of called Old Engt'ish or
5s century. Many
words were borrowed from these dialects and also from Norse Anglo-Saxon ?
Most of the words have Latin origin. French words have
also been bor_ 2. Whith year the out of
rowed. The English learnt the art of printing from Cologne, printing was intro-
Germany.By duced in English B
1476 this art was introduced in England.Mtll rhe books
aiailable at cheaper
rates to the students spirit of learning spread though
out Europe. Latin
alphabets were intsoduced for writing and the period Jf
renaissance brought
Communication Skills & about advancement in science and arts' Thus English was classified as
Personality Development West division of the Teutonic branch of the Indo-European family of lan-

Answer the following questions :
l. What is language ?
2. Why is language a necessity for man ?
3. Describe various means of communication.
4. Write out the story of your favourite book.
5. Visit your library and make a list of the English classics which you
need to read.
Section A : Glammar


Listening is one of the basic needs to learn a language. It is through the

capability of listening, one perceives the words reaching one,s ears.. The hu_
man ear is one of the finest instruments, which reccl-ies and passes the sound
waves to the brain for comprehension. once the brain registers the sound it
also has the capability of distinguishing and using it at will whenever required.
Take, for example, when you are walking on the road and somebody .uils out
for you from behind. You are able to tell from the sound as to who th" perron
is. Whether it is your parents, brother or friends. This capabiliiy of thi man
should be used to its fullest capacity, that is listening carefully and then repro-
ducing the same.
The prerequisite to listening is attention and concentration. Unless the student
pays attention to the speakers speech , all that is spoken will not be assimilated
by his mental faculties and will be wasted. The time when writing was not
invented , listening and reproducing the same verbatim was an art and the
entire literary tradition of a culture was passed on from one generation to the
other by means of narration. The Bards were the professionals who visited the
OrcdrYour hogrcce
courts and kings singing their praises and narrating the chivalry and great deeds
performed by their ancestors. story telling in the form of narration was another 3. What is the prcrequsite
to listmins ?
form of entertainment. The professional story tellers were employed by the
families for entertaining the family members. Thus sharpness of the ear was a
pre condition to pedect speech form. 9
Communication Skills & It is difficult for the contemporary children to imagine a world devoid of visu-
Personatity Development als. Earlier for visuals one had to turn to the original. That is the surrounding
nature and the landscape. There were no audiovisual facilities of television
which could make a individual experience the virtual reality of north pole and
NOTES Sahara desert. In spite of all these technological advancement the process of
learning begins from listening. The child learns his first words from what it
hears. Teaching the baby is the simple process of repetition. The first priority
for the student is to learn the 26 alphabets and their pronunciation. If pronqn-
ciation of each alphabet is correct then the speech formation will be easy and
correct. The face of the teacher and the movement of the jaw, tongue and lips
will guide the students to learn.
l. Listen to the English news of the 'All India Radio', twice a day.
2. In case radio is not available listen to the television news, by keeping
your eyes shut.
3. Write out the important headlines of news everyday and maintain your
own news dairy.

Section A : Grammar

Speech is the talking that human beings do by means of

their voices, facial
expressions, bodily action and gestures. From time immemorial
till date
speech has remained the most important means for human
existence. Through
speech man has been able to organize himself and his
society. In speeih
the words are only labels for objects, actions, feelings, experiencei,
ideas' And when the object is being described sentence-s
have to be formed.
A child is sent to school only after he starts talking. In school he learns
words and sentences, and reads aloud. With his mental growth
he learns
to act in a play and tell stories and recite a poem. Within years
he stafls
giving a talk in his class, radio and club meetings.In this process
he not
only leams the speech sounds and bodily action along with it
but also to
plan and organize his thoughts. He adopts the skill oi persuasion
in his
speech to have the right effect on the audience. Improvement
in speech
comes by study, practice and helpful criticism.
The Speech Production Chedlbur Prosrcas
4. How does the exact
speech is created onry when one exhales. This stream of breath sound ispoduoed frronr
the necessary energy required to produce sound. When the air onerocal drord
is forced ?
out of the_ lungs it goes up through the windpipe or trachea to further pass
through the voice box or the larynx. The larynx is shaped like a
tu-be. 1l
From its inner walls two inward protruding tiny ledges of
muscle and
Commqnication Skills & membrane are there which are called vocal chords. They can be brought
Personality Development together to stop the outflow of the stream of air. When this happens the
vocal folds are set into a fluttering vibration, allowing little puffs of air to
escape. This results into producing musical sounds. This is the tone found
NOTES in vowels and voiced consonants. The process by which this sound is
produced is called phonation. Before the phonated tone reaches .he oui-
side air it is resonated. The exact sound produced depends upon the way
in which the throat, mouth, and nasal cavities are adjusted. It is the vowels
which demonstrate the working of these three in unison.
Another important aspect of speech is that the shape of the mouth changes
and shifts with each vowel. With each shift the resonance also changes,
which further changes the balance of the overtones. The result of these
changes are production of different sound. The nasal consonants are an-
oth"ii*port nt aspect of speech. This can be illustrated as; M as in hum'
and NG as in hung. These consonants are sounded , when the mouth
blocked and the phonated tone escapes through the nasal cavities' Change
in resonance distinguishes nasal consonants from vowels' The other aspect
of speech is articulation. Wherein the consonant sounds depend upon a
' nantwing or blocking of the passages above the tarynx' The lips' teeth'
lower jaw, tongue, and soft palate are the main articulatory organs'

Speech Problems
A person whose way of speeking interferes-with his ideas is said to
detected amongst
speech problem. Three kinds of speech problems can be
1. Language disorder

2. Pronunciation errors.
3. SPeech defects
p.op..fy. This might be due to poor choice of words because of limited
'ro"uuoi"ty and ihis does not fall within the purview of speech defect'
unusual ways'
The pronunciation errors occur when words are said in
Ignoiance and carelessness are major cause of this' Persons often
saw a new word
. themselves for incorrect pronunciation by saying that they
in print ana used it in tieir speech withorrt finding out how it is to be
once it
pronounced. Such errors should be immediately corrected ; since'
Lecomes habit it becomes difficult to change. Further,
if such mistakes are
check ones errors:
often repeated the errors become difficult to notice' To
Ask a friend to Point them out'
Listening very carefullY.
Practice the correct pronunciation'
Common SPeech Defects

Exercise Section A : Grammar
Answer the following questions :
l. What is speech and why is it important for man ?
2. How does a person talk? NOTES
3. Delineate the major speech problems.
My suggestion to the students is to look at the teacher while they are being
taught. This is mainly because language is also a biologically operational
device common to the human species, mainly consisting of speech appa-
ratus. The main part larynx with its delicately adjustable vocal chords, the
nose, tongue, hard and soft palate, teeth and lips coordinate to produce
speech. And when quality , temper and tone is added it becomes speech.
When listening is accompanied with looking the student will have the clear
comprehension of the sound to be emitted for a vowel and consonant.
Stand in front of the mirror and utter the following words clear and loud:
eat, meet, greet; moon, spoon, bloom; bit, hit, kit; hat, cat, mat;
Now say : She sells sea shells on the sea shore. (Say it slowly at first
then repeat it fast.)

Communication Skills &
Personality [revelopment

The word speech means only the making and us of speech sounds. Speech sounds
are of two types: vowels and consonants. However, the spoken vowels and con-
sonants must not be confrrsed with written ones. Fifteen vowels are commonly used
in spoken English. The mouth is shaped differently for each vowel. For a clear idea
of spoken vowels say the following words aloud :

hit, hoot, hat, hot, and hut.

All these words are alike except for their vowels. Try to notice the difference
in the shape of the mouth and in the sound as you speak each word aloud.
When two vowels run together in close succession, diphthongs are formed.
Words like boy, bay and thou end with diphthongs.
Most people who speak English use 23 consonants. Most of the consonants
are made in the mouth by either narrowing or completely blocking the passage
through which air escapes from the lungs.The lower lip and the upper teeth are
close to one another in making the consonant with which the word fan begins.
14 But the consonant which begins pan starts with a little explosion as the lips are
blown apart. These examples represent unvoiced consonants; that is sound Section A : Grammar
made by mouth noise alone. Other consonants are called voiced and are made
by sounds from the voice box. Usially the voiced consonant combine an un-
voiced explosion with their voice box tone. Now try pronouncing the words
van.and fan, and ban with pan, and you will know the difference. NOTES

A Take the example of the alphabet A. To say A one has to open

the mouth , part the lips wide , keep the jaws apart and rest the
tongue on the cavity of the mouth. Try to say rat, mat, cat, that
. and you will know how important it is to open the mouth and
. speak. But when one tries to say late, mate, ate, Kate the edges
of the tongue touch the upper row of ones teeth.
U With the pronunciation of U, one actually pronounces two words
' in quick succession -E and U, when spoken it becomes EU.
For uttering U the lip movements becomes very important, first
stretching the lips and then contracting them. When one says
universal, induce, amuse, accuse similar lip movement is re-
quired. On the other hand, when one says but, cut, mug, rut,
sun, urn the mouth is opened a little and even the lip movement
is minimal.

Thus one can pick out each alphabet and see the difference in pronunciation
and realise the importance of use of tongue, lips and jaws when we speak.
Unless the speech is perfect, other aspect of language leaming will also suffer.
Most of the students face problems with spelling the words. This difficulty
arises because the alphabetic symbol used in writing and their sound in speech
is different. The letter "U" sounds different in the words - 'use', 'but' and ,put'.

The reason for this is that in written English we have only 26 alphabets . While
in spoken English we have as many as 44 sounds which increase at times.
Thus, the same letter makes different sounds under different combinations , the
learner gets confused while writing and reading.
The sounds in English are divided into two categories : Consonants and Vow-
Thus for inculcating a perfection in pronunciation the phonetic scheme consist-
ing of consonants and vowels need to be understood.
Consonants :
The consonant sounds are produced by completely or partially obstructing
the air breathed out through the mouth. There are twenty four consonaitt
sounds in English. They are either voiceless or voiced.
ClrecltYour hrrgtss
A sound is voiceless when the vocal chords (Two vertical lips at the
bottom of our inner throat through which air passes from the lips to the 5. f4hy do mct of the strr
mouth ) do not vibrate. That is they stand still. While a sound is voiced, dents face
when the vocal chords vibrate.
Voiceless sound
P-as in pen , pay , put t5
Communication Skills & Voiced sound
Personality Development b-as in big , bag , ball
In both these sounds, the speech production is by closing the lips tightly
and then opening them to release the stopped air.
Voiceless sound
t-as in tea , train , tough
Voiced sound
d-as in do , day , dog
Both these sounds are produced by stopping the air with the tip of the
tongue on the middle of the ridge behind the teeth.
K-as in cat , calm , class
The sound is voiceless.
g-as in girl go give
The sound is voiced.
In both these cases sounds are produced by placing the back of the
tongue against the soft palate.
tf-asin church , cheat , cheap
This sound is voiceless.
d3-June, jail , jam
This sound is voiced.
Both these sounds are produced by stopping the air with the tip of the
tongue at the ridge behind the teeth.
f-as in father , fish , fail
The sound is voiceless.
V-as in voice , village , vein
The sound is voiced.
Both these sounds are produced by placing the lower lip near the upper
teeth and letting the air pass through. They are called soft and hard 'th'
O-as in thief , thing , thin
This sound is voiceless.
6-as in they , then , them
This sound is voiced.
Both these sounds are produced by placing the tip of the tongue near the
upper teeth and lening the air flow.
S-as in sin , say , so
This sound is voiceless. in zoo , zebra , zest
This sound is voiced.
Both these sounds are produced by placing the tip and the blade of the Scrion A : cramma,
tongue near the ridge behind the teeth.

$-as in shame , sheep , she

This sound is voiceless. NOTES
3-as in vision , fusion , confusion
This sound is voiced.
Both these sounds are produced from the glottis ridge.
h-as in him , hall , hill
This sound is voiceless and is produced by letting the airflow betwecn the
back of the tongue and the palate.
m-as in man , mother , me
This is a nasal sound and is produced by closing the lips and letting the
air flow through the nose.
n-as in no , number , nail
This nasal sound is produced by placi,rg the tip of the tongue tightly against
the ridge behind rhe reeth and letring the air flow through the nose.
?-as in sing , ring , thing
This nasal sound is produced by stopping the air with the back of the
tongue against the palate and making the air flow through the nose.
Remember all na6al sounds are voiced.
l-as in long , leg , lady
This voiced sound is produced when the air is made to escape through the
sides of the tongue.
r-as in red , rat , ridge
This sound is produced whcn the tip of the curved tongue is raised to_
wards the palate behind the teeth ridge.
j-as in yes , yellow , young
This is a semi-vowel.
w-as in wet , warm , well
This semi-vowel sound is produced by rounding the lips and uttering the
vowel sound
after it.
When the consonant is in combination with other words the pronunciation
changes. Some examples are given below :
C is "hard" and is pronounced as K in words like :
cob ,cry , talc
C when fixed before e , i , y, is 'soft' as pronounced in ice, icy, city.
Dg when pronounced in combination is spoken as j as in judgment.
G when in combination with e, i, y, is soft and pronounced asj as
in age ,gin , and orgy. 17
Communication Skills & N when in combination with k, c, q, x is pronounced as hard 'ng' as
Personality Development in zinc , uncle, tank, banquet and minx.
, Ph in combination is always pronounced as fas in photo.

Qu when in combination is pronounced as kw as in quit.
Tch, these three when in combination is pronounced as Ch as in
X alone is pronounced as ks as in fox.
Vowels :
The Vowel sounds are produced when the air passes through the mouth
without any stoppage or obstruction.Only the position of the tongue and
the tips is adjusted to make the sounds. Vowel sounds are better learnt by
listening and imitating. There are twelve simple vowel sounds and eight
compound vowel sounds. The compound vowel sounds are called dipthongs'
There are eight diPthongs.
i:-as in sge thigf tgam
I-as in sit kill hit
i-as in haPPY cathY
e-as in ten hsn Psn
e-as in man fat rat
a:-as in far car bar
b--as in gat hqt Pat
c:- as in sry fgught sought
in rgqm could
-as Put pool shogt
u: as in coql
n-as in but shut hut
3:-as in shirt dirt hurt
? in 3go father mothgr
Next the combination of vowels with other syllables will be given with
there pronunciation.
ae is pronounced as e as in aegis.
ai ,, ,, ,, ei ,, ,, Pain.
air -l these three letters when in combination are pronounced as e
as in fair.
au is pronounced as (aw) as in maul'
ay is pronounced as ei as in saY.
ea,ee, both are pronounced as i:(ee) as in mean and meat'
ear , eer , these three are combined and pronounced as a as in fear
and beer.
ie is pronounced as i:(ee) as in thief.

t8 ier is Pronounced as er ia in Pier.

oa combination is pronounced as a6(o) as in boat. Section A: crammar
ou is pronounced as (bw) as in bound.
oy combination is pronounced as oi as in coy.

Terminating Syllables
The syllables with which a word terminates or ends are called terminating
syllable. To simplify rhis, some examples are given below.
Terminations pronunciation As in
-age T garbage
-ate -it or -at mandate
-ey -i donkey
-ous -us furiouS
_sm -zrn atheism , spasm
-tion -shon salvation
-ture -chur, _tur ,
aperature re_
l. Take the English Newspaper and read it aloud.
2. Make a list of ten words each for each of the sound listed above.
3. Find out from the newspaper as many words as you can with
sounds described in vowels and consonant and practice.

Communication Skills &
Personality Development

and the com-

After having acquired the skill of pronunciation of each-alphabet
important for
bination of alptribetr, on" would be confident to read' It is very
to hear
tt ,tud"rt to understand that only when one reads aloud one is able
" own voice. When one hears one's voice, one will be able to judge
open up the radio
whether one is right or not. To sharpen your listening ability
J*ioJ*," t uaJutt of news in English' Listen very carefully since' the diction
to television
and a-ccent of the newsreaders arJ still the bst. Avoid listening
news because the visuals are certainly going to divert your attention


rested before the invention of writing still holds good for every
student' An-
itself '
o,h", irrrpo*n, aspect is trying to leam the language by the language
,fna notitt.ogt the medium of other languages' In case one tries to
take the
of time
fr"ip .f .rft* firguage in the form of notes and translation ' in course
m *ould Uecoire his crutches to lean on' The person will never be able to
stand on his own , that is to independently making himself operational in En- Section A : Grammar
glish. Here I do not mind sharing with the young readers my very private and
personal experience. The language in which you think is usually in ones mother
tongue. This language becomes vital for writing and speech. The day when one
starts to think in the other language , that will be the sign of attaining perfection. NOTES
Never try to leam English from movies except from the classics like .. My Fair
Lady" where-in the queen's English has been followed.
The serious business of reading can be defined as the ability of a person to get
meaning from symbols, that is , to be able to get, and understand, ideas from certain
letters, signs or a group of letters. In reading printed matter a person must fiEt
recognize the symbols or letters as being different from the others. Then he must
grasp the idea for which a word or a group of words stands. prior to understanding
the words fully he must be able to relate the symbols or words to his own expe_
rience. when he is able to fit his own experience into the words he then follows and
makes an ideh of his own. when a person reads FIRE. He visualizes it as a wond,
knows its prcnunciation but what it calls in his mind depends upon his experience.
He may think it as :

camp fire
house on fire
fire in a stove
an order to fire the gun
Until he knows the complete sentence in which this word fire is used, he is not
able to respond.
"The last rays of the sun gleamed like fire in the western sky.,,
After reading the entire sentence he can visuarize sunset from his past experi-
ence. Thus the sunset becomes meaningful to him.

The four basic reasons as to why a man must be able to read are as follows;
For personal, vocational, educational, and recreational use. As a person
one must be able to read traffic signs and symbols, street and Uuihing
names, rail and road time tables, telephone directories, grocery list, per_
sonal letters, mail-order catalogues and stock market quotation.. Stu_
dents, teachers, doctors, lawyers, salesmen, businessmen, engineers, per_
sonnel in armed forces or in govemments have to read in connection with
their vocation. For educational purposes to gain in knowledge one has to

Methods Of Learning To Read

In learning to read , it'is most important to understand what the material
means. To be able to figure out the new words. To be able to read aloud
easily and interestingly, and to remember what is read, one has to like to
read. Every school the world over makes earnest efforts so that the pupils
are able to read.

Communication Skitls & Readiness For Reading
Personality Development
A person's readiness for reading depends upon his ability :

l. To see words or symbols that are alike and different

2. To remember the form of a word.
3. To remember the ideas in the order in which they are given.
4. To bring to mind pictures of objects that the words describe.
5. To move the eyes from left to right on a page and to follow a line
of print across the Page.
6. To speak clearly and distinctly.
7. To sit still and listen to the teacher tbr at least 15 minutes at a
8. To want to find out what the words really say.

Dictionary My Friend
The only friend one should have is the dictionary, this big and heavy book
will teach you more than you can learn in a life time' In case one feels that
without the help of vernacular language one will not be able to grasp
English, then go for a English vernacular language dictionary' Every re-
gio-nal languafe has that facility. The dictionary might appear to be out
ihe wortd for beginners, but once it is learnt it would become the key
your entry in the wortd of English language' For this one has to learn as
to how to look uP the dictionarY.
Form The Habit of Consulting a Dictionary
The fresher in the English class must form a habit to consult the
dictionary. Try to a have personal copy of your own' Many standard
dictionaries are available in the market'
In dictionary the words are arranged in alphabetical order' The dic-
tionary begins with the word "a" and ends with the word "z"' The
words beginning with a will also be arranged in the alphabetical order'

Words beginning with followed bY

" " come first

The same alphabetical order is followed upto the last alphabet' For

collide followed by collie followed by collier followed by collocate

followed by collodion... .. , .....
In every standard dictionary there are two words printed on top left
and top right. This indicates the alphabetical order of the words of
ttrat page. The top left word indicates the alphabetical order of first
word on the page. Where as the top right word indicates the alpha-
Section A : Grammar
betical order of the last word on the page. By looking on tlese two
words one can find out whether the word that one has been looking
for is on that page or not. In a dictionary first the word is given.
followed by its pronunciation, next the part of speech it belongs to NOTES
and then its meaning. Besides this the dictionary also gives the abbre-
viations, foreign words and phrases and metric conversion table. If
a student truly befriends a dictionary he will always be the gainer.


t. Pick out words beginning with -ab, ac, ad, ae,af, al, as, aw, au, from
the dictionary and give their meaning.
Give the meaning of the following words-consult the dictionary.
Psychology, democracy, epic, mythology, calculus, restraint, constrain,
civilization, diligent, infatuation, fair, fare, repeat, query, quarry, triplet,
twin, forbid, bias, gender, masculine, feminine, exercise, output, mi-
grate, immigrate, verify, ridicule, principal, principle.

Orcc*Your Prrogess
6. Why a dictionary must
be used I ttre rcaderc?

Communication Skills &
Personality Development


It is important o koep in mind, that English language hastonrowed words

otlrer languages. Besides , it has borrowed Roman alphabets,
which are not
suited to
targe enigh for even [atin language. Hence, they are not adequedy
,"ites"nt tie soonds of English language. These constraints.give rise to
tars tacea m spetling English and leaming it. As per the British even today the
.lrnerican Engilistr spetting are stitt imperfect. In India the British or Queen's
Englistr is being folowd yet, the inhofuction and insallation of computers

glEatly impinged upon Englistr spelling since, the softrrares of the computers ae
fo*'n iti"" *a have the socalled simplified spellings' During 1898 the
Anrericans recommended that 12 words may be spelled as follows:
tho, altho, thru, throout, thoro, thoroly, thorofare' program'
prolog, catalog, Pedagog, decalog.
gave his
Even The President of the United States, Theodore Roosevelt,
orders to adopt these new spellings in the United States
printing presses'
However, acliievement of such attempts is questionable'
The main problem is due to the fact that there arc many mole sounds in the Section A : Grammar
language than there are letsers. This means that some of the sounds must be
made by combination of leuers or by associating sounds with a given
leter. The classic example is that of the sound made by sh in shock is made in
at least 19 additional ways in other words as shown below : NOTES

appreciate, ocean, machine, mustache, stanchion, fraction, con-

scious, extension, pressure, admission, sure, initiate, attention,
luxury and anxious.
From the above it becomes evident that one cannot be sure which letter
to associate with a given sound or what sound to associate with a given
letter. This calls for the first rule, that is the students must leam the spelling
of most words without the aid of rules or sound to guide them. The most
frequently misspelled words are :
disappoint, scissors, antecedents, pneumonia.

Devising Spelling Rules

It is established that 0re Englistr language is rrct plronetic. There are rcasonably
consistent practices which have to do with forming plurals and adding suffixes
to ttre words.An objective snrdy was undertaken of suffixes among the l0'0fi)
cornmonest words. It was found that it is possible to establish cerfain ntles for
adding suffixes o base words. The rules are as follows :
l. In words of more than one syllable in which the last syllable
. contains a single, short accented vowel followed by a single
consonant, double the consonant when adding a suffix beginning
with a vowel.
Exceptions : Preferable, conference, inference, preference, ref-
erence. In these illustrations it will be noted that when the suffix
is added, the accent is shifted back to the preceding syllable'
2. In words ending in a final silent e drop the e before a suffix
beginning with vowel.
Exceptions are : changeable, chargeable, noticeable'
3. In words ending with y preceded by a consonant, change the y
to i before all suffixes except those beginning with i. Thene are no
Besides the above following rules are added for apostrophe:
1 To form the possessive of the singular noun, add an apostrophe Clrcdrlbur hogrcts
and then add an s. 7. ti,lrkh rourthe smre
2. To form the possessive of plural noun which does not end with s' times iecommended
add an aPostroPhe and then add an s. the set dfollorittg t2
3.To form the possessive of a plural noun which ends in S, add an
apostrophe only. lho,alhordflrftmug
One of the common enors is to use the apostrophe in the possessive form is, pogran*.
where it does not belong. The resulting it's is a contraction for 'lt is"' It has
been proven that every student can become a good speller if he is willing to
try. The following advice if adhered to is enough an exercise' 25
Communication Skills & Develop a Spelling Conscience
Take pride in good spelling.
hoof read carefully all your written work in order to discover possible
spelling errors.
Whenever you have misspelled a word, learn the correct spelling.
Secure a modern spelling book which gives the most important words
used in writing.
Have someone to test you.
Learn the words that you miss.
Buy a small notebook, and keep in it a list ofyour spelling enemies.
The persons who find it difficult to learn spellings may follow the given
plan :
l. Pronounce the word, saying each syllable very distinctly, and looking
at each syllable as you say it.
2. With closed eye try to recall the appearance of the word, syllable by
syllable as you pronounce it in a whisper. In pronouncing the word
, be sure to say each syllable distinctly..
3. Open your eyes and look at the word to see whether or not you
recalled it correctly.
if you did not, repeat steps one and two. Keep trying until you
can say the letters correctly with closed eyes.
4. When you are sure that you have learned the word , write it
without looking at your book. Then compare your attempt with
the book in order to see whether or not you wrote it correctly.
If you failed then again undergo the steps l, 2, 3.
5. Now write the word again . Check it. If there is a mistake repeat
all the steps again.

l. Describe the various methods used to remember spellings.
2. What is the rule of apostrophe ?
3. How do you learn your spellings?
4. How would you spell the plural nouns? Show with examples.

Section A : Grammar

Writing Right

In every school during the primary training the child learns to hold the
pencil and write with it. In every class of language hand writing becomes
one of the most important curriculum. This is done very rightly, since
during the formative years of being acquainted with the alphabets the child
is trained to write the letters. Work books are available in plenty under the
name of cursive writing. With these books the child gets the practice of
having a running hand writing. Since in latter years this helps a lot because
the answer books are hand written and an answer book with a good hand
writing always soothes the nerves ofthe examiner. Hence the students are
requested not to take the exercise of the hand writing lightly but to prac-
tice writing to improve it further.

While writing try to be neat.

While writing try to be simple.
While writing try to be coherent.
While writing try to be consistent.
While writing try to be legible.

These five features when followed shows the concern for the reader and 11
alwavs oavs.
Communication Skills & Exercise
Personality Development
Take a ruled sheet and write out a paragraph from your favourite story

The correction that one makes should always be easy to follow. It is
always advisable to cross out than to alter. Insert the corrections above
the crossed out text if there is no room on the same line. Incase there is
no room for corrections above the text, enter the correction in the margin
and indicate its place with an arrow.

Whenever writing anything -a letter, an essay, a memorandum, an appli
cation or most importantly an examination paper, the first thing one must
decide is what one actually wants to say. The brain instructs to say some-
thing and suddenly one starts penning any thought which comes to mind'
And one keeps on writing as the ideas come to the head, without order
, systemization and consistency. This is wrong since the main purpose of
writing is to convey the exact thing, which has been asked for. Hence the
thought process has to be regularized. And for that one needs to order the
thoughts. After deciding what one has to say one must order the thoughts.
Further, mentally sort out the important ones which need to be conveyed
and then start writing.

However, here I will also caution the students not to restrict the flow of
their thoughts and writing them when they are writing to a friend or rela-
tive. The classic ltters written to children or beloved read like a stream
of thoughts penned while conversing. Indeed in formal letters and business
letters that is not to be exPected.

After having organized the thought , do not start writing , since one need
to structure the thoughts. This requires a lot of control. For a improved
communication during examination, essay, reports and memoranda, min-
utes of the meeting or while applying for ajob is essential.

It is important to note here that there are very few people who are having
an orderly mind and know exactly what to say and in which order.

While Filling Forms

' Utmost neatness is to be maintained. It is advised to fill the form first with
soft lead pencil and then using the pen. Erase the pencil marks later.
2A Make a format of what you want to write.
Exercise Section A : Grammar

l. Make your bio-data to apply for the post of a teacher.

2. Write an application to a firm for the post of sales executive. NOTES

3. Apply to the university for research fellowship in the department of


4. Write a essay on My Schoot Days. Check your essay with the help
of a dictionary and assess it.
Example : A essay on -What makes a good friend ?

Take a paper and jot down the points, which you think, should be in-


Common interests
Mode of relaxation with the friend.

After having jotted down the point take up the most /least important of the
points. Start by writing 2l/3 lines per point. The length of the essay will be
dependent on the requirement and you will have to decide it. Always keep
in mind not to contradict what you have written. Your essay will be com-
pleted in a stipulated time.

Effects of television on the family

l. Entertainer
2. Reduces communication among family members.
3. Induces silence'
4. Erodes reading habit.
5. Family interaction during dinnerflunch minimized' OredrYour h,ogrccs
6. Bed time altered 8. What five features re-
7. Children neglected. it
8. Individual thinking reduced
9. Family group joint ventures become negligible.
Communication Skills & In the above the negative aspects of the television are given one can jot
Personality Development down points which are contrary to this.Take point number I and question
your self as to how communication is reduced. Does the mother ask the
child about school ? Does she ever tell him a story or read out a book
NOTES to him ? Does the child pose any questions to the mother. Or the "Dis-
covery Channel" answers all the questions. That is, take each point think
and elaborate and soon you will be having a essay on the subject.

The car: Is it a necessity for the family?

l. Jot down your thoughts. Now put them in a linear fashion and see the
a. Car's are easy to travel in
b. Cheaper if many are in the family
c. Children love to ride the car
d. Babies and their paraphernalia can be carted easily in a car
e. Flexibility
f Both the partners can drive
g. Visits to the relatives easier
h. It is equally good for short and long distance travels
i Mobility increases
j. One tends to become more sociable
k. Saves on car rental and taxis
Next take each point and write five lines for each and your essay is

Plan Your Paragraphs

Paragraphs are key aids to clarity
l. Paragraphs usually start about a half-inch further to the right. They
break the next text into units. This makes reading and understanding
easier. Leave a line between each paragraph.
2. Only one theme, or topic should be discussed in one paragraph.
3. One sentence should convey the theme of the paragraph.
4. Paragraph will help you organize your thoughts.
5. Each paragraph should errd on a transition that is a sentence intro-
ducing the next paragraph.
6. Avoid long paragraphs
7. Minimum three paragrrrphs per topic are ideally typical. Variations
are welcome.The iirst paragraph introduces the topic. The second
paragraph elaborates upon the salient features. While the third para-
graph threads all the points in a chain and gives the conclusions.
Exercise Section A : Grammar

Write a paragraph on the following topics:

l. Indian cricket
2. Computer an essential teaching aid
3. Youth and Indian cinema
4. Entertainment for the young
5. Parental guidance for the children
Write Simply
Simple writing is a virtue and is much easier to read and understand. There
are certain rules which can be followed effortlessly and are sure to pro-
duce very positive results.

1. Avoid long words

English is often referred to as the language of short words . When
telegrams were the only mode of quick deliverance, each word was
sdlected carefully to convey the meaning and reduce the cost.
"mother sick come sharP"
This can be written as" Mother is sick , come quickly/soon". By using
Iong words the flow of thoughts are often interrupted and the reader
may not understand the same.

For Example :

However, long words are not to b avoided if they fulfill the need
of the
"The moon-landing was a magnificently memorable achievement"
is better than
"The moon landing was a great feat to remember."

2. Avoid unnecessary words

Unnecessary words are those which add nothing to the meaning of the

. Example :
To tlle latter end, the Technology Company Organization is a 3l
relatively small, fundamentally business-oriented group, maintain-
Communication S}ills & ing a necessary minimum of technical and administrative staff.
Perconality Derreloptnot
On analyzing the scntence we find that :-
To the latter end-means nothing.,i,f the context.
NOTES in Technology Company Orgqnization--Organization is un-
in relatively small-Since we are not told relative to what,
the use of a comparative word small is meaningless.
in fundamentally business oriented group-reflects upon the
groups basic function.

Maintaining-it is a very long word and can be replaced by

Corrected it would be-
f-1.r" . The technology Company is a small business group with a
minimum of technical and administrative staff.
' So from 25 words the sentence has been reduced to 16

3. Pleonasms
These words are repetitions :

future prospects
past antecedents
each and every
if and when
unless and until
save and except
hearth and home
more preferable
the reason is because
Many countries are enacting legislation and regulations which cir-
cumscribe and limit the scope.
In the above sentence there are two repetitions
legislation and regulation

. circumscribe and limit

4. Words which have no sense :

. Past prospects
32 l- r" hspects means expectations to come in future. But you cannot have
' a past expectation happen in future. Similarly-
future antecedents Seclion A : Grammar
Antecedents means what came before ie. in the past. However, one
cannot have what came in the past, in the future.

5. Use of the Latin words : NOTES

ie.-means "that is". This introduces a definition.

eg.- means "for example", This introduces an illustration.
Avoid the common error of using one for the other.

6. Piling it on
During the war the country was ravaged, maimed and wounded........
This is piling on and use of the three words ravaged, maimed and
wounded reduces their impact. A single word is to be chosen to
convey the meaning.
However. this piling in progression is effective. Since ONE qualifying
word per NOUN is a sound rule unless the qualifying words
refer to quite different qualities.
eg. He is tall, dark and handsome.
She is slim, blond and beautiful.

7. Avoid long sentences

Sentences should be short and to the point. [,ong sentences.invariably
result in rnaking a number of mistakes.

8. Avoid Jargon
is the use of long words , circumlocution and other clumsi-

is the vocabulary of science, art, classic, trade, profession full of

technical terms.

speech of different languages.

Jargons are used mainly to cloak the ignorance rather than to make
a issue explicit.
9. Avoid double negatives
They seldom mean what you think.

not uninteresting

not without merit

Communication skitls10. Avoid mixing metaphors
DeveloPment A mixed metaphor is a sentence in which two metaphors are coupled,

usually in a incongruous waY.

I "smell a rat" and will "nip it in the bud".
Here two metaphors are being used wrongly and not conveying the
meaning nor the context.

Punctuation is a very important aspect of writing , without it, the words
would follow each other in a endless stream and the meaning of the sen-
tence will be lost. Puntuation makes the meaning clear.

The following are the principal stops :

1. Full stop or Period (.)

2. Comma (,)
3. Semicolon (;)
4. Colon (:)
5. Question Mark (?)
6. Exclamation Mark (!)
7. Dash (-)
8. Parantheses ( )
9. Inverted comma or Quotation Mark (" ")
1. Full-stop
To avoid a full stop from looking like a comma (,) always start the
next word after full stop with a capital letter.
The tall man in the party was looking for somebody to deliver the
A coma or full stop after somebody will do the trick.

2. Comma
Comma is a useful stop, especially, when reading out aloud; it gives
you time to breathe.The main features of comma are as follows :

a. To separate a series of words in the construction.

Exarnple : England, France and Italy formed an alliance.
Comma is generally not placed before the word preceded by and.

h To ieparate each pair of words connected by and.

Example : We should be devout and humble, calm and serene.
After a nominative absolute. Section A : Grammar
Example : The Guru sat still, I repeated my question again.
d To mark off a noun or phrase in apposition.
Example : Milton, the great English poet , was blind. NOTES

To mark off words used in addressing people.

Example : How are you, Geeta?
To mark two or more adverbs or adverbial phrases coming to-

g. Before and after a participial phrase, provided that the phrase

might be expanded into a sentence, and is not used in a merely
qualifying sense.
h. To indicate the omission ofa word, especially verb.
Example : He was a Brahmin; she, a Rajput.
i To separate short co-ordinate clauses of a compound sentence.

i To mark off a direct quotation from the rest of the sentence.

3. Colon
a. The colon is used to introduce the words which follow it , ex-

My Shopping list : 12 eggs, lkg butter,2 kg sugar........

b To introduce direct speech or a quotation.
Example : Then the King said: "I am still here to protect you."
c. Colon marks a still more complete pause than that expressed by
semi colon. It is also used with a dash after it.
d. It is also used between sentences grammatically independent but
closely connected in sense.
Example : Study to acquire knowledge : Knowledge is freedom.

4. Semi-colon
This represents a pause of greater importance than that shown by the

5. Question Mark
This is used, instead of full stop, after a direct question. But they are
not used after a indirect question.

6. Exclamation Mark
This is used after interjections and after phrases and sentences ex- 35
pressing sudden emotions or wish.
communication skills& 7. Inverted Comma
Personality Development
These are used to enclose the exact words of the speaker.

This is used to indicate an abrupt stop or change of thought or to
resume a scattered subject.

9. Hyphen
This is used to connect the parts of a compound word . It is a short
line like the dash.

10. Parantheses
This is used to separate from the main part of the sentence a phrase
or clause which does not grammatically belong to it.

11. Apostrophe
This is used to show the omission of a letter or letters.In the genitive cases
of.nouns. And to form plurals of letters and figures.

Writing a Letter
A letter is a substitute for direct contact. One writes a letter instead of
meeting the person or talking over the telephone. Letter is also a means
of making a proof/record about having written on the particular subject.In
business, telephones are always followed by letters.

Types of Letters
Intimate letters
Formal private letters
Business letters
Official letters
Letters of application

Atl kinds of letters need the following format :

1. The heading consisting of
a. the writer's address b..the date
2. The courteous greeting or salutation.
3. The communication or message-The body of the letter.
4. Courteous leave taking, or conclusion. Section A : Grammar
5. Signature.
6. Superscription on the envelope.

ExamPle t NOTES
. ,-c,ciiit Lincs,
ll'h May,2008.
Dear Mr. Lal,
I hereby request you to kindly send the books, which I ordered
on telephone.
Youn faithfrrlly,

Mrs.Neera Pande.
Envelope :
The Manager.
Universal Book Depot,
Faiz Bazaar,
Answering a Letter
l. What does the writer want/
2. make sure you answer his questions and points.

Writing a Letter of Complaint

Here you are not answering somebody else's point but making a point
which somebody else has to answer. Make the point simply and clearly
and give all the relevant details in their proper order.
The director,
All in One Stores,
Ram nagar Bazaar,
Bhiwandi-l l3zl009
Subject-Regarding supply of inferior quality grocery. Orccklbur Pt'ogrss

Dear Mr. Ramwilas, 9. What necessary rules

must be followed in
I am a regular customer of your shop and have been purchasing prcducingwry posilive
grocery from you for last thirty years. Every month in the first week wilitt?
I send you a list of things required by my household, through my
domestic help. Within a few hours you have been delivering the goods t7
at my door step. This month as usual I sent the list but goods were
Communication Skilts & received after two days. As per your cash memo number 8745, dated
Personality Development 4.4.08, I have the following complaints to make :

1. Pulses sent are of inferior quality.

2. Each packet is weighing 50 to 80 gms less.
3. The rice is full ofgrit and stones.
4. The flour is bug infested.
5. Biscuit packets are damaged and crushed.
. 6. The oil container was leaking.
I refuse to pay your bill unless you replace these items with better
quality things. If you do not comply to my request,Sir, I am sorry to
inform you that you will be loosing a customer of yours of long stand-

Hoping for a speedy redressal.

Youn faithfully
RamaKant Dwivedi
4/5 block -S
Shalimar Shobha

Write letters as per instructions:
l. To a friend inviting him for dinner.
2. To a neighbour requesting him to allow you in their pool car system.
3. To father requesting for more money to purchase books.
4. To bchool principal for sick leave.
5. To younger sister on your visit to London.
6. To municipal corporation complaining about blocked drains.
7. To electricity department complaining for inllated bill.

ClrcdYour Progreec
10. Why panetuation is

Section A : Grammar

Developing Ability of
Question and Answer NOTES

A" It is a norm in conversation to make a statement and ask for con'

firmation. As for example It is raining heavily, lsn't it ? The part
"isn't it" in this conversation is called as a question tag. Now look
st the pattern.
(i) Quxiliary + n't + subject, if the statement is positive,
(ii) auxiliary + subject, if the statement is negative.
Example of (i)
It's very hot, isn't it ?
He can talk well, can't he ?
Ramu broke the cycle, didn't he ?
Your mother cooks well, doesn't she ?

Example of (ii)
You aren't busy, are you ?
You aren't going, are You ?
She can't cook, can she ?
He hasn't come yet, has he ?
Note that the subject of the question tag is always a pronoun never a noun.
Note these peculirities :
I am correct, aren't I ?
Communication Skilts & Let's go to the hall, shall we ?
Personality Development wait a minute, can you ?
Have some more card, will you ?
There is a church in that street, isn't There ?
Some one has called haven't they ?
B. Short answers are most usual form of verbal answers. (ie. questions
beginning with an auxiliary)
or No + pronoun + auxillary + n't (not)
Are you going to collage ?
(Yes, I am.) (No, I am not.)
Can you swim ?
(Yes, I can.) (No, I can't)
Is your daughter studying ?
(Yes, she is.) (No, she isn't)
Dobs Renu work hard ?
(Yes she does.) (No, she doesn't)
Did she say anything ?
(Yes, she did.) (No, she didn't)
C. Agreements and Disagreement with the statements
(i) Agreements with alfirmative statements are made with yes / so
/ of course + pronoun + auxiliary.
It is a good novel. ......... Yes it is.
Sohan has already gone. ........ So he has.
She can speak English very well. ....... Yes she can.
(ii) Agreements with negative statements are made with No + pro-
noun + auxiliary + n,t / not.
The apples aren't good. ....... No, they aren,t.
He does not like chop. .......... No, he doesn't.
He can't help laughing. .......... No, he can't
(iii) Disagreement with aflirmative statements are made with No/oh
no + pronoun + auxiliary + n'Un,t But is used in disagreement
with a question or an assumption.
He is frightened......... No, he isn,t.
' You are watching. ......... Oh no, I'm not.
Why did you hit him ? ........... But I didn't.
I suppose she knows Marathi. ......... But she doesn.t.
(iv) Disagreements with negative statements are made with (oh) yes
/ (oh) but + pronoun + auxiliary.
You can't follow it. ....... Yes I can.
She won'tgo again. ........ But she will.
You don't like him. .......... Oh yes, I do.
40 I didn't tear it. ............. Oh but you did.
(v) Addition to Remarks : Section A : Grammar
(a) Affirmative additions to affirmative remarks arc made with sg +
auxiliary + subject.
Harish likes bananas. So do I.
He must go home. So must I.
He was late for the meeting. So were you.
I've finished my work. So has my sister.
(b) Negative additions to negative remarks are made with Nq4!ci:
ther + auxiliary + subject.
. Mahesh doesn't like sweets, Nor do I.
She didn't follow it. Neither did I.
I can't swim. Nor can mY father.
Sudeep wasn't there. Neither was pradeep.
(c). Negative additions to affirmative remarks are made with Bu1 +
subject + auxiliary + [VrcL
He knows Dutch. But I don't.
I understand the story. But Marry didn't.
She knows how to cook. But her husband does not.
I can play football. But my father cann't.
(d). Negative additions to affirmative remarks are made with But +
subject + auxiliary + EYMI
He doesn't like her.'But I do.
I didn't meet him. But Harish did'
He can't PlaY chess. But I can.
She wasn't singing. But You were.


(i) Add Question - tags to the following :

l. It's very warm today, ....................... ?
2. You like him, ..'........".....'.;'. ?
3. Kishore will come, ....................... ?
4. We must hurry, ....................... ?
5. He will never give up, ....................... ?
6. Your father is a doctor, ....................... ?
7. You have curd for breakfast, ......................' ?

8. I didn't hurt You, ?

g. You aren't going out, ............'.......... ? ChedYour Progrcst
10. They have sold the house, '.'....'."............ ?
ll. Why developing abilitY
11. I didn't get up early today, ....................... ? of question and amr,rcr
12. It isn't ready yet, .....'................. ? Bainfrtl. ?
13. Sheela hasn't passed the exam, ..............""""' ?
14. They will go home soon ............ ?
Communication Skilts & (ii) Answer the following questions (a) In the aflirmative, (b) In the
Perconality Development negative.
Example - Can you write ? (a) yes, I can (b) No, I can't
l. Can you swim ?
2. Do you like sweets ?
3. Are you angry with me ?
4. Is it going to rain ?
5. Am I in your way ?
6. Does your father smoke 1
7. Has he met you ?
8. Will they be at home ?
(iii) Agree with the following statements using yes/so/ of course + pro-
noun + auxiliary.
l. Boys like playing.
2. She has left already.
3. My uncle came yesterday.
4. They are singing beautifully.
5. Mr. Harish knows three languages.
6. Vishwas has come to see you.
(iv) Agree with the following statements using No + pronoun + auxiliary
+ n'Unot.
l. He does not like milk.
2. You haven't played well.
3. Your brother doesn't look his age.
4. He didn't complain.
5. He can'r speak English fluently.
6. Ramesh didn't attend the party.
(v) Disagree with the following statements (Use the pattern No/oh no
But + pronoun auxillary + n'Unot.
l. He lied.
2. She has promised to obey you.
3. Why have you spoiled my shirt ?
4. The boy will hurt himself.
5. I suppose he is honest.
6. You are on the wrong side.
(vi) Disagree with the following statement using the pattern (oh) yed
(oh) But + pronoun + auxiliary).
l. You can't do the work.
2. Seela doesn't like you.
3. He isn't reading
4. She won't come.
5. I am not in your way
6. I don't know where you went.

Section A : Grarrmar
Body Language and Its Use
in Speaking NOTES.

When the movement of the parts of the body substantiates the words spoken
that is called body language. It is believed that at times the body language is
more expressive and convincing than the words of the mouth. That might be
far fetched but it varies from person to person. Somebody might be able to
mesmerize an audience without twitching an eyebrow. He does it simply by
tone and temper of his voice. Others have such expressive faces that before
they utter anything people know what is to come.

Every culture has very specific mannerisms ie. body language which has to be
followed by the gentility. Body tanguage comprises of gestures and movements
of the body or body parts in response to confrontation with another individual.
As per the British norms, as soon as a woman enters the room all the men who
are seated will leave their chairs and stand up. Without uttering a word this
gesture done by the young and old reflects upon the respect shown to the
woman on her entry to the room. The cultured directors and managers of firms
still do the same on entry of their women officers who are juniors to them' OreckYour Proglss
It is always advised to walk with an erect posture and not to stoop. Yet, when 12. What compdses body
in front of others a person always stoops to talk and converse with those hnguage?
around him. This is referred to as the "noble stoop" found amongst the Em-
perors , Popes, kings and leaders. Presenting oneself with the arms hanging in
front and clasped over the belly is the sign of submission and servitude which
a younger person displays for the other.
Communication Skills & In Indian context, the same hands when held up touching both the palms and
Personality Development bending forward is the mode of greeting rendered to all and sundry, including
God. It is customary in the Indian homes that the persons who are junior in age
bend down and touch the feet of the senior person, irrespective of sex of the
NOTES individual. In retum the other person touches the head of the junior and blesses

In traditional households it is customary for the younger people not to look

straight in the eyes of the senior when they are being addressed. On being
reprimanded if the guilty looks up at the other then it indicates spirit of con-
frontation and wanting to argue it out.Thus the eye to eye contact is avoided,
to save the situation from becoming volatile.

A man or a woman never turn their back on somebody . It amounts to refusal

to talk and indifference. Similarly legs and feet have to be kept away from the
face of the other i,isitor, since, it entails disrespect. It is to be noted that all
these body languages are done without a sound from the mouth.

Irrespective of the country and culture body language is becoming a very

important mode of communicating ill feelings. This has been witnessed during
international games , where due to rough and rampant use of derogatory body
language opposing teams try to demoralize the other team. Thus when talking
is loosing its importance body language is taking over the stagg silently. The
cases of road rages followed by killings is one instance which has put the alarm
bell ringing for the experts and the parents.
Smile a facial movement, where lips are stretched revealing the teeth and the
eyes sparkle up in unison expressing a congenial friendly gesture is the only
body language which cross cuts cultures and races, young and old to spread
warmth and happiness. If it is being used more often one can avoid many a
disasters. It is advised to wake the baby in the morning with a smile so tirat
from infancy it leams the value of this important body language.
Here are given a few clues to understand the body language of a person in
general :

Raising the eyebrow= questioning, surprise

Nodding head forward and backward = affirmation
Movement of the head right to left = negation
Shrugging the shoulders = not bothered
Looking down = shame, shyness
Hand movements = this serves several purpose while talking.
Raising a finger towards the other = a threatening gbsture, avoid making
thumping or slapping the table = avoid this while talking, since it is
considered outrageous.


44 Collect some more body languages that you have come across and note
them down in your exercise book.
Section A : Grammar

Group Discussions

Group Discussion (GD) is a kind of exercise meant to check the leadership

quality of a person or persons. They provide you a chance to givq expression
to your ideas at the same time they prove a barometer to your communication
skill. In a short span of half an hour the examiner is in a position to tell how
effectively you can put your ideas across. He can also judge how effectively
you can deal with a group and emerge a natural leader in the group'

The following skills are generally assessed by a facilitator during a GD :

l. LeadershiP skills'
2. Communicationskills.
3. Altertness and presence of mind.
4. Interpersonal skills (how well you can co-relate with the other members
of the group).
5. Ability to work as a team.
6. Problem solving skills.
7. Conceptualising skills (how to put your ideas in a useful, convincing and
practicable concePt).

A group discussion can be categorically divided into three different phases : 45

l. Initiation/Introduction.
Communication Skills & 2. Body of the group discussion.
Personatity Development
3. Summarisation/Conclusion.
Initiation :
Initiating a GD is a high-profit-high-loss strategy. When you start the ball
rolling you not only grab the opportunity to speak but you also grab the
attention of the examiner and your fellow candidates.
If you can make a favourable first impression with your content and commu-
nication skills after you initiate a GD, it will help you sail through this discus-

But if you initiate a GD and stammer/stutter/quote wrong facts and figures, the
damage might be irreparable. If you initiate a GD but don't speak much after
that, it gives the impression that you stafted the GD for the sake of starting it
or getting those initial kitty of points earmarked for an initiator!
When you start a GD, you are responsible for putting it into the right perspc-
tive or framework. So, initiate one only if you have in depth knowleOge about
the topic at hand.
There are different techniques to initiate a GD and make a good first impres-
sion :
l. Quotes
2. Definition
3. Question
4. Shock statement
5. Facts, figures and statistics
6. Short story
7. General statement (to put the GD in perspective).
Summarisation -
Most GDs do not really have conclusions. A conclusion is where the whole
group decides in favour or against the topic.
Keep the following points in mind while summarising a discussion :

l. Avoid raising new points

2. Avoid stating only your view point
3. Avoid dwelling only on one aspect of the GD.
4. Keep it brief and concise.
5. It must incorporate all the important points that came out during the
Points you must bear in mind :
l. A candidate with good reading habits has more chances of success.
Sound knowledge on different topics is helpful.
$ 2. Power to convince effectively is another quality that makes you stand
out among others.
3. Clarity in speech and expression is yet another essential quality. section A : Grammar
4. If you are not sure about the topic of discussion, it is better not to
initiate. Listen attentively to others, you may be able to come up with
a point or two later.
5. A GD is a formal occasion where slang is to be avoid.
6. A GD is not a debating stage. Participants should confine tlemselves to
expressing their viewpoints.

7. Language used should be simple, direct and straight forward.

8. Ddn't intgmrpt a speaker when the session is on. Try to gain by in-
creasing your size, not by cutting others short.

9. Maintain support with fellow participants. Eye contact plays a major

role. Non-verbal gestures, such as listening intently or nodding while
appreciating someone's viewpoint speak of you positively.
10. Communicate with each and every candidate present. While speaking
address the entire group in such. a way that everyone feels you are
speaking to him or her.
I 1. Respect the contribution of every speaker.

12. Be aware of your body language when you are speaking.

13. Agree with and acknowledge what you find interesting.
14. Don't lose your temper. A discussion is not an argument.
15. Don't intemrpt. Wait for a speaker to finish what he is saying before
you speak.


Form a group of 5 students, then select out a topic from the list and
discuss amongest yourselves :

l. Protecting Women

2. Indian marriage and dowrY

3. "Guru Shishya parampara" the fouhdation for formal education.

4. Senior citizens and societY

qre<lYour Progsg
5. Aping the West ?
13, How many different
phares a group discus-
Give an hour for the discussion at the end of which write out your group
iim can becmggdcaly
recommendations for the issue discussed.
divided into ?

For smooth functioning have a rappotiere amongest you whose work will
be to note down all the discussion. 47
Communication Skills &
Personality Development
lnterview Skills

First and foremost, to seek interview for ajob, one should know how to write
an application and prepare a brief sketch of one's profile, biodata or curricu-
lum vitae. So, if you have just completed your studies or just decided to take
that plunge for better opportunities or are forced to write one, relax help is at

CV more verbosely known as curriculum vitae (in latin it means ..Course of

Iife") is not diffcult to write. If you are using a computer and have MS-Word
in Office (any recent version will do) just go to..file .....> New ........" Search
around the "Tabs" and you will find the "Resume Wizard,, select it. It will ask
you a few questions and you are all set. Just fill in the blanks. If you find
questions boring, repetitive and there are too many blanks to fill in you can
makri your own CV. Without the aid of 'templates, or if you do not have
access to a computer do not mind. You should always remember that no body
can teach you how to write 'your'CV. Each one of us have our own profiles,
strengths/weaknesses etc. But there are certain points one should note down
while preparing a CV.
. you should not commit any typing or grammar mistakes.
o Remember you are not writing. Your ..autobiography". Be brief and to
the point.
o To you your CV might be a work of art but not to the interviewer
reading them. Just keep it simple.
o Your CV is the 'Text Book' from which questions will be asked in the
interview. Do not write chapters you don,t have answers for. Write
only those 'chapters' where you are confident of getting ,pass marks'.
. List all your strengths on the first page. Don't list any weaknesses Section A : Grammar
(You can always get away by saying, ..I need to improve communi-
cation" in the interview")

Once you complete the CV writing, take a print-out and read it carefully to
just make sure eve4rthing is alright.

In a standared CV the basic information about you, (your neme, age, erc) should
be categorically mentioned, along with your academic achivements, training, ex-
perience and job that you did till date.

Writing a Job Application

This may involve you in filling in a form, in which case treat it in the same
manner as an oflicial letter. On the other hand it may be left entirely to you
how to write.

Suppose you are applying for ajob in answer to an advertisement in the

press, construct your letter in such a way that it helps the selector to get
at the key facts. It pays.

Write a cover letter saying where you saw the advertisement and the date
on which you saw it. This shows you are systematic. Give your reasons
for applying and, if already employed, Why you want to c-hange. State any
points which may be in your favour, such as willingness to go abroad
driving experiences and outside interests. Give the names atrd adresses of
atleast two persons who can be contacted for references. This is very
important. References may be your last employer, present employer, you
principal, your tutor and one responsible person. Who has known you far
a long time. You must, of course, ask these references before hand whether
they are prepared to vouch for you.

(i) Give your name.
(ii) Give your date of birth.
(iii) Give your nationality
(iD Give your marital status.
(v) Give your education with the name of your school, college, university,
the dates you were there in brackets after each. Then give the sub-
jects you studied and your grades. If you were in merit list of success-
ful students mention it and highlight by underlining the satement.
(vi) Give your experience : list the jobs you have done with the dates in
brackets. This is now the letter of application with its enclosures.
The managing Director Oledrlbur PtrogtcsE

(Company's name, address) 14. What is a C,V. ?

Dear Sir, 49
Communication Skilts & In your advertisement in the Times of India ...., dated
Personality Devetopment I wish to apply for the position of .................. . I am 29
years old, Indian, unmarried. My reason for applying to you is that I
feel the need for a change. A B & company where I am working at
NOTES present is a small family firm which does not offer enough scope for
For reference please contact my present employer, Mr. Srinivas (ad-
dress), and Mr Reddy (address).
Yours faithfully
(P. k. Srivastav)

Enclosed : passport size photohraph and my curriculum vitae.

(ON a separate sheet)

Name : P. K. Srivastava
Date of birth : l0th Jan 1980
Nationalty : Indian

Marital status : Unmarried

Address for communication : l2l1, Sector, 19, Pocket C, Dwarika,

New Delhi 110037.

Contact No. : Phone (Residence) 0ll-52516667,

Mobile : 9312791801
Passed Higher Secondary : In phy, chemistary, english, sanskit, social
studies, from Vincent Higher Second-
ary School, Pandura Road New Delhi
in the year 1998 in first Division Scor-
ing 80.3 percent aggregate marks.

Passed B. C. A. : Examination of University of Delhi from

Ramjas college in 2001 and stood first
scoring 73 percent mark I can speek
and write English, Hindi, and Bengali.

I have been a member of the Volley Ball team and played Inter-
university games in the year 2000.

I am working in A & B Company, E-38, Nehru place, New Delhi

110049 as system manager since July 2002. Outside interest: Reading
50 fiction, driving.
Section A : Crammar

Nouns : countable and

uncountable NOTES

According to the definition of Noun, a Noun is a word that is used to denote

a person, place or thing. Here the meaning of the word 'thing' is anything that
we can think of.There are many kinds of Nouns such as Proper Noun, Com-
mon Noun, Collective Noun, Abstract Noun etc. Here in this chapter we
would deal with the type Countable Nouns and Uncountable Nouns.

Countable Nouns :

Countable Nouns or Countables are the names of objects,people etc. that

can be counted. As for example book, pen, apple, boy, sister, doctor,
horse etc. Countable Nouns have plural forms such as books, pens,
boys,fathers etc.

Uncountable Nouns or Uncountables are the names of things that we

cannot count. As for example, oil, sugar, gold, beauty etc. The uncount- OreckYour Proglecc
able Nouns mainly denote substances, matter and abstract things. Un-
15. What is Countable
countable Nouns do not have plural forms. As far example we do not say Muns ?
'sugars', 'golds', 'milks' etc.
16. What is Uncountable
i,loum ?
However, tlere are some nouns in English language that you might expect
to be countable but they are not so. As for example 'fumiture', ' informa-
tion' and ' equipment' all are Uncountable Nouns though these are Count- 5t
able Nouns in Hindi.
Communication Skills & A Countable Noun has a singular and a plural form. When it is singular,
Personality Development it should have a determiner preceding it. In the plural form the following
prefixes can be used :

NOTES both, enough, few, many, more, most, other, several, some,
these, those.

However in the plural sense it can be used without a determiner at all. For
example :

I may have a driving license today.

An Uncountable Noun has only one form, not a distinct singular and plural
form. Uncountable Nouns qan be used without any determiner as prefix
or with one of the following determiners

enough, little, more, most, much, other, some, that, this.

They can also be used with:

any, no, the, what, which, whose and the possessive determiners such as
my, their, your etc.

For example:

There is not much space in that hall.

With nouns stch as furniture, information and equipment as with

many other uncountable nouns you can talk about amount of the things
or separate parts of the things by using phrases like a piece of ,some,
bits of.

As For example :

Shailja has saved money to buy fumiture for her newhome. So far she
has got two of pieces furniture, that is, a chair and a table.

The definite article rfte can be used with Countable and Uncountable
Noun, the singular and plural forms and in some special cases
even without proper nouns.

Some of the uses of tfte are given below:

Before nouns made definite by following phrase or clause;e.g. tfte

books they will need for their home work. etc.

Before names of rivers, mountains, trains; ships etc; e.g. the Ganga,
tlre Himalayas, rft e-Rajdhani Express.

Before nouns that denote unique things, for example, the sun, the
moon, the stars,
Before a noun which by reason of context,can represent only a single Section A : Grammar
particular thing e.g. the teacher, the classroom, the blackboard, etc,

Before a noun which has become particular and definite by being

mentioned for a second time. For example I have a black dog. The NOTES
dog is called Johny.

Before superlatives; e.g. the most ifiportant point.

Before a noun made specific by qualifying clause; e.g the people next
door, the boy who came here yesterday etc.

The definite article the is not used in the following cases :

i Before Proper Nouns

ii. When another determiner comes before the noun; e.g. his left thigh;
every effort; their eyes etc.

iii. Before Plural Nouns and Singular Uncountable Nouns when these are
used in a general or universal sense; e.g Man is mortal.

iv. In expressions like all day, all night

(But rie is not omitted in 'all the evening', ' all the rnoming',' all the
week', etc.)

v. Before nouns like school, church, prison, hospital, bed etc' when
these are visited for their primary purpose

e.g. His son goes to school at ten. But the school is located near the

vi. Before the 'man' when it is used in the sense of 'mankind' e.g. Man
is evolved from lower animals as claimed by anthropologists.

I. Choose suitable determiners from Column 'A' to accompany the
nouns from column tB':

no, any, each, every, this, that, these, house, houses, milk

those, some, his, her, its, our, their, my, many, a, the

II. Add ta'or tan'where necessarY:

l. Milk comes from Buffalo.

Communication Skills & 2. Door is made of glass.
Personality Divelopment
3. Grass always grows in Indian fields.

4. Table is made of wood.

5. Cow has a tail.

6. Bracelet is made of gold or silver.

7. Duck swims in water.

8. We can write application on paper.

9. Apples grow on trees.

10. Baby must have food.

I l. Milk is nice in cup of tea.

12. Milkshake is drink

13. I like butter on piece of bread.

14. I can write letter in ink or with pencil.
Only Countable Nouns take a or an . Uncountable Nouns and Count-
able Nouns in plural are preceeded by some when a certain quantity
or number is implied.

III. Add 'a' ot 'an' or 'some'where necessary :

l. Chair has four legs.

2. Mango has sweet taste

3. Fruit is good to eat.

4. Please give me water.

5. Man gave me copies this morning

6. Good student is never late for class.

.7 I want glass of milk with sugar in it.

8. Give me ink to write application.

9. I like music very much.

10. Do you take sugar in coffee?

IV. Supply 'a', 'an', 'some' or 'the' where nocessary :

l There is .. in .. .milk.
2. ...birds can fly very high in Section A : Grammar
3. on this shelf is ...interesting one about history.

4. He makes in ... evening.

5. ....donkeys are regarded as .....stupid animals.

6. Put ...butter on....potatoes.

7. ...honesty of all ... virtues.

8. I should

9. We had ..dinner retaurant ...last night.

10. Ram and Shyam went up ...mountain to fetch...bucket of..water.

ll. Do you of..poetry or...stories of..adventure?

12. ...clouds over...sea are lovely today.

13. I want .jar of ...peaches,..sugar and ...pound of ...jam.
14. There is
15. youngest brother is now.

Communication Skills &
Personality Development
Pronouns : Personal,
NOTES Relative and Others

A Pronoun is a word used instead of a Noun.

We may say 'Keshav is absent, because Keshav is not well'.

But it is better to avoid the repetition of the noun Keshav, and say:
'Keshav is absent, because he is not well'

A word that is thus tsed instead of a noun is called a Pronoun( Pronoun

means 'for-a-noun')

L we. you, be, she, iL they, are called Personal Pronouns because they
identiy three persons (i) the person speaking,(ii) the person spoken to and (iii)
the person spoken of.

The Pronoun I and We, which denote the prson or persons speaking, are said
to be Personal pronouns of the First Person.
The Pronoun yeu, which denotes the person or persons spoken to, is said to
be a Personal pronoun of the Second Person.
You is used both in singular and plural.

The Pronouns he(she) and they, which denote the person or persons spoken
of, are said to be Personal pronouns of the Third Person. !g, although denotes
the thing spoken of,is also called a Personal pronoun of the Third Person.
56 [The personal Pronouns of the lhird Person are,strictly speaking, Demonstra-
tive Pronouns.l
Forms Of The Personal Pronouns : Secrion A : Crammar
The following are the different forms of the Personal Pronouns:

First Person( Mascaline or Feninine)

Singular Plural
Subjective I we
Possessive my;nfurc our,ours
Objective IrE us

Second Person (Masculine or Feminine)

Subjective You
Possessive Your,Yours
Objective You

Third Person
Singutar Plunl
Masculine Feminine Neuter All Genders

Subjective he she t theY

Possessive his her,hers iB their,ttpirs

Objective him her I ltErn

Note that the Pronoun of the Third Person has three genders
Masculine tE
Feminine she
Neuter I
The Pronoun Ir is used :

l. For things without life;as,

Here is your copy, take i, immediately.
2. For animals, unless we clearly wish to speak of them as male and
He loves his cat and cannot do without ir.
The horse fell and broke its leg.
3. For a young child unless we clearly wish to refer to the sex;e'g'
When I saw the child it was crying.
That baby has tom irs clothes.
4. To refer to some statement going before;e.g'
He is telling what is not true, and he knows it.
He deserved his punishment' and he knew ir.
Communication Skilts& Relative PTOnOUnS
Personality Development
Read the following pairs of sentences :

l. I met Shyam. Shyam has just returned.

2. I have found the pencil. I lost the pencil.

3. Here is the book. You lent me the book.

Let us now combine each of the above pairs into one sentence. Thus
l. I met Shyam who hadjust returned.
2. I have found the pencil which I lost.
3. Here is the book that you lent me.

Now let us observe the work done by each of the words, who,which, and
The word wfto is used instead of ^Slryarz. It, therefore, does the work of
a Pronoun.

The word wfto joins or connects two statements. It, therefore, does the
work of a Conjunction.
The word who,thereforc, does double work- the work of a pronoun and
also the work of a Conjunction.We might, therefore, call it a Conjuctive
Pronoun.It is, however, called Relative Pronoun.

Other Pronouns
Interrogative Pronouns:
Interrogative pronouns are used for asking questions. For example :

o Who is there? Who are you ?

o Who are you talking about ?

o Whom do you want to see ?

o Whose is this book ?

r What do you want ?

o Which is the house ?

o What will all the neighbours say ?

Consider the above sentences and you will notice that the pronouns
a underlined are similar in form to Relative pronouns. But the work
which they do is different. They are here used for asking querstions
and are.therefore, called Interrogtaive pronouns.

Exctrrmatory Pronoun is a honoun that is used as an exclamation;e.g. section A : Grammar

What! Still here ! I thought you had left for home long ago.
Whatl You don't know Hari? NOTES


L Fill in the blanks with the right form of Personal Pronoun :

l. ............... want my books back.

'2. You say that his pen is ............... .

3. have so many times asked you not to commit mischief.

4. If that book is ............... I will give it to you.
5. I told ............... how tb deal with the problem but she did not do so.

6. Who has told ............... not to come to my place.

7 They tell that I have harmed them.
8. ............... tell ............... what harm I have done to ............... .

9. ............... fought bravely but could not win.

10. ............... was a very bad things to do.
II. Fill in the btanks with suitable Indefinite, Relative or Interrogative
Pronouns :
l. ............... won the match.
2. The horse ............... was bought from the fair was very strong.
3. The house you lived in was very large.
4. has he said to You ?
5. did you give the book ?

6. The plants ............... were brought from the nursery have faded.
7. There were two boys ..............' hated each other.
III. Frame sentences using the following Pronouns (One has been done
for you) :
l. hers : The chair was hers and not mine.
2. yours
3. that
4. ilrcir ChedrYour ftoglss
5. what 17. What for lnterrogative
6. who hronorns used ?

7. which
Communication Skilts &
Personali$ Development Articles
(Use of 'A' 'an', 'the'and their omission)

dlS il 'a', 'an'intt 'the', Articles urofi E r fd qi efi,rdf d Aq6u i+qr srdr t :
(A) Indefinite Anicles - AiIglI An
(B) Definite Article - The
I. Use of'A' and 'An' - Indefinite Artictes
'e or sqhr tt {r<I + q{ Eidr t, fqr+r sqr<q +.d qrc rrcq { ?Silr-rffi
(Consonant soundl fr*cd d, qrt qe trr y?Fr st{{ Vowel (rR) d qr Consonant
1qqq),$$ -
.l man aboy a university a European
a pen a dog a useftrl thing a one+yed man
{ U 51 sqnq 'q of r15 * 3qt{ 'q' d sfi
Note :'University' (!tscftift)
consonant (qqrl *s tr sqrs E-*'rtd aari,ttr qR uqr tsERUT .sr'd, +S -
umbrctta (91*et), umpirc (g!utFR) d an E,r yrfu alrnr
'An'tfr ydtr t+ yrdf + x{ +dr t, fq+ol gqr<q q,{A s{c yre { s<-qfr
(vowet sound) F;rir?rfr d, qd A lrq {rq ifl gslq EIS{ Vowel E} ztt Consonant $0-
an apple an hour (9!Idr0 an M.A. az island ( qEd.ql
an egg az heir (B\) an M.B.B.S. an ox
an umbrclla an elephant an honourable man * 14.5s. EalRt
(srf{te-d nA
Note: (l)'Hour'd 'h'silentt I scd q< 'o' erm td Vowel (q{) +1 qfi +dt section A: Grammar
tr reids {s {rc + 'nd 'an'qfrir
(2) a iren az ifrilS d 'one' {rq + 6c-+{ 6rI (weak form) *t {+fi nl}I
Countable Singular Nouns (ffi d,q C+.s-dr l+nteil) + val-d f+.ql war tr ,
qgTfi liifltd (Hural Nouns)iM qql,rfiq liild (Uncountable Nouns).* crd
vror g+t rrt dar tr r{+{T{. qi qrd{T{, dflI{(MaterialNounsand
Abstact Nouns) lErM+q ftd (Uncounuble Nouns) * Er<,lc d ffi *r
E{+ T6d irtr irtr oztl an cgffi Tfi ttcr t, ss a-tr d Countable Nouns d sq
{ rgm rfi dir
AilellAn6r rdrt 3lfrrfi qe sc t E{l IrsR EFIil qr v+'ar t-
(l) gQxq qR vgffi di ard Singutar-Countable Nouns 1q6,ffir ffi +rc sild) +

l. I have a book. 2. She lives in a hut.
3. He saw an old man. 4. He held an umbrella in his hand.
(2) W qs-s-qr fro vdrd (NounComplements) t T{ d ffi t* qI qERlnI
(profession) {qffqd fr :
1. She is a nurse. 2. He is an engineer.
3. Neeraj is a doctor. 4. She is 4rr actress.
(3) $t ftqfr { a qqql an t61 cc}I Adjective (Hs"r) n {d
Adjective + Noun
ss-+t vrGrs' eE * o1qn *tr tr vrGq+ qfi { (vowel)di q{ aniFr
aiw 166o*o*,1ti c( sl Yqt'I f+.ql qm t :
l. a big elephant. 2. an old woman. 3. az ugly child. 4. a useful book.
qfd, sEcR 3rR fi dq +.{rfr d, qql('vfr'+
tal tS e{Frqffidf + frs d Ts,
two rupees a kilo, six times a day, eighty rupees a drclzr;n, 2O km an hour, ten
rupes a ms6s! {ml
(5) {wtil+'/crdrtr*, oFrqffi $d- <q dci vfd fret t {d :
a pair, a couple, a dozen,half a dozen, a hundred, a thousand' 4lot, a $eat deal'
o great many, 4 quarter, u tnl11isn {flRt
(6)few3ilt liule*qlq :

l. He bormwed a few books from the library' 2. Please take a litde more tea.
Note : (i) afewat d asmallnumber (dq f6-{ {6Wl {iqt) * +dl +, ffi
t q<r qt rs{ dr vS lcq.,]{, a littkq,'t efid a small amount (dq f.5,tE
T6qT"i qHI) ttr dcr
(n) ftw dr lra, *t ldtl fc-{r a * S dar *, dF{q t rqrqrl afi' qir 3I{
d di tr$t '
l. Few people know this fact' (The fact is almost unknown)
2. She had little time to attend the meeting. ChedrYour Plogress
(She had almost no time ............) 18. How many classes rhe
(7) FFrq qrd oi q< q.d srd Exclamatory Sentences { g+'+qq $qt ( Singular ailkfuarcdMddinto?
Noun) + T6d {d qrd ffiqq-sle (Adjective) * {d :

l. What a beautiful flower ! 2. Whx a pretty colour !

3. What an old fashion t! 4. What a cold day !
Communication Skills(8) Such t[I fir f+-S Countable Noun * {lq di c{ such * qE a EIcl.lI an t61
Personalid Devetopment gdrt f6,.{9ldl t :
l. It was such a good deed. 2. He was such a helpful friend.
3. It was sucb an interesting story.
(9) Bfira sltflrd qI trql ( tiu"s, degrees or ranks ) * trR Ffr ( abbreviated
forms )d l{-f,d t{q IFIR i a stqiil an cr criq ttdl t r

(a) yqq EIH{ ER-qtr ( Vowel sound ) t d azw 9+rl, W

(U) csc a[SR afil{-qF ( Consonant sound) t d aor ydtr der tr

D. C. an L.D.C {dllftt
( l0) 'a' iIqI 'an' q,l yqlq 'qq'-t' (the same) sfld t S atcr t :

l. Birds of a feather flock together. 2. Men of c mind always group

together. 3. Take two at a time.
( ll ) Mr/ Mrs / Miss + sumame * vfd a tfr yq)rr daf t :

a Mr Sharma, a Mrs Mathur, a Miss Gupta letftt

(a Mr Sharma t
s{Mc qt qFc t, d ur strarmat * ilc t gsr{ qnr t qrg
Tfir ss* qqRffr t; cfiE( lrqr9{t t +{(l Mr sharma ztr Mrs Mathur .....ffi
Fill in the blanks wlth 'a' or 'an' :
l. He was....,............wise teacher.
2. It was................1ong way to the forest.
3. The meeting was held in....................big hall.
4. ............. bumt child dreads the fire.
5. She spent.....................few months in Mumbai last year.
6. Would you like to take..............little more tea ?
7. Now cricket has become...,.............intemational game,
8. They will be back in..............week.
9. I will finish this work within..............hour.
10. She is...............Ita1ian lady.
ll. of regular habits is sure to succeed in life.
12. Rani hopes to win................Iottery.
13. He is so good...............umpire that every player respects him.
14. We are to match next week.
15. Ashoka was..................very kind king.
Ftll in the blanks in the following sentenceE with'a'or'an' :
l. He is...,.,.,......honest man of our city.
2. He is...............very honourable teacher of our college.
3. kt us rest here for.............whi1e.
4. Can you give.............example of a cruel king ?
5. Anita wants to buy..............few toys for her son.
6. They and reached the station,
7. for.................
We shall go ...walk now. Section A : Grammar
.8. She often te11s..................... ............1ie.
9. Certainly, it is.................................very interesting story.
10. India is............................................independent country.
ll. Such..............................incident can never be forgotten.

12. She bought...........................eIectric iron for Rs 35Q

13. My father is.........................................M.L.A.
14. My friend's father is...................................U.D.C.
15. The .boy had taken...............................identity card.
2. Use of 'The' - Delinite Article
The' qi Definite Article IFET qil t 3Ih Ec+r vdrr gfi-{qr q {{fi 1iilpif
( Singular and Plural Nouns ) * trqfrfuil ftsftd i iolt qrdl t :

(l) t* Nound Tfd tqsfl q{ q B-ds f+qr qI 3+,t d :

(When the Noun has been referred to previously)
l. I saw a lion. The lion was'sleeping under a tree.
(qed ern {l ti qo *r furr (Xst ern { {6 +{ k + frQ S rer slr
2. We heard a noise. Thc noise came from a neighbour's house.
3. I have lost rie pen which I bought yesteday.
(2) Adjectives tbl Superlative Degrees * vrd :
(Before the Superlative Degrees of Adjectives) :

l. Ravi is rlre best singer in the school.

2. My uncle is /re richest man in the town.
gNqqrq : qq*rqrdfi qr erFr+rcqr{fi ffigo1 lpesses5lve Adjective),
ffi $t : zy,
his, het their your our dr( Adjective * tfi
Superlative Degrce l5I yfir
. +i qr theisr y*,r rfi dar tr $t,
L He is my best friend. 2. Mr Dixit is our best teacher.
(3) t6,0 {lq-q{6 (Phrase)?I i{lrqrf, (clause) t Efrffi *i qrd uoun*'rrd:
l. Ifte girl in the blue skirt is my sister.
2. Thc nan with a liftle nose is our Principal.
3. The cars made in our factory are the strongest ones.
4. The bc8,k on the table belongs to fte library.
5. The nant who went out is an excellent singer.
(4) tS Noun * T6'd qi 3ITfi q{ui qR (thewholeclassorrace) $t du qwn t :

l. Thc dogis a faithful animal. (qd' eri qcm 'gnr vrfr ri tl

2. Thz elephant has a long trunk.
3. The cat likes milk.
(s) cf(d, qFrif, rrdrqFrd, Bf, qt'erdf, frc-qE{,Tfrtqdlsif, T6if, $rrdi dql
isil + Tg-i-{fiq rd rflel : *
77re Ganges, IIr Yamuna. (rivers)
Thc Bay of Beng4 1tfrc Et =ql, The kabian Sea ( ErGl rllrR)
Tfte Gulf of Mexico 1!ffi d @1, The Thar,Ifte Sahara. (ITEI{I
The Himalayas, Ttr Netherlands (ddq i5'r c) The West Indies,
I}a USA. 63
(Sgffi rH rilRrfl)
& Note : dd(LakeO*ilc*Ti,cd( (Morntain)qI+a
Communicarion Skitls (Peakl*rn*$ Mount
PersonalityDevetopment q frtS sd0c * aq t g{ Caperr< qr gd.r fi +1 ftsfd { Z,ror yq}rr
tdf dartr
$t : Cape Camorin, Mount Evaest, Lake Mansarovr gffir
(6) t'{l ( Noun ) +1 rrt rgm fi erd t<gqul 1 a6iective ) vql *$ Oe rft *ct
I . The tl,:ave always rule over the earth. ('qErs{ *r')
2. The ich should help the poor. 1'wft' eim)
('anq *',
3. The wed< can never do anything.
0) FE { qqi 6rI t1 qffi {qqr qrFqn eqd * foq :
Thc sluin, the moon, ,rre sky, rfte earth, tfte world, tfte universe, tlw Taj, the wall
of China.
(8) RflId (CardinalPoints)* Tc * qrd :
TIE easr., E west, rfte south, thz nonh.
(9) qS :ltd * cFd qi A-djective + Noun ztt Noun + of + Noun sc { d :
fie National Highway, tlw Bay of Bengal
(10) rrfift, gw6l, qa-ird qi rT qrd+, d@Fif t T* :
( before religious books, musical instruments and ordinals) :
Tlre Geera, the Bibb, ,rre Quran, l}e Ramayan, the violtn, the flute, the first,
rfte fourdr, tfta eleventh, tfu las/'. the next {FflR I
(ll) Comparative Degrpe * Si cR r+q d ftqft { :
l. The nare you have, the ncr,e you want. 2. Tle sa ne\ the tr':ttr:r.
3. Thc higba you go, tfte cooler you feel.
4. The better I I admire her.
know her the more
(12) lril hoperNoun (qfoqrds, dilr) 6t gEr{ ffi ef,q efrE qis., {qr{ qr q!
l. Kalidas is rie Shakespeare of India. 2. Kashmir is ,rre Switzerland of Asia.
(13) q{, sTilc, qfr, T!fifir, rFi-+fr+. Tdf, q6rdf, kr@f, Esr vErd, Td+ril
Ifte Hindus, rie Sikhs, the Jats, the Sanatanees, rle Vaishnavas, rfte English,
tre Indians, tfte Americans, ria Congress, the B,!.p., rfte Nilgiri, rie Kanishka,
,r,z Vikrant, rfie Cheak Express.
(14) Plural Surnames * qfd :
fie fiCr), rfte Sharmas, rfte Mathurs {FltR t
Guptas 1X<t
(15) tT{R + dlf + rn * crq :
l. He caught lw by the hah. 2. She grabbed him by rtra neck.
(16) ilfreI Cq {Etq qsts * firii * wd :
Thc 25tt luly, dre l5th Augusr, ,rr4 26th January, rie Independence Day, the
Republic Day ffit
(17) Same, only, opposite, ft,ont, end, beginning $d {rC} + Xi :
Tlp sane scene, ,rre only son, rfta opposite rr4y, the front page, the errd of the
a play, rie beginning of ,rra story.
(18) All, of....... (Plural'Noun), one of....... (Plural Noun), each of..........
some Section A : Grammar
(Plural Noun) * <tv:
All tfta boys, some of rfte students, one of tfte girls, each of tlre winners.
The Omission of the Dellnite Article : NOTES
Frqftfgr ftqfrdf..tnennireArricbrrr rftI cfi ttn t ,
(l) Proper Nodir(qfs-er{{. q?I), Material Noun ('rqrdqrqs (n) asl Absract
Noun (T{f,{fi'tttt) * 5d :
l. Arjun was a great archer. 2. Gold is mort cosdy than stTvar
3. Wsdom is greater than wealth.
1q lR material noun i5I abstract noun t5I I*l ffi particular sense { dat
td oe qr r4rr rttlr
$t : The gold of India is costly. The beauty of the girl atracted everybody.

(2) tcl Manlrf, 51 vfrq qarvrfr (Mankind) d od { ti :

l. Man is mortal. 2. Man is a social animal.
(3) srEmr + ffi, qTdqirt, erd (qs v++r rfu rr* erqGm qtrd + fds
dil d), ffi, ffi nqr fitrqd qqq qt H
qri qrd ffif
* qrq * qtd:
I. She doesn't like pfiystcs'
2. We go to hoEpital when we are ill.
3. They go to school rcgularlY.
4. We play hockey every daY.
5. She is suffering ftom pneumonia.lfiqlfaqll
6. I have lunch at norc,n,
7. He goes a rcnple dailY.
qqq( (i) The dinner of last night. (ii) The coffee in the morning. '
(4) {qI, {,il, ffi * qrq d qrd r
l. India ltrs a very old and rich culture.
2. The leaves of ttris plant have orned yellow.
3. Diwali is celebrated with pomp and show.
(5) qfi.if, f+if aur zEoif * rrq *'nd :
l.January is the fust month of the year. 2. Sutday conres before Morfuy'
3. Spring is the fint season of the year' (also; Thc spingl
(O tu lrc q-rd Y++r rqi,I Tfi +dI (qq'6'G qm { frqt qqr d e[t( Effir
e{d vtrfiqlr' i[d{' d) z l. He gayed to God lor lrclp. 2. God is eveqnvherc
and within every soul.
(7) 'kind of ' $rt ' sort of '*tffi Definite Article rfi
eflil t :it
1. What &inl a/ man is he ? 2. He is a ight sort of nan'
(8) Church, market, school, college, hospital, prison, bed * g{ Oefrnite Articte-ad
o{rt, cR {tfl
vd.r vr$ tq *
orqi foq fo,qr rrql dr church{ gr{n * fe{,
market { qffi e-d + fdq; school, college rr.i.'i{ * fae trospitl { farc *
foq, prison{ Fqt + fds EqI bedc{ *i *
ffi feq qfi t-qc: vq vql qt
*irr.R vS ed { +dI t, d {< {rd + q{ oenniteerticbrfi qTo r *i :
Communication Skills & l. My son goes to school. (Tdi + fdS)
Personality Development
2. Father is going to hospital. ({drq + ftq)
3. The thief has been sent to prison. (vql +,rai+ fdS)
NOTES 4. You will have to go to court. (sR-ft-ErE qI ret frqzd + frq)
5.I go to bed late at nigtrr. (rfri ;6' fae)
6. He goes to church every Sunday. (ltfiI * fdq)
Ef{r qR {16I *ir,rr {s{ Fc d ad DefiniteAnicle o{rt t r $S t
L I anr going to r/ra school to enquire about the progress of my son.
2. Father is gr-ring to l/re hospital to see his friend.
3. Shall we go ro ,l,e prison to know the prisoner's condition ?
4. I am going to r/re court to see the dacoits.
5. Tie school is at the next crossing.
6. 7lz, market is closed today.
7. The church of Ajmer is very grand.
(9) qR ffi fu +1 .{rer :rr ;trq s rtETrdr 6r rq qe,A d d.nqr *rrq * <tc
thetrr yti'r rfi +fl, s-qf6 nqq-dr d qrdtherrr yfi ehn $0 :
The English spaks English. (s[fc ar]S doi trl
( l0) hoper Noun + 's + Noun * vrd pennite erticle Td strcr t $C

This is Moian 3 ftorse. ( q6i a Mohan's house Tl fug{ qEC)

This is llariS boot. (Cd a qI the Hari,s book Tfr frGr;Ir ilEC)
yt{ {R Common Noun * flrer
,s ,aro t, fr Vgd qofre.ti"te crqt E r

iC - Tltut is aa old nran's room. This is a priest,s hut.

Fill in the blanks with 'a', ,an,or'the'and put cross (X) wherc none of
them is needed :
L We sud), in ............. same school.
2. We shall bc in Dclhi on...........Republic Day rhis year.
3. He has suftered.............1or.
4. .......,........Chetak Express is late today.
5. Somu is............rallest boy in his class.
6, A tbx is cleverer than.......,.......crow.
7. ...................condition of the boy is serious.
8. are not always kind.
9. Gold is..................precious metal.
10. We are going to................Ko1kata next week.
I 1. We should he|p............poor.
12. Swimming is...............usefu| exercise.
13. He works company.
14. She takes.............lunch at 1.00 pm.
15. He retumed home by................train.
Use 'a', 'an' or 'the' in the blanks and put cross (X) where none of them is Section A : Grammar
needed :
l. We should set..............example before others.
2. The Himalayas lie in...,...........nonh of our country
3. She is in.................hurry. NOTES
' 4. He needs an hour and,.........half to conrplete this rvork.
5. The police have arrested.............thief.
6. ..................peop1e of western countries are rich.
7. People admire...............scenery of Kashmir.
8. What kind of.............nran you are I
9. She demanded a cup of.................cof1!e.
10. .................,.London is the Capital of Clcat Britain.
ll. ..................honesty is the best grlicl'.
12. Please don't make.................noise.
13. What is..................ob.iect oI this plan '.'
14. l-etis go as it is time for...........supper.
15. He mentions that ............... climirte of lndia rvas gtxd.
Use 'a', 'an' 61
r1[f rlhcrr' tl(tcsrur]' Pttl 'x' wht'rc none can be ustd :
l. ...........iron is...........hin1 nt*tal.
2. I lo $ rite...........1:itrt.
3. In Aristotle's view ....... clrik! :iis'ur' iuilrns his fitst l.'ssrtn lrr intitaliotl.
4. He will leave in...........hrxr.
5. ........... tndians .r'ere usually i:c'alrity arr:l iirr:d lrrrrs.
6. He sarys that the lndians hehaved in ..... ()rderl)' rlliiilnrr'
7. Tle .r,elllthy pe,rple led ....... .. ('rr:i .'.: rc lili.
8. Chandragupta had .......... irlrle rrml r,i seven lakh ntcn.
9. Justice was done by the kiug lrinrscll in .... ...' ()pcli c(rtll'l.
10. I passed ............ Civil Servic'c Er'lnriliation in .\rr':.' 'i .'(liil
ll. I am sending this letter tlr;cirgh .. ....... i;.,'ir: l; i.i,'i 'l t'" 'r''
12. The organization should ()pen ............. lillt iilJr'' ' :,1 l)..t'.tlr'r,crti'
13. God has given us............. Irlost wonrlcrftrl gilti
14. His........., greatest friend uus Bassanio.
15. ............. Udaipur is the Kashmir of Ra.iasthan.
16. He is ............. M.A. in English Literature.
17................ engine is pulling the rrain.
18. .............. poverty is a cuse.
19. Tlrc banyan is originally ...'.'.... ln.llin kurti' " ' ' : i
20. ................ Europeans lre lhit':r iit '-,rltirt :;r'i'i ;:i' : :"''r '

Communication Skills & Angwerg
Personality Development
l.a,2.u 3.a,4.A,5. a,6.a"7, an,8.a,, 10. an, 11.A, 12. q, 14. a, 15.a,
l. an,2. a,3. a,4. an, 5. a, 6. a, 7. q 8. a, 9, a, 10. an, 11. an, 12. an, 13. an, 14. a, 15. an.
l. the,2. the,3. a,4. The,5. the,6. a,7. The,8. The,9.4 10. x, ll. the, 12. a, 13. an,
14. x, 15. x

l. an,2. the,3. a,4. a,5. the,6. The, 7. the,8. x,9. x, 10. x, lt. x, 12. a, 13. the, 14. x,
l5-. fte
l. x, a,2. x, a,3. a,4. an, 5. The, 6. an,l. a,8. a, 9. an, 10. the, I l. a, 12. an,.l3. the,
14. x, 15. x, 16. an, 17. A& 18. x, 19. the,20. the


Sec{ion A : Grammal

The Parts of Speech


The parts of speectr <ffi-tC) rirr + Eit t d frrrfefun

srra t -
(r) Noun (dil) (v) Adverb (f5ql-fi{iqq)
(ii) honoun (crd{c) (vi) Preposition (qryqq{.[, srqc)
(iii) Adjective (Fdtiqq) (vii) Conjunction ({qjEr6, qr qgq.f,sitrr qqq)
(rD verb (fr'q) (viii) Interjcction (f{g.{Rdhrr qqq)
THE NOUN AND tTS KTNDS (ffl s{tr sr* tql
erufr, cE, Rm, q{6 nql got, qic qri qdefl
qt rq dr (rte
Nounr[6 rrq t d
name of a person, a place or a tbing is called Noun.) tC -
Mohan' Radha, girl, bon
army, library, gold, silver, childhood, poverty, honesty
KindsofNounsl6gr * t<)
Nounsqis rqn * *t *:
(l) Common Nounlufmrm lfn) (2) ProperNom (qGffiTr dil)
(3) Collective Noun 1q$srffi dil) (4) Material Noun (q<afurq{E,
(5) Abstract Noun t qrqqr{6. IiiilI)
frclcl- CommonNoun{i! gdl t ffi qfi'stl cI qt['ri5rd + fqfirq qffi
qI q$EI 6| qq65q q y+,z f{,lt sI g+r (n word that denotes a class of persons,
places or things is called Common Noun.)
$t : River, city, village, chair, boy' eul, hitl, sea ml 69
Note : common Nouir t 6ti ffi s, vpfi qr em rdrz cfi ddl tr
Communication Skilts & 2. Proper Noun
Personality Development cft,qlul- Pr llc.Nounq ffis qffi qt Terrt r6.e *m tt (Name of a particular
pcrs(-.n. placc {)r tlring ir' crllc<t Pmper Noun.) t{I
Jesus Christ. Mahatma Gandhi, Rana Pratap. Jaipur. Rajasthan, Himalayas, Indian
NOTES Occan. Tlrr' Taj. Delhi. Agra. Mount Abu. Nannada qtfrt
ffiq - l,rr'ner Nruu ul l Comrrron Noun tF 3?Etrol :
l. Jaipur is a tiunous city. (Jaipur- hopr.'r Noun qqfu city- Common Noun tt)
2. The Tai isa larnirus building. (Tai- Prr rper Noun + qqfu building-Common Noun
3. Rana Sang:, uas ii li'[rous w:urior ol Rajasth,rn. (warrior = *Cl)
(Rana Sanga ilefi Rajasrhan- Prrrper Nouns t. 4qf6 y16161- gommon Noun *t)
3. Collective Noun
qfutqr - CollectiveNoun s srF{cm ffi srFr"ir' qt q<sil, q. qTi t t dn.ra
Singular dill tt (Things that come in a group or collection are called collective Noun.)
*t : canle, crowd, audence, train, fleet, committee. parliament, class, flock, army,
library'. family ffit
4. l\Iaterial Noun
qfi,qur Material Noun srfcarq
- v<r.f * t $
uti (qt t twt qE T{ s*t
(The nratorials of which things iue made are called Material Nouns.)
' *i : Grld, Copper, Silver. lron. Wood s Rr
3Iq s(rdtul -
I .
lron is thc comnronest of all metallic elernents and its symbol is Fe.
L Teak is a hald *'ood and pine is a soti wood.

Note : Material Noun :61 Plural Tfi +dr EqfdS is i6,i ydq f6qr
fi Plurd irq v+ar tr
t,o< et.t
5. Abstract Noun
qfffisr- AbsrractNoun s{fusrq qf* qr arS * tC IFr, q Cis ttH tq?r,
Wr, gr-{, ft+ u <c* r{r+ r Et Fr{ **o q6qe f*-qr qr v*r (Thingswhichcan,t
be seen. touched, smelt, heard or tasred but only can be felt are called Abstract Nouns.)
$C - obedience, growth. honesty, health. wisdom. strength, childhood, slavery


Select the Nouns from the following sentences and natne their kinds :
I. Agra is a trautiful ciry. 2. The elephant is a big animal.
3. Honesty is the best policy. 4. Sohan reads in my class.
5. This cup is mirde of silver. (r. The child drinks milk.
7. My farher always speaks the trurh. 8. The judge gave hisjudgement.
9. Sita wrote a letter !o her father. 10. F'armers are ploughing their fields.

*rsrsii fi (ffi ) { f+qr qrar + d ftqFdfu( t-
rrim qn Gencten
I . Nla".--uline C.rnder (g@T), 2. Feminine Gender (dfrit),
3. Common Cender ("qqf.{4), 4. Neuter Gender (T$ffiRiq),
l. Masculine (iender
70 Masculine Cc'der:B Nouns * ;I{ (Nl.rlc) EI +r +il i.r *t - Uan, p;nce, king,
tiger, washernran. son qlflt
2. FeminineGender Section A : Grammar
Feminine Gender d Nouns t qr<t Gemale) c,I +t +dt tr $ri - Daughrer,
princess, hen, peahen, queen qIRl
Common Gender * Nouns t q{ aql.TEI (Male and Femalel ti q,r an *cr tr $t NOTES
- Friend, student, enemy, teacher, servant gflRl
4. Neuter Gender
NeuterGender* Nounst r$r* egon td n * r qRt) fir an dcr tr ii -
Tree, plant, table, chair, stool, temple EITftt
(l) cod ({ts(), god (t+ot), ansel (trRRI, +{td) - Tl sssi Masculine Gender
tFI Noun IFll Eli[ tt
(2) Earth, moon, ship, motherland si Feminine Gender i6T Noun qfql iinfl tt
(Motherland =qlE[fr)l
(3) Poer vq tt vftt male (68), fdS +dr *, qaft
female 1o<fu*) cH +
q+rvr +t gw+I { poet or Feminine Gender (dftirr) po.ter. f(q qm *t
f+a rrloaem age { poetess 6t ydq qer rfi q-a 3n6, tr gS cr Chairman
E1 trr16 chairperson sI v+q Mate ? Femate ++t * fS cri qrr tr
(4) fr[q { Germanyfr tgt q+q, tfl * wY qci tvr Ei q,ri qffi Motherland
a5 qnr tr q{r qh qct fu si Fathertand {fvgqq) or} tr erd: Fatherland
tbi Masculine Gender fit Noun 6-ttl

(iD THE PRoNoUN AND tTS KINDS (qdrilc efu sr* r6Rl
honoun Yr( ho+Nounqlvd*totc-fltr pro = For (* frR) I st-d: Pronoun
st qd E3r Td ir< Noun q<d *et q foq qrit (Pronoun is a word which
$ * {
is uscd in place of a Noun.)

v(If,{ll :
Ram is a good boy. Ram always gets good marks in the examination.
(qq gq' qer s-s+r tr {q ctm { s+s qd efl6, srq 6"(dr tr)
Er qt{ qr+d oi Eq r6R S frq {+,t * :
Ram is a good boy. He always gets good marks in the examination.
qto nam* rem c{ He iFT y+q frql *, qc: He sdrrq (Pronoun) (s r

Kinds of h.onouns
Pronouns (s Yor< * di t :

l. Personal honouns ($q-sltl-t6, v+{c)

2. Relative honouns lqrdr{qro rrdan)
3. Emphatic Pronouns (5c,<rg++ r*rn)
4. Demonstrative honouns (d#o-eg6 q+{ql
5. Distributive Pronouns (frqrrrE{6 Et{q)
6. Indefinite honounsefiqqrqr{fi (dnc)

7. lnrcrrogative Pronooo. lygnqr+fr g*{H)

8. Reciprocal Pronouns (c(g[(qlir6 v&Ic)
g. Reflexive Pronouns (f+wr+o qdtq)
10. Exclamatory honouns <ffiqo vf{Iq)
Communication Skitls & l. Personal Pronouns ( E6ttllffi6 IB*CIC I
Peroulity Development personal pronouns *f f6R * di t :
(A) First Person : I, we, me, my, mine, our, us, ours tEl Y*l Personal honouns {
First Person * Fq d +dr tr $ri -
IEIf,(tT :
l. I shall go therc. [Nominative case, subject to the verb'shall go]
2. We shall go there. [Nominative case, subject to verb'shall go' ]
3. Mohan will teach me. [Objective case, object to the verb 'will tach']
4. You arc my friend. [Possessive case, possessing the noun'friend']
(B) Secord Person : You, your, yours iFI gdq Personal Pronouns Second *
Ferson* tc { dil tr
l. You arc a good boy. [Nominative case, subject to the verb 'arE .]
2. He will rcach you. [Objective case, object to the verb'will tach']
3. You are good boys. [Nominative case, object to the verb 'arE .]
rte- l. (r) Youtt'I yqlq q6 qk + ffi +fl tr (sSr6ror r)
(ii) youtFr rch s.'{t (Subject)iM o"d (oUjecoqt{ feq dar ir *
Eql{{trr l-2)
(iii)You:[I cqh qs' qFtr6 t qffif
+ fq S +dr *t (vqr6{ur 3)
Z. Ctd <fld { Present Indefinite Tense {
eg*ea +1 f*ll qdi *l
3. (i) Past Indefinirc Tense { verb tr1 second form enff *t
(ii) Past Continuous Tense { were iFll Main verb slfAfrt
tt- You were going.
4. Futurc Tense { wil * stv g@ ffill entfrr $rt- you will go.
(C) Thlrd Person : He, she, it, rhey, him, her, his, its, them, their, theirs t['I yfrt
Personal honouns *
Third Person *
sc inar tr $ri - {
l. Ram travelled for two days. IIis clothes are dirty,
2. Nanrc has its own laws.
3. Tlry have lost rftzir way.
4. She had lost ftzr ring.
5. It belongs to rftez.
2. Relative honoum
Relative honoun rrt l*rr q-f, d qq { *ar tr qe s{ci ffi (Antecedeno t
qqf;rre tdr t aqr s} qrdf 6i *go il erc: vs fl r+q complex Sentence (frrFefd
srf,){ A dil tl
$C : Here is the boy who canrc, in the moming.
E{r gla { wfio Relative Pronorn tt Evot Antecedent (g*+fi) Uoy tr q6 Hlar
(Quality) f6z qrnl $r qe: Who, whom, whose, which, that i yqtrl Relative pronoun
al rrt dar tr
(Tf,lr,t :
l. I know the maz who won the race.
2. Have you s*n the &ama which was staged last week ?
3. He lost his cftaln which was made of gold.
4. TIla tin e which is lost is lost for ever.
5. Do you know the sodier whom the leaders praised.
6. ?iosc who (whom) gods love die young.
72 7. It is an ill rird that blows no body good.
E. A/ that glifters is not gold. (glitters = qq-{fr tD
9. Uneasy lies tlrc hed that wears the crcwn. Section A : Grammar
10. This is he tud tlat gw to Mathura.
wgfr are 1 { man,qlf, 2 { drama,Tfi 3 { chain,qq 4 { time'qEq 5 {
soldier, Tf, 6 { Tho6e, {fi 7 { wind, Brq 8 { AL ilf, 9 { hea4
qrfi l0 { road
qci-qci qedf { rgm Relative Pronouns * Antecedent (5ffi) tl NOTES

qrfo t nn nqi ur sqlr EdI q{tt + Rri +dI {,3d gmpS6dsPron6utts iEEi

$i: l. Iwilldoitzysell 2. I myself saw him steal.
3. He iimsef said so. 4. We will w to il ourselves.
qctfi <t+if t qt fiq{ f{6ild1 * fo'EmphaticPronounstnl Y*rt ffi 6r{ *
q<i c( {d (Emphasis) ti + fds dar ir tt wq (Subject) + $r,f,
(Determination) tfi Yoz q,d tr
+e- tS qrel { I * sts myself, we * qlq oursclves, you (qfi qffi + fdq
cgffi) * qlsl yourself; you (qr t cflfir+' qffi + H I{m), yoursclves, ttrey-*
Illcl themsetves, he* qlrl himself, she * eM hersefilI it+ llls itselfE,l yqitl tfl
4. Dqnonstrative honouns
f{qfdfn scr6{8il qi qHTfr cidi :
l. This is a good book. 2' That is my pen.
3. These are fine 4. Those are your books.
EctffiYt6$ii qrr{e*E:
o This, That, These qtt rrrose tt Pronouns t si q<.if (ttrings) thl *{ {-til
(Wnnl od tr
erc: f{ri*rcrdfi gd+q (Demonstrative Pronouns) t56i tt
. This - gfiqql qil Tdilq (Prronoun showing Singular Number) t
q These {g6I
VS *o That - Singular Number ifl Pronoun t et( Thou. E(Ifi <g+qt $1
o Thisq ThesetEl rqlrr crq d qEqI + fri qt{ Thatil Thoeeiil rqil tt +1
qqd * foq dat tr
5. Distributive Pnonouns
Distributive Pronouns t Yq+e r*z Etct tt Eact , Eitlrer' N"itltet, Everyone' None,
Manyifit rtrr rq1#ffiT6 nf{q ul * 4 6 swrr tr
E(IfiuI : l. Neither of you can do it. 2. Each of you can do it.
3. Either of You can do it. 4. Onc of you can do it.
6. Indelinite Pronouns
qfryqqqlT* sffi am ffi 6fafr< qffi, <l ql ltm iE dq rfi dal tr
ydtr dar tr nrey
Et{ w: One,None,Some,Many,Others,Everybody'TheyqG cr
qr edrr fif{-qtr qk qr eE + frs S ri vo-<r *r id -
L I love my parents though they are poor.
6 ara d Theyt firFc qf< rre fi tr
2. Ttay say that Saurav Ganguli is a bad captain.
qs qrf, { Theytn rril iflfffqqqr{r q+{c E1 iT WI tl
7. Interrogative Pnonouns
wfilq.F vft$ g IIFI (Questions) 16,z fi5.i qri tr 73
Communica{on Shlls & What, who, which. whose, whom ES df6 S pronouns tt $t-
Personatity Development l. What do you want ? 2. What is your father ?
3. Who is there ? 4. Which book do you want ?
5. Whose are these books ? 6. Whom do you love ?
NOTES *a - who, whom, whose s.r rqfrr qffi * foq, which or r*q qffi dql
qqsil + frq rsi what q,r y{irrr rq3fl itqr aFr{rFr * fuq gtcr tr
E. Reciprocal Pronouns
qq isfr qrfl { qfi T+tn ' t qw+r f<srq ii sq qrw{qr+6 vdrn oai tr
each-other, one-another q(gtG{FtF V*a1q 5r1 tr *S -
Roma and Bharat love eacfuother.
2. Mohan, Shyam, Govind and Gopal hate one--another,
*? - Each other sr yqfrr El qktit'nqr one another ql t e{Rr6, qEild 6,t qqr.I
sfltf,r tr
9. Reflexive Pronoun
Reflexive Pronoun T6 f<srfl * f+' +'d fl gqn q-ai c{ A rsdr t *r f+tfi vr
Tfit My. your. him, her, our* { el self {T selves tFIIIEI Reflexive pronouns qti t f
l. The pla!,ers hurt themselves.
2. I crowned myself with success.
10. Exclamatory Pronouns
fqr qqf t frsq fi dq d, sri'+{d what q,t fr ydq do t, sfu wnat *vlsr(
t{gqg6 fT6 (!) 3[rdr tr $s -
l. What ! you want to go now. 2. What ! you think yourself to be handsome.
3. What ! you have not gone yet. 4. What ! not a trace of Ram.
FiA in the blank wirh suitablo pronouns :
l. The lion was proud of .......................... strength.
2. ..................... cars are going to Delhi.
3. Can ....................... hope to count the stars ?
4. Do anything you like.
5. ........................ is your father ?
6. ....................... you say is not correct.
7. He and his friend respected
8, He .............................. is down needs no fall.
9. ........................... is blowing hard.
10. This is the house . my father purchased last year.
ll. ............................ likes to home his own way.
| 12. She .......................... has cut the cloth.
13. ............................... of the two comes here.
14. I .................. saw him doing this.
15. ......................... were died.


Hqq cT ydq un sr vdrTq +1 ffisil si6-e +.d + H
+dr t; (Adjectivesare
the words which qualify Nouns or Pronoun.) $q - A clever crow; A boy. gd
Tdqrti 61 Efrr :
Ques. - *dI +t ? Ans.-q? iF Section A : Cralnmar
3f,fi: AlErrtE {lq t +a isl {ur lrsz Elil tt
Clever : qualifying the noun 'crow'.
Ques. - il..t6l *$ ?
Good : Adjective, qualifying the noun 'boy'. :.JOTES
Uscs of the Adjectives
Adjectives i6I yftr ci r*R t *tr t :
(l) Attributive use Or Used Attributively.
(2) Predicative use Or ljsed Predicatively.
Fffir qolr Es r*n : t
Attributive used ffiqq lldlective)snr t
Tfd rgffi ddl *, - ft
A thirsty traveller is sleeping.
Predicative use { Adjective (f{*cq) f*er lverty *
wurq qm rtm tr
s{qi( T6 Predicate (fr*q) 6I sis +dr tr +d-
The traveller was thirsty.
Kinds of Adjectives (t{iurr * tq)
Adjectivesfra r+n * dd t:
l. Adjective of Quality (gorsrqq, ffisq)
2. Proper Adjective (qfmqrqo ffiqq)
3. Adjective of Quantity (qfi'qMsrqs iqtsol)
4. Adiective of Numbcr (TtgrffFF' Fqiqq)
5. Interrogative Adiective (c{r{srq6' ffiqq)
6. Demonstrative Adjective (ri#rrqr++ ftll}qot>
7. Distributive Adjective (Ewrq+o ffiqq;
l.Adjectiveof Quality
gqqrq-{ ffisq t ffi qfff qr qq + W ncr q}s Td.z H sre t-
E(I6{rrI : l. An honest boy is liked by everybody.
2. My youngest daughter is very happy.
3. ttunpur is very big city.
4. He has a good pen.
qf,qn - Adjective { +<l, d;S ?i frs 1+,I{ sI 6rri t Adjective of Q.rzliry -,r:
an ttr t; $0-
Ques. - *qr (gfi ? Ans. - An honest boy.
3f,fi: Honest {lrqrqfi fEl{iqq (najective of Quality) *r
*a- en .ld;ective of Quality i tq @erecg S r-+-e iiar il
YEf((uI : A weak boy is a curse.
Ques. - *el(sfiI ? Ans. -
A weak boy.
3i'fl: Weak t6r r*q W s<ra<q { Adjective of Quality 6\ 69 d gur tr
2. ProperA{iective
Proper Atljective (qfft-qrddE, ffisq) ffi hoper Noun <qfmqr{s- ffiI) t
q{(Ir *r $t - French wine, Indian tea, British goods, Japanese toys e{TRl
qf,"rrl - Proper Adjective +t gqqn Capital letter t ttfr tr drcclYour Protlss
3. Adjective of Quantity 19. tlar many gerders arr
cf{Tursrffi fq{sut t ffi
eq qr qRqM qqt(rn-{ an *d *r gq qRqrsrqr++' ther of Nouns ?

ffiqq - All, Some, much, linle, whole (IFrR), enough (qqiW), sufficient (CqlR),
no, any (no) ffit 75
Ccrnr:runiurion SkilL & E(fttrul : l. He has lost welth.
all his 2. Is thele azy milk in a glass ?
Personality Development 3. He has linle intelligence. 4. I want some water-
qfsr{ - T6 qrfl d diil ii qfd How much sqt(fr-m q ffi
a'IIi an dat t
NOIES cte- Littte sl cqlrl Negative Sense eqt('f{tr{ir rfi' * qs { d<r tr
4. A{iective of Nurnber
$I Adjective{ qffi, E<d q ssrd of Sqr m dfr tr
E(If,{lI : l. Five boy are doing their homework.
2. The hunter has caught seven birds.
q6qn - zE qr+q t Tfl t qrd
Howmany qr (ffi
orno< an *nffi) tr
*a - First, second, twice, thrice EIR q,I S gcdfl Adjective of Quantity { d d
qrar tr
5. Interrogative Adjecdve
rrrrqr{s ffiwr vfi (Question)vqz &t tr $ri -
l.Whose book is this ? 2.Which house is yours ?
3.What game will you play ?
qfqri - qrf, * q< { vlr{qr{r EI fr6 ( ?) dar t aqr whose, which, what ffi
* qR sdr lrq qrfl tr
crre- (t) whose ql rrirl Possessiue case { tat *t
(2)whodr whom:Fl rtrr vrrqr{fi ffiqq u1 rtt rf ttm tr
6. I)emonstratlve A{iective
g#dqrdrr, nnisq t ffi qfft, qr qq s1 dk t+n f+nt qrdl tr thir,That,
These, Those, Such 6I rqlT Demonstrative Adjective +1 a<a *tr tr $ri-
l. This boy is stronger than Ramesh.
2. These toys are not inferior to Japanese ones.
qEsri- wHqqrERrffiqfftqrq<d *rwn (S+n) f6qlqdl+ffi
q6 fffi qr q<l Erer qfmil qr qssif grqRer{ tr t
*a- frq. 6 Yr( Demonstrative A jective *
wr-uv Adjective of Quantity S d
v+'m tr
SElf,rtlrl : AdJecdve of Quantlty l)emonstrative AdJectiye
l, I ate sornc ri,ce. l. Sorne boys are lazy.
2. I have lost a/l my wealth. 2. AII men must die sooner or later.
7. Distributive Adjective
ge Hsq a{ ffi qk qr qE 61 Bq* s'l cr sgErc t sf,drr (1rq) 6l Rqr
qrcr tr
YEttr{ut : l. Each boy must wait for his tum.
2. That boy is lazy.
3. Don't be in such a hurry.
4. Those rnangoes arc sour.
gFtFl- This, That, These, Those, Such tn vqlq fqqrrrEr+ ul tr(6 Etdr ffif t
f+E s|d rc fo {r r<f t * wqr(ffi
vg qI or ydrr d-<r qBqr ef*
*e- t
f{q E{rrruil 6i r@t V+* 3[q{r Distributive Adjective ite Distributive
Pronounisl t(
qrs+1 ur* { crccqda qt qriqt
E(If,{ut : AdJectlve
Dlstrlbutlve Dlstrlbutive Pronoun
l. clever.
That boy is L That is a clever boy.
2. lhrte such things. 2. Such is not my habit.
3. These mangoes are ripe. 3. These ar ripe maflgoes. \
4. Those boys ar naughty. 4. Those are naughty boys.
qrt t -Distributive Adjective * sl { Each, Every Either, Neither, Suctr * gm ar< Sertion A i Grammal
fri re 6I v+rr dil { fuq pistributive Pronoun * {
6g Each, Everyone,
Eittrer, Neither, No One zll None ilen Such fi
d vd{ *<r ! tr
Piak oat the Adiectives in the tollowing scn ences and poi* oat the Nouns
which an qw@d by thcm :
l. You are very talkative.
2. He who climbs high must fall down.
3. The lazy boys arc not liked.
4. I have one pen only.
5. I need no other pen,
6. Whose cycle is this ?
7. This book is quite different from yours.
8. It is a wise policy to look beforc leaping.
9. Open rebuke is better than false flattery.
10. There is no hope for an idle sen ant.
ll. An ideal teacher is rcspected.
12. The first boy who came here looked very sad.
13. Narcndra Irtodi surprised all his supporters.
14. Our Prime Minister is wise and popular.
15. II luck has chased me whole life.
16. This yellow shin is better than the white one.
17. This is most unforhrnate.
18. That boy is the strongest in this class.
19. A wrerched father like me has nothing 3o lose now.
20. Now several boys werc found copying in this school.

Using suitable AQjective, conphte the lolloving sentences :
l. I do not like your action.
2. Jaipur is a city.
3. Varanasi is a .........-..........,.. place.
4. He is an ............................. man.
5. I could not eat rice yesterday in the party.
6. You have ........................ sense.
7. The hand has ......................... fingers.
8. April has ............................... days.
9. boy must wait for his turn.
10. The onanges are
ll. Ihave............................. sugar.
12. musl die.
13. There are not spoons.
14. ............................. boy is industrious.
15. ........................... bag is this ?
ffiquil or r+{ trr qq{qld G}'egxeesl { ttcr tr $*-
L Ram is/at
2. Mohan is /afiar than Ram. 77
3. Hari is the/aneo boy in tlrc family.
commun.ication Sk![s qrfl t {qirqr{qrtfrrnqfi+cr c.ssr *,illfl z {+6i++tT{qi Efir
Personality Devetopmenr rn d *)qr { #t rrE tr qr+{ 3 { qfi qfi-qR + iirl d q1 Ed-{I q,{i E( Tdrq rrqt
t f+ ri cRsR -* qq vcqi grrri-(irc a{t{ +6r t s{k6, +a tr let wd { q-a qr
vooi t rt irq qi il.sdl t 3rtir6 ftr tr
I(INDS OF DEGREES (ffidf + tq)
Adjective tr1 frr
emrqt( (Degrees) ftqfrfisn $g
l. Positive Degree ({Ilr{elT qI q[qlq 3rq.tql)
2. Comparative Degree (ilErfi 3f,fiql).
3. Superlative Degrce (itq{'C q{e[T)
1. Pmitive Degree
Positive Degrees tFT 6rl ffi qfft, "{<
q Tqrq + 1o aw qll +t v+-e od d
ffi do tr$n-
Rama is very /at. Mathura is a holy place. The sun is very bight.
2. Comparative Degree
Comparative Degree ul wim ci qfmji, egei qI P{Iii 6i ge-+ +ri + ffi Eldt
Elrf{ul :

l. Jhansi is hotter than Mathura.

2. The younger son of the merchant was }t't'ser than lris elder brother.
3. You are J"raior to me.
'.rte- I
( r IIFI: Positive Degree * ffiqur { er EltF{ Cornpelative Degrce tFT

Hqq q-{ +i tr
(2) sqr6{ut I +i ifisir Esd senior* c{-srd 661 i:jq f6q1 rtn ir -l-aid's(r6iut
r s+{ z d honer iten wiser * q{qrc than tEI yfrt f*-qr.rqr *r
(3) Senior (eis), Junior (qfrg), Inferior (gf7r4) ; ErlI Superior ( *B) * c{-qrd
thanql sfrr Td +dr t. fu tpo,r ydq aar *r
3. S'aperlative Degree
ffi qq' d qq qr qfn q1 Sffi s{r61 qce ffi qr +l s EG gqse vclvR
qr<i d feq qs;rr nftr lirqr qrdr tr $ri -
f. ilita is the most beautiful girl in her class.
2. Ran, is ihc bcst boy in tbe class.
+e- (l) Positive Degre.e :i fttwr { est qqml Superlative Degree o,I fq*qul e-{
ti tr
*- t cleverer (Comparative Degree) ilcfl clevert cleveresr (Superlative
(2) Eq F{qq * Ao ffi-<R (Exceptions) *l *0 - Gocc, better, best ; Beautiful,
more beautiful, most beautiful ; Easy, easier, easiest ; Big, bigger, biggest.

Fornratiorr of Comparative and Superlative

(safi ffi'df * ftiqUI rqml
acfi Grf,q
Positivc Degree + ffir' ri Comparadve Degee ne{ Superlative Degree *
Hqq qili + ff,q FTqFrtud t:
Rule I : Positive Degree * tdti'qtia c' - er qgri * Comparative Degree 6T
Hqur qt qrdl * (eII --est qari ti superlative Degree E't friwt qt qnr tr *C-
78 Positive Comparative Superlative
Sweet (fra) EIfq6 frat)
g1rygs1s1 ( Sweerest (vc$ 3{firo qta)
Smau (dEt) Smaller ( qfiris' +a) Smallest ({rEC a{Frd, +cT) Section A : Grammar
Tall (Eql) Taller ( qFrs' dql) (qi[t srfi{fi (Iqt)
Rule 2 : tlq Positive Degree * vrei' * ef,< d -e dar g, 6q +{d -r qt -st qgri
tr$rt -
Positive Comparative Superlative NOTES
Brave (*t) Braver ( 3lFrfi +t) (rFtC anr*' +{)
Fine ( srEII) Finer ( slftls' orr)
Finest ( sqd 3{nr{, 3f,6t)
white (s+q)
whiter (qftri5. q+()
whitest (qct snrd, s+()
Large (SI) Larger ( erfvo qt) largesr (v<t sfirfr' {s)
Rub3:qR Positive Degree * qqi * q< { y o*r yt T6d EfTr (Consonant)
d d comparative * iqq Vd vrT6 -ier iten Superlative t6' feS V*1 qrr6 -iest EIr[ tt
tr$C -
Positive Comparative Superlative
Happy (lRF) Happier ( arfvo Happiest (vqg 3lfirr ysrl
Lucky ( qlqqR) Luckier ( srftr+ qrrrqR) Luckiest ({ttti qftro qrrqn)
Merr)'(\FI) 14"r.;s1 13lftr6' EFr) Merriest (rrqQ eFr* g{I;
Preny (g<{) preuier ( srlero gq11
preuiest (sst efiro g<t1
Rule 4 : fr
Positive Degree *
Hsq d +{d S+, d syttaute ai qt ss$ er<
{ Consonant d, itgn s{I Consonant (Efw{) t T6d sii H{ (Vowel) d d Compara-
tive * foi -eraqt Superlative * ffi-6s1q6r{ t 5d ss Consonant (frI) +i Si sR
foe ti tr $t -
Positive Comparative ' Superlatlve
Red (IllEI) Redder ( 3{ftrs Qro) Redde* ({rtRi {Fr6 HId)
Bie (Et) Bigger ( qFr+' e-et) Biggest (vet 3lftr6, Tsr)
Hot (:TC) Honer ( efer6 rld) ({Iqs 3lftrs rr{)
Thin (Ydeil) Thinnesr (se0 {ftr6, qffir)
11$nng1 l slftrs qirdt)
sad (S:d) Sadder (s{ftr.F S:d) Saddest (vtrc s:d)
Fat (+a) Fatter ( qftr+ *a) Fattest (qsd s{Frs *er)
Rule5: t t slftls' Sytlautes (grF $rsR ?[ sr+fi sflffif s'r {gErq d gi6' rilq +qr
qtql slslt-( c{fl qrd Hqsif { Comparative Degree t ffisq t {d Morc Her
Superlative Degree { Most qT?F( ffisu c-{rn qri tr *ri -
Positive Comparative Superlative
Beautitul (g<t) ( 3{Rr.5, E<{)
More Beautiful Most Beautitul
(vct effiro gqy
Diffep11 (ffi) More Different ( sIFIfr ftrn) Most Different
(s{t srFro, fiffi)
Important (3fls{qs) Morc Imponant Most Important
srsvT6,) (s{t qnrs i{rqws)
( 3{ftrd,

Elegant ({<{) More Elegant vFro gqt;

( Most Elegant
(v*0 eftr+, g<{;
Rule 6: fqt Adjectives * Comparative E Superlarive Ri :r& Rules l-5 { ft,fr
Oreckr/our Prugrss
s f ftt q+cr s tTqfrfud t-
Positive Comparative Superlative 20. Hor many degee arc
Good ( qI)
fierc of Mjectiws ?
Beaer ( qfrriF qE I) Best (rrst 3lnr6- qil)
Much ( ertr+) More (e*{ slfirs) Most (sst qnr6,)
Many (Tgd i) More (eilr Srol Most (vqQ 3[Frfi-) 79
Old (sq) Elder (3dqs' qgl) Eldest (qt[C a{ftr6, Tsr)
Communicetkrn Skills & *a- (t)eajectivesd Degreesd fiut{f trcd a1 qqfl ffisq d Degrees+1
Personality Development qrC str
(2) Fast (+q) Adjective etr mvert S tr quict t Quickly, Slow t Slowly
fr t
frcFfiI*qq r{i *, f+,< Fastt Fastlyrfi vtot t, #d Fasdy{rq d r{f tr $Q -
NOTES (i) He ran fast. (ii) Srinath is a fast bowler.
(3) EE {ld thl Positive aq Comparative Degree Td fifr t; $0 -
Unique (ffi*{), Uunost (rrcd alffrr) t

FiA ir, tho blat ks viih the cortecl dcgree of cot4paison of Adiectives given in
lhc btwkets :
l. Mount Everest is the peak in the world. Ctch)
2. This box is than the other one. (heavy)
3. Shyam is the ..................... man is my village. (rich)
4. His condition is ............................ than before. (bad)
5. Ashok was ......................... than most other kings of India. (great)
6. Kolkata is the city in India. (brg)
7. Reeta is the .......................... of the three daughters. (old)
8. The Taj is one of the . buildings in the world. (beautiful)
9. Some boys in the class are .. than Hari. (talD
10. This way is than the other one. (shon)

Spocial use of Sme Aqicctlves (ts fc+qoif * ftfte rftr I

Some*t Anylf,I Ifrt :
Some til yqlq Affrrmative (g6T{rqs') Sentences (qrqd) { Adjective of Quantity
r+E q.d + H tdl tr *t - I have read some books.
Any rfl rrfuI Negative (T.[,I(rdr.5.) ?lI Interrogative (vF|-trqfi,
qd) { dfl tl
(l) They have not read any newspaper. (Negative)
(2) Have you got any news ? (Intenogative)

Exoeption ( sNvarq) :
Bl rFrr ir.6'qd { ffi Ei{ vdil 61 qrfr t wrql Eli ql-n| d qrfr *, soln"
6I v+{ F6qI qI T6il tt t0- will you please lend me some money ?
Eoch and Everya;f u'qlr :
Eachef,t Every* rrfri 6i qq{i t fdq flqRfun aaii q{ qrc t :
l. Eachet EverytrT{ri S f51 Everyrr< Eachtl e{icil erftro emphatic tl
2. Eacht6I sld each without exception erql( r*o
oqqE-ft6d tr
3. Eachqr vft qffi',
d qqd qI rqr{ + H
dei tr everyw rdtr si t
qnr6 qffi,
cqefi qr rqdf * ffi
fr tiar *r
n. ga.6m qgqrq + Etr fr{ fi
c}qfi tr everyvq'i q5(rq +r Ar{ 6-fiil
5. Eachol vqh s:S qil { dil t w qg<rq + qffidf El Sql SFd (Limited)
nql fiF{d (Deftnite) dt Every ot vq}rr ss qcc dil * qc g{frF{d {qI
(Uncertain ?[ InAefinite) dfr tt
EltTrt :
l. Every seat was unoccupied.
m 2. Three boys were seated on each bench.
3. Everyone of these five stools is broken.
4. Lrap year falls in every four years; Section A : Grammar
5. Shyam carne to see me every three months.
6. It rained everyday during winter vacation.

Little,A tittleilllt The littte * Y*rt NOTES

Littteiil sfrq:
Liale fl Ecei t - rd * cnqt, qqh I-iule E*qq qil qrq fiiqrfidE (Negative) *dI
l. Litde knowledge is dangerous.
2. There is litde hope of the patient's recovery.
A littlei5l r*rl :
Aliuleir't qd eo, cr{ srH$tiEiil t sgd sq tr g{l-fii yqh Positive (lTsRrsfi)
elei { d-cr *r $0-
l. Now there is a litde hope of the patient's rccovery.
2. A little tact would have saved the situation.
Thelittleiil r*q :
The liule sI 3lei *- 'qlqt ftt t{-{ f{fl t qt es', +0 -
l. The little information he has is not enough.
2. The little milk in the milkpot is not sufficient for a good cup of tea.
*a- : (l) old tt1 E) Comparative <w Superlative Degrce t- old, older, oldest
nql OH, Elder, Eldest.
Elderirq Hdesta vqtq Cfi cf(sR + T{{df + ffi +dl tt old, olderaql oldest
tt ydq erq qffii
(d Ss cfi-sr d r d) nqr qqeif + ticr tr $rt - H
l. Hari is my eldest brother. 2. Naina is my eldest daughter.
3. This is the oldest mosque in the town. 4. Afzal is the oldest villager in the village.
5. He is elder to me. 6. She is the oldest lady among these three.
(A) Using Older or Elder, complete the following sentenccs :
l. I have an ......................... brother.
2. is ........................ than Madan by three years.
Her ........................,, brother is a teacher.
Gita is the ......................... of the two sisters.
The nephew is ....................... than his uncle.
(B) Using Oldest or Eldes! complete the following sentenccs :
l. Vijay is the .................... of my son's thrce sons.
2. Shyam is the ....................... member of the Bhama Shah Trust of Mathura.
That is Mohan, the major's ...,............... son
The ......................... temple in the town is near the post office'
Mr. John is the ..,......................... European resident of Kanpur.
(C) Using 'little', 'a little', or 'the little', complete the following sntences !
I gave the beggar ... moneY I had.
2. There is .......................... chance of his success.
3. Do not spoil ............................ milk you have.
Go and bring .......................... milk.
......................... knowledge is a dangerous thing.

Communication Skills & (lv) THE VERB AND lTS KTNDS (ffi.qr sil{ sq* rfir()
Personality Development
Verb is an Action word. qqtEAction word si d verb +-6d tr verU * f{n +$
srf, T61 fi v+or qft ffi qrfl d +{d q+. r,1 {rq t, d ffi ve veru fr dnr +t-
NOTES (l) Go. (2) Come. (3) Stop. silRt

KINDS OF THE VERB (frqr * +q)

f*qt faq66u ron ql tfr * ,
l. Intransitive Verb ( 3r.t,dfr' fs.{{I)
2. Transitive Verb (v+.+q, ffql)
(a) Transitive Verb with One Object (q*. +.d' f*-qr) qd
(b) Transitive verb with Tivo Obejcts (Ei E'd T6tr+- ffrql) qd
(c) Transitive Vert with an Object and a Complement (vofo foq fqs*,t q+
od d rut \rfr {1-s d)
3. Pkasal Verb (qff,i{il t ffii qd fsqr)
4. Linking Verb (d+{+, fficr)
5. Auxiliary Verb (w6r{{, frql)
1. Intransitive Verb
tm ffi fdr{I qt{ object Tfi +dr +, T+ inrransitive verb (er+*+' Bal *"1
l. Hegoes. 2. Ram wept.
3. The dog barks. 4. The child is sleeping.
gq{-fi std { goes, wepts, barks nq sleeping * +t{ objects rfi *t
2. Thansitive Verb
(a) Traosirive verb (vsds, fsq) T6 ffrql + ffi elq ss+r qd Objectdr SC-
l. He reads abook 2. You play cricket daily.
w{ffi v{E1tril { readsiplt playtn rdl Transitive Verb:bl il * 3{h {r+ sd
(Objects) !5'tIYIr book ilcll cricket tt
O) EE rr+,{+, tnqre{ + qrq A *,d (Objecrs) sr y+'r dil *; +t-
He gave me his books.
qq it(r6lut d gave tS vdE+s ffi-ct * ffi
q) Objecs (l) me eqt{ (2) books *r
(c) tsw+'do, qS +fi
ffi qu qo o{ (Object) nzn \tE' Complement
t ffi
(Ttfi,) 6,I c.iltt tdl *t *0 -fne Uoys made Shyam their Captain.
Eq vqr6{ol { Shyam tFI f<h object +1 rr aw captain t6t ydrt Complement
+1 err gen tr
Pick out the Tlansilive and Intmnsitive verbs in the tollowing sentences anil
wrilo the object of each Tlansitive verb against it :
l. Dogs bark. 2. Boys go to school.
3. The birds flew away. 4. He asked me a question.
5. She gave me a pen. 6. She never tells a lie.
7. They found her asleep. 8. School opens at 7 a.m.
9. The teacher taught us a lesson. 10. He washed his clothes.
ll. She loves me. 12. Hari laughs
82 13. I like reading books. 14. She cried.
15. You helped me.
3. Phrasal Verb Section A : Grammar
EE frqBfl d sE { Preposition{T Adverb PaniciplesTri + 3-{-+ ud
1fr { rc
t qRqdr d srdl t; *i- clre=ttt; Giveup=slg tfl (ilFr{)l Bring=q61; g6n,
up = q61-Qqo1 6ft[1
4. Linking Verb (d+qfi frqr )
Linkingverbrt fx.<t * d o-ai 1Suu.lect; 6i Complementt SQ; *t-
l.I am a boy. 2. You are a teacher. 3. My father was old.
*e - Linting veru { *+e Is, Am, Are, was, were +l 6 vrfut *<r tr sflqt( Is, em,
tfl yqlrl Main Verbs +1 cr6'dm *r
Are, Was, Were
5. Auxiliary Verts (Ir6rra ffi )
E A ffi +fr t d Sq frqtEt + renseqni { samr tfi tr fr- l. Ramesh is
playing. 2..She has gone.
fr - BT+fi qffi { h6er has-Auxiliary verbstt Auxiliary verbssi e-6R +1 Etfl t
: (a) Primary Auxiliaries (b) Modal Auxiliaries.

(a) himary Auxiliaries i atc t - ( r I be, (z) have, (3) do.

Be* sf,f,.it - (l) Be (2) Been (3) Is (4) Am (5) Are (6) Was (7) Were m quir
tor tr
* eratt - (l) Has (2) Have (3) Had tFI s"ir ddl tr
Do* sf<tta - (l)Do(2)Does(3) Didi[I sfi +dI *r
*a : (l) himary Auxiliaries * qrqrd l{ot TlrTI+ * Sentence (tlltFl) Negative tFl
srdr tr
*S- He is zar sleeping.
(2) Primary Aux111ilis" Ei 6ni (Subject) t .rfd rei t qrq Interrogative tt{
qr<r *r
$t- Is he sleeping now ?
(b)ModalAuxiliaries:i icfrrgr*, wr+* ffitr
{d mooatsrfl wt wo tt
(i) Modal Auxiliaries qi qqise yo666 S *-ai tr
(ii) Modal Auxiliarier { fiqffid
verbs i6I qcr+{r : *
(l) Must (2) Should (3) Neednt (4) Will (5) Shall (6) Can (7) Could (8) May (9)
Might (10) Oughr to ,
(11) Used to (12) Dare (13) Need.
(iii) primary Auxiliaies q fTqfrEd Verbs r5t qqr*{l *:
(i) Be (2) Have (4) Do
Ee $F'R Modals* ef,frtid rofrftif +r qqrdvr tr
+e - E{+1 f{q( qr-*,r0 chapter 8 Modals d erflI t { ,rt tr
(v) THE ADVERB (ffiqr-frxtqq)
Adverb:5l use Verb, Adjective, Adverb, Preposition ?[ Conjunction +1 UoAify *"ti
+ ffi
frqr qnr tr rsfq vt uodirying word S q-6e tt (Adverb is a word which
modifies a verb, adjective, adverb, perposition or conjunction.), $d -
L He reached there easily. (Verb) CheckYour Plogless
2. This flower-vase is very beaatiful. (Adjective) 21. |,lame kinds of the rarb.
3. He writes quite legibly. (Adverb)
4. The fan is.lusr over my head. (Preposition)
Communication Skilts 5. The doctor came Tusr after the patient was shifted to another Nursing Home,
Personality (Conjunction)

KTNDS OF ApvERBs (fu{-fuiqur + tE)

l. Simple Adverbs 2. Relative Adverb 3. Interrogative Adverbs.
{;fd Ttme, Place, Number, Manner, Degree, Affirmation E Negation * qrf, E{fA
srn $r +-
(a) Simple Adverbs of fime(* ss[q d qR ct)
5{ now, before, soon, today, tomorrow yesterday, daily, late tnr Tfrt d-tr tr $t-
l. I shall go there nolr. 2. They will be back before 4 p.m..
3. We plan to leave soon. 4. lt did rnt rain yesterday.
5. Today the sky is overcast. 6. Do not put off your wbrk till tomormw.
7. My son goes to gyln for exercise daily.
8. It is too late for me to get maried now.
(b) Slmple Adverbs of Place (1il lqr{ t5) qR 6t)
Y{d here, there, up, in, out, for, near, away trl y+q d-m tr *rt-
l. He should come hzre.
2. You ought to go rrrere.
3. They went ap on the first floor.
4. Sheela came iz from the rear gate.
5. Chintoo went ou, from the side gate.
6. Their school is near the Municipal Hospital.
7. Our houses te away from the main terminal.
8. The Market is/ar from my residence.
(c) Simple Adverbs of Number ( ql $qr
+) qfi Et)
Ed once, sometime, never, often, seldom, twice, always, ftequently, first, again i6I
c+.r Etil tr +{i-
l. I recall having once met Amitabh Bachchan.
2. Somctimes, despite it being cloudy it doesn't rain.
3. Never mind what she says, she is pious at heart.
4. We can't afford to take our dinner outside o[ten.
5. She seldom goes out.
6. We should brush our teeth tryice.
7. Cood students try to be punctual a/ways.
8. A B.P. patient should fequently get his B.P. checked.
9. Firsr, you visit your parents.
10. He has covte again for financial help.
(d) Simple Adverbs of Manners ( i
Erd 6{+ + rfr* qt qm qtt
Et{ hard, bravely quickly, clearly, sweedy tEr xdl d<r tr SQ-
l. sweerly.
She sings 2. He walks quickly.
3. Mohan speaks clearly: 4. Ram works hard.
5. Our jawans fought bravely.
(e) Simple Adverbs of Reasons or Cause ( ElwI Edrl ctti qtsrruT frqt-ftiqur I
84 {{{ hence, ?tll therefore i6I Iq]rI +dI t, +t-
l. He was, therefore, unable to continue. 2. Hence, he left the school,
(g Simple Adverbs of Afilmation ( t+irfr * qqrur ffiqr-fqislr) Section A : Grammar
vt{ ffi {
+ srddf surely,zr yesu rfrt tdl t, +t-
Surely, he is going to do my work. 2. Ies, he is going to help the
poor woman-
(g) Simple Adverbs of Ncgation ( ffi * q-rsr(Ul ffiql-fEicq) NOTES

{ti'ffi + qrddf no,imnotisl { vqh etm *r $0-

l. This is not my coat. 2. No, I am not interested in this work.
2. Relative Adverbs
gd when, where, how, why thl l{G[{rdl t qrd 6I Relation ililt{IT qfl tr +t-
l. I know the place where he wants to go.
2. You want to know when he will come to you.
3. They wish to tell ftow they will get the work done.
4. They do not know wiy he was unsuccessful.
3. Introgative Adverbs
gmr cqlr vF Td+ d foq vn"r { foqr qnr tr $0-
l. Why was he late ? 2. How did you get through ?
3. Where was he going ? 4. When will you come again ?

Use suilable word.s lrom the list to complote the following serrrences :
today, fast, just, leave, hard, daily, yesterday, always, bravely,
well, when, where, how' why, once, harder, exact, at once, often.
l. She is rather sad ..........
2. It is true he ran .........
3. Our plane landed ............ at 4.
4. He went there ............................ .
5, The contractor worked ........... . to complete to building in time.
6. He goes to gym in the evening
7. He had reached at his uncle's
8. ............ speak the truth.
9. The jawan fought .................... .
10. Thig is a ............ written article.
11. ............... will you come ?
12. ....................... can you find a matching table cloth ?
13. ......--....are you going to settle his account ?
14. ............... do you want to leave Delhi ?
15. She wants to know .............. you have placed her L.I.C. policy.
16. You want to know how ................ he will come.
17. The dealer tried to tell ............... he got the distributorship of L.G
18. We know .............. he failed in his last attempt.
19- I haven't seen him ..........
20. I work than you.

THE PREPOSmONS (sqqi{6 srqq)

fr6 3 qa*r f{qd f{d{ul Elqrq 4. 'Prepositions'{ qel t f<qr rrqr tr
conjunctions or connectors 61 vtr{fl t Ec si Td qr qrd d fr ti tr te 85
Conjunction joins two words or sentences.)
Communication Skilts & KINDS OF CONJI]NCTIONS (Sfr{fi * +<)
Personality Development
Conjunctions i
!-+,R + +A t-
l. Coordinating Conjunctions, 2. Subordinating Conjunctions.


Coordinating Conjunctions * si qr si t slftrfi simple sentences qi fer+{ q4,
compound sentencg qilql qfdl S1
Kinds of Coordinating Coqiunctions
Coonrlinating Conjunctions !R vmr * di t -
(a) Cumulative Coqiunction
gv{ and, but, as well as, both ................ and, not only ....but atso * yq}q t S}
sentences * qrs 6l cq' sentence { qm f*.q qnr tr $i-
q5 qffi Mohan's sister is married to a Bengali. nql Tgt qf Sohan's sister is
married to a Bangah. q1 qfi qrfi Eg s-fiR
f{fl:il i q-a qI qt6-dl t :
Mohan's as well as Sohan's sister is married to a Bengali,
(b) Alternative Conjunction
gvt or, either...............or, neither...............nor. else * yd{ t { sentences *
qrs 6i qd' senrence qm i+-q qror *r
{ *t-
gifi, qrff Give me your biodata. ilctrI TtR ElFpf Q6n1x61 mg in my oftice. +i fiff,Io{
qs'qrfi { qq vfiR qm
ts,.qr qr<r : *
Either give me your biodata or contact me in my office.
(c) Adversative Conjunction
Ev{ buq still, while, whereas * y*q t < sentences * qre st S sentence d
qm f+q qror tr $C-
He is truthful. delt He is not shrewd. s1 gs qrfi { Vg r+Tr qqa f+'{ll srdl t :
He is truthful i:ar he is not shrewd.
E{t r-fi( We want to make up with them. iefl You do not want to parch up. i* qi6'
qrq { Vg FrR EFftl f+q qm t : We want to make up with them wftile you do not
want to patch up.
(d) Illative Coqiunction
Eg{ ror* cqh t qi sentencs + qrs Ei cs canlgngs { qft f+,,qr qnr *r *t-
(l) I see the cinegoers coming out of the Hall. (2) The show must be over.
The show must be over.for I see the cinegoers coming out of the Hall.
2. Subordinalig Coqiurc{iom
Subordinating conjunction { go principal clause ? IiQ sub-ordinate clause di tt
Kinds of Subordinating Coqiunctions
Subordinating Conjunctions g: f+n * di * :
(a) Time Coqiunction
gti when, before, till, after, since * C+f t sentences q{Ia qri t, +C-
She was washing her clothes when I knrcked.
It had started raining before we reached the picnic spot.
(b) Cause or Reason Coqiunction
Ad because, since, as * IfrT t sentences T{rn sri *, +S-
l. The mother is attending the child because it is not well.
2. Since my health is not improving, I cannot go out of town.
(c) Result or Consequence Conjunction Section A : Grammar
gv{ Ttrat + v+rr n sentencesd{ri Ert +, +t-
l. He is so poor rfta, he cannot pay his child's school fee.
2. Naresh is so selfish rlut no one caD trust him.
(d) Condition Coqiunction
5v{ If, Unless, In case * vq}tl t sentences e-{rn qrA tr +i-
1. Uzlass you give me a green signal, I will not stan.
2. f you promise to reciprocate, I shall come to you.
(e) Comparison Coqiunction
qqri rnan d y+rT sentences c-{ri qrt *r +0-
l. The harc ran faster ,rraz the tortoise. 2. Speaking is easier rftan writing.
(f) Concession Coqiunction
5vC Though, Although ................ Yet s*q* t
sntences q-{rn qri *, +C-
l. Although he reached the station, he failed to locate his sister.
2. Though stone-breakers are daily wage-eamers, )e, they are happy.
3. Though he worked hard, he could not get good marks.

In the tollowing sentcnces piok out lhe conjunctions :
l. Birds fly and fish swim.
2. He is slow but sure.
3. I was angry still I kept quiet.
4. Belinda smiled and the world was gay.
5. Walk quickly, else you will not ovenake him.
6. Hurry up, otherwise you will miss the train.
7. I read the paper because I was intercsted in the news.
8. I don't care whether you stay or leave Delhi.
9. Since you say so, I will come.
10. We eat that we may live.
l'1. I will not see him though he comes.
12. A book is a book although there is nothing in it.
13. We shall go since you desire it.
14. I must play here for such is my duty.
15. t ook before you leap.
16. Play while you play and work while you work.
17, While you are in Rome, do as the Romans do.
18. As you sow, so shall you reap.
19. He is richer than Govind.
20. Catch me if you can.

(vili) THE TNTERJECTTON (fffiq6)

Orec*Your Prcglecs
An interjection is a word or phrase which is used as an exclamation. (fs{ {r<i t Zl. How many kinds are
E{, fsqn slrql f{sq 6r dq d, sd Interjection q-rt tr) lhercof Conjuctions ?
An interjectionw tel rrc t d qrfl { srdr ql Edl Ei vefu vs+ td{ S qrfl
src+ { Wt d r vQ Wi qr* qi s{r+<<r++, qI S:qvrFdfu'qt r+z 6ri + ftq v+rt f*.ql
qr<r tr $Q- 87
Communication Skills & L Ohl What a beautiful scenery ! 2. Hello '!. How are you ?
i:. Ii!!;YL:xff:Htr'JfJhere? 2;.iii,l!fi;ff.:llmff"
7. Aft !That's the usual play.
8. Hush ! Keep quiet, the little child is steeping.
9. Bravo ! Our team has won the match.
10. Orr ! What a picturesque landscape !

Exercise tr

l. Agra-proper, city-common 2. elephant, animal-common

3.honesty-abstract,policy-abstract 4.Sohan-proper,class+ollective
5. Cup-common, silver-material 6. child<ommon, milk-material
T.father<ommon,truth-abstract S.judge-common,judgement-abstract
9. Sita-propea letter+ommon, father-common
10. farmer-common, field-common
Exercise 2
l his 2. These 4.drat 5. What
6.What 7. each-other 8.who 10. that
ll. Everybody 12. herself 13. either 14. myself 15. Many
Exercise 3
l. talkative-you 2. who-he.
3. lazy-boys 4. one-pen
5. other-pen 6. whose-cycle
7. This-book 8. wise-policy
9. open-rebuke, false-flattery 10. idle - servant
ll. ideal - teacher 12. first, who, sad - boy
13. all - supponers 14. wise, popular - prime minister
15. Ill-luck 16. This, yellow-shirt, white-shirt (one)
17. unfortunate - this 18. That - boy, strongest-boy, this - class
19. wretched - fafter 20. several - boys, this - school
Exercise 4
l. such 2.W 3. holy ideal
4. 5. any
6. no 7. five 8. thirty Every
9. 10. sour
ll. some 12. Such 13. many 14. Ihat 15. whose
Exercise 5
l. highest 2. heavier 3. richest 4. worse 5. greater
6. biggest 7. oldest 8. most beautiful 9. taller 10. shorter
Exercise 6
(A) l. elder 2. older 3. elder 4. elder 5. older
(B) l. eldest 2. oldest 3. eldest 4. oldest 5. oldest
(c) l. the linle 2. liul 3. tlle little 4. a litde 5. A litde
Exercise 7
l. bark - intransitive
2. go - intransitive
3. flew awy - intmnsitive
4. asked - transitive, objects - me. a question
5. gave - transitive, object - me, a pen
5. tells - transitive, objects - a lie
7. found - transitive, objects - her asleep
8. opens - intransitive
9. Staught - transitive, objects - us, a lesson
10. washed - ransitive, object - his clothes
88 I I . loves - tr-ansitive, objects - me
12. laughs - intransitive
13. like - transitive, object - reading books Section A : Grammar
14. cried - i ntransitive
15. helped - transitive, object - me
Exercise 8
l. today 2. fast 3. exact 4. at once 5. hard
6. daily 7. yesterday 8. Always 9. brabely 10. well
I l. when 12. where 13. How 14. Why 15. where
16. fast 17. how 18. why 19. today 20. harder
Exercise 9
l. and 2. but sill
3. 4. and 5. elsc
6. otherwise whether
7. because 8. 9. since 10. that
11. thongh 12. althongh 13. since 14. for 15. bcfore
16. while 17. while 18. As ........ so 19. dran 20. tr

Communication Skills &
Perconality Development
The Prepositions

Grammar d !fu t Prepositions q,I qgil rr6E$I'i rqrq

erffr clql d r E{fi fqrt ffi
qlm $ 5u6;sg1 lNloun or Prcnoun) ERT f+i ?Ii ord ecq-{ Subject ol fuifr lposition) :FT
sfr qrf, + object (Noun or honoun) qrd t rd gq qfl 1
w*r t 5S-ffi

rfi di * srd or errd d qrm r *Q t -

1. Mamata is ,n the kitchen. <qrar t*ter { * l) (with heposition)
Ev arrm { t'in' ra Rqr tni d qrfl fi,il t
qft -
Mamata is the kitchen. <qrcr t*e{ + l) (without Preposition)
2. The pen is on the table. {tmE tq c{ t r) (with Preposition)
qq 6 qfl { t'on' ra f<qr qrA d qrfi T{dr t -
The pen is the table. 1u-ee t< tr) (without Preposition)
sv{-<y<nwif tee*f* Prepositionssldf {crdtol r1f+rffit

qd qr srq rer qRri f+ qo d Prepositiontr'{ erd ugm *cr { r : ge t *i

is at home (Place). He goes to school at ten Ctime). I was surprised at his behaviour.
(Mental attitude). ifisi, dat frd lrrrt tcfqr qqi {
qrc 6"{ ra r t
Prepositions *'rdl ql fqfiFr ftqffit , rd ftefufut sd { c+'I f6-cl qrdlt :

1. slqrqfiI ltepositions tET rdq ers.+s' verb { c5fr object t U{ f6ql qrdl *l +0-
(l) He is working in his office.
(2) She is ar the gate.
90 (3) Sheela was walking oz the road.
sctfi qtd { in, at, on Prepositions td qt ad { rgm y"r5, *, ou.lecs Section A: Grammar
office, gatc, road t qrd l-dq H tri t r
2. uR Preposition st Object 'thar' qI 'which' d d Preposition +'r rqrq Sentence *'
sra{+drt r+t-
(l) This is the pen which she was looking/ar. NOTES
(2) That is the book that you were asking/or.
(3) This is the post that I have applied/or.
:rd Sentence (l) { wfticft for +r Object * I (2) q ,rru, for or Object t t
e)l that
for er Object * r VsFcq qq +d Sentences { for q< d enat t r For whichlt for
rfiarfrga rrcc dot t
3. ?R Preposition :51 Object *t{ lnterrogative Pronoun t d Preposition Sentence *-
er< { t
q+.r f{qr qrdl r +C
(l) What Ne yov talking about ?
(2) Whom was this letter addressed ro ?
(3) Which class do you read in ?
*a - qe qrfi ErI gq y+'n S fuo gq,A ii : In which class do you read ?
4. vR Preposition *,I Object Et{ fgcl EE (understood) Relative pronoun t d
Preposition Sentence *' er< { ygm dar t r $S -
(l) This is the man I was speaking ol
(2) This is the poet I was referring ro.
(3) I don't know the man you were talking wirrr.
(4) It was an inspiring story I was listening ,o.
scfff qr{I senrences { Rehtive pronouns H * I qsfrq hepositions sentences
tsr<{s{rit r

5. Verb + Preposition ol fuifr i preposition rrr Verb *'cR 6 r+r 6{e t r +C -

(1) The thief broke rr?ro the house.
(2) The book you are looking for is not available at rhis time.
(3) The police were running alter the thief.
(4) He was accused of theft.
l. After: To indicate 'following somebody'
('f*,d o,r or5rrr{ 6ri' o# { qs+l r+{ f+,qr qra t r)
: The cat is running afer the rats. We ran a/er the thief.
2.From/to : TlFlFkrqI q qH d Preposition{fi-({rt * ffi t r

To: {sqr edrr ffi *wc 61 Surfd s{ii * ieq *cr t r

From: Essr rft ffi em t Er qri qt qlcs # qd f#.qr

*'mqdart r

V(I6{UI : I went ,o market.

They are going ,a Kota next week.
Iretumed /rom market.
He must come ta my office tomorrow.
' He walked from school to home.
3.Onto/oIf : istdd Prepositionsqo-$t+ffirfrt rqaffi rr<rre
vr vfr| t Enr q{-fd t juq +i or qrq tdr *
61 I

Onto ! To indicare 'movement'on or 'to a particular place' (ftn$

frRw em c{ (qr 6l) 'rfr s{ii + srd E{r6r y+q *<r rl { t
YElf,(uI : We stepped down from the train ozro thc platform,
The fruit fell onto the roof of my house. 91
Communication Skills& 4. Off : To indicate 'a movement away fmm a place' (fi5d TqH t R
Personality Development +i +1 'tfd q{ti + qq { vc+r rtr riar t r>

E<IE{uI : I called him 6)abe ran off.

Sheis offmday. (3rqlE s6 gqn vr afi t rl
NOTES Take your coat o.1fr
I must be of soon. (rta rgn q,'I v.hl)
5.Intdout(o0 :i sH * Prepositions$-gt t ffi t r

Into : To indicate 'a movement' inside something.

(ffi ern er<r ol *( qfd gFR q,l *, eci Ecfi vd'I
* {
*tr rl t
Out (of) : To indicate 'a movment away from the inside of a
(ffi em * er<r t ct6{ 61 {k qft fi" 6{i * e{d { {s6l
rqh dar t r>

Et6{uI : The god of water. dived inro the river'

' The god of water came out of the river.
The boy fell into the river.
The boY came out of the ivet
The teacher call"|,e in o the class.
The teacher went out o/ the class.
I put my Pen izro mY Pocket.
I took my pen oal o/mY Pocket.
5. Across : To indicate the meaning of'from one side to the other side of
rcmething' :

(ffi rqn (q<) + q6 S{ t Egfr d{ (eqqt( qR-qR) 6I

m{|q Ehn s.d + tds Es6l Y+q tiar t l>

v(t6{sl : He walked across the freld.

I drew a line ccross the Page,
I went across the road and reached my office.
Can you row me across the iver ?
7. Along : To indicate the meaning of 'from one end to or towards the other
end of something'
(ffi qqn (qq) +
s6 Bt{ t $i
6i{ S{ (grqi-( +
rr6t-F6n) EI swlq r+z 6.d *
feq vs+r vdrr foqr qrm r t
v(If,(ul : They walked slowly along the road'
You cannot swim along the ivet
We planted trer.s along the bank of the rivet
8. Over : To indicate the meaning; 'to cross something and be on the other
(ffi *em (qtq) 61 'cR 6q Tst dr eil qd' lqci( * ci)
+ q{ { Es+r cdq *dI tr)
EqItrrgI : She climbed over 11r" rr,41. l eruiq <6 {-qR + (st S{ s-d .lri
A bird flew over nry house.
A cat jumped over the table.
The plane flew over the mountains.
9. Through : To indicate the meaning'from end/side to the other'.
(Esor rdq d{r6t{ t Egt stt/Bt{ il6 (qqh{ +6{)'
The burglar got in through the wirdow. Section A : Grammar
The snake entered the room through a hole in the wall.
The bullet went straight through htm,
10. Under : To indicate the meaning 'below rhe surface of something'.
(ffi eq *1, vra * +i'+ qd { gsqr yqirr dar t I
Y(I6(![ : Have you looked under the bed.
The toy has rolled under the sofa.
The dog went under the table and slept there.
11. Uldown : *d fr Preposition Cs-(si + Wo t r vd up uvr +1 dr
(upward movement) qfr sdil *, sd down (downward move-
ment)*i fr1 d{'rfd Wrtar t r

l. Ram stood rp and went out of the room.

2. I sometimes Eet up early.
3. Would you like to sit dow4 please ?
4. The picture fell down.
5. The other boy climbed dowz the trce.
6. Hari is going up stairs.
7. Radha is coming dowz stairs.
To indicate a point of time (qqq-kt Ei
iFrd 6,d ig)
erq-fr - Eq6r stwrc sd + f{frqd qcq, Gil + ilc, cfrd + rrq nqr s{ smR
ri tr f+-g ar irr e-+rr 24 sozl 61 qsFr d Tdrn .ri qrq t $, ss ffi sj{ sr{
*n t cqr erfrr r*-e rd qrd EHf + Td t q{ f*qr vrdr tr Rc, Rrir, Tfii qr
s{ t gt Elrfl yd{ afi +dr * r pointof time*'s{Eror iki :
The sun rose at 6 a.rn.
He will come back a, sunset. (sunset = qli<l vw-t+g t r

I can repay the amount c, any moment.

The thief entered the house ar midnight.
We had lunch a, noon.
Ram will go to school a, nine.
Children start school 4, the age of six.
Before days and dates (Rd q Rri+i t Ed)
rte - fi{-if lr R{i+i t $ cr arsd point eg1;ms lqqq-fut) tt r

ftq vsrwr tH :
Ram will go to Jaipur on Monday.
John goes to church oz Sundays.
I shall fire crackers on Deepawali.
He was awarded on the Republic Day.
We celebrate the Independence Day oz l5th of August.
He is returning oz 7th instant.
*e :- 7th i151a11 gyt( 'Fs qtt +1 z arfro ql'r
gTiI YETE{gI :
on tour, on a cold day, on a wet day, on that day, on this occasion, on time.
(a) Before names of the months, seasons and years 1rd-{, xgd s sd t {d)
sqrf,{q :
I was born iz 1985.
In Rajasthan it rains in summer. 93
We took exams in March.
Communication Skills &
Personality Development, (b) Before morning, evening, afternoon etc. (morning, evening, uL"tn6sn e{G
I shall go to school in the morning. Meet me in the afternoon.
NOTES flffi night * { g at i6I F+q ddl * : The thief starts their work a, night'
(c) Before a period of 11ms lqcq-3rsftI t T{)
I shall be back in an hour. You have to tinish it rn a week. I shall be ready
i,, a moment.
4. Before
To indicate 'earlier than' <Es*r rqtq 't g{' + ,q
q ftrS qrq qr qm t $
f+-qr srdr tt q6 'aft".' qr fqc0-dIE6E t r)
l4-drut :

Meet me belore dinner. {dva n $1

Come back before datk. t eitit t 5;
The patient had died before the doctor came' (Bt{ + +d $l
Sunday comes before Monday.(+csn Td) t
He came here the day before yestetday' (rrtt Tfd Rr eui.q t vdl)
To indicate 'following in time' or 'later than'
(,ffi qsrc a eE'ct,+ w-qkt' + wi d ffi Cs rrrrq qI i6r{ e T* Es*t
r+.r f6qr qr<r r) t
E(I&uI :
Meet me after dinner. ( + wqq) qtql
Don't go out after dark. 1er*k di + c{-stQ
The doctor came after the patient had died. (ri't +
qd * qq-cro
I am leaving for Ajmer the day after tomolrow' tt6,a * qrqq c(iil
February comes a/rer January. 1qr-eQ * waq)
Monday comes a/ter Sunday. (f{qR + rT<tQ
6. During '
To indicate the meaning 'throughout the continuance of'
af"s d
f{r<rcri trm;+ erd d Es+r s4FI scq t {d fu-qr qrar t r)
v(lii{t't"* :

The sun gives us light during the (ffi +(r{) dar-. +

During my school days I watched several movies. Rd +{r) (qd +
What did yon do during my absence (+fr er{qRqfr ?
{rn) t
Ram sleep during his (qra l-.dra qri + +{trl
*e qti'ausence iled 'qqftqn ] qqq-qqflr' aq lessons <rsd
- fr t t
'wd rdri qri +1 qcq erqfq't t r

7. Bv
I of 'as soon as' or 'not later than'
. To indicate the meaning
t {
(tw qd 'Ts'+ 3Id gs+r rqirr f+'qr srdl tr f<n 'ri qqq ro' t'T{ *
errl d qr '+A A' + errt gs+r v*'r rilcr { rl *
sElEtrrt :
I shall finish my work by SundaY. (rtrsR ils')
By July 15th he will have left the place. (15 gr ffi')
( 3rc n-fi)
You would have taken dinner by now.
It will be dark by the time you reach 1wc Ee thete.
n-< am) vffi
94. 2. Before time to indicate conditions and circumstances
(fuift q cRfieft EFrd q'<i *rcq gs+r c+q qcq t Td '6i' + s{d { s f6qr Section A: crammar
qrdr *r)
irqrEpT :

. The enemy by night. ('tfr 61' qd cfif{fr q-dri + ord { yrtr Esil
The thief thought it fit to break into the house by moontight.
8. For
1. To indicate extent of time
('{cq-frqr'frn fii * feq Erro r+{'+ fdS'+ q{ d qcq t td f+q qnr
Y(tf,{ur :
I am going for a month.
abroad (sq' qE + ff,q)
They are leaving for lodhpv for a week. (q6 qRr6 * fqS)
2. To indicate period of time in the Perfect it perfect Continuous Tenses
(Perfect ? Perfect Continuous Tenses d 'ncq rqftl' ql
er{ t 5d
,t, * {
gd'r rfir f+-qr qnr t r)
I have been learning driving /or a month. (ss q6't')
Ram ftas been watering the plants /or two hours. (qi qu) ,t')
The teacher has been teaching the students /ar some time. (86 g{q ,t,)
9. Since
To indicate a point of time in Perfect.I perfect Continuous Tenses
. (Perfect B Perfect Continuous Tenses { 'qcq-f+g, t g{ .t, * qd { Ersr
F+q f6qr srdr t t)
EErf,(or :
I have been learning driving since July. (Edr$ t)
They have been working haud since Sunday. (rffaq q;
I have been reading in this school since 2001. (Tt 2001 t)
He hasn't come back bere since his marriage. ( glfd Vr{ t)
10. Through
To indicare 'from the beginning to the end of time,
('gs ter< n-+'*' erd sm { t$
qs+r E+rr f6qr qrar r) t
Eqrtr{ul :
The patient will not live through the night.
(qtq 'ffi q{' tr<r rd rn, erqh rd:qrd q{ vrtrn r) t x
You can't work in the san through the day. lt is very hot. (* Rr q{)
A child'cannot sit quietly through a long lesson. (Eqr cta Tqri qd+ fur)
11. Til :
To indicate 'up to the time when' ('f*tfr rFFr iFF'' + qE d {sfl ydl f{.qr wdr
v(EwI :
I shall wait for you ril/ 7 o'clock. (srd {q rfi)
Ram works hard from morning till night. (lB n-*)
John waited till Mary's return, 1t0 * # a-o;
12. Until
Titl ti'd sqnr{ q qqn y+{ qrd prepositions *r Until o,r rdq
ent{ Until
qftffiTyrd: T{ qrd { fqqr qror t qe WS {rElFrfl clause (sqqr) qT phrase
(qrqiu) qrfl t qrd qRr tr
Communication Skills & 3illf,{lt :-
Personalig Development Until his marriage he ipeilt his time with his friends.
Until 7 o'clock i waited for him. Until Mary's return, John waited'
13. With
To indicate 'at the same time as' ('*o sS qm' +
gld { Vs+t g+q q{q
1{ ft.on *, *',
<(tt'ul :
With the approach of the sunset it became chilly. (qqiR +i d)
With these words the teacher started to teach us. (F {d t)
I rise with the sun. (qqi'( q+(q *' scq)
14. Withln
to indicarc 'in less than (time)'
('t Ec (scq) il'+ qd { vc*r vq}q qcc t x{ ddl tr)
sE(trrq :
Do it within an houn <q{' di t {d)
He will finish his work within a week tqo,
qqrt t {d)
qrE t {d)
You should complete it within a mlrnth. (Sfi
15. From :
To indicate the starting of a period of time
rqlr em-i+r +vrGqr 65 leut'q<m (f{O t
(F;; qn Ifiri : Perfect Tenses d
{ Non-perfect Tenses { ft-q qril tr Point of Time
t g{ since trl fqi,r dar tr)
<tf,r :
Our school will start fom Ist o! July. <q6 gqr{ t)
Our exams will start /roz Saturday. (ff{cR t)
Mr Mohan is going to teach us trom August 5' (fr qr< t)
John will come to school fom Tuesday.
({!6qR {)
To indicate the place in which something or somebody is/was/will be
('ge Fm 6i 6R 5{i + fdq ffi 6i{ qil ftcd t, 4 q r}frt'l
E(lf,{ll :-
Mr Mohan is ar his office. I saw a beggar a, the station.
John is at home. In the evening Hari was at his
uncle's house.
To indicare the position of a thing covering or forming part of a surface
(f{S qq mr qI q{aEI c{ q{i 6,{i Eq, fs+ T6i q{ onql lrq}r
* tifr + {
aal tu
The book is on the table. He is sitting ol
the grass'
The pictures are oz the wall. A leaf is floating on the water'
There is a cdrrP',l on the floor. He wears ahat on his head'
Words are wriiten on the blackboard. Sudha has a ing on her finger'
3. In
To indicate something in a surrounded place
(ffi qfi-+{I qS qt
{ ffi qk
trr tto 'in' * sq}T ERI <vriqr qm *r)
<lf,tul :
John is sleeping in his room. This is the only shop in the village.
91i Sohan reads ln this school. Children are playing in the street.
We live in India. There are clouds iz the sky. Section A : Grammar
Mohan lives ,, a village. Raju is swimming ,n the lake.
4. Against :
To indicate support or close proximity
('rr6Rr'vt 'srsFr*' fr*zar' $rd 6{+ foq *qn *
Es+r rd'r dar t $ trl NOTES
E(T6{!'I :
The ladder is placed against the wall. ({-cR + v6ri)
John stood leaning against the pillan (gd + Vdt)
He put the sofa with its back against the wall. (<tsR + v6rt)
5. Above :
To indicate 'higher than'or'at a higher point' ('ri $sr' + 3r{ t)
E(rtrut :
The sun rose above the hoizon. (fqfuq t *st)
The water came above our knees. <gri t sc{)
The kite is flying above the clouds. (qrftif t sc{)
6. Before:
To indicate the meaning of in front of ('* qrc+' + qd {)
There is a tree before his house. (q{ + Rrci)
The thief was brought before the judge. (W + srci)
Mohan is standing before me in the queue. (fi srci)
He made a beautiful house before the church. (T{ + smi)
7. Opposite ('eff{+-urq+' : erd + {)
E(tf,tEt :
There is a theatre opposite my house.
The teacher stands opposite to the students in the class.
E. In front of :
To indicate the meaning of 'directly before, srrt' ('*+ *, qd t)
EqtE{lI :
There are. some trees in front of my house. (q( + *t5, slci)
There is a garden in front of the post olfice. (3t6'q{ * *o errfiy
9. Behind :
To indicate rhe meaning of 'at the rear of , ('+ {-d' + sld {)
Yqnt{ul :
The sun was behind the clouds. (sl(d + +d)'
The child stood behind his mothet (d + +d)
The thief hid behind a tee. (+s + +d)
There is a garden behind my house.
<ii er *, td)
10. Over :
L To indicate a thing covering the surface partly or completely
(f+lfr sin Et sTfrr* qr Wi cc roi oci {) t *
Yqrdtll I
Mohan spread his handkerchief over his face and slept.
He spread a cloah over the table.
He put his coat ayer the box.
2. To indicate 'vertically above or directly higher' ({iq qt qqr( sc{ *i +
{d {)
E(I6tt l :
The sky is oyer our heads. 97
Communication Skills & Many aeroplanes f'ly nucr the Indian Ocean.
Personality Development He held an umbrella ayer his head.
There is a lamp r.rver the table.
11. Below :
To indicate'a position lower than' ('q +q' * srci { tsfl gdrl dm tr qt
Above irl frci-flefi i:l Below q, rrm qr, oS-q,S under iEI t f+,,qr
qr rrF-dr tt)
E(fflut :
Don't write below this line. He stood below the building'
His overcoat reaches Delou' his knees. The sun went below the horiznn'
12. Between
l. Used with two persons, things or groups. (t qffi qr aqeil * ata t)
E(ff,{ul :
She stood betn'een her husband and son.
The old man divided his Propefiy bet$'een Ravi and Anand'
I walked across the garden between the flower beds.
2. With two or more nouns when boundaries are concerned
(mcpiii + w*r { qi qI si t srftr* vsrcif * stq)
Rajasthan lies betn'een Haryana, Gujarat' M.P. and U'P'
India lies betn'een Pak, China, Bangladesh and Ceylon'
Used with more than two persons or things (si t 3rnr6 qffi qr qqdl +
g<f6{ul :
Distribute these mangoes among these boys.
He divided his property among his five sons.
The village is situated arrang the hills.
She is sitting amozg her children.
' ' :rr,1*Linnirrde'i ars{ 'rnik6 e-qrd' r Eq-+i fiq v'il{ qlrfl !il
tt i6-dl t :

Mental : Connected with mind.

Attitude : One's thinking and feeling about somebody or something; the way one
behaves towards somebody or something'
e{ql('ffi ifr qtff 61 ffi erq qffi qI qq + efr +s qt qr+t qt q+6R'
'Mental iuitude'66-ddr t I 3Ir}S r{NI { W 3T+fi vet'bs (fu'q{) t d tr'tentat
nttitude *i xtia q-rfr tr *s-
1. Argue (n-+ 6-cll) Argue against (ffi fsqq + fffa rs u,,{il)
Argue with (ffi qffi t il6 6,'({l)
2. Apologize (qrll cil]-{) for 1ffi an w arcr q}q1;
to (ffi qfft * ffi d{ql;

3. Agree with (ffi qfu t srm dqrl

(w6qa 6r;ll) Agree
(ffi c{ilq t wm *+)
Agree to
(f+-S + gMq t wqo *<t)
Agree in
(ffi fsqq c( s6rrd +{)
Agree on
Adjectives(fcvlsq) S MentalAttitude* rsek qri Sr *t t
1. Afraid ot (ttd t m*a)
2. Angry at (fdEfi illd R :lRI!l)
Angry with (ffi qfft t rtrq)
3. (ffi 1m d q{g + efr ffi-S)
Envious of Section A : Crammar.
4. (ffi sd + fdS tqR)
Ready 16
Nruns(ff) SMenratAttiruder(frta qtt tr *fr :
. 1. Complaint against (ffi + f{t.6 ftrsrqd)
(f6-S fqqq ftr6,r{d) { NOTES
2. Desire for (f+'.$ eq *
fdq eTarsrl
3. Necessity 161 1ffiqE +1 qrasfi-dr)
4. Gratitude for (f*-S m*
frq fo-r-<rl
Gratitude to (f{-S a{fu 4' 6-o-t-or> fc
t !i' Ecrfr qfrfoo rrrcfl3il qql
g{I FER Mental Attitude rl {{rEFra prepositions a
- Eiq, evfir, eqsq, v6cfr, ervrfi, 1-a-rr<r, frenz, ga, erom, fu|, sr6 oG
+i ffi qE, qfm qr qn + rfd <{tii t r Mental Attitude iren gs*- crqr( qri srd
g@I Prepositions fta t :
(A) 'Verbs' Denoting Mental Attitude + Prepositions
1. Agnee 16 (ffi am s q6trd +{r)
Agree wirh (ffi qlff vsqc tr+lt
2. Apologize to (t*ni qtm em f4-ay r
Apoloeze for (ffi qqr o, idS erqr dm)
3. Appeal to (ffi qfm s ftlq1 55a;
Appeal for (F6te-dr tE f+<c +,'m)
4. Argue *ith 1ffi qtff R-+ 6r) i
Argue for (ffi *
qn qer d ilS +,rlr)
Argue againsr (f+.S srd # ferg a6 o,rtrl
5. Bear with (ffi 41 qirfr 6,t TrFr rran)
6. Beg pardon of (fu$ qk t qTqrrfir 6rrr)
7. Beg for (ffi *
rfiq frq q-qa 65a1
Beg a person to (f6'fr qf*il t ffi
+l{ tg qrqn q.m)
E. Believe in (fE[qrs E..({r)
9. Beware o1 1ffi t elsem dil)
l0.Congratulate on (ffi an w aq( {a;
ll. Disagree wirh qf* i
(t6-fr erssm Ernl
12. Fall ln love with (ffi s qR Em)
13. Fightfor (ffi :i cst ils{)
Flght against (ffi + fqtr'fi il.s{r)
14. Grieve for (frrfr qfff s fdS S:Er lli6z r6'Flr)
15. Laugh at (f+d qk q{ fu{)
16. Long for (ftrrfr cE +1 fer q.clr)
17. Mourn for ({il t feq vio 6,ml
18. Pray to (ts-e{ t eft s,,({11
19. Repent of (f{Tfr ilrd v< rrsdm)
20. Revolt against (ffi * fqcg ffi6 q.r+r)
(B) 'Adjectives' Denoting Mental Attitude + Prepositlons
1. Afraid of (ffi t qqfia)
2. Angry at (f6-S qR qrw) t
Angry with (ffi qfft anrq)
3. Annoyed at (ffi t srd iEe)
Annoyed.a,;X1 1ffi qtft t dq)
4. Anxious for (ftrfr qd + idq fqkd) 99
Communication Skilts & Anxious about (ffi
cfiqrc +
fcqq fsfffi) {
Personality Development 5. Ashamed of (f.FS cl" t
6. Busy with (ffior{ { qc)
7. Eager 1ee 1ffiord *
feq sgml
NOTES Eager in (ffi {
Acq m{ o.{i 61 qqm)
8. Envious og 1ffisrq +1 qlq ffiq) t
9. Faithful 61fuS qsrfl)
* ffi
10. Fearfut of (fd,'S qIH t
11. Fond of (f{.$ srd 6,I Trt6tr)
12. coodsl (ffitqqq {
f3. Greedy 61ffi qE mf( EI Erd+)
14. Jeatous of (f.tfr 3rq 61 crd {eiS) t
15. polite in (nt{ ilt+i ffis)
Potire with(ffi + crd ific)
16. Responsible,o 1ffi qk + vfd 3-d<r4)
Responsibte 1'o" 1ffi 6rd + Yfr 3-dt<rfr)
17. proud of (ffi srdrffi q{ rfdd)
18. Mad *111 1ffi qrd t cTrr)
19. Hopeftrl of (fd'd qrd + frq qTflrsr{)
20. Fit for qr4 + tdS +q)
(C) Nouns + PrePositions
t. Alfection 1o1 qfft + frq d6)
2. Ambition for ( qq ig Trt-l6iHI)
3. Apotog5r 1o" rr{A + fds slqt zlrfiI)
4. Attention to (fs'd qrd + qr{)fi
5. Desire for (f"Ed 4a + fflq slrfirsr)
6. EnvyaUof(ffi rrq + tel) fi
7. Gratirude for (fl5d sln + f(Iq Eilfrr)
8. Hstred o66 (ffi *
afm qfd Yull
9. Opposition to (ffi ffi
+ ffiq)
10. Quarrel v16 (ffi {
Quarrel between ,U
qq WrcI)
11. Regret for (ftr$ qm *' fqq dE)
12. Sympathy *i1yf6p (fi5d + efd qrJ$d)
13. Yearning for (ffi
qrd + fdq Erol)
14. Pride in (ffi
ild c{ Td)
15, Remorse 16p srd c{ c[qrdlqrdlf{)
{st l}epositionsqi w} EE ofu Tq}t
1. Above :
(a) Only higher than (*a-o $q{ At 3rE g,
(1) The bridge stands aDove the tree'
(2) The kites are flying above the ftree.
(Kites ol fuifr t+lr ert t*+ gq q * sqr t r)
(b) Superior in rank (Irq qI (q t sqd{ + 3Id {)
(l) The Major is above the Captain in the army.
' (2) The President is above the Prime Minister in the country'
(c) Coming earlier twd ermrt+ * # {)
100 His name is aDove mine in the list.
(a) Later than, next in order ( sFrdl) Section A : Grammar
(l) Please see me a1&er Sls pcdod.
(2) The students entered the t@m alter tle Eacher
(b) Next (Place) (W{ q sFrI exn)
We went to Amber Palrce afier Hawa Mahal. NOTES
(a) In the of (:bl effi{qt/Emd {)
India and China werc at war in l9A.
(b) With some Verbs as an appropriate Preposition
throw ar, look cr, point at, shoot ar, aim ar, laugh ar, strike 4r, {e[R I
(c) rIfr (speed), <{gd * w
(rare) il2ll f{f{d drTfiq (temperature) qari t r

(l) She drove her car ar 70 km per hour.

(2) Bananas are sold here ar eight rupees a kilogram.
(3) Water boils a, l00oc.
4. Before :
(a) In front of (* etri)
(l) There is a te before his house.
(2) He has made a beautiful hotse beforc the church.
(b) In the presence of Bqfexfd(d {)
(l) He put up his documents before the officer.
(2) The prisoner was brought before tlrc magistrate.
(c) Earlier than (showing rime) (t
q6d + qd {)
You should return belora sunset.
5. Behind :
(a) In support of (:r< {)
(l) The whole college was behind tbe. principal on rhis issue.
(2) Donl worry, we are all behind yot.
(b) Backward or inferior (@r *{r q frq +{)
He is behind all other students at studies in the class,
6, Below.'( above qrftrdq)
(a) Lower or inferior in rank (qS qt (q { fiq)
(l) The L.D.C. is below tlre, U. D. C. in rank.
(2) The Tehsildar is below the S. D. M. in position.
(b) Coming after (cE { icmldqr)
His name is below hers in the programme.
(c) lower than in condition, value or importance (qm, Xg qI cFr { 6c)
( I ) Above 33Vo people live beJow the poverty line in India.
(2) There is nothing below ten rupees here.
(3) This is Dalow my dignity.
(4) His writing is baJaw standard.
7. From :
(a) Indicating the starting point of place, person, time or anything
(*qn, qfm q ffi S t+5 r{ r+un fi'.rt * e{d { -yrq: to * eru;
(l) He travelledfom Delhi to Jaipur.
(2) He sold caps/rozr village to village.
(3) She works in an office;frorz l0 a.m. to 5 p.m.
O) f{q Phrases { to *' stu
from time to time, from day to day, from beginning ro end.
$C - rc read the book from beginning ro end. 101
Communication Skills & (c) Indicating source (r< qclft Eq)
Personality Development ( I ) Apples come Jntn Kashtnir. (2) These quotations are/ram Tagore.
(d) qqoil EI v{fur nql qRqdr <qtti + fdq
(l)Butter is made /ronr milk. (2) Dalda is made.fron vegetable oils.
NOTES (e) Indicating separation ( erorrn qffi $ 6q;
(l ) The teacher stopped him/r<rrrr going out of the class.
(2) The dacoits took the children away fmm their mothes'
(3) He prevented the chikl/mnr entring tlre cave.
(f) Showing reason, sense, etc. (:5RsT, iilq, 3rR rsftta s'.{r c'l
(l) He is sufferingy'urrr malaria. (2) They did it /rorn a sense of duty'
(g) Showing dittererrce (9rq: B-ql ditter a srq frqcr s{it + sr{ {)
(l)This doeidifferc.from all the othem.
(2) He differs in qualities y'anr the rest of the students-
(h) Showing time (TFFI iFT qrq e-<ftia E'G + fuq)
He wa^s blind /ron birth.
Some other uses of 'from':
l. This is a man y'onr Jaipur. 2. I saved the boy.frorn drowning'
3. She comes.frorn a poor family. 1. Fmnt my point of view this book
will be very useful.
(a) In the sense of time 'when' ('fws qqq' * g{ei d)
in the moming, i,, the afternoon' irl the evening.
We go for a walk irr the moming. .

(b) /n the sense of at rest (fiPR erqen e 3r'?i q')

(l) He is in the house. (2) The children are playing irr the street'
(c) Showing job or prot'ession (er{ qr arqsrq r<fsid 6'fi + f{q)
(l) He has been in Indian politics for about 30 years'
(2) His father is an ol'licer irr the army.
(d) Indicating colour. material of thing or showing sitttation or condition (rl,cqot
qqt{ qr qvfl Tdri d)
(l) Today Abhishek is irr Khaki rlress. (2) Anurag is in a very happy mood'
(3) She is still i,, great trouble' (4) He signed r'n inUpencil'
(a) Suggesting destination (fr 'r T <64 {lFI qflil + ftS)
(l) We walked ,rl the station.
(2) He goes ro school every daY.
(b) in the Jnse of till (of time) (clq: from tFqq's....... il+.'* oei { qqq q{ii *
(l) She visited the town tiom 3 to 5 p.m.
(2) Our school runs liom 7.30 a.m. ro 12.30 p.m.
(c) In thesense of'as far as'
from door ro door, from village ro village.
(l) The capseller sold his caps f'rom village lo village'
(2) He walked from door to door making an appeal.
(d) Showing comparison (go+ <vtti $,) - inferior r<r, superior ro, junior to, senior
to, preler to, prior to. {r+R t
(l) I prefer walking lo running. (2) He rsjunior ra her.
(e) cr+1 qcq {dri + fdS
102 (l) It is five ro six. (2) It is a quarter ro ten.
(f) Showing purpose ( .rt{q <flli +' ff,q)
He came ,, see us. (2) She came ta our help. Section A : Grammar
Some other uscs of 'to'
l. There are mountains la the North of India.
2. She tore the book to pieces.
3. She is devoted to her love.
4. He must be 22 to 26 years of age.
5. I gave the book ,o Mohan.
10. On : ( Eqr qr q{ ) ftsrar * fu
(a) In the sense of 'about' conceming a person. ropic or subject
('+ qt tr + srd + fdq ffi qk, Fqq q1 y51q 6 sqli {y
(l) He is writing a thesis an Prem Chand.
(2) This is a good book on economics.
O) fTrtftfun phrases {-
on account of, on hearing this/that, nn behalf of, on the occasion of, on fire, on
sale, on purpose, on the whole, on the contrary, nn foot, EqTft t
(c) Suggesting direction (Rfl q$ti {)
(l) Pinky was hit on the head.
(2) I met him on the way.
(d) Indicating engagements (fsftn qld, rqs{ q H { ord { ai ffi cr qre qyf+
(l) He keeps himself busy az holidays. (2) He is rhere an some business.
(3) He is on tour for a week. (4) He is on leave.
11. Over :
(a) More than ('i qFr+'' * 3rrf {) : He is ouar fifty.
(b) While engaged in (ffi ord { ei 31 q1 qqq IqR{ + 3rrt q)
We settled the quarrel ouer a cup of tea.
(c) From one side ro the other (Cfi d{ n Et d{ il;r - stR-cR + orai t)
(l) There was a bridge or.rr the river.
(2) She ran over the ground in no dme.
(d) Showing command. control, authority, etc.
( qri{t, ffi{ur, 3IFI+,R, *Edr o{R !-+-e o,{i + orei q)
(l) He ruled ayer our country for about 30 years.
(2) She has no control oyer her emotions.
12. Through z
(a) From one side to another in a closed place
(frt E< vr e-< wn 'q6 T{s s 1rrfr am' *' emi c)
(l) The train is moving thrztugh a tunnel.
(2) He walked through the forest.
(3) thief entered the house through an open window.
' (4) The He looked thmugh a relescope.
(5) The water flows into rhe tank through this pipe.
(6) The sun calllre through the window.
(b) Indicating means or agency (slfi qrE{q E$i fu)
(1) He got his job through a minister's recommendation.
(2) Our library gets magazines andjoumals ,r,ror,g/, the local newspaper agency.
(3) I came to know of this through the driver.
(4) I knew it through a newspaper.
(c) qs-crdlTds qE[R oT{ * eni q
He ga through his examination. 103
Communication Skills (a) '* ar+$' + e{d {
PersonalityDevelopment We heard his cry through the great uproar.
(e) Across the interior of anything.(rt r,tor g+ otr t qst Bk il+,1
(l) There is no way thmugh the forest.
NOTES (2) The river Yamuna flows through Delhi.
(3) Cars are not allowed to go through the city in the day time.
(0 '+ 6Rq' * erci {
(l) The vase was broken by Ram through his carelessness.
(2) She died through negler,t.
(3) All this was done by Mdtan thmugh envy.
(4) ThmuSh your help, she may succeed.
(5) He ran awaY through fem.
(g) Between or among the individual memuers ('qkrra v<d + fis {' * qei {)
This book has passed through many hnds.
(h) From first stage to the last finished stage of a process
1ffiS <q fi fuR Eti 61 TEd vffi<r ffiq vffiql il+,) *
The body of a car passes thmugh 147 stages on the production line'
13. Into:
(a) <m d qfirqdc qI E { + qftqlq 61 <$i+ {
(l) Translate these sentences lnro English.
(2) When he saw his mother, he burst inra tears.
O) 'qcq +'cei {, +n : He often works late into the night.
(c) ttt eft { sd * slQi {, $i : He went into business.
14. Under: (Over ur ftrdc )
(a) 3r<{flIqiqIfridi + e{ti { : +i
The railway line near Jaipur remained under water for many days'
61 'eiwr5.aoe' $t d + q{ : She is uruter forry.
1c) '+1 wam i' * rcd { +i :
) The house is under construction. (2) The matter is anler consideration'
( I

(d) 'cc qI (S d f{q'+ q{ d

(l) Many PeoPle work under him.
(2) No one under lhe rank of an Inspector shall enter the hall'
(e)'nrfu< di ur { rri' qel d
fue *
(l) India, znler Pt Nehru, progressed much.
(2) He is very happy in his office under his new director'
15. With :
(a) qrtn, dcR, EfwR, 3IIf( + vqi,Io-d + old q
(l) gun.
He killed Ore lion wirrt a (2) She hit the cmw lvi"t a stone'
(3) I always write \rirrt this pen. (4) He cut vegetables wi,ft a knife'
(b) rllqqIqq*l<$ii* qri{
(l) She went there wirft her husband.
(2) He lived wrt} his wife and children.
(c) Having * od {
A girl witft blue eyes is coming towards us.
(2) A woman wirft a child is also coming'
(d) because ofat owing to eRd (6RoI q{tt* { {)
(l) She was trembling with feal
(2) He was silent wirft shame'
t04 1e) tQ-+r
qr e,r <ert'i {
(l) She accepted the present wiri pleasure.
(2) He reached there h,irl, courage. Section A : Grammar
(D ffi61 tqtq,qrneqr qFr;rR{6H,{s++ er{{
(I ) They left rhe child wir& its aunt.
(2 ) We left our lu ggaBe with the parcel clerk.
19; fia Phrases { : NOTES
wilr, quanel wirft, sympathise wiri , Wree $,ith, W with, dovtt wirh, fight
lrir&, pleased with, mgry r;6, Effi r

(l) The hincipal is always pleased wirft good boys.

(2) He paned wrrlr his parents for two years.
16. By :
(a) qlq d qI srd { dc 6 3Id {
(l) He came and sat me. (2) His house is Dy the river.
(b) through, along 4l across * rlqri { $Q :
We came b-v a shoncut.
(cy ffi wn t *+r 1wd v fr+-et *, ud {
(l) I walk Dl the post office every noon.
(2) We drove bv the hill and reached the town.
(d) During (+ qt{F) + q{ q
(l) He prefers to travel Dy night. (2) He worked Dy day and rested at night.
(el oai efi
{, agent ?tT doer t v6d
(l) 'Meghdoot' was written by Kalidas.
(2) Many people were killed by the earthquake in Gujarat.
(D '+snTfi'+ sIEq
(l ) You shouldjoin your duty Dy next Monday.
(2) We have to finish our assigned work Dy March 31.
(g) '+ sr5qR'+ srd { : What is the time Dy your watch ?
(h) stTqFFH qI qRFtkI 6I cd-fl qari +- s{d { : Dy train, by bus, by cal by plane, by
ship. D.v sea, Dy air, {gtR t

(l) She came Dy car from Agra. (2) They often travel by air.
(i) <t-{r {dri { by the collar, b1' the hair, Dy chance, {oG t
(l ) He caught the boy Dy the hair. (2) She met one of her classmates Dy
chance in the fair.
17. For :
(a) &eqrr<qpmwti*feq
(l) He left.lbr Mumbai today. (2) The train left/or Delhi.
(b) sG{qE-dri{
( I ) I go /or a walk daily. (2) Some people live /or others.
1cy ffi<vrfr*feq $C :
(l) We should save future.
/ar the (2) Lt us get ready pr school.
(d) q$E, +6, 3cgffidr <$i+ * w<{ {
(l) He has a taste /or painting.
(2) Every man has a weakness lbr beautiful things.
(3) The climate of this place is bad/or health.
(e) frf{cc qI {s *
oma-n<ra *' 3r{ {
(I ) I bought this pen /or five rupees. (2) They sold their house/or two lakhs.
(D f{qfdfud Verbs *'vtq
wait for, hope for, ask for, prz,y for, search for, aff*tion for,long /or {ffi t

(l ) He waited /ar the bus for an hour.

Communication Skils (2) She asked me for a pen.
Personality Development 18. Ol
(a) Indicating connection or relation lew*r <uft * erd/q+-d {)
The legs (,/ the chair are broken.
i (b) Indicating panition or conclusion (Fqro-{ qr ltlfud di + E<q {)
I a piece of paper, a ton of coal. a lot of books, lakhs of people, ffi I

(l) Please give me a piece crlpaper. (2) He has read hundreds o/ bools so far.
(c) Suggesting reason or cause loru u wn <vti d;
He died a/ cancer,
(d) f+qqr<I*qrq:
proud o/, afraid oJ fond al tired ol, ashamed ol glad o/ jealous o3( desirous of
accused oJ qetR t

He is accused ()/ theft.

(e) Indicating material used but not changed (q< + e+,r +i f+-{ qfiFdr q d+ 6l
qs q{ti i)
(l) This chair is made oJ wood. (2) This house is built a/stone.


1. In s{t{ At 6T sq}T
(a) In M, qQ rpnd cq qg {16{ + fds v-gm erdl * qqt6 at si} Yrbri', sdl nqr re{rif
+ feq rg-m gtm tr *Q -(t ). She lives ar Rampur. (2). Harish lives rz Mumbai.
(b) In 6,t r+rl qFclsFq (period of time) *' fee +fl t qqf6' at lF'frfFd qcc (point
of time) * frqcgffi dart r${ -(tl He will return in an hour. (2)l getup at
6 a.m.
2. In efr( Into qr s*rt
In ftsR qE * frq dsr inro sl e-{ir'q rfr{fl-mdr e-6-e o'{i + fds r5ff ftr t r $rt -
(l) He is in his office. (2) She is working in the kitchen.
(3) He jumped ,xro the river. (4) The frog jumped ,,rro the water.
3. In elk Wlthin qr s*rr
Future Tense *' qrd { t
qccrsFJ (period of time) g* ur ot qdq o,d vr 'sK tr
qr 'qqq d{clfrc{' srei f{6-sdr + rrq<ronfu t$
qft ra;tft;61vdrlf6{n
qrdr tii'sqQ'{cqt Td'qr 'q6A'qr qd e-fi-s+dt * r+Q -
(l) My parenrs will come in a week.
( erqtE q6, stdr +, qK ?[ qs sqr6 +1sHfr q{ 3ndi r)
(2) They will retum within a weok.
(q8il6 61 ersfu qqrR di t Td 6 elriii r)
4. on *{ Atrfirvqh
(a) qErq :6r iitr E"{d * feq ffi ors f<*s (day) scsm frfq (date) t 5d oz tt sdl
fo,,qrqdr+ rSt -
(l) We shall leave for Delhi on Sunday.
(2) They will start their joumey oz the 25th January.
qr{ ffi t
fiFsiil qqq (point of rime) q* ar *,t v*q f+'q qro t (on or rfi) r

$Q- 1t; Stre is to reach here ar 6.00 a.m.

(2) The last train anives here at 10.30 p.m.
G) on qr rqtrrffiaq*svfra-e+15 gq+1ftefrcori {fqqrsrar* rq(dar
+r yd{ ffi lrm t qrq-crq 6-d S fiqa +i + srei { fuqr qrdl t t St -
' (l) My books are on the table. (2) Stand at tllf- gate.
5. On e{h Upon er rtrr
106 on EI r+q furcdl qm q,ri * feq dar * r Upan ql rdl ,rftT{fl-eil rtrz E{i *
foqfoqrqdrt r+{i-
(I) The book is on the lable. (2) The dog jumped upon the table. Section A : Grammar
6. with 3flT By r5rrfrrr
wrrn ffiinstrument ('f, ) qi f<grdl t fqs6l ffi
E,I{ Ei E,,{+ { yfi f{ql qrdr
t *r ay f+S ord q'd qrd (agent qI doer) * ftq cgm f+.ql qm t | fr -
(l) He was killed Dy a robber wirft a gun. NOTES
(2) She wrote a letter wdtft her pen.
By* srarit
(l) He sat b"- me. (qrs) (2) I shall rcturn ,) 3 o'clock. (iltt')
(3) He is a Brahmin D-v caste. (t) (4) I swear Dy cod. (s+)
7. Beslde 3ft( Besides qr II*rr
Beside t6l o{ t
'Uy the side of' (fq-o$d Ts+6,1 vqf*' Besides or qd 'h t
addition to' t*
erfrft-ff1 r+C -
(l) Sit beside me. (2) Besides this,I want two other books.
E From, For efrt Since qr ytrt
ffi { qr ffi yrql ql srd 't' *o t r 'for'nrq d eraFr (period of time) eft{
'since' Riqrq H'l i{5 (poinr of time) q f,rdl t r $rt -
( I ) She has not seen me /or the last one wek.

(2) He has been ill sinca Saturday last.

'from' S point of time *nat t qrt 'from' +,t ydq Perfect Continuous qJ d.g*'.r
sS Tenses i[ +dr tr srqroril{ EFo,r c+r to' *' srq *dr * r $ri He was ill -
/um Sunday to Thursday.
i5a r<i qt oo 3;B f{R-qd Prepositions cgffi di r $e t -
1. absent from ( 3qqfr{d) - He was absent from the class yesteday.
2. according to ( stlqR) - He works according to my advice.
3. aim rt (dH {IlrI:ll, (lfffi +{I) -He aimed at tlte bird and then fired at it.
4. attention to (qr{ t{r) - Pay proper attention to your studies.
5. appeal to ( qErE qT ;II) - The PM has appealed ro the countrymen to make
6. afraid of (sGI, qq+d*{) -He is not afraid ol difficulties.
7. affection tor (lq) - He has no ffection for his father.
8. agree with (s6qd +{I - qtfi t) - Stre agreed with me.
9. agrce to (rr6qd t+ - yt<rs t) - He agreed to my proposal.
10. angry with (sJfcrd +{ - qfff t) - Ue was aflBry h,ith me.
ll. apply for (* frq cnt{-rrd t*) - He applied for the post of a clerk.
12. apply to (z[I yt?tn-qr <{I) - He applied to the manager.
13. ashamed of (c{ {fit<I) -lwas ashamed o/ my behaviour.
14. ask for <frnrl - I asked my friend pr some money.
15. belong to (fs$ 6I d{, qq*I rq{I) - This book belongs to me.
16. blame for (sis ({rIHI) - He blamed Ramesh./or his carelessness.
17. busy wifi (qR) - He is bzsy wirh his studies.
18. care f61 (vclr6 or+) - He does ll.ot care for me.
19. capable of (ureil - He is capable a/ doing this exercise.
20. congratulate on (qqd t+) - Ue congratulated me on my success.
21. comparc with (EffiI i[T[) - Don't compare this pen ]rirft that.
22. careful about ({ttttrlR *+) - Se careful about your health.
23. cune of ({flq :s.fa) - This doctor has cured many patients a/ cancer.
24. die of (q{{I) - He died of clrcleru. 107
Communication Skitls & 25. differ wiO (qatC +{I) - Ramesh drftrs }rirft you on this point.
Personality Development 26. differ from (fira *+) - Sirds differ from beass.
27. expert in (RI) - Asha is expert in singing.
28. feithful to (.FERR) - Your servant is not faithful to yoa.
NOTES 29. familiar wlth (qftfqt) - rc is not famitiar with rr.rie.
30. fond o1 lqmr) - Her baby is very fond of ice.
31. full of (tr{I Esll) - The glass is/z// o/ water.
32. tilled with ( c{ ErflI) - The glass is filled with milk.
33. Iined for (qF-gd) - Sohan was /zad.lbr absence.
34. grateful tdfor (!FiF) - I am grateful to you for your help.
35. guilty of ( esc$fi) - You are guilty of theft.
36. hopeful of ( qRlrqr{) - | an hopeful o/ my success.
37. inferior to (qfq) - Your table is inferior to mine.
38. interested in (fi *<t) - He is not interested rn politics.
39. jealous of (teiQ - He is jealous o/ my success.
40. knock at (gscrzH) - Who is knocking a, the door ?
41. kind to (sql(I) - We should be kind to the poor.
42. laugh at (fS T.SrlI) - Do not laugh at him.
43. listen to (81 Efil) - Listen to him.
44. long for ( 3{ftr(llsl rcrfl) - Sln longs for seeing her son.
45. married to ({Ir{ gi) - She was married to a rich man.
46. made of (qi g{) - tnty ing is made of gold.
47. obedient to ( 3mil6'rt) - Children should be obedient to their parents.
48. opposlte 6 1ffic) - His house is opposite ,o the college.
49. proud of (qqES, qF{rllr 6{i qrc[) - He is proud of his wealth.
50. pnefer to ( 3qFri6, ciE ETII) - Suresh prelars coffee ,o tea.
51. quatifted for (qlr.I) - Naresh is qualified for this pst.
52. quarrel tn;1h lgTgT - qfft t) - Stre ofien quarrels witlr her brother.
53. rrtated 6 lqeFrc) - He is related to me.
54. rcly on (f{ft (6lI) - You should not rel1'on Kiran.
55. run over (g;Tm{r) - The young boy was rzz ouer by a bus.
56. reply to (i'f,( +{l) - He has replied to my lettr.
57. responsible for (fu+fl) - I am not responsible for this.
58. resutt of (cf{qc) - No one knows the rusalt o/ this match.
59. run after (*gI E,{lI, srJ{I{ol s,Tjll) - The cat ran afier the rat.
60. rob of (qm, fia) - fne chex rubbed him o/ all his money.
61. search for (iltlM zrr ) - Ram is searching for his lost book.
62. sentence to (( t{r) - He was sentenced lo death.
63. satlslled with (vgel - I am satisfied x,itft my work.
64. suffer from (df<-c) - He is suffering fmm fevet
65. superlor to (r) - Your book is r:r.:rt superior to nine.
66. sure of (frk{d) -l
am sure o/my success.
67. sympathy for (rr6Qtrfr Noun) - He has gmpathy for the poor.
68. sorry for (!d) - He was very sorry- for what he had done.
69. sure of (stt{{R?[ qt$qq) -l an,not sure of his victory.
?0. similar to (rHH, gee u fucat-ge-o t+)- uany of her habits arc similar to
,r. ,* ot ,o"ar) - He is ared o/doing nothing.
72. true to ((an) - He is true to his word. Section A : Grammar
73. thankful tdfor (E-rd *{) - I an thanl{ul ro him /or his help.
74. useful for/to (Elq( ) - Exercise is useful for hedth. It is useful to you.
75. wait for (vfrqr i6't ) - We waited for you at the bus-stand.
Fill in the blanks with the correct Preposition given in the bmckets :
l.He stayed on a tree............ha1f a day. (for, in, since, at)
2. If you can sleep office room. (for, at, in, into)
3. ............the first of next month, I'll sleep alone, father. (On, From, In, Before)
4. Swami pulled the blanket....,......,his face . (over, in, under, on)
5. You will not go to your granny's side............night. (in, at, on, by)
6. Swami felt cut off............humanity. (with, on, for, from)
7. He hated the newspaper............printing the tigei's story. (for, from, at, to)
8. David received medical degree............Temple University.(in, through, from, on)
9. He expected the devil to clutch............his throat. (by, at, on, over)
10. Swami spread his bed............the bench. (in, into, under, to)
ll. I stand.....:......the minor. (on, at, before, after)
12. I could go for a pany............Vishal's house. (on, hom, in, at)
13. We see violence everywhere...........the world. (in, on, from, since)
14. Dave had gone completely b1ind............the age of eight. (on, at, in, since)
15. Mr Hartman rolled the ba11............the gound. (in, at, along, after)
16. The ball made whistling sound coming............the grass. (ftom, through, on, in;
17. He insisted............leaving the local blind school. (on, at, in, for)
18. ............the spring of 1972, David was winding up four years at college with top
marks. (On, From, In, Since)
19. ..........the afternoon of April 27, a ninth rcjection came from a medical college.
(To, On, At, After)
20. Dave received a calI............his mother. (in, to, from, at)

Fill in the blanks with the correct Preposition given in the brackets :
l. David got the highest marks............physical diagnosis. (in, on, at, for)
2. A person may have Ph.D.............his name. (after, before, on, over)
3. They preserved the trees............their village. (from, into, around, on)
4. Every year a religious fair is he1d............this spot. (at, in, from, for)
5. The younger woman was dressed............sealskin. (with, on, over, in)
6. The bus conductor stepped.........,..the pavement. (into, onto, over, for)
7. Everybody was............the side of the lady and the dog. (on, at, for, over)
8. TWo or three passengers got............of the bus and disappeared into the night.
(into, out, in, on)
9. The conductor went and had a ta1k...,........the driver. (out, with, on, over)
10. Our daily shopping trips were made............a disreputable two-wheeled basket
cart. (with, over, in, to)
ll. The crowd held its breath as the Mayor reached............the glass bowl for the
lucky ticket. (into, onto, for, over)
12. I saw my father's sturdy figure.........the rear window. (at, into, over, though)
13. I saw my father, he was pacing.........the pavement.(along, across, over, above)
14. My father had to explain the whole thing.........the beginning.(since, for, at, from)
15. There was a large shoe store............the road. (over, along, across, on)
16. When he his face was flush. (at, for, to, over)
17. Ninft rejection came ...........a medical college. (on, before, during, from)
18. We bowed very 1ow............the third hill. (to, towards, on, for)
Communication Skilts 19. Human ear is meant............receiving sound of normal range of decibels.
(tbr' on' to' toward)
Personality .
20. The modem youth take pride in driving............great speed. (on, in, at, for)

1.for, 2. in ,3. From,4. over,5. at,6. from, 7. for,8. from 9. at, 10. under, I l. before,
12. at,13. in, 14. at, 15. along. 16. through, 17. on. 18. In, 19. On,20. from.
l. on,2. after,3. around,4. at,5. in,6. onto,7. on,8. out,9. with' 10. in, ll. into,
12. through, 13. along, 14. from, 15. across, 16. at, 17. from, 18. towards, 19. for,20. at.

Section A : Grammar

Clauses : Coordinate,
Subordinate, Relative Adverbs NOTES

Look at the collection of words 'in a comer' it makes sense, but not complete
sense. Such a collection of words which makes sense, but not complete sense
is called a phrases. In the following sentences, the group of words in italics
are phrases.

The sun isen in the east.

It was sunset of great beauty
The tops of the mountains were covered with snow.
Now look at the group of words in italics in the following sentences :
(i) He has a chain of gold
(ii) He has a chain which is made of gold.
We recognize the first group of words as a phrase.
The second group of words unlike the phrase of gold, contains a subject
(which) irid a predicate (is made of gold) ClndcYour Protrcss
Such a group of words which forms part of a sentence and contains a subject 23. What is a asphrase
and a predicate is called a clause in the following sentences the group of alld ?

words in italics are clauses. 24. What is a dause called?

People who pay their debts are trusted.

We can not slaft when it is ruining. 111

I think that you have made a mistake.

Communication Skills & Adverb Clauses
Personali$ Development
Looks at the groups of words in italics in the following sentences :
l. They rested a, srinse, (Rested when?)
2. They rested when evening cane (Rested when?)
It is clear that both the groups of words in italics, in I and 2, do the work
of an adverb as they qualify the word resred showing when the action was
We immediately recognize the first group of words at sunset as an adverb
phrase. Is the second group of words, when evening crarta also an ad-
verb phrase ?
No: it is not a phrase for unlike a phrase, it has a subject (evening) and
a predicate (come when) of its own, and thus it is like a sentence. But not
like a sentence it is part of a sentence.
Such groups of words that form a part of sentence, and have a subject
and a predicate of their own are called clause. Since the clause wften
evening came does the work of an adrerb. It is called an Adverb clcruse.
Hence the definition is :
"An adverb clause is a group of words which contains a subject and
a predicate of its own and does the work of an adverb."
We have seen that an adverb clause is a subordinate clause which does the
work of an adverb. It may, therefore, made by some verb, adjective or
adverb in the main clauses, as :
Strike the fuon while it is hot.
You are taller than I thought.
He ran so quickly tftat he soon overtook me.
Adverb clauses are of many kinds and may be classified as under :

(i) Adverb clauses of time are introduced by the subordinating conjunc-

tions- whenever while, after, before, since as etc.
When you have finished you may go home.
As long as I am the principal of this school there will be discipline.
As soon as he heard the bell he went home.
(D Adverb clauses of place are introduced by the subordinating conjunc-
tions, when and whereas.
I have put ii where we can find it again.
You can pnt it wherever you like.
(O Adverb clauses of purpose are introduced by the subordinating con-
junctions so that, in order that and lest.

tt2 We eat so that we may live.

I will give you a map so that you can locate us.
He was polite to his superiors lest something adverse should be writtan Section A : crammar
into his records.
(iv) Adverb clauses of cause or reason are introduced by the subordinat-
ing conjunctions because, as, since, that, because :
Since yoru are very clever, you will be able to explain this.
I am glad r&at you like it.
As he was not there, as spoke to his mother.
(v) Adverb clauses of condition are introduced by the subordinating con-
junctions if, whether, unlike. As :

Unlike it I shall buy it.

You must go whether you hear from him or not
Unless you work harder you will fail
(vi) Adverb clauses of comparison are of two kind:
(a) Adverb clauses of comparison of reason.
(b) Adverb clauses of comparison of manner.
Adverb clauses of comparison of reason are introduced by the sub-
ordinating conjunction than onby the relative adverb as :
He is older rftaz he looks.
He is as stupid ds he is lazy.
(vii) Adverb clause of comparision, of manner are introduced by the rela-
tive adverb as :
You may do as you please.
It all ended as we expected.
(viii) Adverb clauses of on concession are introduced by subordinating
conjunctions though, although, even d :

Though I am poor I am honest.

Although he called me I did not respond.
Even if it rains he will come.

Communication Skills &
Personality Development
Adjectives and Adjective

Ajectives are the words which qualify nouns or pronouns.

This is my cat. Look at lris cat.

That is your cat. Look at his cal. :

Have you looked your cat. Their cat is up the tree. In all the above sentences
my cat, his cal your cat and so on.

These words (all qualifying the noun cat) arc adiectives. Because they show
possession. We call them possessive adjectives

Let us collect them and anange them like this :

Determiners : possessive adjectives

Singular Plural

Ist person ry our

2nd person your your
3rd person his, her their

114 When we use a posssessive adjective with a noun, it does not have any other
You have learned what the possrssiue adjectives are now we must notice two Section A : Grammar
points about the way they behave.
l. The singular forms, my, your, his, her, its are used if the possession
is singular, It does not matter whether the thing that is possessed is NOTES
singular or plural.
My sisters are in the garden.
My pocket is full of apples
My pockets are full of apples.
2. The plural forms our, your, their arc used if the possesion is plural.
It does .not matter whether the thing possessed is singular of plural.
Orr cat (singular) is in the basket.
Our cats (plural) are in the basket.

Kinds of Adjectives
Adjectives may be divided into the following classes:

(i) Adjective of Quality (or descriptive adjective) shows the ftizd or

quality of a person or thing. as :

Kolkata is a large city

He is an honest man
T-he foolish old man tried to sing.
(ii) Adjective of quantity shows ftow much of a thing. As :

I ate some ice.

He has lost a// his wealth.

He has little intelligence.

I want some water.

Adjectives of quantity answer the question :'how much?'

(iii) Adjective of number (or Numeral Adjective)

Shows ftow mdny persons or things are there, or in what order a

person or thing stands. as :

The hand hasy'ue fingers.

Few cats like cold water.

There are zo pictures in this book. 115
Communication Skilts & A/l enemies must die.
Personality Development
Most boys like cricket.
Sunday is thefrs, day of the week.
Adjectives of Number answer the question 'how many ?'
Adjectives of number (or numeral adjectives) are of three kinds :

(a) Delinite Numeral Adjective which denotes exact number. Such

One, two, three, etc............ they are called cardinals.
First, second, third ....................These are called ordinals.
Cardinals denote how many and ordinals the order of things in a

O) Indefinite Numeral Adjectlves, do not denote any exact num-

ber. Such as:
All, no, many, some any, certain, several
(c) Distributive Numeral Adjectives refer to each one of a num-
ber. As :
Each boy must take his turn.
India expects every cilizen to do his duty.
The same adjectives may be classified as of quantity or of number
according to their use. As :
Adjectives of quantity Adjectives of number
I ate some rice Soze boys are clever.
She lost all her money. All enemies must die.
You have no sense. There are no pictures in this
(rv) Demostrative Adjectives point out a person or thing; as :

Iftis boy is stronger than that.

I hate szcft things.
(It should be noted that this and that are used with singular nouns
and these and those with plural nouns.)

(v) What, which and whose when they are used with nouns to ask ques-
tions, are called Interogative adiectives as :
What kind of man is he ?

Which way shall we go ?

(O In the following sentences the words own and very arc used a an.
115 Emphasizing a{iectives, as :
I saw it with my own eyes. Section A : Grammar
That is the very thing we want.
(vii) The word'what' is sometimes used as an Exclamatory A(iective, as:
What an ideal
What a piece of work is man!

Formation of Adjectives
(i) Many adjectives are formed form nouns :
Noun A{iective Noun A{iective
Boy boyistr Storm stonny
care carefirl taugh laughable
shame shameless Envy envious
Silk silken Courage. courageous
(ii) Some adjectives are formed from verbs :
Verb Adjective
Ifte tireless
Talk talkative

Comparison of A{iectives
To show the extent of quality we divide the Adjectives in three degrees :

(i) Positive Degree

(ii) Comparative Degree
(iii) Superkitive Degree
@ Positive Degree A{iectives - They modify the Nouns to a normal extent.
It was a melodious song
Maheep has a unique colle*tion of stamps.
Durga delivered alry speech.
(ii) Comparative Degree Adjectives - They modify the Nouns to the higher
extent. They are used for comparison between two Nouns. As :

The Ganges is Iarger than the Kosi.

Reema is more intelligent than Mahesh.
His car is costlier than that of mine.
Comparative Degree Adjectives must take 'than' after them.
(i[) Superlative Ihgrce A{ectives - They qualify the Nouns to the highest
degree or extent. They are used for comparison among morc than two
Nouns. As :
Communication Skills & Ravi is rfte best boy of his school.
Personality Development
Tirlika is the fastest witer in her class.
Micky is the naughtiest mouse in his group.
NOTES Superlative Degree Adjectives must take 'the' before them.
Positive Degree Adjectives take 'er' to form Comparative and'est' to form
Superlatives. Adjectives of more than two syllables take 'more' and'most'
to form Comparatives and superlatives.
The rules to change the Positive Degree into Comparative and
Superlative Degrees :
G) Normally Positive Degree Adjectives take 'er' and 'est' to form Comparative
and Superlative. As:
Bold bolder boldest
Deep deeper deepest
Great gleater greatest
Tall taller tallest
Small srnaller smallest

(ii) If a positive degree Adjective ends in a single consonent and is preceded by

a short vowel, the consonant is doubled before taking 'er' or 'est'. As :

Pooitive Comparative Superlative

Big bigger biggest
Fat fafier fauest
Thin fiinner thimest
Hot hotter hottest

(iii) If a positive degree Adjective ends in 'e', we just add 'r' and 'st'. As :
Brave braver bravest
FIE firEr ftrest
Able abler ablest
Noble nobler noblest

(rv) The Positive Degree Adjectives which end in 'y' and 'y' is preceded by
Consonant, 'y' is changed into 'i' before taking 'er' or 'est'. As :
Lszy laziff hziast
Easy easier easiest
Busy busier busiest
Heavy heavier heaviest
Happy happier happiest
Dirty dirtier dirtiest
(v) If 'y' is preceded by a Consonant instead of a Vowel 'y' does not change into
'i'. As :
Gey geyer geyest
Gay gayer gayest

(vi) Some Positive Degree Adjectives form their compartive or superlative in a

1t8 very irregular terms. As :

Positive Comparative Supertahve Section A : Grammar
Good better best
Well better best
Bad worse worst
B,il worse worst NOTES
n wotrse worst
Much morc most
Many morc mo6t
Ufrle less least
Far farttrer farthest
Fore fltrts fudtest
hfus innermost, inmost
Up upper upmost, uppermost
(vii) Positive Degree Adjectives of more than two syllables take 'more' and 'most'
and not 'er' and 'est' to form comparative and superlative. As :
Beauiful mdebeautiful mostbeautiful
Wonderful more wonderfitl most wonderfrrl
knporrail more important most important
Famous more famous most famous
Usefrrl more usefr most useful
(viii) There are some Comparatives which have lost their Positive and Superlative ;
forms. Now they are used as Positives. They end with'or'instead of 'et'. As

senior, junior, superior, inferior, exterior, interior, alterior etc.

Nouns Uscd As Adiectives
The use ofnoun as adjectives is very common in English. As :
I met aliu,le college girl.
He is always playing computer games.
Pooition of Adjectives :
An adjective used auributively is generally placed immediately before the noun; as

King Vikram was a hearty king.

She was a stmng headed girl.
The girl was a rare V,atty.
When an adjective is used after the link verb, it is said to be used predicatively.
Such as :

She was tired ard hungry.

He appears sad.
Madhu seems exhausted.
Harish looks snrarr.
A. FilI in the blanks with the Comparative or Superlative forms of
Adjectives. Their Pmitive form has been given in the brackets :
l. The boy is.. .......... than the girl. (strong)
Communication Skills & Mother was ................................ than the children. (tired)
Personatity Development 3. She was the ........................ athlete of her school. (good)
4. The eagle was .... then the kite. (mighty)
5. The man in white sang in the voice. (sweet)
NOTES 6. The Ganges is the ........ river of India. (long)
7. Russia is . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . than America. (big)

8. The Pacific is the ...... ocean in the world. (large)

9. Tokyo is .......................... than any other city. (densely populated)
10. Africa has .. forest than any other country. (much)
ll. Bangalore is the ......... city to live in. (good)

B. Pick out and identify the Degrees of Comparison and write them in the
space given below :
I . Saumya is nimbler than her sister.

2. Sudhir is a better painter than Kirti.

3. The Himalayas are the highest mountain range of the world.

4. The Arabian sea is bigger than the Bay of Bengal.

5 . Gold is heavier than all other metals.

6. Iron is one ofthe heaviest metals.

7. The high mountains ofthe Himalayas are spread along the northem frontier

8. You are senior to me in point of age.

9. He lives at an interior place.

I 0. A great tomado lashed against the coastal region of America.

C. Fill in fte blanks with the corrtct degree of comparison of A{iectives

given in the brac.kets :
1. Mount Everest is the ......................... peak in world. (ttrSr)
2. This box is ......................... than the other one. (fravY)
3. Shyam is the ......................... man is my village. (rich)
4. His condition is ......................... than before. (bad)
5. Ashok was . . than most other kings of India. (greaO
6. Kolkata is the ......................... city in India. OD
7. Reeta is the ......................... ofthe three daughters. (olO
8. The Taj is one of the......................... buildings in the world. (teauttt)
9. Some boys in the class are ......................... than Hari. (tall)
10. This way is ......................... than the other one. (short)

Section A : Grammar



Verb is an Action word. There can be no sentence without a Verb. If ttrere is only
one word in a sentence, it would be verb, such as :
(l) Go. (2) Come. (3) Stop.
Verbs are of following kinds :

I. hransitive Verb
2. Transitive Verb

. (a) Transitive Verb with One Object

(b) Transitive Verb with TWo Obejcts
(c) Transitive Verb with an Object and a Complement
3. Linkingverb
4. AuxiliryVe$
Intransitive Verb
The Verbs which have no objects are called Intransitive Verbs. As :

l. He goes.
2. Rurt wept.
3. The dog barl<s.
4. The child is sleepizg.
In the examples given above goes, wept, barlcs and sleeping dont have any
Communication Skilts & Ilansitive Verb
Personality Development
(a) Transitive Verb must have an object. As :

l. He reads a book
NOTES 2. You p/ay cricket daily.

In the examptes given above reads ard play have been used as Trarisitive
Verbs and their objects are book and crickzt.
(b) A few Transitive Verbs demand two objects. As :

He gave me his books.

In the example given above gaue has two Objects - (l) me and (2) book"s.
(c) There are some Transitive Verbs which ask for an Object followed by a
complement. Such as:
The boys made Shyam their Captain.
In this example Shyam has been used as an object and Captain has been
used as Complement.

Pick out the Tmnsirive and Intransitive verbs in the following sentences
and write the object of each Tmnsifive verb against it :
l. Dogs bark.
2. Boys go to school.
3. The birds flew away.
4. He asked me a question.
5. She gave me a pen.
6. She never tells a lie.
7. They found her asleep.
8. School opens at 7 a.m.
9. The teacher taught us a lesson.
10. He washed his clothes.
I l. She loves me.
12. Hari laughs
13. I like reading books.
14. She cried.
15. You helped me.
Linking Verb
Linking Verbs connect subject to Complement. Such as :
l. I am a boy.
2. You are a teacher.
3. My father was old.
Note : Linking Verbs only consist of Is, Am, Are, Was, Were are used as Main

t22 Auxiliary Verbs

Auxilary Verbs help forming the Tense of the Main Verbs. As :
1. Ramesh ls playing. 2. She ftas gone. Section A . Gratomar.
Note : In the examples given above rs and ias are Auxiliary verbs.
Auxiliary verbs are of rwo kinds : (a) Primary Auxiliaries (b) Modal Auxilia-
ries. NOTES
Primary Auxiliaries are three in numhr : (l) be, (2) have, (3) do.
'Be' includes - (t) Be (2) Been (3) Is (a) Am (5) Are (6) Was (7) were.
'Ilave' consists of- (l) Has (2) Have (3) Had.

'Do' takes - (i) Do (2) Does (3) Did.

Note : (|) Rrtting 'not' after Primary Auxiliaries becomes Sentence Negative.
Such as :

He i.s nor sleeping.

(2) Prinmry Auxiliaries if put before the subject, the sentence becomes
Such as : Ls he sleeping now ?

A. Pick out the Verbs fnrm the following sentences and put them in the
rcspectiye columns ofT[ansitive or Intransitive, given below :
t. The girl slep well.
2. Shepickeduptheidol.
3. The catjumped on the rat.
4. The riveris flowing freely.
5. The man weaves a basket.
6. He made us fool.
7. People worshipped Cd.
8. She painted a pictuie.
9. Kiran appears to be cheerful.
10. Gagan looked pale and sick.

Ihansitive Verb Intransitive Verb

Communication Skills & Find out whether thp complprnerts given in the sentences are Subjective
Personatity Devetopment or Objec{ive. Writd SC for Subjective Complement and OC for Objective
Complement in the space given :

NOTES l. She found him sleeping. ()

2. They saw her stealing clotlres. ()
3. We like the honest to be rewarded. ()
4. A horse is an animal. ()
5. Thechild looked afraid. ()
6. He appeared to have done it. ()
7. Raman foundAmit asleep. ()
8. We left him as he was. ()
9. Kapil remained as he used to be. ()
10. He got well. ()
ll. The rainis away. ()
C Frame sentences of your own fndm the given Verts. One has been done for
you r

l. appear Ravi appearedto be fresh.

2. seem

3. lmk
4. feel

5. hing
6. g4
7. cause

8. make

9. promise

10. send

ll. spread

12. ask

Section A : Grammar

The Modal Auxiliaties


Modal Auxiliaries are different from Primary Auxiliaries in several ways. They cant
be used like a main verb. Neither do they help in Tense formation.

Modal Auxiliaries express the aftitude ofthe speaker.

Can, could, may, might, shall, should, will, would, need, dare, must, ought to etc.
are Modal Auxiliary Verbs.

Usage of Modal Auxiliaries

Can - Caz is used to show ability, permission and possibility. Such as :

I can speak in English. (ability)

He can win the march. (ability)

Ca[ I sit here ? @umisslon)
Yes, you caz. @amisslon)
25. Defi ne tvtodal Auxilia.
Yon can reach Delhi by 8 A.M. tomorrow. (Possibility)
She can complete the work in a week. (hssibility)
Conld - Could is used to show ability in Past Tense. It also can be used to seek 125
permission with greater potteness and express possibilities more stnongly. Such as
Communicatior Skills & He could ride a horse in his young age. (ability)
Personality Development Tlrcy could work really very hard. (abiho
Could I have a cup of tea ? (permission)
NOTES Could yoa allow me to acccmpany you ? (permission)

The road could & blocked. (stong possibility)

He couW come today. (strong possibility)

Maylmight - May is used to seek permission formally. Such as :

It may ruin. (stong possibility)

He ln a.y come tomorrow. (srong possibility)
May I go out for a walk ? (permission)
May he attend the class ? (permission)
Migftt expresses weak possibility. Such as :

It might rain today. (weak possibility)

He might come today. (weak possibility)

ShalUwill - SftaJl is used with I and we and rvdl is used with the rest to express
simple futurity. As:
I shall go to school tomorrow.
He wilj come from America next week.
We sftall learn English.

John will buy a car. Eetftt

Use of wil/ with I and we expresses strong intention. As :

I wrTI become a pilot.

We wil/ win this march.
You, he, she, it, they and Nouns when used with shall express hidden threat,
comrnand, instructions erc. As :
You shall complete your homework first. (command)

They s/rall face the result. (thea0

The school sial/ re-open on Monday. (Official Insruction)
Should and Would are used to seek permission with greater politeness. Such as :

Should I use your phone ? (permission)

Would yol have a cup of tea ? (rcques0

Needn't - Needz'r is used to show something is not required. Such as :

You needn't go there.

He needn't come to me.
Manlu needn't trouble herself any more.

Must - Masr is used to express strong advice and firm intention or compulsion.
126 Such as :
You must work hard to succeed. (strong advice) Section A : Grammar
They musr obey their parents. ' (strong advice)

I zust become a pilot. (lirm intention)

We must win the match. (compulsion) NOTES

She rzusl complete her homework. (compulsion)

Daren't - Daren'r is used in the sense of not having the courage. Such as :

She daren't talk to me.

He daren't go outside in the dark.
ont$rtto - Ougft, ,o shows moral responsibility as well as strong advice. Such as

Yut ought ,o go to school. (strong advice)

We ought lo be honest. (moral responsibility)

Penple ougfu a serve their motherland. (moral responsibility)

A. Supply appropriate Auxiliary Verbs fmm the box given below :
daren't, needn't, must, can, may, should, can, could,
shall, ought to, should, shall

l. I ....,.............. not speak in English.

2. She ................... pass the exams.
3. You ................... consult a doctor.
4. Mahima win the match.
5. The programme ................... be postponed.
6. The Academy ................... remain closed on Saturday.
7. The student first complete their homework.
8. We ................... obey our elders.
9. One ................... be honest to be great.
10. ................... I use your telephone, Sir ?
ll. She ................... harm me.
12. He ................... work so hard to pass.
B. Fill in the blanks with suitable Modal Auxiliaries taken from the
brackets :
l. ................... you like to go for a walk. (should, would)
2. The rich help the poor. (should, ought to)
3. ................... you paint a picture ? (can, could)
4. ................... I help you. (can, could)
5. All ................... be honest. (should, would)
6. We work so that we ................... enjoy. (may, can)
7. You ................... not go there today. (need, must)
8. ................... you please speak truth ? (will,woulo 727
Communication Skills 9. ................... God bless you ! (may, can)
Dwetopment 10. India
Perconality win the match. (may,migh|
11. It ................... rain today. (may, can)

12. We ................... be kind to others. (should, must)
C. Use the folloMng Modals in your own sentences as directed :
1. can (abiliry) I can do anything in the world.
2. can (permission) Can I .....................................................?
3. can (pCIsibility)
4. rnay (permission)
5. may (possibility)
6. mieht(pGsibility)
7. must (smong advice)
8. darent
9. oughttq(pgongadvice)

Section A : Grarnmar

Adverb, Adverb Phrases

comparisons and NOTES



A word that modifies the wearing of a verb, an adjective on another adverb is

called an adverb. The words qzictly, very aard quite te there for adverbs. In
the following sentences adverbs modify verbs :

They ran /asr.

He played wcll.
They acte.d prompfi to save him.

Adverb placed at the beginnig of sentences sometimes modify the whole

senkoce rather than any particular word; as :

Pmbably he is mistaken.
Evidently the figures are incorect.

Quickly he escaped unhurt

Kinds of Adverbs
A Advcrbc msy be classtEed into the folbwing ca@orlee re pcn ttdr
[. Defiman adrrcdr.
(t) Adverbs of time (which show wftez); as :
I have heard thls beforu.
Communication Skitls & We shall now begin to work.
Personatity Development
He comes here daily.
That day he arived late.
NOTES (ii) Adverbs of frequency (which show how often); as :
I have told you twice.
He often makes mistakes.
I have not seen him once.
He always tries to do his best.
The postman called in often.

(iii) Adverbs of place (which show where); as :

My brother is out.
Walk backward.
The horse galloped away
Come in.

(iv) Adverbs of manner (which show how or in what manner); as:

Ram rcads clearly.

The child is sleeping soundly.
Slowly and sadly we laid him down.
The boy works hard.

It may be noted here that thi6 class includes nearly all those adverbs
which are derived from adjectives and end inJy .
(v) Adverbs of degree or quantity (which show how much, or in what
degree or to what extent)i as:

He was ,oo clever.

I am badly prepared.
The sea is uery stormy.
I am so delighted.
She sings prery well.
You are partly right.
(vi) Adverbs of affirmation and negation; as :

Surely yon are mistaken.

He certainly went there.
130 I do not know him.
(viii) Adverbs of Reason; as : Section A : Grammar
He therefore left home
He is hence unable to refuse the charge.
Some of the adverbs and verbs may belong to more than one classes.
She sings delightfully (Adverb of manner)
The weather is delightfully cool (Adverb of degree)
Do not go /ar (Adverb of place)
He is far better now (Adverb of Degree)
When Adverbs are used in asking questions they are called inter-
rogative adverb ; as.
Where is Rahim? (Interrogative Adverb of place)

When did you come? (Interrogative Adverb of time)

How many boys are there in your class (Interrogative Adverb of


How high is Qutubminar ? (Interrogative Adverb of Degree)

B. Adverbs are divided into three classes according to their use :

(i) Simple adverbs, used to modify the meaning ofa verb, adjective and
an adverb; as:

I can hardly believe it.

You are quite wrong.
How brightly the moon shines.
(ii) Interrogative Adverbs are used to ask question, as :

Why are you late ?

(iii) Relative Adverbs which refer back to a noun as their dependent ; as

I remember the house w&ere I was born.

It should be noticed that :

(a) A simple adverb merely modifies some words.

(b) An interrogative adverb not only modifies some words but also
introduces a question.
(c) A relative adverb not only notifies some words but also refers
back to some attachments. 131
Oommunkation Skills & C. Forms of Adverbs
some Adverbs are the same in form as the corrcsponding adjectives: as:

A{icctlves Adverts
He spoke in a loud voice. Dont talk so lottd.
Irfan is our fast bowler. Irfan can bowl /ast'
Are you an early riser ? We started early'

He is no better than a fool He knows me better than yN


D. Comporlson of Adverbs:
Some adverbs like adjectives have three degrees of comparison'
If the adverb is of one syllable we fonn the comparative by adding e/ and
the superlative by adding 'est' to the positive ; as :
Fast faster fastest
Ramran fast (Fositive)
Rarn ran faster. (comperative)
Ram ran the fastest. (supertative)

B Advcrbs ending in'ly'form the comlnrative by adding'more'

ond the superlatlve by addlng'most'88 !
Safeln morc safelY, most safclY
Skiltfrrlly, moe skilltully' most skillfitlly
AMul played s&r'Ifzlly. (positive)
Karim played more skillfully thaa Abdul. (Comperative)
Of all the others, Ahmed pl ayed nost sHllfully. (Superlative)
E Fomatlon of Adverbs:
(D Adverbs of maoner are mostly formed ftom adjectives by adding Iy'
. ;as:
clever - cleverly, kind - kindly, quick - quickly.
wisc - wisely, foolish - foolishlY
Akbar was a wrisc king.
He ruled wisely fot many Years
(ii) When rhe adjective ends in !' poceded by a consonant' change Y into T
ud add ly'; as :
Happy, haPPilY, readY, readilY
(iii) When the adjective ends in 'le', simply change b' into 'y' ; as :

single ; singly ; double ; doublY

(iv) Some adverbs are made of a noun and a qualifying adjective ; as :
sometimes ; meantime, meanwhile ; midway
lr2 (v) Some adverbs are compounds of on (which are fcmed by adding U to
Afoot (= on foot); abed, asleep, ahead, aboard Secdorr A : Gremmar
(vi) Similarly there are othcradverbs which are also compounds of some
preposition and a noun ; as :
Betimes, besi&s, today, to-morrow, overboard
(vii) Some adverbs are compounds of a preposition and an adjective; as:
abroad, along, aloud, anew, behind, below, beyond.
(viii) Some adverbs are compounds of a preposition and an adverb ; as:
within, withont, before, bcncath
(ix) TWo adverts sometimes go together and are connected with the
conjuctions, as :
Again and again (= more than once repeatedly)
By and by (= before long, after some time)
Once and alain (= ea more than one occasion, repeatedly)
Out and out (= dcidedly beyond all occasion)
Thtough and lhough (=thoroughly, completely)

G Poeifon of Adverte
(D Adverbs of manner, which answers the qucstions ,how' e.g. well,
fast quickly, carefully, calmly are generally placed after the verb or
after the object if there is one ; as :
It is raining ,r.ayiry.
The sheep is goiag slowly.
He does his work carcfully.
Adverbs of place (e.g. here, there, everywhere, on the wall) and of
time (e.g. noq then, ye! today, next Sunday) are also usually placed
after the verb or after the object if there is onet as :
He will come f,erc.
I looted every wheru-
Hang the picture rfiare.
@) When there are two ar more adverbs after a verb (and its object)
the normal order is adverb of menner, adverb of place, adverb of
time; as :
She sang well in the concert.
We should go tlvrc tor )rnne evening.
He spoke honestly at the meeting last night.
Gv) Mvcrts of ftoquency which answer the quastion (after, always, never,
often, rarcly, usually generaly) are put before the verbs. As :

His wife zeyer cooks.

I have ofien told him to write neatly.
We usually have breakfast at 9.
I quite agen with you.
Communication Skills& (v) If the verb is - am/arelis/was, these adverbs are placed after the
Personality Development verb ; as.
I am never late for school.
He is always at home on sundaYs.
We are jasr off.
(vi) When an adverb modifies an adjective or another adverb the adverb
usually comes before it; as :
Ram is a rather lazY boY
The dog was quite dead.
Do not speak so /asr
(vii) But the adverb enough is always placed after the word which it
modifics ; as :
Is the box big enough ?
He was rash enough lo interruPt'


IJse suitable words from the li$t to co@ate the tollowing sentences :
today, fast, just, leave, hard, daily, yesterday, always, bravely,
well, when, where, how, why, once, harder' exact' at once, often.
1. She is rather sad ..........
2. It is true he ran .........
3. Our plane landed ............ at 4.

4. He went there
5. The contractor worked ...'....... . to complete to building in time.
6. He goes to gym in the evening ........'."'...
7. He had reached at his uncle's .........'... .

8. ............ speak the mrth.

9. The jawan fought .................... .

10. This is a ............ written article.

ll. ............... will you come ?

12. ....................... can you find a matching table cloth ?

13. .............. are you going to settle his account ?
14. ............... do you want to leave Delhi ?

15. She wants to know .............. you have placed herL.I.C. policy.
16. You want to know how ................ he will come.
17. The dealer tried to tell ............... he got the distributorship of L.G
18. We know .............. he failed in his last attempt.
19. I haven't seen him
134 20. I work .................. than you.
Section A : Grammar
Linking Devices

Read the following sentences :

l. God made the country and man made the town.

2. Our homes are small ,u, our hearts are big
3. Fow and four make eight
In the first statemnt the word and is a linking device between the two sentences.
God made the country. Man made the town. Similarly in the second statement, the
word Dur links two sentences. While in the third sentence, the word and links two
words. In English grammar, such linking devices are known as conjunction. Accold-
ing to tlre lauet's definition conjunction is a word which joinMinks together sentences
and sometimes words. The advantage of using such devices is that you can join
together sntences and often make them more compact. For example :

(i) 'Ramanujan had not been able to enter Madras University because he
could not matriculate in English', is a short way of saying instead of

'Ramanujan had not been able to enter Madras University. He could

not matriculate in English.' 135
Cornmunicatioo Sltillc & (i) 'Baljit and Surendra arc good bowlers'. is a short way of saying
Perconality lrerrcloPmsrt instead of 'Baljit is a good bowler and Surendra is a good bowler.'


'Ihe man is Poor but honest.'

is a contracted way of saying, instead of :

The man is poor. But he is honest.

Conjunctions are divided into two classes coordinating and subordi-

A. Coordlnafug Coqluctons.
Read the scntence :

Birds fly azd fish swim.

The sentence contains two independent statements or two statements of

equal rank on importance. Hence the conjunction joining together these
ttro statements or clauses of equal rank is called a co-ordinating con'
junction. Hencc the definition is,'A co-ordinating coniunction ioins
together clauses o! eqtnl ra*. The chief co-ordinating conjunctions are

And but, for, on nor also, either --......... or, neither """' nor,

noteonly ...... but also, both ...... and else etr-

Coordinating conjunctions are of four kinds :

0) Cumulodve which simply adds one statement to another or in other

words join two clauses or similar ideas; such as :
and, as well as, both,,... atd, not only ..-.... but also, also'
e.g. He is Dorfr inrclligent ard smart.Tbey are not only wise but also
(ii) Advcrsative which expresses opposition or contrast between two
statements. In other words those conjunctions that join two clauses of
opposirc or dissimilar idca; are callcd Adversative Conjunctions. Such
but, yet, still, whercas, levefiheless, only, not elc-
For examPle :
He is slow, Dzt he is sure.
I was annoyed, srill I kePt quiet'
Conjunctions must be carefully distinguished from other linking de-
vices such as Relative pronouns, Relative adverbs and Prepositions
1t6 which are also connecting words.
(r) This is the house rfrar Mohan built. Scctiil A : Granrmar
(Relative pronoun)
(ii) This is the place where he was killed.
(Relative adverb) NOTES
(ur) Take this and givethx
In the sentence (i) :

Tlre Relative pronoun ,frar rfen !o the noun ftozse and also joins the
two parts of the sentence.
' In the sentence (ii) :

The Relative adverb whcre modifies the verb was killed and also
joins the two parts of the sentence.
ln the sentence (iii) :

The conjunction and simply link{oins the two parts of the sentence.
(iii) Alternatlve (DisJuncfive) : Those which join two clauses exprcss-
ing a choice berween two alternatives, such as, or, otherwise, neither
...... nor, either ........... or, else; as for example :
(a) She must w@p or she will die.
(b) Either he is mad or he feigns madness.
(iv) Relative : Those that join two clauses, the first presenting a statc-
ment and the second sharing an inference; such as : so, hence, there-
fore, far.
(a) All precautions must have been rcglecte4/or tbe cholera sprcad
(b) Something certainly fell down, /or I heard a splash.

B. Subordinating conjunctions - These are the words that join one indepen-
dent clause with one or more dependent clauses, thus fornring a complex
sentence. They are further divided iato nine kinds :
(i) fime:
Those which form adverb clauses of timc. Such as :
when, while, till, untill, or, since, before, after, as s(xrn as, ag
long as.
(ii) Place :
Those which form adverb clauses of place such as :
where, whence, whither.
(iii) Result :
Those which form adverb clauses of result, such as : so ..... lt7
Communication Skilts & (iv) Purpose:
Personality Development
Those which form adverb clauses of purpose; such as :

so that, that, in order that, lest.

NOTES (v) Reason :
Those which form adverb clauses of reason, such as : because,
as, since, that.
(vi) Condition :

Those which form adverb clauses of condition; such as :

if, unless, in case, provided that, on condition that.

(vii) Contrast:
Those which form adverb clauses of contrast; such as :

though, although, as, however, notwith standing, that, whether

........... or.
(viii) Comparison :
Those which form adverb clauses of comparison; such as :

than, as ....... as, so......... as.

(ix) Manner
Those which form adverb clauses of manner; such as :

as, according as, as if, as though.

(x) Apposition :
Those which form noun clauses such as that (it is preceded) by
a transitive verb or a verb of incomplete predication, or a prepo-
sition, or a noun in apposition).


The words which are used to connect sentences are called sentence con-
nectors. These are words like therefore, however, nevertheless. Because
these words connect sentences. either a full stop or a semicolon is used
to separate the sentences they join :

It was too cold; therefore we stayed back. (It was too cold. Therefore,
we stayed at home.) Conjunctions join sentences by coming in the begin-
ning or in the middle, but in the case of the connectors the place keeps
' It was too cold, however, we decided to go out.
It was too cold, we decided, however, to go out.
It was too cold, we decided to go out, however.
Other sentence connectors ate : moreoven besides, likewise, further Section A : Grammar
more, also, nonetheless, consequently, accordingly, hence, thus.

(Note : Some of these sentence-connectors do not normally come at the

end of sentences. e.g. hence, thus. NOTES

A few points about the punctuation of sentences in which conjunctions and

sentence-connectors are used, have special importance.

l. When two sentences are joined by conjunctions (and, but, so,

yet, for etc.) a comma can be used at the end of the first sen-
tence. (often, no commas are used and many writers treat comma
as optional before and, put, etc, and use them before so, yel,
for, etc.)

2. When sentence-connectors are used to join two sentences, a

comma at the end of the first sentence is not enough. Either a
semi-colon or a full stop has to be used.

3. Whereas no commas are used after the conjunctions, commas are

tsed. after mo reover -be side s,likewise,furthe rmore,c o usequently
accordingly, however. Words like also, therefore, thus, hence,
nevertheless Ne often used without commas after them but using
commas after them would not be wrong.

A. Join the following sentences with 'and' or 'but'. One has been done for
I . Meera is intelligent Manohar is intelligent.

Meera and Manohar are intelligent.

2. Manu is brave. Saket is timid.

3. Antonio was kind. Shylock was cruel.

4. Namia is smart. Sheela is beautiful.

5. Govind likes old melodies. His bmther is fond of Rock and Roll.

6. Mary is an American. Sujata is an Indian.

7. Ravi is srong. Rahul is weak.

C.ommunioalioo Skilh & 8. Gaganpaints picfies"Ajea utrites poems.
Pemonality Dadopnent

9. Matrishpossdtheexms. I{rishfailedintheexams.

10. fu kccps late hours. Sbritagocs to bed early.

ll. Azhflaysoic.kct Bhrniaplays football.

12. Ritr is fod of hishother. htais afraidof hin

B. mhOGblrnkswithryprrprlateCoqiucturs :
I . She got up eady ................... could oot rcach school in time.

2. Suja learns *rstliDg ................... he is sfi,ong.

3. I ...,............... my srxr have oorne to se you.
4. Manimala................... herchil&eohas gme tothefair.
5. Mahc$ is hard-wuting ................... Suresh is lary.
6. Namata got the lefier ................... did not give it to rrc.
7. Ialdrm.....,............. Lohitis goingtoMumbai.
8. ................... lhe snrdents................... thcirteachcr was invited.
c. Plck ot ttc Coqlucdms fiom fre given scnteuccs ond wrtte thln ln thc
l. RamandShyamloveeachfu.
2. RmistallhrtShymissht
3. HiraorMoticoldtrillthec{t
4. She utre pmishedfcshe rvas guilty.
5. I got laE because it was raining heavily.
6. Whthesmshioes,itisdaytirrE"
7. If I had seen him I rmrst have talked to hfuL
8. Tho4h my ftiod ispmr, he is vcry happy.
9. Etlryou oryousimwill be paid fcflris.
10. Neither the boy na his fattcr carc to me.
ll. Suhais notonly tallhtr sb is alsobeautiful.
12. Itre as well as his wife is doing ftis oourse.

D. tr}lmcsmtcoccsof prnown nlth lhc glm @irmcdom : Scdion A : C*ammar
l. hr
2. For
3. Becare
4. tud
5. Or
6. Eids...a
7. As well as
8. Not only...but also

10. wh
ll. Thrgb

E- In the lollowiryscnterc pick mtthe ooqiucdonc :

l. BfudsflyaDdfshswim
2. Itre is slow but sure.
3. I was angry, still I kcpt quiet
4. Belhdasrrdld mdttewuldwas gay.
5. Walkquickly, dse lu.will notovertalehim.
6. Hury up, odranvise yor willmiss fu hain
7. I rcad the paper bccause I was ineresrd in tte rews.
8. I don't care whahyou stay orhave Delhi.
9. Since you say so,I will ome.
10. We eat that we may live.
ll. I will notseehimttongbhe cmcs,
12. A bookis a book dltugh lhe is mlhhg in it
13. We shall go since you desire it
14. I nustplay here for suchis mydtry.
15. Lookbeforcyolleap.
15. Play whileyou play and wortufrile you walc
17. lVhile you are in Rome, do as the Rornans do. Ordrlburftqlrrc
18. As you sow, so $all you rcap. 27. Whate are Linling
devices ? What are
19. lle is richer lhan Govind- they ?

20. Catchmeifyotcm.
Communication Skills &
Personality Development
Subject Verb Agreement

A 'verb' is a word that tells or asserts something about a person or thing. Verb
is desired from latin verbum meaning a 'word'. It is so called because it is the
most important word in a sentence. A verb must be in agreement with its
subject in number and person. Often, the verb is made to agree in number with
a noun near it instead of with its proper subject. This is called "Error of
hoximity" This should be decided, and this can be understood with the follow-
ing examples.

(i) The introduction of tinned milk, canned juice and such other food
items ftas not been without some impact.
(ii) The quality of apples was not good.
(iii) His knowledge of Hindi alphabets ls far beyond expectation.
(iv) The state ofhis business affairs was such as to cause anxiety to his

Two or more singular nouns or pronouns joined by and require a plural verb;

Gold and silver are precious metals.

142 Are yout brother and sister at home ?

He and I were eating..

But if the nouns suggest one idea to the mind, or refer to the same person or Section A : Crammar
thing the verb is singular as :

(i) Opportunity and time waits for no one.

(ii) Rice and vegetable is his only food.

words joined to singular subject by with, as well as, etc. as parenthetical. The
verb should therefore be put in the singular; as :

The plane, with its crew, was lost.

English, as well as sanskrit, lras compulsory there.
The care, as well as the medicinor lrds wanting.

TWo or more singular subjects connected by or or zor require a singular verb,


Either Shyam or Ram ftas been here.

Neither Geeta nor Sita was to be found there.

But when one of the subjects joined by or or nor is plural, the verb must be
plural and the plural subject should be placed nearest to the verb : as

Neither the principal nor the students are present.

When the subjects joined by or, nor are of different persons, the verb agrees
with the nearer one; as,
Either he, or I arz mistaken.
Either you or he is mistaken

But it is better to avoid these constnrctions, and to write :

He is mistaken, or else I arz.

You are mistaken or else he is.

Either, neither, each, everyone, many a must be followed by a singular verb;

He asked me whether either of the applicants wcs suitable.
. Each of these items is found in India
Many a student does not know his marks.

Two nouns qualified by each or every, even though connected by 'and' require dreckYour PiogtBs
a singular verb; as Every boy and every girl was given a packet of sweets. 28. What meant by
subject verb agree-
Some nouns which are plural in form, but singular in meaning, take a singular ment ?

The news is true. 143

Politics has been his business of life.
Goomunietion Sldlls & The wages o/ sin is death.
Fersoodlty Derchpmfit
Mathematics is a branch of study in school.

pains and mcans take either the singular or the plural verb, but the construction
NOTTS must be consistent, as :

Great pains iave been taken.

The means emplolied by you is sufficient.
In the sense of income, the word means always takes a plural verb; as :

My means xrerc not enough to meet the expenses.

His means are adequaie to pay the pending bills. Some nouns which are sin-
gular in fom, but plural in meaning take a plural verb; as :

According to the present market rate, twelve dozen cos, one hundred
Nonc, though properly singular, commonly takes a plural verb; as :

None arc so dumb as those who will not speak.

A collective noun takes a singular verb when the collection is thought as one
wholc; plural verb. When the individuals of which are taken separately of; as

The committee las published is report.

The commitrce are divided on issue of Sati.

But we must be consistent" Thus we should say :

The commitrce has appended a note to its (not their) report.

When the plural noun is a proper name for some single object or some col-
lectivc unit, it must bc followed by a singular verb; as :

The Panchantra stories is still a great favourite.

The united Arab Eirates f,as a big share.
Major Indian Scientists is an intersting lesson.
Gullivet's Tlavels was written by Swift.

When a plural noun denotes some specific quantity or amount considered as

a whole, the verb is generally singular; as :

Fifteen minutes is allowed as extra time for each canditate.

Five kilometers ir a long walk.
Three pans of the vehicle was left to load.

Exercise Section A : Grammar
A. Fill in the blanks with the correct forms of Yerbs given in the brackets :
1. Latika and Mohan friends. (iJarc)
2. Gita and Abdul ......................... done this. NOTES
3. The borse and cart ......................... brought. (waVwere)
4. Slow and steady ............................. the race. (wtufirins)
5. Each book and notebook ........ been covered. (haMrave)
6. Every horse and bullock examined. (waVwere)
7. A gang of robbers ........................... caught by the police. (waVwere)
8. A fleet ofship ........................ sailing towards Chennai. (is/are)
9. India................... won the match. (haMrave)
10. The group ......................... trying to do this. (iVare)
11. No news good news. (iJare)
12. The fumiture sold to Kritika. (was/were)
13. Thepeople. . questions about it (asUasks)
I 4. The cattle . . helpful to farmers. (provdproves)
15. Mala as well as her sisters .......................... come. OaMrave)
16. Not only the queen but also her maids walking.(waVwere)
B. Fill in the blanks with the correct forms of Verbs given in the brackets :
10. The group ......................... trying to do this. (iVare)
l. Sri Krishna and Sudama .................... friends. (waVwere)
2. Narendra .................... been in Kolka.ta for a long time. (haMrave)
3. The Arabian Nights .................... a story-book. (iYare)
4. Each boy and girl .................... intelligent. (iJare)
5. Neither you nor I .................... guilty, my friend. (ar/arc)
6. A choir of singers .................... giving a programme. (was/were)
7. Australia.................... scoring runs. (was/were)
8. My luggage .................... lying on the floor. (iVare)
9. The police .................... anived. (havhave)
10. Maheep as well as his children .................... to come. (idare)
I l. Not only the students but also their teacher ................. come. (haMnve)

Communication Skills &
Personality Development


Tenses ff + fils Eq Frefrfsn qrd' #t qrnrfr tfi enqeq-o t :

(l)Tenses* EFq 5q, (2) v++, Tense q1 qt-sn,
(3) Tense * Sub.lect * Number F' Person *
Verb ril trd v+L
(4) Subject, Verb dn Ouiect, e{rR 6'I qelTe{rl qii s+rl E,TIII
Tense *
qr+,,<q ql t *
5e frqpii (verbs) fsEs cdf 6I qfr f{sqq (vdrr; fr lstse
E,fenr tr {fid: Tense tlltFl-{iF|I ql vfsqr t ffi
SuUject (6di) + Number (tl-trl)
E Person (5[s) + ugev frra-frra qr { GEqr{ (verbs) frrq-frra s'ii { rgm *fr tr
q6 frhq 6'dqtrdf { rgm fo,nret + Fdi q drn rr<r tr
Sq Erqrq { Eq Tense d f{duiii c{ f*+dr Tsi stn, f*,t Est S 1d lense
sfu Time tT{ rrErYI gltFIT fr elrq{q6 tr
Tense Verb :[I e-6 1.q (Form) t d Vert Em qm qrd slsr4l ilEt{cfl * qsq 6,I
dq q,ucr tr
Time (rrrq) q{. sddtr-d, qi slf{,lffis, ITc tr 16 Eqlt *r utrsfiq *;
d +ors, Fre, w-a, f<t, q.eia, Td-{, s{, 3IIf( 6d { vm qrar tr w Frqdt ffi
q qqi ;16I Et sffi< i6lrr q qq'-qq'trf, f{1;6{ tT,Ti T6i r1-C1 {rqq gime) e{Tet eitr
errLqr * r

l. The Prime Minister vlsited our city last week. (Past Tense, Past Time)
2. The Prime Minister visits our city tomorrow.
The Prime Minister is visiting our city tomorrow. (hesent Tense, Future Time)
3. Abhishek will have linished his work by evening.(Future Tense, Future Time)
stil: ?Td Ellt{Y.l-6 + fs, f{flf Present Tense qi Present Time, Past Tense Rti
146 Past Time ltstt Future Tens F' Future fime oi ,rd-dfo qrg dr ggt s dilS *
q-ia 6,r Ffi 6rr s srfirq-fi 6,({ e aEo r<
ftnses ql +{ qFr} i f{qrFdd f*.qr rrqr t .
Section A : Grammar
(l) Present Tense (2) Past Tense (3) Future Tense
sc{ffi r+6 Tense 6i S qn-qn qrnt { Eifli{d fsqr rrlt * .
t Indefinite
L Simple 2. Continuous z Progressive ?l Imperfect
3. Perfect 4. Perfect Continuous NOTES
Es Ed fufls,,( 3x4= t2Tenses *d tr

1. The Present Indefinite lbnse (Simple Present)

E{I Tense* Gd-qdl * er< d'm *', 'fr t','ar {,'i t' ecri tr
EII Tensersr r+q rdqn qrrq { fi qd sd qr sr< + fdS 661 }1 6 erdi {
+, rt * ul siH is, am, areTd qfr, dt+, i gq f*er 4 * t, qca qr fira ffi
He plays, They play, I play.
Affirmative (6+'Rro+,) qffi { 1;6 p"rson * Singular Subject* wu Verb
* First rorm d s{I es EI{ri t dr nurat Subject * ttlg Verb inr *qo First Form
(krT ves) vdq B,qr crdr tr
Pattern :(a) Subject (III Person, Singular) + V, (Ves) +
(b) Subject (III Person, Plural) * V, +
gqr6{ul She plays.
- They write. Boys play.
First person ile second person * qrdi * qH verb rEI root form (Vr) Cgffi ddl
Pattern: Subject (Uwelyou) + Vr + ....
I play. You swim. We sing. you go.
Negative ?r4d {
Third Person, Singular Subject tlt fuift { aoes not + V,{et
Third Persori, Plural Subject * ttu do not + Vr iFT y+rt +dr +t 6ii lr6,p Uwe/you/they
* srel S donot+vrrrr ydq faqrqrdt tr
Note : (l) I -+ Singular*r f{-{ g-* { s pturat Verbqr yafrrr
*dr tr
(2) r*q Plural (dgqql) i *cr tr $C-go, come e{TRr
Verb tEI First Form
C+'Tfi T{ri + ffi Est sqr esrr'rr ti tr St-goes, comes e{Gr
Pattern : (a) Subject (III Penon, Singular) + does nor + Vr + .......
(b) Subject (III Person, Plural) + do not + Vr + .......
(c) Subject (Uwe/you) +donot + Vr + .......
TqrEWI -(i) Sarita does not sing. (ii) Boys do nor play. (iii) UWeltory'They do not
Interrogative Elttd { III * stu 0 + erflrqr) qre *
Person, Singular Subject
vrcq { Ooesaefl *q eS Subjects* vrq qrfl * yrtar t Doql yc]r q.'{i t sfu qf,
* er< { rrf,qrqn'fq6 <Zl rqi *r
Pattern : Does/Do + Subject + Vr +.........,?
v(I6(uI -(i) Does Sonal do her work ? (ii) Do girls play in the sun ? (iii) Do we
regard our elders ?
vdrr @ses):Eq Tenseisl vft frqfrfud eiq{qtsi q
+d'r : t
1. {ll{nlil IrdI (Eternal truth ? Universal rruth) rFI snq *5-e 6',d * fEIq; it :
Ctedrr/our ftogt63
(i) The sun rises in the easr. (ii) Water boils at 100.C. (iii) The earth
moves round the sun. 28. What meant bv
2. erfr (Permanent) +r4 ererer FpIlEl iEI dq oni d feq : subject verb agree'-
(, We hear with our ears. (ii) The rose smells sweet. ment ?
3. slr{d (Habit)tFl qq Il?5? 6.ri d feq; +* :
(i) They usually go to a movie on Sundays. (ii) Hari never goes to office late.
(iii) He always comes to school punctually.
Communication Skils& Note : Simple Present * qw always, often, seldom, sometimzs, rarely, usually,
Personality Devetopment regularly, qrft Adverbs EI s+.t eil(( *l rnq *62 oli + fdS gg ffql t Td ftfi,'ql
qrfl +r
4. tffdRrs {dcn (Historic PresenO ifil dq o'ni aql efuf igt ile glri * fds;
(i) Now the battle of Panipat begins. (ii) The batsman takes strike and goes
for a single.
s. 1{ frdGd qffil or#f qi ro'e o,,ri + fds ffi fry * qqq
tnl 3k t+d t.{i srd {rd- tomorrow, at 4.30 p.m., next Monday'
(Future time)
next week, qrR ql Ydq dr *$ ,
(i) We leave Ajmer tomorrow. (ii) The train leaves at 4.30 p.m.
(iii) Classes begin next MondaY.
qdqFl : E+I Tense* qrdr { frefrfc a6vs$hl5 EIA t :
(i) in the mornings / evenings........'.'.'.'......,emRt
(ii) on Sundays / Mondays...........'.........,srRt
(iii) each day / night / week / month........'........'.'.,erRt
(iv) everyday / night / week................'.'..,qRt
(v) always, often, sometimes, usually, generally, frequently, seldom, rarely, never'
regularly, daily, (without past showing group of words.)
2. The Pnesent Continuous (Progrrcssive) Ibnse
{ Es Tense* qrd { 'ra {,'{6I t','{d +'rt +', '83fl *', 'gi t', 'Es
t','gqr oIIR c[rt tl qd Tense is, am, are + ing form of the verbt v'ro tr $Q :
I am playing. You are playing. He is playing.
1. Affirm"tive i"ntences t Singular Subject * <tu isttell Plural Subject * qtv are
ql rdrr ddr t, tl+-t wezyou* qlel areiw /d sts crrql *it, dil tr +S ,
She TV.
,r watching Renu tr sitting on the stool.
We are playing. Children are weeping.

(a) Subject (III Person, Singular) + is + V, (ing) + ......'
(b) Subject (III Person, Plural) + are + V, (ing) + '.....'
(c) We./You + are + V, (ing) + .......
(d) I + am + Vr(ing) +.......
2. fri-rem (Negative) srd { ,or +i is, are, ama4t gq ffiql * rng 6q (form)
*i: (i) He is nor reading a book. (ii) They are not going to market'
Pattern : Subject + iVare./am + not + V, (ing) + '.'....
3. ysrqr+a-qrd I is,amdrcqi qqi (SubjecOt qrd rqi tl Si t
(i) Is he playing football ? (ii) Are they making toys ?
Pattern i Is/Am/Are + subject + Vr (ing) + .......?
g*rr @scs) :
l. Esfl r*{ tC srm + fds EtdI *, d q<r * EI( qffi frs qA + qrq qrt dl
(i) I am writing letters. (ii) The child is weeping.
2. qe renseqs-qfr frsz qiqq + 3IQl d T{ f{tliRd 6r#i
qt qm d
rgffi ddt *r qtqqq o're qT dq oTri srd ltql ( tomonow, next week onR) El
5{t rense * srq sc},I dcr tr $C,
144 (i) My father is leaving for home tomorrow.
(ii) Hari is coming here next week.
3. F+.e qEq d
frcr ffi *
faqgoingtoor S yd'r +dr *t t0 qd t
ql{ Section A : Grammar
q-d + Vrrt qI {F$It-{lI or dq d<r tr *t
: (i) She is going to lead a new life.
(ii) I am going to see him tomorrow
qf,qn : Eq Tense{ frtfrfso Adverbials oIIA t d $r+1 .rrcn *n+ wrqo t tii
noq still, today, tonight, these days, now-adays, at this time, at this moment, at
present, at this instant, etc.

Verbs normally not used in 'ing'form

fieioFq-c Verbs tFT ydrr gtqrqrqr Continuous form rd dcr t t :
1. Verbs of percepdon (nriF{d + srgrdl qt q< q,ti qd ffi)
see, hear, taste, feel, smell, notice, prefer, please, recall.
T(16@I :
(i) I am seeing a picture. (Inconect)
I see a picture. (Correct)
(ii) I am hearing a song. (Incorrect)
I hear a song. (Correct)
Note: Hear* qtq ingtrl r*l $r + qrq { Tdf +dI rfrg Vri * tcS ddr tr +t,
Hear, hear ! The judge is hearlng the case.
2. Verbs showing feelings or state of mind ( trr++sil erqql qR<s e1 ers{qoil
*i q6 5q1 ftfi ffi)
: want, wish, desire, like, disiike, believe, care, hate,
love, hope, imagine, refuse, forgive, ffit
gElli{ull :
(i) She believes in God. (Correct)
She is believing in God. (Inconect)
(ii) I hate you. (Correct)
I am hating you. (Incorrect)
We wish you success. (Correct)
We are wishing you success. (Incorrect)
3. Verbs showing pocsession (uga q1 olftr*,R
possess, own, belong to, have.
rfih ati atd ffi).
g(If,{lt :
(i) He possesses a vast area of land. (Correct)
He is poasessing a vast area of land. (Incorrect)
(ii) I have a dozen of horses. (Conect)
I am having a dozen of horses. (Incorrect)
(iii) This horse belongs to me. (Correct)
This horse is belonging to me. (Incorrect)
4. Yerbs denoting the process of thinking (fusr{fl-fdr +1 frfrd 3{Er{ereil 6)
q5 6| gld fs-tll(): know, feel, think, suppos, remember, forget, recollect,
mind, recall, understand, mean, realise.
(i) He knows reading and writing English. (Correct)
He is knowing reading and writing English. (Incorrect)
(ii) I remember how he led his past days. (Correct)
I am remembering how he led his past days. (Incorrect)
(in) He thinks that you are an honest man. (ConecO
He is thinking that you are an honest man. (Incorrect)
(iv) She is believing in God. (Incorect)
She believes in God. (Conect) 149
Communication Skills (v) He is knowing English. (Incorrcct)
Development He knows English. (Correct)
Personality -
,E n, qrq-+eil q v*ril q} qo *,d qrd g *
Note : itikd * Eo fmroX
dqdr * d e-{fl eid d qce srdl tr +d:
NOTES (D The doctor is seeing the patient. (see = e?q s,'({l)
(ii) He is seeing me today. (see = futriD
(iii) The doctor is feeling the pulse of the patient. (feel =Tq frrfiI)
3. The Pnesent Perfect lbnse
Td Tense have zll has itelT f*qt * Third Form * a-+or tr *0 t
(i) I have done the work. (ii) He has learnt fttt /esson.
eiH t rXar< e'{t + ftcc
1. III Person, Singular Subject * qlg has + VlnqT Third Person, Plural Subject *
{IeI have + V. 6't frq Etdr *t I. we aq You 6, lilTq S have + V, erm *t
Ram /ras written a letter. (2) They have gone home. (3) I have taken tea.
Pattern :
(a) Subject (III Person, Singular) + has + V, + '.........'.'.
(b) Subject (III Person, Plural) + have + V, + ..............
(c) Subject (UWe/You) + have + V, * .......'.'.'.'
2. Fiqnq+ qffi {
n6161 s*'t have/has q\ S@ fsqt + frq { dar *r *t ,

(i) He has not taken food.

(ii) I have not learnt the Poem.
Pattern: Subject + has/have + not+ V. +..........'.'.
3. 9Frflir.5'ffif S 6nvs1q1 hasisl rri|q Subjectt lf6d +dI t nur gw f*nr i[I
v*q souj""t* crs ddl tr ++ t
(i) Have you learnt your lesson ?
(ii) IIas Sita sung a song ?
Pattern : Ha-VHave + Sub + V. + ..............'l
yfrq (Uscs) I
l. 5{r Tensetrl v+rl tS E{ * fdS +dI *, qi 3rS eld i A qqlq Esl Al
tt qdf { d6w .lust, recently, zilready irT qtirq s-d tr +C,
(i) He has just gone out. ,'

(ii) He has already explained his problem to me.

(iii) I have recently read this novel.
2. Eq Tensei6T ffi g1 5rd + fdS Etfl t d ac*re { * dlrA d c{ q{drr sqrs
qdm qqq { S M ttr dr $t-
(i) He has cut his finger.
g.qi src-fi ffi o,a dt (v{ srq S qr T6 {6r t)l
(ii) The Chetak Express has arrived.
+d-+' q*+s sr t
(sfu qS ,ii qe +artC q{ t)r
v6.tFI : E{l Tense * slq Tdfi fl i5,l dq 6{c qd {rd aheady, just now,
recently, so far, lately, yet, this weeUmonth/year, 3{TR m qrfr'I 1+dr tr +C :
(i) He has saved 200 rupees this week.
(ii) My sister has not got up yeL
(iii) Ilave you seen my mother lately ?
4. The Prcsent Per-fect Continuous Tense
t0 6rd d qiftrl ERI affit f+q qri qqq qrt df otR fq{*l Es .wt Ett d g*t
d, Present ierfect Continuous Tense wfu foq qri tr{
1. Third Person, Singular Subject *
qTs has been + Vr (ing) nqT tq sS SuUject * Seclion A : Grammar
T el have been + V, (ing) t6t r+{ +dr tr
erwt F{ er< q for/since
ild * *
qR srq f<qr ggn +dr tr
(a) Subject (III Person, Singular) + has + been +V, (ing) + object + for/since + time. NOTES
(b) Subject (III Person, Plural) + have + Ueen + Vf (ing) + object + for/ since + time.
(c) Subject (I/We/You) + have + been + V, (ing) + object + for/since + time.
E(If,{sT :
(i) I have been reading for rwo hours.
(ii) He has been working since 3 O'clock.
(iii) They/You/We/I have been playing slnce noon.
2. fitqgo qrd { notqr yriq
has/have *rbeen * qq *m tr *C ,
(i) He has not been living in this house for four years.
(ii) They have not been playing since moming.
Pattem : Subject + haVhave + not +V, (ing) + ..........
3.y{f,qrqi6 q1$ { h*ilfl havetE'T sdq Subject ( rt vrd *n tr $S:
Have you been learning your lesson for two hours ?
IIas she been teaching in this school for twelve years ?
Patlern : Has/[Iave + Subject + been +V, (ing) + ..........?
yqlrr ruses) :
E*I TenserrT s*q,tC fird + fdS dil t d 5r*r-o { errq Esn ri s*r qe S
qrt dr w Tense{ srq: for/since (Erftqr{td: mt) * il( { {qq &qr *ar tr zrR qcc
Tfi fqql +dt t d qrf, present Continuous Tense { rfl-jtr Endr S1 f1qfrfu6 qrd Ei
(i) It is raining. ael d {d tr
(Present Continuous Tense)
(ii) It has been raining for two hours cqi <i wl t
d rd *r
(hesent Perfect Continuous Tense)
EEilFl : Yq Tens since e{t{ for til yfrt *or tr since ol r*T fiR-+e IFFI (point
of time) * d
frq nqr for El jziq qqq srqt{ (period of time) ftlq *m *
(i) Hari 'has been playing with a ball for two hours. (period of time)
(ii) Sita has been reading her books since morning. (point of time)

5. The Past Indefinite Tense (Simple Past)

{ Tense sI I+rt Tffird-{ ETd lactions,y; qT{t3ii, qlqrq Fcffid yrq:t.]l
*+ srd 6rd dqr srr<.d oi qm od f*qr { qrdr tr : +i
(i) He bnoke his leg in an accident. (happening)
(ii) She wrcte letters to her morher. (general action)
(iii) Abhishek always went to school in time. (habitual action)
1. Affirmative Sentence qtrl * frq gS SirUjects * qq Verb * II form +l ydrt
foqr qrdl *r $0: (i) She wepr. (ii) They went home. ottRl
Patterr : Subject + V, + ........
2. Negative i{rfl Subject * qR did rot + V, fi'T y+rl s.r firi qri *r $0 ,
(i) She did not weep. (ii) They did not go home.
Pattern : Subjecc + did not + V, + .........
3. qrfl * gT{Eq { subiecr r+ 5* oia dqr qiFr * q< { nFrqFFF.f+a fr) rq+.r
Interogative Sentences rtilq qri tr $Q- til Oid you go there ?(ii) Did she write
any letter ?
Pattern : Did + Subject + Vr + ....... ?
Eg Tensed frEq effi 61 tn
ftRR t qqgrqrrq tr
Communication Skilts & rfrrr ruse):
Personality Development l. Es Tense EI v+rl Trsrd { di qd q'rd qr qaarei el q* q,.rl + fdS f6qr
qrat tr qe {{I Tense 6,I r+{ +dr t d qlf, { ffi vq (word) q qwrvt
(Phrase) *
Er<t TrflE * qcq q1 qtr, f+'qr qrcr tr *C
NOTES (i) He worte a novel last year. (ii) India became' free in
2. qE T16r 61 erEd ffir+ + ff,S vg-6 a<r tr SC ,
(i) Madan always sang in the moming. (ii) Whenever Hari went out at night,
he carried a torch.
firis : usedto 6I cqi{ S qr+re +1 3r<a {dri + fds dil t, vrtr {S wca *
v'{-e trral q.ffi{rd { dfi 16 di Afsi e-drm { rdt *t: when he was
young, he used to PlaY cricket.
3. (a) grfirq, e{Fr+,R qI gqq <eri e{d * {
verb'have' *
Second Form (Past
Form) hadt5l x+{ frql srdl tt +S :
(i) Once my neighbour had one dozen cows.
(ii) She had no money to buy vegetables.
(iii) Had he reallY seven horses ?
(b) verb'have' qi urfo erd (erferecFrs,RrsE-*l) + qfdR-m qil ITEUI
6{i, ti, ti, er+< B-dr+ 3{R 6tf { Yci'l f*'qr wm t d E{+ Negative 4
Interrogative qrd { aio fl v{iFI fsql
qrm *r *t t
(i) She had lunch at I P'm.
(iD She did not have lunch at I P.m.
(iii) Did she have lunch at I P'm. ?
qil-.IFl :
ge r+n * qradf t flqfdfud AdverbialstFT v*'I t6q qrdl t :

last night, last year, last month, last week, long ago, some time back, yesterday, once' in
2691, geRr
6. The Past Continuous (Progressive) Tense
Eu ora *
qrddf e-+.c +dr + ts qr+re { or{ qrft qr s+{ qqIR rd 6w wr
Es *,re d qrd { {r{ fi
i 61 qqftr qr qcq-fu rdf f<qr gor dm tl Eq et6T(
+ qrdf er< { 'ra qr', 'tfr rft', 'd t', 3ilR lrE qrt tr Si : (i) He was plaving.
(ii) They were llying kites.
l. Third Person, Singular Subjecls aell I d {ITq was + V, (ing) iFI IFiFr i5{d t aqr
Sq erii r+R * iuuiects* rflel were +vr (ing) fi iriFl toqr qrfl tr
Pattern : (a) Subject (III Person, Singular) + was + Vr (ing) + ..'.'.
(b) Subject (I) + was + vr (ing) + ......
(c) Subject (III Person, Plural) + were + V, (ing) + ......
(d) Subject (You/We) + werc + V, (ing) + .....
(i) She was reading. (ii) We were laughing.
(iii) I was sitting. (iv) They were dancing.
2. Helping Verbs-waJwere iql Verb * ing Form * frq not {Gl-fi'{ Negative
sntences T{S qd tr $S : (i) He was not playing. (ii) They were not dancing.
(ii) We were not laughing.
Pattern: Subject + was,/were + not + Vr (ing) + '.'...
3. swqr++-qrd was { *.r" +l subi."t *'rrd tui tr *0 ,
(i) Was he playing ? (ii) Were these boys washing their clothes yesterday ?
Pattern : WaJWere + Subject + V, (ing) + ........ ?
r*q (Usc) : Section A : Grammar
l. E{r.Fr r+,r S+ 6r{ + fds f*.qr qil t d qr+m { srt rel d r +Q
(i) He was lying in the sun. (ii) They were playing in the field'
2. q*rt6r c+q tq srd + tdS S +dr * d rlrme Ed IItFl ro qrt rzr d
{ *r
sfi fs +i lvn +r{ S gar dr Es (si srd + frs d Er<r qql<r d qmr *,

Simple Past Tense or v*rr o,d i i

aqr tsg Clause m'rd qrfr rat d ggd Past
Continuous ql Yd'r q,i tr *t :
(i) Mahesh was reading a novel when I went in.
(ii) When the war began, I was living in Kolkata.
qf,rFT r Es ron * qqd'd st fqRle qrfi Tfi ttfr, qr< {t aS 46p1 {
time, at that moment, those days, then $Q Raverbids eilA tt
7. The Past Perfect Tense
g{r Tense + qrd qe dar
t * fr 6'{ ol qqre gq +r+1 vro d trqr tr f*{
+ qr+ii + 3r< {'g-.Er qr',' g$ q','ffiqt qr','H q', qG lrd ot vft *m
1. r&+' subject q' 1{ls had + v: t[I c+I 6{ {r qd 6i qqm qm {1 i+ '
(i) Mahesh had done his work. (il) Slrc had done her work in time.
Pattern : Subject + had + V, +......
2. Negative ardi {not# had iten MainVetr (gq trqrl *q * { rct tr *0:
The poilce had not reached before the thief ran away'
Psttern: Subject + had + not + Vl + .......
3. {
vr;rerqfi-qrd naaq} Subjectd crd r+{ t,,ri tr SS t
Had the match begun before you arrived at the ground ?
Pattern 3 Had + subject + V, + ....'.. ?
Y*q (Uses) :
L E renseql qrirq tt 6rd + tds ddl t d 5r+ro { ffi qS 6rd t crd qqrq
d ,rqr ej elgli-( d q'r{ qrd d qnr *, sst Past Perfect Tense i6l v4'I Eiil tr
S or{ qn. { dtr t, .nr{ simple Past Tense ifil Y+{ +dl tr tC qi qld 6i #
* ftq before. when, aftec eflR Conjunctions iFI vqlr *tr tr $t t
(i) Mahesh had written the letter before I entered his room.
'Mahesh had written the letter'- T6 6rd lr6-d' IFilql EEIII
'l entered his room'- Td z['rd <n { 6att
(ii) The students went to school after it had rained.
(iii) When the bell rang we had finised our work.
Not" , sq si 6t{ qrq-qr;'d d d ctif d Simpte PastTensetn vqh s,Ti tr $t:
As soon as he saw the police, he ran away'
qeql + fdS Eq Tense iF'T v+'l rdf il qfif,Il
Ac+re ol erdd
I had finished mY work Yesterday. (Incorrect)
I finished my work yesterdaY. (Correct)
2. q{l Tense fi ,+l t{+ Conditional Clauses { d<r t ffi {rd 5r+ro a gi {1[
If you had rcached the station in time, you would have met your friend'
qA g, w t *'r q& Tn +i d Ed srqt Er fro 'rq dalr (Aifi gr+i Td
3. Trsr PastTime) u1 ffi sIWi EI +iq< 6,(i *f{rS.E{l Tense qr vqh wistr,

would sooner/rather, if only, as if, as though * slq ttr tr $d t

(i) I wish I hadn't telephoned her ( = I am sorry I telephoned her)' 153
(ii) If only I had seen the thief ( = but couldn't see)'
Communication Skills & (iii) He shows/showed as though he himself had caught rhe rhief (= !u1 hs
Personality Development didn't do so).
8. Ihe Past Perfect Continuous Tense
E{r Tense* qrd * ro'e +dr + f+' *ld rJtrro d qqq qrq+sl qrq il6ffi
NOTES RritT 18il Xffird { 6d qrft qrq
rai 6I f<qr dar tr
1. l-S+ +di d etu had been EflFF{ fu-{r * FirstForm* sr< { ing ornd tr frkr
TFF| (point of time) t ftq since itqt qqq d erq& (period of time) d feq fo,
ql s+rr q,TA tr *ri
(i) He had been studying for two hours last night.
(ii) I had been walking in the park since yesterday moming.
Pattern: Subject + had +been+ Vr (ing)+ object + for/since + V, (ing) + time.
2, Negative Sentences { naAd qK been g qad not *r '$t ,
It had not been raining today since morning.
Pattern 3 Subject + had + not + been + V, (ing) + objecr + .......
3. yFrqqs qr+ii q haa sr s-di q !-td roi tr $e ,
Had your brother been buying some books for two hours yesterday ?
Pattern: Had + subject + been + V, (ing) + object + for/since + time + ....... ?
r*q (uses) :
l. E{ritr yqh td srd + tdS +dr * + gF-6rd f{frfr rwq irir.tlrfr ra dr srr+
qlel yFt: since zlt for erm *t
2. fqg ltirR presenr perfecr Conrinuous
+il t, sS r+n t Tmm
Tense ol FdrI
d sr{ + ydrl
fuq past perfect Conrinuous Tense
+r +dr tr
9. The Future Indefinite lbnse (Simple Future)
5 Tense t m rta t f*, q'd qBq d Errflr r&o qrfl * er< {,rlt' ,fi' ,i'
e{rR lTq e{d * r

1. I ilsll we * mu shall + V, E'r IFiIrr s.{t t nqr *s sS SuUjects is, qrcr will +
Vr {Gli6-{ Affirmative Sentence tl-{q Sd tr +d :
(i) I shall go to Mumbai with you tomonow. (ii) you will go to market.
(iii) He will do it.
Pattern : (a) Subject (I/we) + shall + Vr +.......
(b) Subject (ts S) + will + V, + ........
2, Negative qr.Fflt { q,11 zn shalr * iIK nor ?FIFF{ Main verb t5T First Form fggd
tr$0 ' not help you. (ii)
(i) He u'ill I slmll nor play with you. (i ii) They will not come here.
Pattern: Subject + wilUshall + nor + V, + ........
3. yFtE[rtiF'qqfr { q,1 :rr shall oai s, ergvn q,ai + T6-d ydrr s.d *r +C:
(i) Will you write letter to your morher today ? (ii) Shall we read English tomorrow?
Pattern : WilUShall
+ Subject + V, + ........ ?
gdrr (Uses) :
l. qiqq { ffi *
f6qr d *+ laq Sq Tense +r vfrr tcr tr *e,
My son will become a docror next year.
2. qE + 6huss5 sfrq( d.r e'.{ri d
R+. t {
Futurc Tense aw d 6t
Present Tense 6r rqh Ftdr *r fqr crauses d qcq Er dq
+dr + vt{ il"."nt
Tense errimt qFRqifql when, whenever, while, before, after, as soon as,
unless, in case *
r{tilq Future Tense :fit yd{ rrt dal S0 ,
(i) When he comes, I shall go with him to the market.
154 qs 16 o{r+Irl d + 3lr+ qrq qiqR qr6nr
(ii) I shall wait for you until you come back. Section A : Grammar
qs ils iF qlcs t
rd 3fl*n EEarfr r-ftm q-dlnr
Note :
(l) Fd d qli clauses d Future Tense ernr *, vra gfH { tqr rfi +dlr
(2) First Person (I ipfl we) * e!*I fr{tc (derermination), V(KT (inrention), NOTES
offernklrq {Gr; I yfa-fl @romise) fifqri d fq( will E,r rd.I frdI tr
VS era qRv (order) nql qr+1 (ttrreao q<ri * fqq Second ilcll Third Persons
{ will * rern q( shatl m vdrr q,'d tr +t:
(i) We will fight against injustice. ,6{qr)
(iD I will help you as much as I can. (si{f,r)
(iii) He shall clean the room. (qRfl)
(iv) I wltl bring tea or coffee for you whichever you like. (yRrs)
rItrIFT ! 5g Tense q-q cuvq{i6, Trdl tomorrow/next day/next weeldnext month/
* {
next year/in a few dayVnever/always, elR t5l 9rq: yqitr &r tr

10. The Future Continuous Tense

Ee +re d erd t
nrd tdr * f+' qfsq ii Et$ +r{ srfr {ttr gq 6Id * q+it
* t
q< '{6r drn', '{A +,fr', ' fi',
eflf( yrq eili *r F{ qwf d q,r{ * vqnn
qrt rzi ol qcq a-d Ret dar tr w Tense, shall be ql will be + 'ing'form of the
verb t tr $0-
He will be reading his book at night.
l. I, we * { er shatl te neil ts qS o-tisit * stq will be EFllts'{ 5w t*'+ $ p1o1
Form {
ing dg $t , You will be learning your lesson at this time
ti tr
Pattern :
(a) Subject (Uwe) + shall be + Vr (ing) + .......
(b) Subject (*s sS) + will be + Vr(ing) +......
2. Negative qrqd{ sh6;1 ,.1be, will not be 6'l v+T 6'{A tr V{r$ qrqrq Eq fiqt
* 'ing' w +.i ffi tr *Q : They will not be wating for you.
Pattern : Subject + will/shall + not + be + V, (ing) + object.
3. {
sFrqr*r srd will/shallBl 6di il6.d T+.r s{i tr * St
Shall I be singing a song at night ?
Pattern r Will/Shall + Subject + be + V, (ing) + object + ....... ?
rfrrr (Uses) :
t. E{r Tense or vdq tt
6'{ + fdS }dl * qBe orcq d { 6isi Eg rIrFI ir'r
qrfr rtr *C
Kailash will be waiting for me at the station.
2. E{I Tense qr frq qt +'rd + fds tdl t+
qfqq + idS Tfd t f{Ffi foqr
rrqr dr *Q:
We shall be holding a meeting in the hall tomorrow evening.
a, *" qpi+rer tfu { qq qql si{ {* Efil
Cfql? - at this time tomorrow / at this moment tomorrow

11. The Future Perfect Tense

6 e,ro qrd * vsz Etdr t t f6
o.l{ qfqq d qqr'< d Sdrnr era: vt qrdd
* er< {'g.+,n','3-+ft','3-sti', sIrR lrq eni tr
1. t, We *
ual shall have ne He, She, It, They \ti Third Person <S suu;ects * 155
* will have EFII:r{ Verb tFI Thirrd Form c.ih o'{t *r +Q ,
Communication Skills & (i) She will have cooked food by 2 p.m.
Personatity Development (ii) I shall have done this work by noon.
(a) Subject (I, We) + shall have + Vl + object + by (time)/by the end of (time). .
NOTEi O) Subject (elc (Itr) + will have + V3 + object + by (ime/by rhe end of(time).
2. Negative 6ffi'{
5661yyi1ld sR not ar.,ni $0: tl
He will not have reached Mumbai by two o'clock ?
Pattern: Subject + wilUshall + not + have + Vr + ...............
3. y$ti q.F qrd d witt ?I shalt ifii Subject-d qrd rsi tr *Q :
Will he have reached his village before Sunday ?
Paltern: WilUShall + subject + have + V, + ............... ?
r*rr ruses) :
l. Es Tense w srih tS 6r{ + fdS +dr t + qEq { fqnfi fqqlfrn qqq iri6 TFtFir
d g*,nr $C:
He will have returned home by next month.
2. E{t Tense:st q+{ lTrIqETs' Clauses *
srq S dfl *r Clause qqq {drdr d t,
Simple Present Tense tEI frr
tar tr $C :
I shall have bought the book when you come back.
Or When you come back, I shatl have bought rhe book.
Note: 1{q'qE{fi stFfliFr (Time clause) q} wq *
s{Rq eft q< Sl-+ e{rii c{ { {
rc vo't tr
[6tFl : IIq: qr arei * ynru t qr er;d t By + time z[ By the end of (rime) f<{n Eefl
mr tr $s:
(i) They will have finished their work by evening.
(ii) We shall have made this building by the end of March.
Or By the end of March, we shall have made this building.
12. Ihe Future Perfect Continuous Tense
g{r Tense * a;S; q *,q fl
qfrq(E.rd srt fl crcr qrdr iIeII qrer A slq
{ t
qrq i<qr qm tr qrf, sr< * ,{*rfr,,,r{rn', ,ra+t', ,drfr'qr ,T6r
t,{+i', dT,,
'rfr d,fi','r* dii','rfr d,fr','
fu', elri *r Erd yr<ar 6r gcq f{qr ili dil
i\ote : {q Tense since or ytq q-d a}tr tt
l. Afhrmative q1fr { [ vg" $ qH shall have been aqt srq 1ljfr 6-dhil * els will have
treen EFIFn Bq ti; a' ,ao* { ing wr tr $$, ti
(i) He will have been walking on the road for rwo hours.
(ii) We shall have bcen staying in this city for many weeks.
(iii) By December 2007, we shall have been living in Jaipur for four yean.
Pattern :
(a) Subject (I, We) + shall have been + V, (ing) + Objecr + for + time.
(b) Subject (*S sS) + wilt have been + V, (ing) + Object + for + time.
2. Negative srd { wilUshatl * eR not erlni'*r $Q:
Naresh will not have been reading for two hours.
3. rFrqFFF qd { s-dl f*..qr wilt/shall qi ftrqi fr
Will they have been sleeping for three hours ?
y*rr Gses) :
$r Tenserfir y+q qfsq d ffi qqq Hq ffi qrt r6i qrd ord * feq rhr tr
MORE ABOUT VERBS Seclion A : Grammar
+ sA 6c sI r+r e,li + fdS ireu \Is qrfi-fl d frq
f*,,ql Tensesd e{frR-ifi'
frqfrfud qld 6l qrr d <qn scrqlT{'t :
l. had better, would rather * gIeI ffrat $
itcll let p;r.1 psrm E,r vdrl 6"d *r +C t NOTES
(i) You had better wash your face. (ii) You had better start earlier.
(iii) I would rather stay at home. (iv) kt me go
2. frqr irr Er6 Fq S q,di qs 6rd El frqr { G qqf-( sii qs 6rd + cfir&
q i
t qEd, Infinitiveorenr tr verud FirstFormd g{ too, rdrr +,<t tr $i:
(i) He goes there to read newspapers. (ii) He will go there to read
(iii) He went there to read newspapers.
Note : gt srd
d toread ErcR'{d;Rfre tr f+-< Eg ff,tgil + qR Infinitive trl nfrl
t++ to * S dar tr E{ Fsqpi {t 5o ffi, aare,
hear, feel, know,
make, help, let, bid, see tt $C :

(i) Please help me lift this box. (iv) She heard me sing.
(ii) You need not worry. (v) Let me read.
(iii) The Principal bade him go. (vi) Let us play now
3. tFI Simple Present ifil Future + 3Id { yqh d d in case, unless, if, when, as soon
as* qlq Verb tEI First Form ecrdl *t 3[tR Subject qi5.q-{r d d ffil * qls sqI
esSE f<qr srfl tr +Q,
(i) In case I forget, please remind me to clear your bill.
(ii) Write down my name in your diary in case you forget-
(iii) Take an umbrclla with you in case it rains
(iv) You will not pass unless you work hard.
(v) She does not take tea unless her mother asks her.
(vi) When I finish my work, I shall go to bed.
(vii) ttre will te4ch you provided you pay him the money he asks for'
4. Have, get, make, cause qR Causatives tl qq qdi md q +r* Bi lti t vrat
* d {q causativestrT vq}q *tr tr ed ffiqr fiafd gu r+n ttfi d t,
(a) Sub. + get/cause + doer + Infinitive + Object.
(Active Form)
(to getlcaus someone to do something)
(D He got a workman to whitewash his house.
(ii) He caused a washerman to wash his clothes.
(b) Sub. + have/make + doer + Verb i5T First Form + Object.
(Active Form)
(i) I have my sister stitch my shirt.
(ii) He made us laugh in the class. Chedr/our Progees
(c) Sub. + getlhave + Object + Third Form of the Verb + by (doer). 29. What must be
(Passive Form) rmemberd to ham
(to get/have something done) up Tenses ?

(i) She had her chair rcpatrd by a carpenter.

(D I Sot my shoes pollshd by a cobbler. 757
(iii) You have the plants in your garden $'atercd by the gardener.
Communication Skilts & (iv) I shall get a letter delivercd by the postman.
Personality DeveloPment t ,,* of, need, help, mind, by, instead of d qrq verb * First Form d ing
(i) He ran without stopping.
(ii) He posted the letter without writing the address on it.
(iii) He kept on singing.
(iv) She got good marks by working hard day.and night.
(v) I do not mind your smoking.
(vi) Instead of wasting your time, you should play any game.
(vii) She could not help weeping.
(viii) Her hair needs cutting.
6. It's time * rnsr Veft ifi ftqfr gs r+n dfr t:
(i) It's time you wenr home.
=rfr {l-d q.rq t w Er w wir
(ii) It's time for you to go home. efii q{ qri d'fdS gEi iqq.rot srt qcc tr
{{ ql-{ srHf 61 3F61 qqHl
7. kst * qrqrfl { qfr sdhrf * gE should + Verb irT First Form slrdl *r +S :
(i) Walk crefully lest you should stumble.
(ii) Work hard lest you should fail.
(iii) You have to be careful lest you should miss the chance.
8. As if tfi'l y.ilq qrfl * qra { Ercr tr as if * eK eIrE s-di d srq yrq: were 6t ydrr
dar tr *t '
(i) He walks as lf he were drunk. efli-q e-6 e\F: fri
ES Tfr *, +{d orfrfiq 6.{
rar tr
(ii) She is walking as if she were lame.
Note 3 as 'f + qR werc fiEI fuIfr { Tfi olrqrn :
(i) He was trembling as if he had seen a ghost.
(ii) The conductor waved his hand as if he had gone mad.
9. While ('ve ils' t6' vt 'qs') ol ydrr .of during the time that' * e{d {
Subordinate Clause tri principat Ctause t ffi + tdS anr tt qrt qeis 61
frq i yrq: erqfu ot 3rel if6d *o tr *trce.qqrfl s1 f*<r rrfffir
dfr *,
sa: ErE yFT: continuous tense { *fr tr *i :

Whlle ir was raining, I put up my umbrella. (ii) l,et us sray here, while it is
(iii) Do not disturb me, while I am reading. (iv) While reading I fell asleep.
10. So that (ffi
f+,, ilF+') q a{?i Tdr+ srd st1qrf, d wiUcan/may (fi so ttrat *
v6d present Tens" t)
oT sq)rr q,ld * s+{ srm so that * qd past rende t d
would, might, couldul y+r oti tr S0 :
(i) We eat so that we may live.
(ii) My mother lighted the gas so that she could make tea.
(iii) He is working hard so that he can get first division.
ts8 (iv) We eam so that we may live comfortably.
ll. qf( d SingularSubjectsffi qm d andt W {t dt EtR tri d erert-err qfu Section A : Grammar
qI qq 6i EFR q.(i a' d ts-r* {II9 Verb 16'I Plural Form gdrt foqr qnr *r qr!
andt gd i SingularSubjects Ertr g.E d qfo q URE + fdS rgs d G d d
3T* sls SingularVerbtrT sdq *cr tr $C:
(i) The cashier and the accountant have gone.
(ii) The cashier and accountant is on leave today.
srf* <m (Dnqr !s sFr um t vla-qr q-q 111d <ar<r'r+ * f*'cashier
qtr accountantq) qEpT-strrrT qfs t otR Sl-if Td tr{ tr erd, 5++ mct TgT{r Bt
f*-ql slrqrfrr tS <vn { cashier ilcll accountant *i t vrd 'the'aniclevllm Esil
tr qs* ffid (ii) qrfl t EkrrqT rFr t t* cashier *t accounranr gtr d qfo tr
qil: qsd ffi qfiffir 61 fs-{ slrttl anicle'the'rfi qq d qR ygtr'E3I tr


lllrite the loter of the correct answer (A, B, C or D) in the bmckets z

l. I have my clothes ......... by my mother.
(A) wash (B) washes (C) washed (D) to wash ( )
2. He ate all the fruits without..............
(A) stops (B) stopped (C) to stop (D) stopping ( )
3. She kept on...,......clothes in her room.
(A) stitching (B) to stitch (C) stirches (D) stitched ( )
4. We heard her......... a song.
(A) to sing (B) sing (C) sings (D) sang ( i
5. I requested him to let me.......... my home.
(A) went (B) Co (C) goes (D) to go ( )
6. Rahul and Pramod.........real brothers.
(A) are (B) is (C) was (D) will be ( )
7. The thief entered the room and..........a11 the omaments.
(A) takes (B) had taken (C) taking (D) took away ( )
8. He went on...........the fence the whole day.
(A) whitewashes (B) whitewashed (C) whitewash (D) whitewashing( )
9. He could not help ......................... that side.
(A) looking (B) looked (C) looks (D) to look ( )
10. Instead of ...... his books, he gave them to Ram free of cost.
(A) sold (B) to sell (C) selling (D) sells ( )

Fill in the bbnks with the appmpriatc forms of the verts given in the bmckets :
l. The train..............(stop) before I came.
2. He..............(go) out just now.
3. The farmer..............(work) all day.
4. He..............(come) an hour ago.
5. He..............(fall) asleep while reading. . 159
6. I shall see him when he .............. (retum).
Communication Skills & 7. A barking dog seldom .............. (bite).
Personality Development 8. The Ganga ..............(rise) in the Himalayas.
9. He..............(sell) newspapers in childhood.
10. I............(do) my homework before it was dark.
ll. They werc..............(swim) in the river.
I 2. It..............(rain), take your umbrella.


Fiil h the blanks vilh tfu appropriate forms of the verbs given in the brackets :
l. He..............(go) to U. S. A. last year.
2. We.............(paint) the gate last year.
3. I..............(help) him sevenl times already.
4. We..............(wor$ here since 2000.
5. He..............(teach) Sanskrit for a long time.
6. I..............(wait) here for two hours.
7. Next year we..............(live) here for ten years.
8. Dr Radhakishnan was greatIy..............(influence) by the ideology of Deen Dayal
9. If I..............(be) the king, I would work for the welfare of humanity.
10. Whether you..............(be) here or there, I will always help you.
ll. Unless you send a telegam, I .............. (not come).
12. If Mohan gets good marks, he..............(get) a new bike.

FiIl in ,he blaaks with the oppmpritu tense of the verhs given in the brackets :
(r) At the moment Manisha and Rekha .............. (work) in front of my house yesterday.
They ............ (mend) a water pipe. The man on the left ............ (have) a bidi in his
hand. The water .............. (come) out of the hole; the water ........... (run) down
the road.

(ii) There iu some huts here. Everyday some of the people living in the huts ...,.,....
(eat) their food outside the hut and ............ (throw) all the garbage on the road.
They do not ............ (keep) the place clean.
(iii) Mohan ............ (leave) India in 1998 and ............. (go) to the United States. He
.......... (be) in the States for nearly six years now, and he ............ (be) very happy
there. But his old mother in India is not happy.

(iv) Mohan's father ........... (die) two years ago, and Mohan,s morher ........... (be)
lonely since then. She ............. (not see) her son since 1998, and he ......... (not
wdte) to her for over six mondrs. She .......... (make) up her mind to go to the
States, but she .......... (not get) enough money yet for the far. She ........... (save)
only Rs. 20,000/- but the joumey will cost more.
(v) My brodrer........ (read) a novel last night when he ......... (hear) a noise in the
garden. He........... (open) the window and.......... (took) out. Ir........ (be) very
dark and he could see nothing. Butjust as he ............ (shut) the window, he ..........
(see) a man. The man ......... (try) to climb over the wall. He ........... (be) a thief.
160 When my brother saw the thief, he .......... (ump) off the wall and .......... (run)
away. My brother ......... (go) out and ........... (run) after him. Just as the thief
.......... oump) into a standing car, my brother .......... (catch) him.
Section A : Grammar
(vi) I -....... (study) in this school for two years and up to now I ......... (have) no
difficulty in satisfying my teachers. Last week one day, I .......... (take) leave from
the school and ............ (go) to see film. I .......... (enjoy) it very much.
(vii) It is hightime he.......... (do) some work on linguistics. Orherwise, he may not
......... (give) the appointment by the Director.

r. (c), 2. (D), 3. (A), 4. (B), s. (B), 6. (A), 7. (D),8. (D), 9. (A), lO. (C).

l. had stopped,2. has gone,3. works,4. came,5. fell,6. retums,7. bites, g. rises,
9. sold, 10. haddone, II. swimming, 12. israining.

l. went, 2. painted, 3. have helped 4. have been working. 5. has been teaching,
6. have been waiting, 7. shall have been living 8. influenced, 9. were, 10. ari,
I l. shall not come, 12. will get.

(i) were working, were mending, had, was coming, was running. (ii) eat, throw, keep.
(iii) left, went, has been, is. (iv) died, has been, has not seen, has not wrirten, is making
up, has not got, has saved. (v) was reading, heard, opened, Iooked, wa.s, was shuning,
sa% w.ts trying, was jumped, ran, went, ran, was jumping, caught. (vi) have been
studying, have had, took, went, enjoyed. (vii) did, be given.


Communication Skills &
Personality Devetopment
Common Errors

To error is human and more so when people learn to speak and write a foreign
language. We are'found to commit errors.'In English, there are certain com-
mon errors that creep in. It is not possible to enumerate all the common errors
that we come across in day to day dealing, nevertheless the readers would find
out the most common errors that happen in parts of speech.
(A) Common errors in the use of Nouns and Pronouns :
(D Words like book table flower and apple are 'countable nouns'. They are
things that can be counted. Such nouns can have plural forms and are
used with g/gn.
Words like ink, milk, gold and wisdom are 'uncountable nouns'. They are
the things that cannot be counted. Normally uncountable nouns do not
have plural forms and cannot be used with a/an.
Note that the following nouns are usually uncountable in English : device,
news, information, fumiture, luggage, work, business weather, taffic, scenery,
paper, writing material, bread. Most of these are countable in indian
languages zuld therefore indian students often incorrcrtly use them with g/
an and in the plural.
Incorrect : He gave me an advice.
Correct : He gave me some advice.
He gave me a piece of advice.
Incorrect : The sceneries here are very good.
Correct : The scenery here is very good.
(n) The object of a verb or of a preposition when it is a pronoun, should be Seclion A : crammar
in the objective form; as.
Incorrect : Between you and I dffairs look dark.
Correct : Between you and me affairs look dark. NOTES
Incorrect : Let you and ! do it.
Correct : Let you and me do it.
Incorrect : He has given great trouble to my father and [.
Correct : He has given great trouble to my father and me.
(iii) The indefinite pronouns one should be thorough, if used at all
Incorrect : One cannot be too careful about what he says.
Correct : One cannot be too careful about what one says.
Incornect : One cannot be too careful of his good name.
Correct : One cannot be too careful of one's good name.
(iv) Any should be used when more than two persons on things are spoken
of; as :
Incorrect She was taller than either of her five sisters.
Correct : She was taller than any of her five sisters.
(v) Each, either and neither are distributive pronouns calling attention to the
individuals forming a collection, and must accordingly be followed by
verbs in the singular. As :
Incorrect : Each of the scholars have done well.
Correct : Each of the scholars has done well.
Incorrect : Each of ihe men were paid twenty rupees.
Correct : Each of the men was paid twenty rupees.
(vi) Be careful to use who (Nominative) and whom (objective) correctly. As

Incorrect : There is Mr. Dutt, Whom they say is the best painter in
the town.
Correct : There is Mr. Dutt who they say is the best painter in the

Incorrect Whom did you say was there ?

Correct : Who did you say was there ?

(vii) Sometimes a Pronoun is inserted where it is not required; as :

Incorrect The applicant, being a householder, he is eligible to vote.
Correct : The Spplicant, being a householder, is eligible to vote.
(viii) A nouns or pronouns in the possessive case should not be used as the
antecedent to a relative pronouns; as :
Communication Skills & Incorrect : Do not forget his enthusiasm who brought this movement
Personality Development so far.
Correct : Do not forget the enthusiasm of his who brought this
movement so far.
Gx) The relative pronoun is sometimes Inconectly omitted when it is the subject
of the clause, as :

Incorrect : He has an impudence would carry him through anything.

Correct : He has an impudence that would carry him through any-
(x) Avoid the use of same as a substitute for the personal pronoun. As :
Incorrect : when you have examined these pattems please return
the same to us.
Correct When you have examined these patterns please return
lhe![ to us.
(xi) The adjective incorrectly used with a verb when some quality of the
subject, rather than of the action of the verb, is to be expressed; as :
Incorrect The flowers smell sweethy.
Correct : The flowers smell sweet.
(xii) In a comparison by means of a superlative, the latter term should include
the former, as :
Incorrect : Solomon was the wisest of all other men.
Correct : Solomon was the wisest of all men.
Incorrect : The Ganga is the largest of all other rivers.
Correct : The Ganga is the largest of all rivers
(xiii) A very common form of emor is the example given in the following
sentence :

Incorrect : The population of Kolkata is greater than any city in

Correct : The population of Kolkata is greater than that of any city
in France.
Since the comparison is between
(a) The population of Kolkata and
(b) the population ofany city in France.
(B) Common errors in the use of Verbs :
(, The subject of the sentence should not be left without a verb.
Incorrect : He who has suffered most in the cause let him speak.
Correct : Let him, who has suffered most in the cause, speak.
t@ OR
He who has suffered most in the cause should speak. Section A : Grammar
(ii) A common blunder is to leave the participle without proper agreement or
with no agreement at all; as :
Sitting on the gate, a scorpion stung him.
Here the word 'scorpion' to which the participle ,sitting, refers grammati-
cally is not that with which it is meant to be connected in the sense; in
other words, the participle is left with proper agreement.
We should therefore present it as shown below :

Sitting on the gate, [e was stung by a scorpion.

While he was sitting on the gate, a scorpion stung him.
(iii) The following verbs are often Inconectly used with the to-infinitive; en_
joy, avoid, miss, postname, suggest. They should be used with the gerund
(when a verb does the work of a Noun, it becomes Verb-Noun and is
called Gerund. e.g. the word 'reading'. in the sentence, 'Reading is his
favorite pastime.')
Incorrect : He enjoys to swim.
Correct : He enjoys swimming.
Incorrect : We missed to see the prime Minister.
Correct : We missed seeing the Prime Minister.
Incorrect : Suresh told to me about it.
Correct : Suresh told me about it.
(C) Common Errors in the use of Adverbs :
(i) The negatives destroy each other. Hence two negatives should not be
used in the same sentence unless we wish to make an affirmation we
should say.
Incorrect : I haven't got none.
Correct : I haven't got any.
Incorrect : I have not got no paper for my exercise.
Correct : I have not got any paper for my exercise.
(ii) Adjectives should not be used for Adverbs. We should say, for instance
He ate the sweets greedily (nor eEeedy) .
He will pay dearly (not dear) for his mistake.
(ii) The use of without a conjunction equivalent to unless is now considered
bad English.
Incorrect I shall not go without you do.
Correct : I shall not go unless you do.
(O The advert like is often Incorectly used as a conjunction instead ofgg t55
Communication Skills & :
Incorrect He speaks like his father.
Personality Development Correct : He sPeaks aE his father.
(rv) No sooner is followed by than and not by bu!
NOTES Incorrect : No sooner had he returned but he was off again'
Correct : No sooner had he returned than he was off again'
(v) Care should be taken when using correlative conjunctions, such as either
..... ot neither ... nor, not only..'but also, that they are followed by the
. same part of sPeech as :
Incorrect : He not only lost his ticket but also his luggage'
Correct : He lost not onlv his ticket but also his luggage'
(vi) Neither is followed by nor, not by oI.
Incorrect : He washed neither his hand or his face.
Correct : He washed neither his hand nor his face.
Some important examples of common ernots 3
Incorrect He gave me breads.
Conect He gave me some Pieces ofbread.
2. Incorrect Cattles are grazing in the field.
Correct Cattle are grazing in ttre field.
3. Incorrect He ate many fishes.
Correct He ate a lot of fish.
4. Incorrect He sold all his furnitures.
Correct He soldall his fumitue.
5. Incorrect He gave me advices.

Corect He gave me good advice.

6. Incorrect The sceneries were very attractive.
Correct The scenery was very attractive.
7. Incorrect They were good Commander-in{hiefs.
Corrcrt They were good Commanders-in-Chief.
Incorrect They won the match by an inning'
Correct They won the match by an innings.
9. lnconect The rich is happy and the poor is gloomy.
Comrt The rich are happy and the poor are gloomy.
10. Incorrect He has engaged some woman-servants.
Conect He has engaged some women-seryants. [Both the
nouns willplural.l
ll. Inconect He gave me two dozons of Pencils.
Correct He gave me two dozen pencils.
t2. Incorrect He has a ftve-rupees note.
Correct He has a five-rupee note.
13. Incorect Keep your words.
Correct Keep your word.
14. Incorrect I have a spectacle.
Correct I have a pair of spectacles.
15. lncorrect I have a lot of book. Section A : Grammar
correct I have a lot ofbooks.
16. Incorrect He is one of my sincere friend.
Correct He is one of my sincere friends.
17. Incorrect He occupied his quarter. NOTES
Correct He occupied his quarters.
18. Incorrect This wall is ten foot high.
Correct This wall is ren feet high.
19. Incorrect He has a three feet rod.
Correct He has a three-foot rod.
20. Incorrect He has two brethren.
Correct He has two brothers.


W-e should be careful while using pronouns in our sentences. There are some
of errors committed with the use of honouns along with the corrections
l. Incomct : One should do his work.
Correct : One should do one's work.
2. Incorrect : Your pencil is the same like hers.
Correct : Your pencil is the same as hers.
3. Inconect : If I were hin, I wouldn't do so.
Correct : If I were he, I wouldn't do so.
4. Incorrect He said to hisself.
Correct He said to himself.
5. Incorrect The boy who you referred to was not there.
Correct The boy whom you referred to was not there.
6. Incorrect : Between you and I, he is a villain.
Correct : Between you and me, he is a villain.
7. lncorrect : The two boys loved one_another.
Corrcrt : The two boys loved each-other.
8. Incorrect He is the only person out of them who have done it.
Correct He is the only person out of them who has done it.
9. Incorrect Neither of the three girls worked out this sum.
Correct None of the three girls worked out this sum.
10. lncorrect It is one ofa few books which is worth reading.
Correct It is one ofa few books which are worth reading.
ll. lncorrect The man whom I owed money has come.
Correct The man to whom I owed money has come.
12. Incomrt It is him who stole my watch.
Correct : It is he who stole my watch.
13. Incrrect : This is the book whom I like most.
Correct This is in book which/that I like most or
This is the book I like most. (Here 'which'or'that' is
Communication Skills & t4. Inconect You and he should go to their village.
Personality Development Correct You and he should go to your village.
r5. lncorrect He does not mean who he saYs.
Correct He does not mean what he saYs.
NOTES Incorrect Whom are you talking?
Correct Whom are you talking to ? Or
Who are you talking to ? Or
To whom are you talking?
I7. Inconect It is them who attacked me.
Correct It is they who attacked me'
(wi subject'it' *, Eqff,q verb singular d rrett)

18. Incorrect I don't like such books like these.

Correct I don't like such books as these.
19. Incorrect You are reading a book, isn't it ?
Correct You are reading book, aren't You ?

20. Incorrect I am going there, isn't it ?

Correct I am going there, arent I ?


We must pay attntion to the fotlowing things while using Adjectives

'to' in place of 'than'' Superlative

Some Adjectives in the comparative degree take
,Elder/eldest are the words used for the members
a"g; *rr, b" pr.oa.d with 'the'.
of ine family w'hile 'older/otdest' are used for the
people outside the family'

Some examples of the errors committed in the use of Adjectives have been given
below with their corrections :

1. Incorrect This is the mauer of uttermost importance'

Correct This is the maEer of utmost importance.
2. lncorrect He can write with either hands.
Correct He can wite with either hand.
3. Incorrect There is outer chaos in our college.
Conect There is utter chaos in our college.
4. lnconect He is my older brother.
Correct He is my elder brother.
5. lncorrect He is the eldest man in the village.
Correct He is the oldest man in the village.
6. Incorrect He has only few friends whom he believes.
Correct He has only a few friends whom he believes'
7- Incorrect He is the foremost boy to obtain such high marks'
Conect He is the first boy to obtain such high marks'
8. Incorrect Much boys passed in the first division.
Correct Many boys passed in the first division.
9. Incorrect Dr Sen is the first physician in Patna.
Correct Dr Sen is the foremost physician in Patna.
168 10. lncorrect He is most clever of all.
Correct He is the cleverest of all.
II. Incortect It is the less of the two evils. Section A : Grammar
Correct It is the lesser ofthe two evils.
12. lncorrect She had a little milk, hence she made no tea.
Correct She had little milk, hence she made no tea.
13. Inconect Have you got the last news ?
Correct Have you got the latest news ?
14. Incorrect Farttrer information is awaited.
Correct Further information is awaited.
15. Inconect He is lesser competent than his brotlrcr.
Correct He is less competent than his brother.
16. Inconect Littld knowledge is a dangerous thing.
Correct A little knowledge is a dangerous thing
17. Incorrect I haven't some work.
Correct I haven't any work.
18. Incorrect I have any books to spare.
Conect I have some books to sPare.
19. Incorrect Have you some money on you ?
Cortect Have you any money on you ?
20. Incorrect I will be the latest man to tolerate it.
Correct I will be the last man to tolerate it.


Look at the given examples and try to understand the way conjunctions we used in
sentences. Following examples throw light on the errors committed while using them
along with their corrections :
l. Inconect : Poor as he is, so he is honest.
Correct : Poor as he is, he is honest.
2. Inconect Although he is poor, but he is honest.
Correct Although he is poor, he is honest.
3. Incorrect Nobody knows that where he went.
Correct Nobody knows where he went.
4. Inconect The reason he didn't tum up is not known.
Conect The reason why he didn't tum up is not known.
5. Inconect He talks as if he is mad.
Conect He talks as if he were mad.
6. Incorrect Scarcely had he come than it began to rain.
Correct Scarcely had he come when (before) it began to rain.
(rh- 'scarcely'* cE EiYtt 'When'?I 'before'
ernr tr)
7. Incorrect : Hardly had I reached the station than the train startcd'
Correct : Hardly had I reached the station when (before) the
train staned.
8. lncorrect Naughty as he is yet everybody likes him.
Conect Naughty as he is, everybody likes him.
(qti' 'as'ot ud 'although'tt qE Ei{n Adjective *
qK qil t <qt 'yet',so orf< rd e{rE qd trl 169
Communication Skills & 9'. Incorrect You as sow, you so reap.
Personali$ Development Correct As you sow, so will you reap.
10. Incorrect Not only I went to Patna, but also to Gaya.
Correct I went not only to Patna, but also to Gaya.
11. Inconect He was not injured, but he was safe.
Correct He was not injured, he was safe.
12. Incorrect Nothing is so bad than it is.
Correct Nothing is so bad as it is.
13. Inconect As it is hot, so I won't go out.
Correct As it is hot, I won't go out.
14. Incorrect Make hay during the sun shines.
Correct Make hay while the sun shines.
15. Incorrect Nobody is guilty, neither Ram nor Mohan.
Correct Neither Ram nor Mohan is guilty.
16. Inconect Neither you can read nor write.
Correct You can neither read nor write,
17. Incorrect Before that I went to Delhi, I went to patna.
Correct Before I went to Delhi, I went to patna.
18. Incorrect It is all the same to me when you stay or go.
Conect It is all the same to me whether you stay or go.
19. Incorrect For he was not there. I could not meet him.
Correct Because he was not there, I could not met him.
20. lncorrect Wait as I come back.
Correct Wait till I come back.


For the practice ofthe students a few examples are given below which show what are
the mistakes committed in the use of adverbs and how they can be rectified
l. Incorrect I am much sorry to hear it.
Correct I am very sorry to hear it.
2. lnconect He reads English seldom.
Correct He seldom reads English.
3. Incorrect He works hardly to pass the exam.
Correct He works hard to pass the exam.
4. Incorrect He is enough wise to advise you.
Correct He is wise enough to advise you.
5. Incorrect He runs fastly.
Correct He runs fast.
6. Incorrect He only passed the test and none else.
Correct Only he passed the test and none else.
7. Inconect Only he bought a house and nothing else.
Correct He bought only a house and nothing else.
8. Incorrect 0nly he can speak, not write.
Correct He can only speak, not write.
9. Incorrect He was too only kind to help me.
170 Correct He was only too kind to help me.
10. Incorrect The meat is not enough cooked. Section A : Grammar
Correct The meat is not cooked enough.
11. Incorrect Glad he came and glad he went.
Correct Gladly he came and gladly he went.
12. Incorrect He hearty thanked me. NOTES
Correct He heartly dnnked me.
13. lncorrect It was received thankful.
Correct It was thankfully received.
14. Incorrect It is hopeless bad.
Correct It is hopelessly bad.
15. Incorrect It was decorated beautiful.
Correct It was beautifully decorated.
16. Incorrect It is comparatively better/finer.
Conect It is comparatively good/fine.
17. Incorrect Write neat and legible.
Correct Write neady and legibly.
18. lncorrect It is tenible hot.
Correct It is tnibly hot.
19. Incorrect He was saved lucky.
Correct He was luckily saved.
20. lnconect This is much pleasing indeed.
Correct This is very pleasing indeed.
(Past Participle takes 'much' and Present Participle
takes 'very' before them.)


l. Verbs are always used as per the number and person of the Subject.
2. If the principal clause is in past the subordinate clauses will follow in past forms.
Some examples of the errors commited alongwith their corrections have been
l. Inconect He let me to go.
Correct He let me go.
2. Incorrect It is transpired that he is a villain.
Correct It transpires that he is a villain.
3. Incorrect The picture was hanged.
Correct The picture was hang.
4. Incorrect He lied on the grass.
Correct He lay on the grass.
5. lnconect The boy sank into the pond.
Conect The boy was drowned into the pond.
6. Inconect Dying is better than dishonour.
Correct Death is better than dishonour.
7. Incorrect He had better to go there.
Correct He had better go there.
8. Inconect He had rather to take the examination.
Correct He had rather take the examination.
9. Incorrect He starved rather than to beg. 171
Conect He starved rather than beg.
Communication Skills & 10. lncorrect He proved a coward.
Peisonality Development Correct He proved (himselfl to be a coward.
I l.
Incorrect He appears to be very sad.
Correct He appears very sad.
NOTES 12. Incorrect There appears a mistake.
Correct There appears to have been a mistake.
13. Incorrect It seems to be difficult to you but not to me.
Correct It seems difficult to you but not to me.
14. Inconect You plucked in the examination.
Correct You got plucked in the examination.
15. Incorrect Let it do.
Correct kt it be done.
16. Incorrect When he sought your help, you ought to help him.
Correct When he sought your help, you ought to have
17. Incorrect He prefers dying to beg.
Correct He prefers dying to begging.
18. Incorrect He was punished to tell a lie.
Correct He was punished for relling a lie.
19. Incorrect Stop to talk.
Correct Stop talking.
20. Incorrect To see is believing.
Correct Seeing is believing.
Carefully have a glance at the errors committed when we try to ensure that the Verb
must agree with the Subject. The rectifications too have been given :
I Incorrect The poet and scholar are dead.
Correct The poet and scholar is dead.
2. Incorrect Rice and curry are my favourite food.
Correct: Rice and curry is my favourite food.
3. Incorrect The long and the short of this matter are this.
Correct The long and the short of this matter is this.
4. Incorrect Ten miles are a long distance
Correct Ten miles is a long distance
5. Incorrect The horse and carriage are waiting at the door.
Correct The horse and carriage is waiting at the door.
6. Inconect Each boy and each girl have got a prize.
Correct Each boy and each girl has got a prize.
7. Incorrect I go !o the cinema every five day.
Correct I go to the cinema every five days.
8. Incorrect Either he or his brother are guilty.
Correct Eifter he or his brother is guilty.
9. lncorrect Neither she nor her sister were there.
Correct Neither she nor her sister was there.
10. Incorrect No boy or girl were allowed to go.
Corrct No boy or girl was allowed to go.
I l. Inconct Neither English nor Sanskrit are o my liking.
Correct Neither English nor Sanskit is to my liking.
12. Incorrect He, you and I am to go there. Section A : Grammar
Conect You, he and I are to go there.
13. Incorrect Neither he nor his brother are guilty.
Correct Neither he nor his brother is guilry.
14. Inconect Either he or his friends has done it.
Correct Either he or his friends have done it.
15. Incorrect Either you or he are to go there.
Correct Either you or he is to go there.
16. Inconect He as well as I am going there.
Correct He as well as I is going there.
17. Incorrect His friends as well as he has come.
Correct His friends as well as he have come.
18. Inconect The rich is happy but the poor is miserable.
Correct The rich are happy but the poor are miserable.
19. Inconect Many a boy were punished.
Correct Many a boy was punished.
20. Inconect Some boy has done well.
Correct Some boys have done well.


pru"tic" ir ttr" k"y to accuracy in the use ofprepositions in sentences. Afew examples
general, along
have been given-below to show the mistakes which are commited in
with their rectifi cations :
Nouns followed by PrePositions :
l. Incorrect They have abundance with food
Corrcrt They have an abundance of food.
2. Incorrect Ttre princes are fighting forthe accession on the throne.
Correct The p,rinces are fighting for the accession to tlrc tlrcne'
3. lncorrect He does not work in accordance to the rule'
correct He does not work in accordance with the rule.
4. lncomrt Admission into 0ris school is difficult.
Correct Admission to this schml is difficult
5. lncomrct He took the oath of allegiance for the Constitution.
Correct He took ttre oath of allegiance to the Constitution'
6. Incorrect He is ready to make amends to me with the tnjury'
Correct He is ready to make amends to me for the injury.
7. lncorrect He made an application in an enquiry.
Correct He made an application for an enquiry.
Incorrect He has no aprehension for any danger.
Correct He has no aprehension ofany danger.
9. Incorrect The time of his arrival in this rneeting is not known'
Comrt The time of his anival at this meeting is not known'
r0. lncorrect The President gave assnt for the bill.
Comect The President gave assent to the bill.
ll. Incorrect He has no attachment with me.
Correct He has no attachment to me.
12. Inconect His attendance in the meeting is a must.
Correct His attendance to the meeting is a must.
13. Incorrect He has no authoritY on us.
Correct He has no authoritY over us.
Communication Skills & t4. Incorrect He is a great authority over History.
Personality Development Correct He is a great authority on History. (history)
15. Incorrect These are the causes of his anxiety.
Correct These are the causes for his anxiety.
NOTES 16. Incorrect There was no comment over his statement.
Correct There was no comment on his statement.
17. Incomrt There is much complicity with this cdrne.
Correct There is much complicity in this crime.
18. Inconect He made no concession for our demand.
Correct He made no concession to our demand.
19. Incorrect I have no confidence on him.
Correct I have no confidence in him.
20. Incorrect ' My views are not in conformity to yours.
Correct My views are not in conformity with yours.
Adjectives and Participles Followed by Prepositions :
l. Incorrect He was absorbed with study.
Correct He was absorbed in study.
2. lncorrect He is addicted with drinking.
Correct He is addicted to drinking.
3. Incorrect These are not agrceable with my wishes.
Correct These are not agreeable to my wishes.
4. Inconect I was quite amazed with his behaviour.
Correct I was quite amazed at his behaviour.
5. Incorrect He is ashamed at his conduct.
Correct He is ashamed of his conduct.
6. Incorrect I was astonished on his behaviour.
Correct I was astonished at his behaviour.
7. Incorrect I was aware with his intentions.
Correct I was aware of his intentions.
Incorrect He took the decision based at sound principles.
Correct He took the decision based on sound principles.
9. Inconect He is blind of the Correct eye.
Correct He is blind in the Conect eye.
10. Incorrect He is born by rich parents.
Correct He is bom of rich parens.
lt. Inconect He was birsy in his work.
Correct He was busy with/at his work.
12. Incorrect He is quite certain for his success.
Correct He is quite certain ofhis success.
13. Incorrect He was charged of theft.
Correct He was charged with theft.
14. Incorrect He is very close with me.
Correct He is very close to me.
15. Incorrect The murderer was condemned of death.
Correct The murderer was condemned to death.
16. Incorrect I am quite confident for success.
Correct I am quite confident of success.
17. Incorrect There are a few persons who are congenial for him.
Correct There are a few persons who are congenial to him.
18. lncorrect I shall do nothing contrary ofrule.
Correct I shall do nothing contrary to rule.
19. Incorrect This action on his part is creditable for him. Section A : Grammar
Correct This action on his part is creditable to him.
20. Incorrect He is deaf with my entreaties.
Conect He is deaf to my entreaties.
Verba followed by Prtpositions : NOTES
1. Incorrect : He was acquitted from all charges.
Correct : He was acquitted of all charges.
2. Incorrect : It admits f'rom no excuse.
Correct : It admits of no excuse.
3. lncorect : Alight down this train.
Correct : Alight from this rain.
4. Incorrect : He was appointed on the post of Principal.
Correct : He was appointed to the post of Principal.
5. lncorrect : I am apprised with the fact.
Correct : I am apprised ofthe fact.
6. Incomrt : He arrived on Nawada in Bihar.
Correct : He arrived at Nawada in Bihar.
7. Incorrect : He did not approve to our plan.
Correct : He did not approve of our plan.
8. Incorect : I am ready to atone on hurting your feelings.
Correct : I am ready to atone for hurting your feelings.
9. [nconect : He tried to attain at perfection.
Correct : He tried to attain !o perfection.
I 0. :
Incorrect He must attend on his work.
Correct : He must attend to his work.
11. Incorrect: He is basking under the sun.
Conect : He is basking in the sun.
12. Incorrect: I shall bear to him.
Correct : I shall bear with him.
13. Incorrect: He begged a piece of bread from me.
Correct : He begged for a piece of bread from me.
14 . :
Incorrect Bring this matler in his notice.
Conect : Bring this matter to his notice.
15. Inconect : I cautioned him from danger.
Correct : I cautioned him against danger.
16. Incorrect: Icame to a river on the way.
Correct : I came across a river on the way.
17. Incorrect I am communicating to him on this subject.
Correct : I am communicating with him on this subject.
18. Incorrect: Compare this book to that.
Correct : Compare this book with that.
19. Inconect : I shall compete him fbr this prize.
Corrcrt : I shall compete with him for this prize.
20. Incorrect : I complained with ttre Prircipal againsthirn
Correct : I complained to the hincipal against him.

Communication Skills &
Personality Development
26 Word Building

The stock of words in English language is very large. However it does not
consist of all unrelated and independent words. A large part of this stock
consists of words that are clarified from a smaller number of 'roots' by virtue
of pureness like prefixation, suffixation and compounding. Each rule applies
only to a small number of words and information about these is given in dic-

loi];;r"", rrl!4! (verb), we can form an adjective ty uaain-n the suffix

to it; thinking,as in a thinking person. The suffix ing must be distinguished
from the participle suffixing in 'He is thinking'. Suffixes like -ing, -ed, -s, -es
etc which are used regularly to form present or past tense forms of verbs, or
plural or possessive forms of Nouns etc are elements of the grammatical pro-
cess of infection thinking as the stem (compose) of root stem think + suffix jag)
we can add a negative prefix'un'with it getting unthinking (as in 'his usual
unthinking honesty'). A further derivation is possible by adding the adverb
forming suffrx-ly to unthinking, unthinkingly.

The addition of prefixes and suffixes generally follow a definite order. For
example to derive 'internation' we must first desire 'national' by adding 4! to
nation and then prefix inter to nationai. We can not prefix inter to nation since
there are no such words as internation.

175 It may be noted here that words which are not derived or compounded or
developed from other words are called'Primary word'. or lroot word'.
Compound words are formed by joining two or more simple words. e.g. Section A : Grammar
Moon light, never the less, under take, man-of-war.

L Primary Derivatives :
Formed by making some change in the body of the simple word e.g.

bond from bind, breach from break, wrong from wring.

Note here that the most important class of words formed by internal change
consists of the Past Tenses of Primary Verbs, which are not usually classed
as Derivatives.

Secondary Derivatives formed by an addition to the beginning oi the end.,

unhapov, soodness.

An addition to the beginning of a word is pp;fg, and an addition to the end

is suffix.

Compound words are for the most part,

Noun, adjectives and verbs.
(A) Compound Noun may be formed from :

(i) Noun + Noun e.g.

Moonlight, chess-board, wind mill, railway, shoemaker.
(ii) Adjective + Noun e.g.
Sweet-heart, nobleman, stronghold, blackboard,
(iii) Verb + Noun
marksheet, breakfast, pick pocket, dare devil.
(iv) Gerund + Noun
spelling-book, blotting paper, looking-glass.
(v) Adverb (or preposition) + Noun, bypass
(vi) Verb + Adverb e.g.
Out set, out cry, out come,
(B) Compound adjectives may be formed from :
(i) Noun + adjective (or participle) e.g.
Blood-red, skin-deep, mouth-eaten, bed-ridden
(ii) Adjective + adjective e.g. OtedYour kogrcse
Redhot, lukewarm, blue-black. 29. How can be form a
compound word ?
(iii) Adverb + participle, e.g.
well-informed, well-read, well-versed.
Communication Skilts & (C) Compound verbs may be formed from :
Personality Devetopment
(r) Noun + verb e.g.
Way-lay, backbite, earmark.
(ii) Adjective + Verb e.g.
Safeguard, whitewash, fulfi l.

(iii) Adverb + Verb, as

Overthrow, outdo, outpass, overdo, upset.

II. Primaryderivatives
(i) Formation of Nouns from Verbs and Adjectives
Verb Nouns
Advise advice
Bless bliss
Choose choice
Live life
Prove proof
Sing song
(ii) Formation of Adjective from Verbs and Nouns
Verbs Adjectives
Float fleet
Lie law
Nouns Adjectives
Milk milch
wir wise
(iii) Formation of Verbs from Nouns and Adjectives
Nouns Verbs
Bath bathe
Belief belive
Breath breathe
Cloth clothe
Food feed
Adjective Verbs
Cool chill
Hale tted

III. Secondary derivatives

English prefixes.
A - on, in; ahead, abroad, asleep.
A - out, in; arise; beside, betimes. Section A : Grammar
For - forgive, forbear.

There are only two prefixes of English that are still applied freely to new
words 'mis' and 'un', mis with the force of the adjective bad and un with NOTES
the force of a negative.

Besides there are many latin and greek prefixes that are being used for
building the words.

IV. English suflixes

i) Of nouns
- er (denoting agent or doer) (- ar, or yer) : painter, hawker, beggar,
- ster : spinster
denoting state, action. condition. being etc.
- dom : freedom, wisdom
- hood (head) : manhood, godhead
- look (- ledge) : wedlook, knowledge
- ness : darkness, sweetness
- red : kindred, hatred
- ship : hardship, friendship
(ii) Formingdiminutives
- el (le) : kernel, girdle, handle.
- en : maiden, chicken
- kin : napkin, lampkin
- let: leaflet
- ling : duckling, weakling
- ock : hilloclq bullock.
(iii) of adjectives
ed (having) : gifted, talented, learned.
ful (full of) : hopeful, joyful.
ish (somewhat like) : girlish, boorish.
less (free from without); fearless, bandless, hopeless.
ly (like) : manly, godly
some (with the quality oQ : wholesome, quarrelsome.
ward (inclining to) : forward, wayward.
- y (with the quality of) : wealthy healthy, dirty.
(iv) Of verbs
- en (causative. forming transitive verbs) : weaken, strengthen.
- se (to make) : clause, rinse. 179
Communication Skills & - er (intensive or frequentative) : chatter, flutter
Personali$ tlevelopment (v) Of adverbs
- !y (like) : boldly, wisely

NOTES - lgng : headlong, sidelong.

- ward (wards) : homeward, upwards.
- way (ways) : anyway, always
- wise (manner mode) : likewise, afterwise.

Word power includes besides meanings, structure and usage of current
English language, a vocabulary likely to be met in general conversation and
reading. Further as the spoken word becomes more important with the
advancement of mass communication through newspaper, radio, films, T.V.
and computer more alteration is to be paid to colloquialisasions and con-
temporary words and phrases which these media now bring into homes

To build up word power the students must practise the following habits to
enlarge their vocabulary :

l. Reading:
Besides reading text books in English, one should read fiction,
news paper, magazines, essays, to enrich one's vocabulary.

2. Consulting dictionary :

To strengthen one's group on cor-rect usage of words and spell-


3. Consult the dictionary to look up for homonyms' synonyms,

antonyms :

The vocabulary that your prepare mind help you to find the words
with which you express yourself more clearly, more effectively
and more precisely.

You may need another way of saying adulterate. If you have a sound
vocabulary you may find other words such as contaminate, debase, pg!:
lute, impure that you can bring freshness in your expression similarly to
bring a substitute expression. For jgurngy you may find words like travel,
OredYour hogrccc
trio, tour etc.
31. What must be prac-
tise by lhe students to You may not quit" be satisfied with the adjective unbeatable, possibly
build up uod power? because it does not fit the rhythm of your sentence or fails, in some little
way, to achieve the exact effect you are striving for, you can find replace-
180 ment with words like tuglgfegllable, indomitable, invincible.
Section A : Grammar


*nfr { W tA wordst, d sqnq { qe, 1et t Fmi-g-dfr t, vt s+* s{d ti-q.f,
fqa tli tr q0 lrc} + y+{ { vqrqilqr ,rqffiir'd qrqr orfr *r vr-* 5e u<ra<"riH
crt{mffilqrRi 3

l. Aid (T{q 6ril) He often aids me.

Add (+sil) Add four to five.
2. Accident (sdzcl) He met with an accident.
Incident (qaE ) Such incidents do not perturb me,
3. Allay 15q ort) This medicine will allay your suffering.
Aney (rffi zrd) This is a blind alley.
4. Access (q{s) I have no access to him.
Excess ( qFrq-ot) The excess of everything is bad.
5. Adapt (+ eEsR 6lc{) He could not adapt himself to the new
Adep (F{gq) She is adept in knitting.
Adopt ( ofi;lrfll) He adopted wrong methods.
6. Affect (ycrs grtr{) His lecture did not affect me.
Effect ($nq1 It will have no effect on you.
7. Accede lurt tlt) He acceded to our demands.
exceea ( efi+' *tt) His expenditure exceeded his income.
8. Advise fveru ttl He advised me to go there.
Advice (qtlrf) He gave me good advice.
9. Artist (E-OI-{R) He is a great artist.
tutisan (tSIttR) They are poor artisans.
Communication Skilts& 10. Allusion (c{iq) - I dislike to make any allusion to his way of
Personality Development speaking.
Illusion ( !Fl) - You are under an illusion.
11. AItaI (qfg+{) - He sacrificed everything at the altar of the god-
NOTES dess.
Aler He often alters his opinion.
12. Boarder - All the boarders have been asked to vacate the
(ErrrqF q rai qEI) hostel.
3er6g1 (f{ilI) - The border of this curtain is omamental.
13. Beside (by the side of) - He was sitting beside me.
Besides ( EIfrtkI) - He krows English besides French.
14. Berth (wr6) - I reserved a berth in the train.
Birrh (nlEI) - The baby weighted five pounds at binh.
15. Bom (tCr Egfl) - Hewasbomin 1980.
Bome (EIEI Ee[) - Smallpox is an air-bome disease.
16. Bath (FlFl) - He took a bath.
Badrc (lFI i5til) - He bathes in the river.
17. Bread (+A) - Give him a piece of bread.
Bmid (lnaqfgif l{Iqff ) - Her sari was covered with gold braid.
18. Check (examine) - He cheiked our tickets.
Cheque (bank cheque) - He gave me a cheque for Rs. 500.
19. Corps (6t{, ffi) - He is a member of this corps.
Corpse (ofis) (em) - The corpse was stinking.
20. Complement ({Gr') - They made him king, here'king' is complement.
Compliment erFreKr) - Say my warm compliments to your father.

21, Continuously (drlrdR t{{ t-d)-It has been raining continuously for two hours.
(llrlfdR ct EF-{iE iE{) - He has been leaming English continually for years.
22. Confirm (58 :5,(;Ir) - I was confirmed in my service.
Conform 1* ei-gqe dll) - This does not conform to rules.
23. Confident ( 3lI{ErkI ) - Are you confident of your success ?
Confidant (fqrcr$ qfft) - She is my confidant.
24. Considerable (much) - He has a considerable income.
Considerate (thoughtful) - He is always considerate to elderly people.
25. Corporal (YntRs) - No corporal punishment is given to children now.
Corporeal (for the body) - His corporeal needs are not fulfilled.
26. Counsel (advice) - He gave me good counsel on my problems.
Council (group of persons) - He is a member of the kgislative Council.
27. Canon (church law) - The Christians are to follow the canon.
cannon (dq) - In olden times they used a cannon in battles.
,3. g;ri. 11qft-o) - Somg of us have no civic sense.
Civil (notmilitary) - He was admitted to a civil hospital.
29. Cloths (fril f{d q,cg) - He deals in cloths.
Clothes (fud Rrri fiG) - He put his clothes into this wardrobe.
30. Dependent ( ofra) - The boy is not dependent on his parens.
Dependant ( slfa( qfft) - I have to support a number of dependants.
31. Decease (death) - His decease shocked us all.
ta2 Disease (diqft) - Cancer is a serious disease.
32. Draught (EsI t6'l d6I) - Be away from the draught wind.. '
Drought ({cll) Bihar is facing drought. Section A : Grammar
33. Dual (Rr) They sit on dual desks.
Duel (cqld) Ram was killed in a duel.
34. Die (q({I) He is going to die soon.
Dye (ir<r) They are dyeing cloths. NOTES
35.Dissent (3I{+iFFd) He gave a note of dissent to the proposal.
Decent (gq1; It was a decent performance.
Descent (iftrq) He was a decent of Bahadur Shah.
36. Discreet (careful) It maintained a discreet silence.
Discrete (discontinuous) It was a discrete discussion.
37. Deceased (dead) Nobody knew the deceased person.
Diseased The diseased man is my servant.
38. Dear (qm) He is my dear friend.
neer (efrot) Isaw a number of deer there-
39. Eligible (fit to be chosen) He is not eligible for this post.
Illegible ( orgre) His signature was illegible.
,t(). Emigrant (friu d vror They are emigrants to Sri Lanka.
i qrdrl
Immigrant (friv t eno'< - He is an immigrant from Pakistan.
41. Elicit (vIqI tF'T ) He elicited this information from me.
Illicit(t(EEfi) He deals in illicit liquor.
42. Eminent (rcnowned) He is an eminent professor,
Imminent ( erssqrrfldl His success is imminent.
43. Except ( sltlltlt) Except Ram nobody passed in English.
Accept (r*on r(lr) He gladly accepted my invitation.
44. Effi cacious (gqrfind) This medicine is Very efficacious.
Efficient (drq) Mr Acharya is an efficient teacher.
45. Farther ( ofiro ({; Ram went far, his brother went farther.
Furlher ( qri) He further said that he was sick.
a6. Fare ( slgr) What is the fare to Bombay ?
rair (tot) I visited the village fair.
Fair srBI)
( His writing is fair.
47. Foul (t{cq f.ft-) He plays foul.
Fowl (bird for food) He keeps fowl.
48. Fatal (causing death) The accident was fatal.
Fut fd (qRq firi qrdr) l5th August. 1947 was a fateful day for us.
49. FaE ( qlrq) His fate was doomed.
Fete (soq; I attended the fete of the villagers.
50. Fumish (supply) They fumished him books.
nurnace ( rr(d) This house is like a fumace.
51. Gracetul (E({) Hema was a graceful girl.
Gracious (FIl-$) Mr. Atul is a gracious man.
52. Gate (16T&6) Who is standing at the gate ?
Gait (sR;l) Her gait is very strange.
53. HatE (q{fifl) The hare runs fast.
Hair (sI) His hair is grey.
54. Heir (silt iftrsrfr) He is my heir. r83
communication Skills & Air (EIII) - The air was cool.
Personality Development 55. Hit (cI({) - He hit me on the head.
Heat (T{ itr'til) - Heat the iron before striking it.
56. Imaginary (it,rf,fffi) - This story is imaginary.
NOTES lmaginative (shofling imadnation) - She is an imaginative writer.
57. Industrial ( +dFF) - Jamshedpur is an industrial city.
Industrious (qftryfi) - He is very industrious.
58. Informer (t[@t"R) - They killed the police informer.
Informant (one who informs) - My informant told me that the meeting would be
59. Imperial (s[rlqdl{) - England had an imperial design'
Imperious (commanding) - He spoke in an imperious tone.
60. Interminable (too long) - This story is interminable.
Intermittent - He suffers from intermittent fever.
(with some intervals)
61. Ingenious (showing skill - His ingenious statement surprised all.'
at inventing things)
Ingenuous (frank) - Everybody knows that he is an ingenous person.
62. Inappropriate ( 3(!cgffi) - This is an inappropriate word here.
Misappropriarc - He misappropriated the public money.
(rrtr( r6Fl { qqra)
63. Jealous (tqt{) - He is jealous of my prosperity.
Zealous (lgtslfr) - He is a very zealous worker'
64. Judicial (6qr ffi{fr) - He is a judicial magistrate.
Judicious (dRrqr) - That boy is veryiudicious.
65. Label 1ww ejITR i[I EilEI) - hice label may be seen before buying an article'
Level (surface) - This place is 4O00 metres from the sea-level'
66. Luxuriant ({6d T.6i sfdl) - This plant has a luxuriant gowth.
Luxurious Ct{ -emg t qn - His life is luxurious.
67. t ater (cR {) - He later informed me that he won't attend the
Latter (fsgfl) - You gave me a pen and a book. The latter is more
58. I,oose (fiql-ErI) - Your coat is very loose.
Lose (Eiqr) - Where did you lose yours pen ?
69. Lair(qis) - The tiger was Iying in the lair.
Layer (l{kl) - The upper layer of earth is not hard everywhere'
70. Lightning ( slTgqlq { ffi) - The boy was afraid of lightning'
Lightening (lt6,lRn tt.m) - They were lightening their houses.
71. Momentary ( aIFFF) - Such pleasure is momentary.
Momentous (significant) - It was really a momentous decision.
72. Metal (fiI) - Iron is a useful metal.
Mettle (Ilr({tr) - He showed his mettle in the battlc.
73. Minor (qrclfdrl) - She is a minor girl.
Miner (EIFI { +n q,'d srfl)- The job of a miner is risky.
,0. 14uin 1ga) - Discuss the main points.
Mane (tlFI qr dg sl - This lion has a big manc.
,r{r d qldl
t84 75. Mom (9.16) I saw a beggar in thc morIt.
Mourn (BCIIq qqt) - She is mouming the death of her husband. Section A : Grammar
76. Might ({En) - He might have done it.
Mite (dE roq) - Contribute your mite to this fund.
77. Mare (*d) - I bought a fine mare.
Mayor (fq1) - He is the Mayor of the Patna Corporation. NOTES
78. Mu(ician (T*qI) - He is a renowned musician.
Magician (slr{tn) - Mr. P.C. Sarkar was a magician, who showed his
magic at several places.
79. Negligent ( 3TqrqqH) - He is negligent ofhis duties.
Negligible (rl6Grfrr) - She mistakes are negligible.
80. Notable (remarkable) - His speech was really notable.
Notorious (E@Id) - His is a notorious thief.
81. Ordinance ( slqrtYl) - The president issued an ordinance to ban some
Ordnance (dcqFrl) - There is no ordnance in the private sector.
ll2. ordinal (numbershowins oder) - ffi: H,ffiH|.#..of his parents Here 'second'

Ordinary - It is an ordinary pen.
83. Peace (flfi?) - There is no peace anywhere.
Piece (g+-gl) - I want a piece of paper.
84. Persecute (Ctflff EffiI) - They must not be persecuted.
Prosecute (vfl t{r) - Have you ever been prosecuted ?
85. Popular (*fiRq) - He is a popular leader.
Populous (E+ 3{rqr{ qrfl) - Calcutta is very populous.
86. I,iriable (Frfrq) - His condition is pitiable.
Pitiful ({.qr Ti) - He was really a pitiful man.
87. Pray (grr&n siicl) - We pray to God.
Prey (Rmn) - He fell a prey to the disease.
88. Prescrible (Frd +{I) - He prescribed this medicine.
prorcrible (q< fu) - This irook has been proscribed by the Govt.
89. hecede (T6d 3{l-{I) - Januarl, precedes February.
Prmeed ( otti q.6il) - I tell you not to proceed.
90. President ( AelH) - Who was the president of the meeting ?
Precedent (E(ff{ol) - He failed to cite any prccedent.
91. Principal (yrqr{) - Mr. Arun is the Principal of our college.
Principle (f{r6r<) - He has no principle.
92. Plaintiff (g{) - He who sues in court of law is a plaintiff.
Plaintive (sorrowful) - It was really a plaintive note, so I burst into tean.
93. Practical (qrs-6rR-6) - He has no practical knowledge.
Practicable 1q651 { - Such proposition is not practicable.
or'1 qs+)
94. Plain (+{r) - Such crops grow in the Gangetic plain.
Plane (tsr itr6rq) - He often travels by plane.
Phn (*q+) - What is your next plan ?
95. Pain (trouble) - This medicine will lessen your pain.
Pane (frfl) - He broke my window pane.
96. Pours ( etftr{fu +{) - It never rains but pours.
fores (te-{T) - Clean your pores by rubbing.
9?. Postage (gr6-gq{fi) - Have you bought the postage stamps ? 185
ilo;i:rl ( rll+tq) The postal services are fm from satisfactory these
Communication Skills & da1's.
Personality Development 98. Poor (Tts) - The poor man needs our help.
Poody (+e-td) - The meeting was poorly organised.
99. Partisan (Sqm{I5l) - He took a panisan attitude.
NOTES Partition (frr{rsn) - Who is responsible for the partition of the coun-
l0O. Purist (vr<t ot *o - My teacher is a purist about grammar.
r*q ori srfll
Puritan ( person who - He is a puritan in the true sense of the term.
is strict in morals)
101. Quite (fdiEd) - That boy is quite innocent.
Quiet ({rn) - Keep quiet while I sleep.
102. Quack (dfuqen srerl - Villagers are otlen treated by quacks.
Quick (1fu) - Be quick about it.
103. Query (question; - I query whether he is a reliable person.
Quarry (qci' t
qen - Many workes work in this quarry.
3rf( fmd qri t)
104. Rain (qql +{) It was raining. so I did not go out to play.
Rein (OrnC) Catch hold of the rein of the horue.
Reign (IIRlrI) People were happy during the reign of Ashoka.
105. Roll lEaor) A rolling stone gathers no moss.
P61s 1{frfi) He played a very bad role in this incident.
106. Rest (fqflE) He is taking a rest there.
wresr (qqtd frfil) He wrested the wrist watch from me.
107. Respectfully ( 3{I({ i) I respectf ully wished him good moming.
Respectively (6cEqR) January and February are respectively first and
second months of the year.
108. Root (W) He cut the root of the tree.
Route (tst) Which is the route to the park ?
Rout (vw' :lE iSGI) The enemies were routed.
l@. Reward (Etrq) He got nothing in reward.
Rervord (1et vd Reword this passage in order shorten it.
{ gr: o-rt)
ll0. Reveal (make known) He did not reveal the secret.
Revel (make merry) Children were revelling.
lll. Stationary (fPR) The eanh is not stationary.
Stationery (M-c-.d+ He has a stationery shop.
l12..Soul(erell) May his soul rest in peace !
sob(qi fl Efli) Mend the soles of my shoes.
113. Sight (!*t) It was a beautiful sight.
911" (reF) This is the site for a hospital.
I14. Sensible (qcfiI{) This boy is not sensible.
Sensitive (easily otTended) She is sensitive to blame.
ll5. Social ({{rHf{s,) Man is a social animal.
Sociable (friendly) Theil action is sociable.
l16. Sore (painful) Hc has a sore leg.
Soar (i54fl Vdfl) Prices zue soaring these days.
185 117. Solder (easily melted metal) Join thern with solder.
tnou,O"r,*r' w no will shoulder this responsibility ?
Soldier (Rcrd) Many soldiers were killed in the battle. Section A : Grammar
I18. Session (Il7) The college session begins in July.
Cession (qfri qr+ffi +{I)- China demands the cession of some area of our
I19. Seem (look) He seems to be foolish. NOTES
seam (dg q,t f) It is a seamless table.
tm. sak (f{*1) This house is for sale.
Sail (rrs +{) They set sail in the moming.
se[ (*qa) He will sell his house.
t2t. Spacious (having much spac) - This room is spacious.
Specious (seeming true) The specious argument did not convince me.
122. Steel ({gllil) This glass is made of steel.
Steal (g{Fil) Someone may steal your watch.
t23. Siege (*{t) They laid a siege round the fort.
Seize (qq 6TlI) His property was seized.
la. Statue ({fti) This statue is made of marble.
Statute (tr'F[r) The statute will soon come into force.
125. $1a6 (itltF';il) They stared in amazement.
steer (direct the course) He steered his boat.
l'2t. Straigtrt (rfrw) Draw a straight line.
Strait (qfigcsqq) - Have you seen the Strait of Panama ?
127. Through (*+"t) He was passing through the forest.
Thorough (absolute) He has thorough knowledge of English.
128. Track (IIRII) .
- Follow this cart-track.
Tract (area) - This is a banen tract of land.
(Eqcn, td t ftnD fne elephanr trod rhe crops.
' --
129. Tread
Trade (e1qR; He did not succeed in his trade.
130. Umpire (f{qtq6 ) - Mr David Shepherd is the umpire of this cricket
Empire (qiSR) - Britain has no empire now.
131. Union ({iq) - They have formed a union.
Unity (Ffl) - There is no unity among the students.
132. Underline (drarv a line unde{ - The teacher asked us to underline the sentence.
Underlie (give rise to) - Such action will underlie many misgivings.
133. Urban (of a town) - They were unaware of the urban way of living.
Urbane (polite) - His urbane behaviour pleased everybody.
134. Utter (total) - There was an utter failure.
Outer (sr60) - The outer wall collapsed.
135. Use (benefiO - What is the use of leaming so many languages ?
Usage (way of using) - It is a guide to usage in English.
136. Verbal (vkt5 ) - I have given him a verbal order.
(vd i
verbose Tli) - I dislike verbose writing.
137. Vacant (sld) - I found the room vacant.
Vacate (grfr s'fiI) - He vacated the house.
138. Vary (change) - It varies from time to time.
Very (much) - I am very glad to see you.
139. Vane - The vane on the building tums when the wind
vain (qQl) 747
- He tried in vain to do it.
Communication Skills Vein (;Iq) - Blood flows along our veins.
Personality Devetopment 140. Vest (dfi qf() - He is wearing a fine vest.
west (frqc) - His house faces west.
l4l. Vine 1wg *1 Erm) - He has a vineyard.
NOTES Wine (rRR) - He often drinks wine.
142. Vacation ( 3ffi6I{I) - I shall go to Mumbai in the coming vacation.
Vocation (profession) - Teaching is a vocation.
143. Voluble (talking quickly) - She is voluble and therefore I do not follow her.
Valuable (tblrrfi) - This book is very valuable.
144. Vulnerable (o'q$1, u,gakl - His arguments are vulnerable.
Venerable (respectable) - Our venerable English teacher retired last month.
145. Vegetarian lqrflErt) - My family is vegetarian.
Vegtation (planb olallkinds) - This area is famous for its vegetation.
146. Vogue (in use) - This fashion is not in vogue now
Vague eree)
- His statement is vague.
,07. yal;u11 1fira) - His colour is variant from that.
various (q{) - Various kinds of flowers are in his garden.
148. Veracity (*re) - The veracity ofhis statements will be questioned.
: Voracity (ttrcFr) - He is disliked for his voracity.
i 149. Wave (tI6{) - He is watching the seawaves'
tyn;ys (FlFFlI)
- I waived my claim to that house.
150. We (Errf,h) - We are students.
wee (Tgil +a) - It is a wee drop in the ocean.
,tr. *u,r, ,*ra, - He wears a belt around his waist.
y7a5rc 1ffi 6GI)
- Don't waste your time.
152. Ware (article) - He deals in earthen wares.
Were d)( - They were my friends.
153. Weather (qtgq) - The weather is foul today.
Wither (F$lFil) - fiis flower withers soon.
154. Weieh (+il) - The grocer was weighing sugar.
Way (11) - Which is the way to the Post Office?
155. Wed (marry) - He will soon wed that girl.
Wade (rlrfi { qe-+l - The giant was wading in the river.
156. Weal (wellbeing) - Weal and woe are the two wheels of life.
Win - Who will answer my question ?
157. Warden (authority) - The warden of our hostel ordered him to vacate
the hostel.
Warder (guard) - He acts as a warder in thisjail.
158. Wring (tr+gif.t - Wring your wet clothes.
qrt f{fidrr)
Ring (tFril) - Ring the bell.
159. Younder (qiiY) - Yonder is the moon.
under (*i) - There is a cat under you cot.
160. zest (q{fr) - He joined us with great zest.
Jest (qqr6 ) - He said so in jest.
Distinguish by means of sentencts between the words in each of the follow-
Section A : Grammar
ing pairs:
verbal, verbose; perse.ute, prosecute; prescribe, proscribe; elicit, illicit; confirm,
conform; beside, besides; adapt, adept; accede, exceed; continual, continuous; jest,
zest; zealous, jealous; momentary, momentous.
WordFormationtrl nmd * - tt< + fir{-Frq r<q inr t qiilfr { wa r+n *
vr"q{ ql yq}q f+qr qm tr {q e{ra y*n * qtEI 6t d}S qr*.<q il partsof Speech
isEI qk tt Noun (rifl),pronoun ({r+{q), verb (f*'q) A jective (fs*sq), Adverb
(f$ql-Hqol), Preposition 1vr*r-dtr+ qatq), Conjunction (qtqfr, ITC) iIgI
<ffitr+ {lq)- E{ sS fl sc?+{
Interjection qr-{q-{ { f6qr
{ qq' a vq (word)t[i Noui (fW) qerqr Adj;tive s[qql Verb ersrql
qrdt *r 3fiil
Adverb (f*qr-Hqq) orf( fqfq< sd { rffidd q<d cqr t firq {'d Ei fuflq.,{
qi[' Ylq T{ri oJ vrC-{-d{r (Word Formation) tr6t tr
Root/base and affix (qr aqr wrg.t ilr rd[.I)
eii$ {
word-formation* idfirq E} qr{i
ilH t
Td Root, baseirefl affixihl
ereqRqr 6i q{I e{rq{{r6 dil tr Root{rq ifl T6 qrq +ili*, *
tr< * 3w oref +i
qfrrqm oror *r effix s6 *dr t, Ei, root word * efli qr dd qnr di-
trr tr airru",
{ Iike root word t, aen dis-affix *, df*. Et root word like d eri dq zrqr tL
EVO W< s(I6{sr t{qq-(+-
(a) disobey -+ dis+obey (affix + root)
(b) unkind --, un+kind (affix + root)
(c) irregular -+ ir + regular (affix + root)
(d) actor --) act + or (root + affix)
(e) illegally --) il + legal +ly (affix + root + affix)
*+fl rdrr 6 r* * vc * Fq { fs-qr q v+-m t, wg affixtn sc+r
ch root* Td trqr qr vfi"r tl
Affix frc r+R d +i t : (i) prefix (ii) Infix (iii) Suffix
(i)kefix:i i atrixfi *, d rootword* -lltrd Wi *r $t : ippure,6isus,
Infx: oiifr { inRxqfi qri sd tt
(3)Suffix:i i atrix*i t, d rootword* q< {dq sri *r *0: tovely,
carelcsg, dangereus.
hefixes ( sqgri ) : srqrqilqr prefixes gs {rq + qd { Ao vfli+dr er ti tr qd'
ct si** * qs rqfffi prefxesfri Ri qr G tr
(A) ronrso prfixes (sqs{) :
dis - dislike, disagree, disappear un - unable, unfonunete, unhappy
h - incorrect, indirect, incomplete mis - mislead. misguide, misusJ
ir - irregular, irrational, irrelevant il - illegal, illegible, illiterate.
im - impure, imperfect, impossible
(B)rqn TdIt EIr& prefixes:
inter (fiq {)- intercity, international, intermarry.
intra ({tdq + 3r<{)- intranet, intracircle, intranational
mid (+s d)- midsession, midway, midday. 189
.CommuFication Skills fore (SICi 6'I qI 3tti tET)- forehead, forelegs, foretell,
Personality sub (ii)- substandard, subway, subnormal

(C) degreeql sized elfuqft q,{+ sr& prefixes.

NOTES mini (+4) - miniskirt, minicab, minibus
*"n {E*, - archbishop, archangle, archenemy
super (t 3lftr6) supematural, supermarket, superfast.
(D)EE 3f,a cfaqut prefixes.
unte lqfd) - antemeridiem, antenatal, anteroom.
anti (fuClItF') -antidote, antiquity, antiseptic
auto (FliI:) -
automatic, autobiography, autoriksha
bi (c)) - bicycle, bilingule, bilateral
co ({lPl, vE) - co-operation, co-education, co-incident
cyber (qetfu, i5,ql) - cyber-crime, cyber-cafe, cyber-culturc'
de (fdlrrtd fFqI) - de-cese, de-forest, de-generate.
e (E&qiFrfi, #i) - e-mail, e-commerce, e-book
eco (qqffiq) - eco-friendly, eco-tourism ecoJogy.
ex ({d) - ex-husband, ex-minister' ex-primeminister
geo (Ied) - geoJogY. geo-PhYsics.
ill (gfr tr t) - ill-fed, ill-will, ill-advised.
kilo (EtlR) -kilo- byte, kilo-metre, kilo-gram.
micro ({FI) - micro-biology. micro-meter
mono ((.6) - mono+ycle, mono-oxide, mono-poly.
multi ( sI+.5, irg) - multi-storey, multi-plication, muiti-national.
over ( grflftm) - overthrow, overeat, over confidence.
omni (qS) - Omnipresent, omnipotent, omniscent.
poly ( erio) - polyester, polygamy, polygon.
semi ( strTql) - semicircle, semicivilized, semicolon.
tele (1rw) - telephone, television, telescope.
tri (frt) - tri-angle, tri-cycle, tri-oxide.
ultra (q{I) - uttrasonic, ultrasound, ultramodem
under (*i, :FTI) - underfed, underline, underpay
uni ({tF) -
unicycle, uniform' unilateral.
vice (gq-g6rq-s-) - vice-president, vice- chancellor.

Sufiix (Bcr.I) :

Suff x {l * dt * , ( l) Inflectional (2) Derivational.

(i) Inflectional - i rt< * Part of speach d 6t qfi$dq rfi od tr *i-plav - plavs,
playing, box - boxes.
.ff$ { tre fuemr srd inflectional, suffixesdi t :

(i) -s zll -es (qgrql firi + f(IS)

(ii) -'5 q1 -s' (possessive firi * fuS) +C - Hari's' boys'.
(iii) -s zll -es (verb t61 singular a'ari o faq present indefinite i[ Orira person
singular subject tS' wtu)
(iv) -d zll -ed ( Tlrml + fuO +t - talked, untalked.
r90 (v) -d zII -ed (past panicipl" * fqq)
(vi) -er (comparative * faq) *t - smaller, bigger'
(vii) -esr, (supertative * feql *t - biggest, fastest. Section A : Grammar
(ii) Derlvational - i qe * part of speech d qRqdq +l td tr vai w Eo Ir6i.dwi
suffixeski qr G tt
(A) Suffixes d
nouns q-{i tt
Abrt.u"t ,ouns E-{r+ suffixes sd fiq t
(a) verb + ing --r building, copying. NOTES
(b) Adjective + ness -+ kindness, meanness, happiness.
(c) Adjective + ty -+ electricity, falsity, density.
(d) -ent t{cIR qrd adjectives itJ -ence q(si qrd,
+i {
: *t
present + prcsence, absent -+ absence, idependent,
-r independence.
(e) Verb qlr{ -ence zII -ance
d #t
+.e-*1 qi {tq,
$C performance, :
acceptance, preference.
(f) -dl+t sqq di qrd verbsd srer 5rd em w -sionqi +s*,{ qi vq, SQ:
permit - prmission, dicide - decision, admit - admission
(g) verb * T et -ion / tion / ition / -ation d9+l si Vr6(, +Q : presenration,
correction, starvation.
(h) * { q -ment +gqi{ ei vr<, $rt : punishment, agreement, commirment
Ecffi t Etrd nouns Tfli in& suffixes:
(a) Verb d I cI -er / or +sfi-t, $$ : actor, teacher, driver, operator.
(b) Noun/verb/adjective + TITq, *C : -ist *giF-t bicyclist, tourist, moorist.
(c) verb * { st -anri/-ent +giF-{, *t : Student, applicar, participant.
(d) vfl + vt9 -an/-ian dl-sr-(, i{l : musicion, republican.
(e) verb * vel -ee +iF{, irrd t poyee. employee, addressee.
(0 noun * qlg -ess +giF'{, * : lioness, wairress, actress,.
(B) Verbs fiI+ qre suffixes :
(a) enr * { 9 -ate t stE.t, *C : cholorinate
1b) fr*sur q gt9 -ize *gq{, *S : popularize, compurerize, summarize.
.rd -te* Telll c{ -iserFr ychr S Ffr crfl qlflr *t
Adjective * qlst -en irt r{ilrr 6.a*, $d : sharpen. ripen, deafen, frighten.
(C) Adjectives q-.ri qrd suffixes :
(a) Vfl + qrq -al drgfil, $C : nationat, cultural,
G) fdr + qter -ic +ss{, *C : heroic. energeric
(c) verb ztt noun *
glq -ive *g+{, $C : attractive, active, introspective.
(d) sdr + rltel -ful tfl q+q 6r*, $C : beautiful, harmful, helpful, mouthful.
(e) qil * qpl -ous :rI Idq q,l-+, $i : careless, homeless, painless, helpless.
(0 vfl * Ilpt - ous:fi-T y+rr :6.a+, *C : ambitious, dangerous, famous.
G) vtt * slq - y iFI gdrt s-t+, *8 : sandy, greasy, salty.
G) lrdt * qpt - ly *gF-{, SC : friendly, f'atherly, monthly.
(i) verb * 11lq -ible/able +gfr-t, *{+ : responsible, reasonable, suitable./
(D) Adverbsrai cr& suflixes :
IlFlFfirqI Hfr adverbs, adjectives + T et - ly zt - want (s) Er[H t d q'ri tr Srt
slowly, quickly, afterward.
EXEBCISE 1. Fill in the blanks |eirh the correc, forn s ol the words given in the
bmckets :
l. The.............................of rhe city were very alert. (inhabi.)
2. He behaved.... in the party. (foolish)
3. The enemies attacked the . people. (sleep)
Communication Skills & 4. Shous of joy could be ............................. from every where. (hear)
5. They could see nothing in the ............................. (dark)
Personality Devetopment
6. The ball hit the wall and came (back)
7. There was a mark of wound ...................'.. his right eyebrou (nearness)
8. He came...........................,.at 8 p.m. (exrct)
9. My brother is doing some course in (manage)
10. Pranjali became a ............................. doctor. (fame)
ll. In big cities, roads are............................. (crowd)
12. He is of his look. (care)
13. Pranjali's eyes were . with tears. (fill)
14. India is the largest of tea in the world. (produce)
15. I read an ................,............ story. (interest)
16. Exercises keep one (health)
17, An........................,.... was signed between (ngree)
18. I received your letter with a ............................. (wondcr)
19. My headmaster was a .......................'..... (discipline)
20. Neha is a .............................gir1. (beauty)
21. He sent the boy to work............................' (independent)
22. The fox was rea11y........... (helP)
23. Children were busy in different........'. (active)
24. Dhyan Chand was a devotee of ...........'..'..'........'.. (excellent)
25. Piyush was ............................. with the birds. (friend)

EXERCISE 2. Fitl in the blanks with the conect lon,s of the words given in the
brackets :
l. Piyush sat.............................against the wall. (lean)
2. He thought that he was for his people. (use)
3. Shweta was a new . in the class. (come)
4. We should not spell the words lwrong)
5. ............................. is very complicated. (Machine)
6. The stick is reaIly........"..... (magic)
7. ............................. water never stinks. (run)
8. Sujata was full of (excite)
9. Some wild animals are......... (danger)
10. A man stumbled over the stone in the ..".'.'.........'.'..'...... (dark)
ll, There was a ....................."....'. behind the mosque. (grave)
12. He gave a clear .......................'..'.. of the incident. (describe)
13. They passsed through the ............................. country side. (love)
14. Holi is a ............................. festival. (colour)
15. Ballooning is an ............................. sport. (adventure)
16. The plane . took off. (gradual)
17. lle will come back from the city .....'...'.'.'.........'.'... three days. (with)
18. Dhyan Chand was a ............................. of hockey. (magic)
19. She ropped in the school and became in the village.
20. A man should be ftealth)
21. His ......"...... is Indian. (national)
22. Therc is no ............................. in the village. (employ)
23. Your teacher can give you all the ................'.'.'........ you need. (infbrm)
24. Chittorgarh is famous for its ............................. fort. (history)
25. This place is full of ............................. beauty. (nature)
(iai) SYNoNYMS ANp ANTONYMS Section A : Grammar
Synonymssi {ffi qffi
qr (Trt6 yrq t-6r nmr tr cl vcf d erd q+' t
di *r vlg r++t rdrr qrfi qrq d ergqR d t{.qr qrdr tr antonyms+i { ffi ffie
rrq qr ffidre{+, lrq o,.6r qm t qd tg yge {q{ + Synonymsim AntonymsRi
Pr (Word) Synonyms Antonyms
Abase (qcqr{) humiliate honour (TsII;I)
Abhor (T['{ir t6'tlr) hate love (d6)
Absent ( erJcfteR) inattentive present (scfurd)
Absolute (Ti) entire incomplete (Wr
Absurd (Esrsrc) ridiculous sensible (srmR)
Accede (vdfi) consent dissent (qs6cfd)
Access (\is) approach depanure (Tql{Ifr)
Achieve (Wi s1rr) accomplish fail (srss-d dil)
Acquire 1eTq E,m) obtail lose (d{r)
Acute (tq) sharp blunt CtBd, dq{)
Adjoum (rc{Frd tE.(lr) Postpone continue (qrt rq{r)
Adversity (Sqtq) misfortune prosperity (qryddr)
Affirm (ffi*n rra) assert deny ( erston 6,m)
Ailing 1frrn) unnpll healthy (q{a{)
Alliance (qr]-d?) union enmity ({qdr)
Allure ( eilsfiia 6{rr) attract deter (srql q<rrl)
Amiable (+a) loving hateful (YFIc)
Array (oqq6; order disorder 1e6+<furc)
Assault ( slrsqol s{fl) attack defend (Isn 6ril)
August (lrq) majestic mean (ir)
Avarice (drtrs) greed extravagance (tu{dq{)
Awe (s() fear familiarity (s{fqr Frdr)
Baffle (am) defeat help (v6Edr 6{n)
Barbarous ( 3[qEr) savage civilized (sq)
Beautiful (g<{) elegant ucty (q(ql)
Bitter (s-ssl) harsh sweet (fi-dl)
BIank (Igld) empty fiIId (q{)
Blend (frau; mix separate (Trq)
Blithe (ys-{F{) merry dejected (5d)
Blunder (Ttrfr) mistake accuracy' (s61)
Bounty (sErklr) generosity miserliness 1s.qfi)
Breed (qq til) beget eradicate (TE i6TlI)
Brisk (gR) active inactive (t{Bq)
Brittle ( fragile solid (?ilq)
Bulk (Er) sizc panicle 1frr E+sr)
Cajole (gYr'rql flatter chide 1qq6rr)
Candid (TIGl/gIe) fair unfair (3THe)
Caprice (v{s) whim reason (ild)
Cede (SFHI) quit hold 1vo-sr)
Charity (<qr{dr) kindness harshness (6qrfi)
Chastity (ctd{dr) punty immorality (3r+iffidr)
Clamour (Yt{5d) noise silence (Yfr)
(661r) 193
Cloak cover exposure (Bsrs{)
Communication Skills & Colleague (sl$) fellow oppenent (Hfr)
Personality Devetopment Combat (Hu) oppose help (E{{)
Commence (gs +<+1 initiate conclude (CIR qTil)
Comprehend (qcEnr) coinceive mistake (11-(fi 6.'fit)
NOTES (BcHr) expose (*il)
Congregate ( {+. +{) gather disperse (frq(ql)
Conspiracy ( Yqdi) plot legislation li['r{l)
Consume (gTdrr E,{lI) utilize reject ({$ i6't{r)
Conwlse (gq 6{lf) agitate soothe (yfliil S{;II)
countenance 1q5961 O<t) support oppose (ffiq 6"4{)
(frrs{) summit bottom ( (lcl,
Crude (s-ql) rain refined (ffd)
Date (He4) facts assumption 15wtt)
Deceit (+qI) guile sincerity (tErffrfr)
Defer (it c<+l delay haten 1onY61 aw)
Deter (Edttt6a s'f{r) discourage persuade (Ed..srll)
Devour (fflre{l) swallow vomit (vd 6,'l)
Deligence ( qI{) attention negligence (elcFlr6)
Distinct (ge) obvious obscure ( s[ge)
Drowsy (&at) tlo,zy vigilant (vdd)
Due (sf{d) proper improper (flif{+')
Dwell (a) abide roam (qeo-{I)
Eclipse (6t6'-ll) overcast revel (9i52 rSGI)
Elastic (c+tll) flexible rigd 1q-*<)
Eliminare (t;cr t{I) eject welcome (Fllrlil 6-cll)
Elude 1c< fr+-m) shun encounter (qFfiIrf'Fll)
Ernit lvr(I;ll) inhale (f{,rffi)
Endue ({tf,-{dl tF'({I) store spoil (tdrlrfir)
Enthusiasm (d{r) ordor coldness ({{qIIr{)
Epitome (sRi[) summary expansion (YsT{)
Erect ,=gI ET{) raise destroy (r 6cll)
Even (scH) uniforrn rough (qrfl)
Execute (W ls,rt) tulfll dorp (& t{)
Expedient (scgffi) fir unfit (qgcgfr)
Familiar (cfit{d) intimate stranger ( 3ffi{fr )
Fasten (*m) tie untie (+d{I)
Fertile (Eq-Crs) Prductive banen (riil)
Festal (g{ft) gay ascetic (sd)
Fend ({lTdr) enmity reconcilation {ffi)

Frdelity 1ffi) honesty infidelity (+$qrfi)

Fiery (tld) hot icy (arI)
Finite (6fud) limitd entemal (q$fud)
Flattery ' (g$ITq) cajolery rebuke lVAn)
Flicker (fq-({fd) glimmer shine (q{i6-)
Forget 1tP-tt) overlook recollect lqrq 6({I)
Formidable (t*+-z; honible tivial ($)
Found ({qFR ?5'({r) establish demolish (re rftfl)
Free (Eiil) liberd Illibenl (v<h)
194 Futile (U) Eivid useful (scqtt)
(q6rE() bold timid (s{+6,)
Gibe (s$drq) mock approve (d5,d) Section A : Grammar
Gigantic (tc{[t1) vast diminutive (dcr)
Glide ({fi[.-{r) slide hop (EffiIl)
Go (qil) proceed come (3nfl)
Gorgeous ( tlq) superb mean (trel NOTES
Gind (FIHI) oppress help (Tfi 6lrr)
Hail (Fqlrrd sT{I) salute avoid (sqqr 6Gr)
Halt (-fiit) rest advance (s{Ii T6{)
Handy {gfsqqrt5', convenient inconvenient (sTgiqqqf$)
Harbor ({KoI +{I) shelter expel (q+q,{r)
Havoc (f+*, destruction conservation (II{HUI)
Heed (qi t{r) ignorc <steil fit)
Hew (6rfiI) chop form (Et11q1r)
Homely (T$t) ugty beautifrrl (C<{)
Illusion (Tq) deception reality (qrklrffidr)
Immune <*c 6llr) imprison release (Eir-{)
Irnpose 1dr*) put remove (EZEI)
Impudent (srr$) bold polire (tfic)
Incite (EtF.qra) provoke discourge (E-#Nrf6d q,T{t)
Indifference (Erc[cl6) carelessness interest (tE)
Ingress (v+{r) entrance exit ft+'[s ) (
Insane (cITf,) sane (qcmR)
Inter (<srrfl) bury disinter (vqrsflI)
Jade ( crs'l Ee[r) weary refresh (iltdrcr)
Juicy (rsrr{r) spongy parched (qq)
Kindle (E{sHr) excite surpass (<qm)
Lank (S{(lI) thin plunp (Edt)
Lascivious (fi5+') lusttul chaste (cf{d)
Latent (Bqr Esfl) secret visible (Iqq)
Lax (Erc{sr6) loose strict 1+-ik)
Lessen (6q 6-(lI) diministt extend ({6r{I)
lingo ttfr mml biter hasren (rtffiI +,,rql) .
Listless (Wl careless active (g<l
Iofty (lrq) exalted undignified ( sRhr+c)
Irll (tlrd) calm excitement (E+q-{I)
Lusty (Tqr) strong weak (i5.{tr)
Malady 1ffi) disease healthy (gtcr)
Malicious (5e) wicked kind (r<rq;
Mania (cFr(ITl) lunacy sanity (qcffi0)
Mar (furstt) ruin make (T{HI)
Meditate (Tfi rtrGr) think execute (i5,ttl)
Mellow (Y6I Eql) ripe unripe (sE )
MiId ( qri +fl) heed ignore (sicil 6"(il)
Mischief (dz cii{il) hurt benefit (Erq vfcH)
Misty (g*retl dim clear (g)
Mock (fird v.srrl ridicule admire (y$qr EFflI)
Muse (+fl) think act (6,r{ iF,r)
Nasty (rrEI) filttry nice ( 3rt)
Nerve (sr6q) courage timidity 16m.m) 195
Noctumal (T6{r) dark 1vr+aror)
Novel (urgF++; modern ancient (srst{)
Communication Skills &
Personality Development Obese (+a) fat slender 15eat)
Obstacle (qItII) banier help (Tfi)
Occult (fuql EoIr) hidden open lqar)
NOTES Offspring (e-ia) children ancestry (Td)
Onerous (qrt) heavy light (FrI)
Oppress (r<l) overtask assist (q(( Ecr)
Ordinance (ecqr{rr) regulation custom (tft-Rars;
Ovenhrow (re rfitll) demolish construct (mn)
Passion (+6) affection ftiSdity 1F'errr)
Peerless (orEfrq) unique ordinary (sFlrq)
Penetrate (g+cct) pierce withdraw 1f;r*rer)
Perceive (is{) discem ovedook (sim qrcll
Petition (sFt{I) prayger protest (3[rqf()
Pick (gT{r) select reject (3[dt['R i[,({r)
Pile (er) heap scatter (fdqtr)
Plague (ctm E({r) annoy amuse 1qfr5qt o({l)
Pluck (16{r) courage cowardice (st+s')
Plunge lqrr) sink emerge 1r+-e *+)
Ponderous (qrfr) weighty liCht (ffir)
Precede (Tffi *{r) herald follow ({-d-frd 3rnr)
Predict <q|irq+ufr om) prophesy recall (qK Ern)
Prelude 1v61++) preface conclusion (flq{)
p.rggish (wtffi i[,'(rr) affected unaffected lonmwd)
Primitive (vr+i) ancient modem (qqFffi)
Probity (FEI) inagrrty rascality 15wt)
Procure (cm) get lose (dil)
Profound (rt6{r) deep shallow (fr6HI)
Proposal (vklre) offer order (3{rtfl)
Pry (tqtr) peep overlook (sr{td 6({r)
Provide (+{r) supply retain (+6,il)
Pueride (sr{I) childislt mmly (gitsd)
Putrefy (s.sfl) rot preserve ({(fud {q{I)
(efo{r) remble rest ( qRFr rsGI)
Rack (qF{r t{) torture console (<nm q.,,
Rail 1ve+r(;Ir) scold flatter (\$r[( 6(rt)
Rapture (3lE<) delight agony (ft{rfl)
Rational (q[{qR) sensible mad (crrrd)
Raze (Tz r5'fii) destroy erect (sgl s{a)
Rear (EIrtr{-Cr6{ TETII) breed kill (cr{rr)
Recline (qrnl lean stand (Eq a;HI)
Reel 1g{ffi gq q(r{T) sragger nm ({rHI)
Reflect (&-cR 6ttl) muse overlook <stqfl s{rl)
Refute (Iltln fu6 +r<r) falsi& confirm ,ge ur+)
Reiterate (si6{rrr) repeat reverse 1t-6 er+)
Reliance (fr{-{c) confidence diffidence (3rfrws)
Rend 1frw) tear patch (rl{q( 6GI)
Resemblance (cr{fl) similarity difference ( 3[qHTdr)
r95 Respond (Efl +{r) answer overlook 6rfl)
Retain (t{, {qn) restrain give up (dq t{r)
Revenge (T(dI) vengeance pardon (qql) Section A : Grammar
Revive (il+drqr +<r) refresh exhaust (rrsr)
Rigd 1q,dt<) stem flexible (gerqql
Sdary (c-w) wages gft (Elr6R)
Scholar (frrq) disciple master (5) NOTES
Sequel ({<) close openrng (Vsqn)
slock (6tqr) loose tighl (5R)
sociable (frfi{sR) ftiendly bashful (YFctdr)
Sordid (Erir*) greedy prodM (tuIIsq{)
Spontaneous (qd:) willing compulsory lofiarda:)
Squander (wdr q,q{; consume save (dsm)
Starved (TqI) iltfd well-fed (orddQft-d)
Suive lvq[q s,,c{) endeavor yield (qc{ur 6{rr)
Sup,ine (grR) luy diligent (EYrd)
Tally (tudil) agree differ (fqi Ehr)
Thaw (frTdil) melt fteeze (qtr{r)
Trnge ({rra) dye erase (fucrir)
Trammel (q'tr{) bond liberation (sdrdr)
Tranquil ({lrd) quiet agitated (situd)
Trivial (trg) frivolous important (q6qwt)
Tlro <{romqrl leamer expert (<q)
Uniform lven) dilc un]ilrc ( sTqqn)
Usurp (Eicrqr dil) seize surrender (qq{ur 6{ +fl)
Vile (s) sordid noble (*ts)
Whet q,rql)
(qR +q sharpen blunt ($'q{r sr{r)
Wholesome (erer51; healthy unhealthy sTgre{fi)
Wizard (qq'R) magician dupe (+drqer)
Yearn (qE{I) desire loathe (qs{f, 6-(lr)
EXERCISE 3. FrrJ in the btanks with the antonyms of the words given in the brocke*
l. Ravi is (h[)
2. God keeps everyone............ (dead)
3. He set out on a ......... joumey. (short)
4. ...................a11 the time is not good. (working)
5. Ramu is a ........................ boy. (kind)
are very ......................rday.
!. lvc (unhappy)
7. The cages looked................
8..Work hard and you wi11....... (rail)
9. It was ............ for him to do. (differculr)
10. They went beyond the reach of their................ (friends)
ll. Ours is not a very...........,................... school. (brg)
12. Don't be.............................of your mistakes. (careful)
13. Writing is a ............................invention. (useless)
14. It was a beautifu1.......... (evening)
15. The ocean is very............................. (shallow)
16. Reshma always wore a .............................dress. (clean)
17. The next moming Reshma's face was.......... (dtuty)
18. The forests in Assam are very............... (thin)
19. The servants canied a ...,.............,.....dress. (clean)
.20. The silk merchant was a ............................. man. (fearful)
21, Mount Everest is the .....,.,.......... mountain peak in the world (lowest) 197
22. The people gave ...opinions. (same)
23. My father is e ........................'.." man. (short)
Communication Skills & (witch)
Personality Development 24. He is a .............................
25. Dhyan Chand is a .................'........'.. for excellence' (antonym)
26. All children are .....'.......................
27. My .......,,, a housewife.
NOTES (cruelly)
28. Children should be treated....'...'......'...'......'..
29. You can think about....'..'.....'...'......'.."occupations'
30. The fort stood ...........'...'.......'.'.'. on a stecp hill.
EXERCISE 4. Fitt in tha blantu with appropriate synomyms given in the brack*
l. We should be ............. of our duties. (wicked)
2. Banwir was a ............. man. (compel)
3. My father ............. me to work hard for examinations (mind)
4. He did not ............. to my advice. (dislike)
5. Everybody .............criminals. (sharp)
6. A eagle has ............. eyes. (misled)
7. My friend ...........'. me during examinations. (opinion)
8. Nobody liked his ....'.'.'.... ' (oral)
9. During interview .'....'.'.... questions are asked. (source)
10. Himalaya is the ............. of the Ganga'
ll. The teacher did not '.......'.... us go home. (physical)
12. Words worth did not like ............. beauty.
13. The prisoner filed a writ.."......... in the High Court'
14. The shop is ............' a present on every purchase' Giving)
15. He ............. my idea of going home.
16. We should not ....'...'.... at the poor.
17. ............. mangoes taste sweet.
18. The naughty monkey used to.'.'.........' People and children'
19. A nun ............. in convent'
(giving out)
20. The car is ..........'.. smoke.

EXERCISE 1 l.inhabitants,2. foolishly,3. sleeping,4. heard, 5' darkness,6' back-
ward,7. near,8. exactly, g. management, 10. famous, ll' crowded,
12. careless, 13. filled, 14. producer, 15. interesting, 16' healthy'
17. agreement, 18. wonderful, 19' disciplinarian, 20. beautiful'
2l. independently, 22. helpless, 23. activities' 24. excellence, 25' friendly'
EXERCISE 2 l. leaning,2.useless, 3' comer,4. wrong,5' Machinery 6' magical'
7. Running,8. excitement, g. dangerous, 10. darkness, ll'
graveyar- d,
l4.colourful, I5. adventurous' l6' gmdually'
12. description, 13. lovely,
17. within, 18. magician, 19. famous,20' healthy,2l. nationality,
22. efiployment,23. information, 24. historical, 25. natural.
EXERCISE 3 4. playing. 5. unkind. 6. happy' 7. empty, 8 suc-
l. short, 2. alive, 3. long.
ceed, 9. easy, t0. enemies, I I . small, I 2. careless' I 3. useful' 14' mom-
ing, 15. deep, 16. dirty, 17. clean, 18. think, 19. heavy, 20..fearless,
21. highest, 22. different, 23. tall' 24. wizard,25' synonym, 26. equal'
27. mother, 28. kindly;29. traditional, 30. high.

EXERCISE 4 l. conscious,2. bad,3. forced,4. heed,5. hate,6. keen,7. mis-

guided,8. idea,9. verbal, 10. origin, 11. permit, 12. material,
aition, 14. offering, 15. rejected, 16. mock, 17. ripen' 18. harm,
19. dwelled, 20, emitting.

Seclion A : Grammar

Synonyms, Antonyms and

Homonyms NOTES

A. Homonym is a word of same form as another but carry different sense.

As for example poh means a long slender rounded tapering piece of wood
or (rarely) metal expecially as support for tent, telegraph wires, etc.

Another meaning of pqle is the two points in the celestial sphere about
which the stars appear to be sewed. As for example North pole, fautt
pole. Pole are also Native of Poland.

B. Synonym:

Word identical or partly similar in sense and usage with another of the
same language word denoting the same thing (s) as another is suitable to
different context (as leap for jump, slay for kill) or containing different
suggestions (as blind-worm for slow-worm) word equivalent to another in
some other sense (as ship for vessel).

c. Antonym:
A word of contrary meaning to another, as : bad to good.
Some more examples :
Communication Skills & HomonYms :
Abandim-Give upto another's control or mercy or yield oneself com-
pletely to a passion or impulse; give up (a possession or habit) forsake (a
person, post).

Abandon- Careless freedom, letting oneself go.

Synonyms :
Attest- affirm, authenticate, countersign, testify.
Antonyms :
Abase- hamour etc.

You may find variation in spelling of a single word e.g. the word with the
suffix ize and its derivatives e.g. ization, differ in English dictionary of
British and American origin. As for example realisation (= realization),
organisation (= organization).

(i) One syllable words ending in single vowel + single consonant double the
consonant before a suffix beginning with a vowel :
run * ing = running
but wish + ed = wished (two consonants).
fear + ing = fearing (two vowels)
(ii) Words of two or three syllabbles ending in single vowel + single consonant
doubles the final consonant if the last syllable is stressed :
control + er = controller
The consonant is not doubled if the last syllable is not stressed :

' benefit + ed = benefited

suffer + ing = suffering
(iii) In British English the consonant 'l' is doubled, even if the stress does not
fall on the last syllable :
quarrel + sd = quarrelled.
travel + er= traveller
Note the exception parallel + ed paralleled. If the word to which the suffix
fu[ is added ends in lL the second I is dropped :
skll+ful=sklful, Section A : Grammar
Words ending in silent 9 drop the e before a suffix beginning with a vowel
(vi) The e remains before a suffix beginning with a consonant :
engage + ment = engagement
Note the exceptions :

(vii) Notice the special case of words ending in g,E and gg which keeps the e
when adding able and ous :

notice + able = noticeable

. change + able = changeablc
(viii) In such words the e and g are pronounced soft before e. Sometimes the
e is retained to avoid confusion with a similar word :

sing + ing = singeing (do not confuse.with singing)

swing + ing = slaring"int (do not confuse with swinging)
(ix) Words ending in ee do not drop an e before a suffix :

(x) Words ending in ie change the ie to y when i4g is added :

die dying,
- tying,
lie lYing
(xi) A final y following a consonant changes to i before a suffix except lgg :

But y following a vowel does not change :

communication Skils & Note a few exceptions :

Personality Development pay+ed=paid

(xii) When ie or ei is pronounced like ee ie Jeep' i comes before g except after
believe receive.
. achieve deceive
field conceit
Some exceptions :

seize protein counterfeit

weird plabeian

Section B : Composition
Making a Technical Report

Nowadays the school and colleges have adopted the slstem of ter,n papers
and assignrnents forjudging the students' ability . This is a novel way instead
of having the examination at the end of the ternt. entailing lots of last minute
hectic activity .Thus in formal educatron the writing of dissertation, thesis and
technical report has become synonymous.

Conventions of Writing
Delining the Problem

Defining the problem is the first task. It involves determining what the
questions, assignment or essay requires you to do. Some commonly
encountered words and their meaning in the context of assignment is
given below.

1. Analyse : Consider the various c:omponents of the whole and try

to describe the inter-relationships between them.

2. Compare : Examine the charactenstlcs of the objects in question

with a view to demonstrating their simrlarities and their differ- 203
Communication Skills & 3. Contrast : Examine the characteristics of the objects in question
Personality Development for the purpose of demonstrating differences.
4. Deflne : Give a definition or state terms of reference.
5. Discuss : Present the different aspects of a questionor problem.

6. Enumerate : Give a listing.

7. Evaluate : Examine the various sides of a question and try to
reach a judgment.

8. Examine critically : Act as a judge or critic, appraise.

9. Illustrate : Give an example, explain, draw a figure.
10. Prove : Demonstrate or show by logical argument.
11. Summarize : Examine the main points briefly.

Limiting The Problem

Spend a few hours right at the beginning by limiting the problem.

topic :

l. Diseases affecting wheat

2. The control of rust in wheat

3. Recent development in control of wheat rust in the region of

Doaba village.

Out of these topics the first is fit for a book. The second is too broad
for a term paper. The third topic is manageable.

Time Schedule
Allocating time for reading, data collection, analysis and writing is a
must for bringing out the besr result.

Consulting Source Material

A suggested list of referinces is often included with set assignments.

Begin reading with these materials. Reference books contain further
reference material. Collect them and read further for promising leads.
Search the library with catalogue/computers.

Preparing Working Bibliography

A bibliography for a written assignment is an alphabetic
list of all
source material to which reference has been made. The essential in-
xn formation has to be as follows :
l- Authors name and initials ' Section B: Composition

2- The name of article, journal, book.

3- Place of publication, publisher, and date of publication NOTES

4- Few lines on the contents of the book/journal/article.

The call number of the library along with the name of the library is an
additional information.

Taking Notes

Notes can be made on full scape paper or in the reference card itself
depending upon the details required. Remember in technical report,
each author's contribution has to be acknowledged, whether you are
paraphrasing or giving within quotes.

The Outline

The format / layout of the reports varies as per the institution. Follow
the rcquired format for the outline. Here a general format is suggested.

Title of the Assignment

That is the first thing to be decided upon and would depend upon the
selection of the topic.

Define the aim of the work undertaken in a few lines.


Delineate the aspects which would be taken into account for the present
' research.

Methodology :

The technical report writing takes the help of various insnuments 'math-
ematical and statistical tools, approved and sanctioned laboratory
protocols which aid and facilitate the study. For field oriented works
field work methodology and the method of data collection form an
important part. All these things have to be presented under this sub-

Introduction :

In this, a clear statement of the problem has to be made Define your 205

terms and indicate the limits of the study. Set the problem within a
Communication Skills & meaningt'ul background. This should provide the readers with all nec-
Personality Development essary information for what is to follow. It should be crisp and infor-

NOtf,S Review Of The l,iterature

Once the topic has been selected it is essential to review all the
relevant material whrch has bearing on the topic. Chronologically all
the works need to be sited and disbussed with in the topic under

Designing The Study :

The design is the pivot on which the thesis rests.It is difficult to gen-
eralize here, but the main features would include :

Statement of Hypothesis :

A clear statement of the argument and the grounds for it.

Statement Of Assumptions :

ln every study it is necessary to make certain assumptions. Wherever,

these are made, thev should be stated clearly. Nothing should be
taken for granted.

Statement of Limitation of the Study :

The time allowed for a study and restrictions of length in report-

ing. It imposes neoessary limitations on each study. The limis of
the proposed investigation should be clearly defined.

Appropriateness of Research Design :

In the empirical study, the statistical methods for testing hypoth-

esis need to be described and examined for appropriateness.

The Control of Error :

In experimenml studies, variables have to be considered and

controlled and these need to be described.

Reliability and Validiry :

The reliability of the test instruments have to be given in the body

of the report.

Conclusion :

This section presents the finding of the study, the solution or the
2M approach to the solution to the problem initially stated.
Example: Section B : C-omposition

Title page
The critical history of the Agrarian movement

Ramesh Mehta

assignment of modern history for graduate course

Department of History

University of Delhi

24h luly 20OB

Table of Content : Page

Acknowledgement I
Preface 2

List of tables 3

List of Figures 4

l. Introduction 6

2 Socio-political movements in the area...... ...............1 1

Religious orientation ............... ............... ... I 5

Cultural background ... ... ............... ... ... .......20

Educational orientation .............................. 28

Economic ............35
111 The beginning of unrest ...............42
Geographic uncertainty .........56
Economic constraints .........,,,.,64
Political Intervention ,,.....................72
lV Organized Movement ......... .......80

Elderly .......90
Women .......94
Post Movement Scenario ............110 m7
Communication Skilis & Vl ...
pggcf9sion... ... ... 120
Personality Development
Bibliography .....124
Appendixes 128
Editing the Einal Draft
Before the final draft of the assignment or report is typed it should be
carefully edited. It is the responsibility of the writer to ensure that the text
is free from spelling and grammatical errors. The spellings to be checked
from an authoritative dictionary . The punctuation, capitalization, hyphen-
ation and abbreviations should be referred to a recognized text. further,
the headings, sub headings, quotations, footnotes, tables and figures,
references and appendixes need to be checked and rechecked.

After having satisfied yourself, the draft may be handed over for typing.

Proof Reading the Final Report

Each line needs attention and special eraser may be used to rectify the
mistakes. [n case a page has several mistakes, then it should be retyped.
This part of the work is tiring but of utmost importance


Prepare a project on the following topics and submit it to your teacher:

l. Solar energy and its use in Indian homes

2. The socio-economic needs of the domestic helps

3. The declining trend of playing outdoor games amongst the adolescent
4. Relevance of youth participation in Indian politics today.

5. Morality and its erosion from Indian values.

Orcdtlbsrhop i
32. Whatis Editing?

Section B : Composition
E-Mails and Text Messages
Composing NOTES

l,etter writing on simple paper or on internet are messages and certain letter-
forms have been established by experience and customs as the most useful
forms learned and used by every letter-writer, for neglect of them is a sign of
ignorance and carelessness.

There are several different kinds of letters (such as friendly letters, business
letters etc.) each of which has its own particular form, but there are certain
matters of form which apply to all and these may be noted down.

In all kind of letters there are six points of form to be taken care of. These

(i) The heading consisting of (a) writer's address and (b) the date. dred<lbur Progrccc
(ii) The courteous greetings or salutation. 33. What are the six
points of form in all
(iir) The communication or message - the body of letter. kind of letter to be
(iv) The subscription, or courteous leave-taking or conclusion. taken care of ? What
are they ?
(v) The signature

(vi) The superscription on the envelope (if sent by surface mail) m9

Communication Skills & (i) The Heading :
Personality Development
This inform the reader where you wrote the letter and when. The where
(which should be the writer's full address/E-mail Id, gives the address to
NOTTS which reader may apply : and the when is for reference, as it gives him
the date on which you wrote.
The position of the heading is the top right hand corner of the first page
- the address above and the date just below it. The heading and the date
may altematively go on the left.

(i) PragyaPublications
E-38, Industrial Area,
Mathura - 281004
Date 14 June, 08
The date may be written in any of the following ways :

l4'h, June 2008 - 14-6-2008

l4th June 2008 - 14.6.2008
June, 14, 2008 - 14161200g
To a British person 14.6.2008 means the fourteenth of June 2008.
But the Americans put the month before the day hence they would
write 611412OO8

(il) Salutation or Greeting :

The form of Greeting will depend upon the relation in which you stand to
the person to whom you are writing.

(a) To members of your family, for example, it will be My dear Mother,

Dear Uncle, Dear Father. My dear Hari, etc.
To friends, it will be :
Dear Shyam, Dear Sunita etc.

To business people, it will be :

Dear sir, Dear Sirs etc.

It may be noted here that the use of term Dear is purely formal and
is nothing more than a polite expression, the term does not necessarily
imply any special affection.
The position of the salutation is at the left hand of the first page, at
a lower level than the heading.

(iii) The communication or body of the letter : Se.ction B : C-omposition
Thrs is the heart of the matter and the style in which it is written depends
upon the krn<i of letter you intend to write. The style of letter to an intimate
friend would differ than that of a purely business letter or an official com-
munication. But some common hints that apply to all letters are given
below :
(a) Divide your letter (unless it is short) into paragraphs to mark changs
of subject matter.
(b) Use simple and direct language and short sentences. you should know
that English is a language of short words. Fowler, one of the authori-
ties on the use of good English, quotes a passage from l\,Iilton's ..paradise
lost" in which 52 out of 56 words have only one syllable. He also
quotes a passage from Tennyson's 'Idyll of the king, in which only
twelve out of l0l words have more than one syllable.
(c) Avoid unnecessary words.

Unnecessary words are words which add nothing to the meaning of

the sentence.

(d) Try to be complete.

It is a sign of bad planning when you have to add. post scripts at the
end of a letter. Think out what you want to say before you begin to
write and put down your points in some logical order.
(e) Write neatly
Remembec if you are not using a type-writer or computer and using
your pen only your wnung should be neat, so that the person to whom
you are sending a message should easily read what you write and you
should not give him unnecessary trouble with bad penmanship.
(f) Take care of your punctuation marks and put in commas and semi
colons and full stops in their proper places. The correct puncuation
may alter the whole meaning of a sentence.
A correspondent, was covering the press conference of a military
general. The general said that he had ordered his troops after the
victory not to kill the enemies tmd leave them. The correspondent
sent the following text of the news head line .
"Kill them, not leave rhem". The correct version would be..kill
them not, leave them" the meaning of the first was quite contrary
to the meaning ofthe second. The first sentence means..kill all the
enemies and do not leave them alive" while the actual meaning as
deciphered from the correct punctuation is "Do not kill them (the
enemies), leave them (let them live)". 211
& (iv) The subscription or courteous leave taklng
Communication Skills
Development A letter must not end abruptly simply with the writer's name/signature.
This would look rude. So certain forms of polite leave taking are pre-
scribed. Such as ........
Yours sincerely, your sincere firend, yours faithfully etc'
(v) The singature or name of the writer must come below the subscrip-
tion. 'Thus yours sincerelY.
(R.K. Dhawan)
(vi) The address on the envelope (or post card) should be written neatly
such as

Seagull hrbllcations
I washington Square Villagp
Apt ru, NewYodq NY 10012

An Example
121-c, sector 19

Rohini Delhi-I10085
2nd January, 2008

Dear sir,
' I shall be much obliged if you send me as soon as possible the books
which I ordered on l2th Decembet 2007.
Yours faithfully

(D.R. Saxena)

Write a short letter to :

l. A friend describing your favourite hobby.

2. A friend describing a foot-ball match'
3. A company asking for some information on the sports goods that they
have advertised.
4. Your sister explaining how you missed your exams.
5. A friend arranging for an excursion together.
6. A friend who is going abroad with his father and mother.
Section B : Composition

Lefter Writing

htters are excellent means of communication, but writing them demands a lot of
practice patience and hard work. It is an art which needs to be perfected before
We write letters on all occasions. Write letters to friends and family members. We
also write to people who are our seniors, or with whom we are in some sort of
busjness. The letters which are written to our near and dear ones are called informal
letters while those written to people in business with us or letters to the editors of
the newspaplers or to our seniors etc. are Fomal letters. Both types are different
form each other in purpose, tone, style, word selection etc. In this chipter we,d
learn to write both Formal and Informal letters.

There is a format which we have to stick to while writing to somebody. They are
almost similar for both. Formal and Informal styles. We'd see them ahead and
prictise then because it's they wfiich give a piece of writing the look and the form
of a letter. There are some mdel expressions for each part of the format you may
look up to while frarning your own sentences. Don,t copy them in !oto. Rather, they
would help you understand what should be written in that space or in that part.
Parts of a Lctter :
(1) YourAddrrss : It is written on the top left side
of the letter. Earlier it occupied the top right
spot on the page but now. The changed pattems
recommend sticking to the topleft space. How-
ever in informal letters you still may opt for the
top-right sopt.
It's written as :
178, Raman Street,
Saket Vihar
Your address should be short, clear and enough so that the receiver may have
an idea who has written to him and in need ofa reply he may use that address 213
!o write back to you. Don't write your own name in your address.
communication skills & 2. Addrcs of the Adrcssee : .Iust below your own address, leaving some space,
personalityDevetopment you Should write the Address of ttre Addressee.
Mr. Satish Chandra
72, Purnendu Nagar,
NOTES Mitramandal colony,
3. Date : Below the address .rf the Addressee alter a little space, you should w,ite
'Date'. You may write date in several ways, 20th October 2011' Octobot
20,2011, 20- 10-20 I l, 20t 10t20n.
4. Salutations : Salutations vary a bit on ditlbrent occasions' I1 you are writing to
your boss or senior or a person you are or have to be in business with write
Dear Sir/Dear Madam,
While writing a letter of application or a letter to the editor of a newspaper or
a very senior authority, just write.
If the person you are writing to is one among your friends and family' you may
choose a wide range of expressions- My dear Avi, Dear Sushma, My dear
Mom/Dad/Unle/Aunt, Dear Anil. Dear Shashank.
While writing to one's girl friend/hoy friend/v'ife/husband or somebody we are
emotiondly attached to, you mav u'rire Dearest, My heart's darling' My love' etc'
5. The Body of the Letter : This part is very important ast it carries your
message io the person votl are communicating with. It should be as short as
possible, simple, crisp and straigtforward It consists of four parts :
Intruducing the toPic :
o I camc ro kuow that your final exams are at hand and you are still not
serious to your studies.
o I am wnting to complairt ab<.rrrt...../ I am wnring to renrirrd you of........
o I want to anest the attention of the concerned authorities to ..................
through your reputed newspapet,
' Describing the toPic :
o Being a seasonal student can't help and you should be regular at studies.
(You may choose adjectives to stress or convey your feelings as required)
o The laptop was purchased three months ago and it is still in the guarantee
o Dumping the garbage just outside the city is not the solution and it causes
air as well as :;oil pollution and.....
Stating what you want or the solution you affer I
o I hope you will heed to rny sugges0ons and study as per a regular and well-
planned schedue.
o I hope the company will take necesary actions to replace or repair the
laptop so that.....
o I hope the concemed authorities will see to it that a proper garbage disposal
plan is brought to realirl and.... ............
Clocing :

214 o Awaiting your positive reply

o I look forward to the meeting.......
Section B : Composition
6. Courteous Leave-taking: In this part you say good bye with some polite
phrases. like.

I-g yt uty, Vqlrs sincerely, Fairhfully youn, Affectionaaly youn

yrrurs lovingly,
With love, With regards etc.
7. Your Signaturc : Ifyou are writing to a person who has been known to you
for lo1q, you may sign in short, but if the person is a stranger or a person you
are writing to first time, you must sign in full.

SignatureinShort- &-, g**;#U,*.--

Signature in Full - Avi Bhutt, Shashank, Iftislma
Now let us look at format in a box :

B-74, Dwarka
Dada Bhai Road <- Your Address

Kavi Prakash,
Avant, Strect, e Address of the Addressee

l0-08-201I <- Date

Dear kavi +- hopr Salutations

Body of the letter

Yours sincerely 1- Couneous leave taking

AdityaRaj + Your Signature

There are a few things that you should keep in mind before you venture on writing
a letter. Ask youself a few questions :

o What is the purpose of writing this letter ? - It may be just you wan o
know tlp whereabous of your friends, family members or acquaintaraes. you
migth be offering a suggestion to your friend, younger brcther or sister. There
may arise need to complain about a problem to some one or rEquest for
leave. You may be writing to highlight some social issue in a newspaper by a
Ietter to its editor. You must be very clear why you have picked up i pen to
write to someMy.Once the purpose is clear it gets easiar to plan a ietter.
Communicatiorr Skills . Who are you writing to ? -Answering this question helps you set the tone
fersonality Development of your letter. If you are wdting to your Principal or your boss the language
you use is quite differnt from the one you wite while communicating with
your near and dear ones.
o The First Draft - After determining your purpose and your audience
prepare the first draft trying to put in it all that you want to convey' Never
think that in should be perfect from all angles, for it isjust the first draft'
o Edit and Proofread it - See whether you have presented the matter the
way you wanted to. Can it draw the kind of response you expect from the
p"rson yo, ute writing to ? Have you used the right words ? And Finally,
read and re-read it to find out if there has been any ermr related to structure
or spelling.
Writing Fromal Letters :

While writing formal tetters your aim should be to express what you want to say
clearly. The reader must be able to understand 1007o of it in the first reading itself'
Do dre following :

o Use standard English words which are formal and appropriate'

o Avoid slangs or informal expressions.
o Avoid writing contracted froms like (I'm, I'll, havent, won't etc') Don't use
abbreviations (ad-advertisement).
o Don't write very long or complex sentences which are difficult to under-
o Be poiite and courtcous.
o Avoid being emotional.
o End your letten with.

Sincerely yours, Youn trully, Youn faithfully' Regards erc.

Business Letters :
[.et us se a letter of complaint o see the layout, the language' the tone, the manner
we should use.
Raj has travelled in the AC companment of animportmt Superfast Express Train.
\\Iiile travelling he had to undrgo several inconveniences. He is writing a letter to
ttre Railway Authorities, asking for compensation for the tough time he had to face.

The Manager
Customer Grievance Cell,
krdian RailwaYs,
Rail Bhawan,
Sept 2, 2010.
Derar SirMadanu
My wife and I were travelling by Taj Heritage Express on ticket no'
..........................and on 18 Aug 2010 from Agra to Amritsar' I
am writing this letter to complain about various incoveniences we had !o suffer
216 from during the joumeY.
First, just within half an hour after the train left the station, some unauthorised Section B: Compositkm
persons boarded the Ac-tr compartment we were in and occupied all the seats.
What to talk of pnoper tickets they did not have any tickets at all. They started
cutting vulgar jokes. the toilet glass was broken and the airconditioning was
switched off for a considerable period of time. We had to pas.s a hanowing time NOTES
as not a single official or guard was ttrere to take charge of tlrc siuation and deal
Secondly, the bed-sheets and the blankets we were provided were not properly
cleaned and we had to pass the night withuot using any of them.

If I pay a hefty sum to buy the journey tickets I must be provided thp security
and comfort I have been promised. I therefore expect some compensation for
your failure to ensure those facilities.

Yours sineeely
Raj Roy

A Letter to an Editor
A letter written to editor is a formal letter. It is for the public. You attract the
attention of people to an issue of public importance or project an administrative arrest the attention of concemed govemment authorities.
A letter to the editor should be written direct. The language should be simple yet
forceful. It should express your opinion clearly. Afew changes are made :
(i) In the salutation, we write 'Sir', instead of writing Dear Sir or Dear Madam.
(ii) A title is supplied to atract the readers attention.
(ii) In the courteors leave taking we write 'youn ruly' and nothing else.
Mainly it is divided into four paragraphs. In the first paragraph we introdur;e the
topic. In the second paragraph we give. Main points with proper reasons. In the
ttrird one more reasons and examples are given to support the main point while in
the fourth paragraph we try to provide a solution or appeal to the authorities o take
proper steps towards solution of the problem.
Let us look at a letter written to the editor. The Times of India on the effect of
'Violence scenes in Cinema' on children.

The Editor
Times qf lndia
New delhi
The effect of violence scenes in cinema on children

Through your esteemed newspaper I would like to draw

the attention of parents and guardians to the negative in- Para I
fluence of violence scenes in the movies today on chil- intofucing
dren. It has polluted the young minds making them prone the topic
to aggresive behaviour.
Communication Skiils &
Today the films are full of bloodshed iurd killing scenes,
Personalig Development
and project violence as only way to solre all the pmblem.
Para 2 giving
Most of the movies are knit around a superhero who can
the main poins
beat or Lill at least fifty people at a time. Children take
NOTES with reasum
pleasue in watching all this. It develops in them a sadistic
tendencies ;urd they become inscnsitive.

We, everyday, read about several news items in which the

teenagers arc reported to be involved in robbery casses. Supporting the
In America frequent shootouts by studenLs in schools and reasons with
colleges have wonied the parents as well as the eqtire examples

Therefore, it should be taken into serious consideration

what sons of films are being made and there should be Providing
an effective regulatory systcm. In addition, awareness in solution.
this regard must be created among people.
Yours mrly
Thomas Joe

A Letter of Application :
,\ few changes will rnark this kintl of letter.
. The salutariorr is Sir,Madam and not 'Dear Sir'or'Dear Madam'.
o In the first piirag ph wrii.'iluour thc ieast'trn oI seeking leave.
o In the second paragraph request for salr'Jtiouing the leave.
. In thc third paragraph, express y()ur thankfirlcss for the expected favour
done by him.
o In the courteous leave t:rking you may write.
o Sincerely yours, yours faithfully etc.

Let us look at a letter of application for three day's leave.


My brother's murriage is Boirlg to be solemnised on June The tirst paragraph

20, 2010. My father has written tn me to reach home till stating the reason ol
l5th of .lune to assist hirn in preparatrons. leave

I know my absence in the office may cause a bit of The second paragBph
inconveniene but seeing the urgeney of my purpos you rEuesting lor sanction-
are requested to grant me a leave for one week from 15 ing the leave

June to 22 June 2010.

I'd be thankful to you for this ckrne to me. Expressing thanks.

Youn laithlirlly
Aditya Raj
21G Accountant
Writing Informal I.etters : Section U Compositmn
Informal I'.u(rrd':!ri|l-'rn,,r' ft.e/[-tr.l ,vhr; i
tmcs tr, style anr! langt..tgt h rft_r-
mal lcnem 1rc rrtostl: w:ifl,-t,-
.h.js'V?r{ lrc:<..Or..^t t./ \,ri!r \1111 ;1lsr.,.. yrrir'.
emotions anr, t'' yoirr ixrar dhrl (xlcs. N<r word hnit is there. SlangS,
at times, lu are h-., gi1,3n NOIfS
One- hand thrg fi'sec;rllr :s g(x). rs ir. rir-rerarei your creativity and enc(,urages you
to exlrriment, orr drc other hand rt rrtay read you strav. Therefore. use this freedom
judiclr:usly The letter shoul,! ,rot he endlessly long. To,r many slangs shorrtd .:,rr
Creep in Don't he su,tpt by tlrt'em,rlr( rrs r.ff your f.rrot and forget to convery tlrc
original ,nessage.
lrt ur' sec a few Inftrnrial lutti:"r r, iui?n t,,'.irifererrt p.uplc in oiffrrcnt situations.
1. A lerter to a hieud inrrtrng him to spend the summer vacations together.
Dear Kamal,
I hope you arc ir, gi,. .'pi'ii I,'-ueilcd \'(u' ietlel ve.toda) air,i
'arnr: e'1:,u,,
th.rt youl cxamillaliutis l r,rrt' < ,.,r.

I trelier.. srn,iirr i.l.-tir_lr,s hdi,. kElil .:^./,ilt_ r(illege a1,l J^u must be getting
. ready tt say grud-bye to rht. n,)sJ- t('r lr.vo m^nths and return home. I have
also come back frorn Pure ye,rrerd:,v. 'l his time I anr planning to have a l5
d,,iy's tnp to Mtrsc{,t ic. '-)ne c,f ary utr.:!c: ,r'iio it'.'.:s thcrl h,ls:nvit:d me.'l .rre
tr-.p. '['he ,nn51 i4.3:;:1;-rgirrg .hi"; ii hc. 11"4."' Psryri11.d me to hring at least one
lrierrd uith me, ,Sincc then. I have bccn :hinking about you.
lf you naven'r vet rlaoe any speci{rc prfln regardlng the surrrmer vacation. -rou
afi- ,virr,'.'y w.:!:'",ri( to accompi{l',r rris 1; }ilo,';;6611s lt's s. bcauuful hli stacion
in GrrJhwal range

Think and w"ite abour i/(rur n)i, ri;,1 r1; 61 --,ryxrsirl. Ilov.'arc ll,rcie ad \untit
C(1nve) jn) tpEil4s rn rheli

Aftbctionatetv vour.
Aditya Gupta

2. A father's letter to a daughter staying ir a hostel. advising her to be

nrore serious to studies. as a teacher ot hers had written to lrirrr com-
plaining about her non serious approach torvards studie;.

Mv dear Net'raja
I nrrpe you are weli Two dalc rg(r I recciv(J a ietter from oue of your
tedchers. She wrote drat liri a fc\4 riecks ycu l:a't: rioi bectl seri,.rus io studies.
She also u rote that it is tellirrg u[^nr y(,ur result in the monthl],t.:sts. Oreck Your kogtss I

At ttmss rny dear, (rre rtrlghl lc( i .i:iir ( tr(l a,rd nne'( couni( i).|(]klnigirt not j.3 Write tlown a |
seem t(, be interesting to,lne, but rt ,rf,1,e' rrealls we shottld allow ourselves to merr of a letter to a I
friend invitirrg nrr,, ro
negicct our duty. kight nuw, ii^r'i u',,.) rs' '\'r\r ha'rt r.; yt;ur studies. Ifyou

spend rhe srrmme. i

tbel a parut:ular subelwt not ineresung )uu udy ieek hclp from the concerned vacatiorr ;
teaeher: Retrlr,",thcr Brear r,r n.'; ihe rti,Pi.' .t,l,r ir,i,'i"e thelllslves in intef-
esting thrngs. But, great ale those unes wlr(, turlr c\ ct) work tnto an interesting
thing.'Ii.lrt rs vcr.r preii.,t r. Bi rcal, trr tr'1.' : ?^: ; rcry rlitute in pursuit of 21'..)
somethrng wunhwhile. I hope r'^.1 get my froints
Communication Skills & Here everybody in the family is Ok. Mama sends you love,
Personatity Devetopment
Yours affectionately,
S.L Sen.
3. A letter to a friend congratulating him on his success in Engineering

Dear Som,
It has been long since I heard from you, but I believe you are hail and hearty.
I saw your name and roll number in the list of successful candidates for the IIT
Joint Entrance Exams. It was indeed a heartening news. Accept my congratu-
lations on this grand success of yours. You have made us proud by this feat of
I remember, even in our school days, you kept talking about clearing the IIT
exams and get admission to one of the world's most prestigious institutions.
LJlt'unately your unflirching will emerge victorios as you are now standing on the
theshold of fulfilling your dream.
I hope you are coming soon. We'll have a big get-together to celebrate this

Convey my regards to youI parents.

Awaiting your reply eagerly,
Sincerely yors
Renjeet Singh

Letters of Invitation

lrtters of invitation nro types formal and informat. Formal notes of inviation
are of
are sent to those whom you know formaly but are not so intimate with or close to.
Formal notes of invitation are very short and are written in the third person. The
reply to such invitations are short too. Informal notes of invitation are just like
penonal letters and follow the same pattem. A few examples of invitation notes of
both formal and informal type have been given below for you to observe, leam and

(i) Formal notes of invitation :

.d Mr. and Mrs. Brajesh Sharma request the presence of Mr. and Mrs. Bhara
Juneja on the occasion of their daughter's wedding ceremony on June 24
2010, at 7.30 AM in the community hall, Mitramadal colony Saket Vihar.

Mr. and Mrs. Sharma 7.00 P.M 13 lune 2010

2m D-76, Miuamandal Colony
(ii) Reply to this letter. Section B : Composition
Mr. and Mrs. Bharati Juneja has pleasure to acoept the invitation of their
daughter's wedding on June Z, 20lQ at tlre community hall of ttreir residential
Mr. and Mrs. Juneja 11.30 AM. 16 lune 2010
R-98, Pumendu Nagar
Mr. Pradeep Bokaria invites Mr. and Mrs. R.C. Dhillon to grace the occasion
of tlre house-warming ceremony on 19 July, 2010, at their newly built residence
at 8.00 P.M. Their esteemed presence will be eagerly awaited.

Mr. Pradeep Bokaria 3Iuly 2010

C-6 Rose Avenue,
Vastu Vihar.

(iii) Reply to this note :

Mr. and Mrs. R.C dhillon has pleasure to accept Mr. Pradeep Bokriaas invi-
tation to the house-warming ceremory at this newly constructed residence at 8
P.M on 19 July 2010. Mr. and Mrs. Dhillon thank Mr. Bokaria for this kind

Mr. and Mrs. R.C. Dhillon 6 July 2010

House No. 76,
Sectoi C, Chandigarh

Informal Letters of Invitation :

As we have earler discussed, Informal ktters/Notes of Invitaion are almost like
personal letters. They are written to those we are close with. Still we have to be
short, crisp. Polite and warm while extending invitation. We can divide such letters
into three parts.

,d This part refers to the opening line or sentence of the letter in which you tell the
re,Non of inviting the concemed person. You may start like this :

(l) You will be pleased to know that my son's wedding has been fixed on

(2) L,et me tell you that my brother's engagement falls on

(3) It's my pleasure to inform you that
(4) I am writing to infrom you that ...................
(5) This letter is to inform you that my son's birthday falls on

B. In the second part we assure them that the printed invitation cards have been
sent, however they are close eough to be written to personally. You can also
make a request to them in some cases to arrive too three days earlier to help
in the preparation. Some model sentences have been given below :
rjermmrrnication .rl.ill. E , ri 1'h,nr.}]- prnrd
invit:rtinn cards have lleen Sent to vort. I think it nfonef to
Person: ::'y Dc|ei,rp,,.;at wnr( perl!(,nally tu d closc liieno tike you.

''\ A..I.r:i iricn :,iel, I eanitE lefi withou. berng,nftlnred tllough a letter
\()Tt S rc'it Lle( ,ruse ;nnteo :n'r,t:niolr 'z',ris '.tii! do rlreir job.
r'! !,,"e reg[ested t.' lrrii'l .rl:ri:r\r (\.r,.'.,ys carlier because I won i be able
k, (!o lrlr.rch tv\ tthoul vot[ preci('us rre:l] 4nrl guidance.

(4i Please 0o come ar ieast 2-3 da.vs ago and let us benefit t'rom your precious
S.Idance rn the preparart, at t'f vorrr tirnclion.
(5) \{y son is persrrn6lly snslusitrg a irrrte with this letter with specral requests
tcr you to be plesent in [i'; hi4fid'-"r' p21t1'

L. In tlre ltrird part we generally remind them to come and that any no will not be
acccpred lrom them. See soi e serrteitce.

t i ) IJo briug your wit'e wiu' yor.'.

121 We are ln no positron to irucept 'no'from you.

i-)7 !)r-.iomc, because we'll f"-el helples., without vour guidance.

.'{-t I xur 5(aling ihis note with a convicrion that'you are coming.

r.i) r'<rLi ue welcome along wilh your entire family,

.'ro* lr.r;1. o1 ;, ','ire u1r:iC,,:
, l. 't:rs ti anred to help you get il practical feel of the way
it is '.,'ri'Lt-.'

i1..,u r{iil
bc h.rpp, to know that mv hrother's engagement and marriage have
hxx, i.xcr.t -r'i jy..rirl -'
.l t,:e ft.spec!..,ely lhough printed inviution cards have
tr(q r( v(,,r. I fi"-i th.rt a clos{- rnend like yuu must be wlitten to pe$otHlly.
t'.. :i-,1rrest \rrr ii) l\Inte
at leasr two days ahead of the function as I'd find
mvstll q'liir' heli)."I:s wil\(nrt 'r,rur help imd precious guidance in the preparation.
\Vc are in nc J.risition 1.. take :ril) 'rro ,ioin you.
I -irg.:r'l;' ;r",:riting y(-1ur ilrri!al,

\r'ur s allettitinatel,
Kir"rar A nutcsh
M.v dcu l(;ir 1r,.sh,,

It's m1 plt mure to inf,rr;r )!ru thar mv sister's marriage has been fixed on 24th
ol Jul) 2liltJ. thorrg]: pr.;uic,l ,.t^'Js aue beirrg seut t(.a.,'ury(!ne, I can't forget
writing ro an intimate frientl like \$u. Your prcsence is kenly awaited as I'd be
able t() do nothing without )lur iiuppoit and guidance. In addition, what's a
,1' celebration without you ? Do come at least three to folr days befor.e the
function. because you have to look after every preparation.
I can't take 'no'from you atleast. Just give us a call the moment you get off the Set:tion I : Composition
train. I'll send my car to receive you,
Yours affectionately
Dear Sujata,
I am writing to inform you that my daughter's birthday falls on 13 August. On
this occasion, we are throwing a party to our near and dear.ones. I must remind.
you that any no will not be accepted by us. My daughter is sending a special
note of request enclosed with this letter. Don't forget ro brirrg your hubby and
your cute little son along with you.

Yours affectionately

You have seen how informal notes of invitation are comSrosed. Now yorr have to
know how you. reply to such letters. There are two situations. First. you may give
your consent of your arrival in the function and second you have to dccline the
invitation for umpteen reasons. In both the cases you have to send them a note.
Especially if for any reason, you find yourself unable to go and have to decline the
invitation, do it as politely as possible. Take care that their emotions are rtot hurt as
people are more a creature of emotion than a creature of reason. You may divide
this reply note into three parts.
(a) Tell them that you got their invitation note and you were happy to know ahout
it. Make them understand why, despite your eamest wishes to be there you find
your-self unable to attend the function. See some model expressions '
(l) Got your note of invitation just yesterday and was very happy to know
about this auspicious ot'casion.
(2) Found your invitation note in my rnail hox today itself and myjoy knew no
bounds to hear this happy news.
(3) I am afraid, inspite of my strongest wishes to be among you dt this happy
occasion. I find myself unahle to come.........
(4) I'm sorry I can't come on that particular day as.........
(b) If youare going to attend the mentioned function tell them that you are coming
and ask them to pick you from the ruilway statigr/airport on........

(l) Complying with your request we have decided to come on.............. . Pleast:
pick us at the station/airport if possible.
(2) Don't sony about the preparations as I will tum up two days ago and
extend a helping hand in everything required.
(3) I know you yourself are a good manager so, I don't sorry at all about the
preparations. However, I'll be there at least one day before the date of
Communication Skills & (c) In the third part we end the letter with a promise to meet them at their place.
Personality Development If you are not going you should send your good wishes for the success of the

(l) I am ending this note with a promise to see you there at your place at the
decided date.
(2) Thankyou for taking rouble to write me personally. See you there nvo days
before the wedding caremony.
(3) I am again sorry for my inability to come to the function but I send my good
wishes for the success of the function.
(4) I am sorry for not coming but my best wishes to the bride and the groom
for their happly conjugal life.
Now sce some examples :
Dare Karunesh,

Got the note of invitation sent by you in my mail box. I was really happy to
receive this news. I have been looking for this occasion to take place. I'll be
there rwo days before the date of wedding. You needn't worry much about the
preparation as we two will be enough to see that every thing goes well. If
possible, please send somebody at the railway station as I'd be reaching there
by the aftemoon train.
Now. I am ending this note with a promise to see you there at your place at
the decided date.
Affectionarcly Yours


Dear Khanna,

Recived your invitation note and was really ovedoyed to know that your sisters
wedding has been fixed on...... . Though I can't say how much I wish to be
there, I am afraid I can't attend the function as I have to go on a four day tour
for company's business. I'll visit you after I come back.
I am really sorry for not coming this time but my best wishes to the bride and
the groom for their happy conjugal life.

Yours sincerely

Section B : Composition
Paragraph Writing

What happens when you focus a torch on a pafticular object? The spot on which
the torch light falls gets illuminated. what happens to the rest of the aspects
of that
object? They remain in dark. So, what does the torch light do? It projects the
particular spot or aspect of the thing. It doesnot project the entire object.
The same
role is played by a Paragraph. A paragraph hiphlights a panicular part or aspect of
a topic. It is a short composition of generally r0-r5 words. writing a paragraph
not very difficult. But to write a good paragraph you need to practice and pay
attention to a few things. A paragraph is divided into three parts.

(a) The first sentence ofa paragraph is called the key sentence. It introduces
the opic. It is very important and without it there can be no such thing called
paragraph. In a very simple way the key sentence should tell what is the
central idea of the paragraph. It may be a .quote, from somewhere a line
from a poem etc.

(b) The middle part or body of the paragraph is also very important. It explains
the topic, or presents the writer's or somebody else's views on it. The
sentences in this part should be simple, staightrorward and crisp. The most
important thing is mainaining a logical sequence. While reading a paragraph
it should not appear that from here and there a few sentences have been put
together to make the body. Each sentence should be logically and coher_
ently linked to another. Don't usejargons or bombastic phrases while writ-
ing a paragraph. Keep it shon and simple is the main strategy we have to
adhere to.
Communication Skills & (c) The conclusion - After the key sentence it is the most important part of the
Personality Development paragraph. No matter how good the body is if the key sentence and the
conclusion are not good, the paragaph is not even worth reading' Second'
the key or Inuoductory sentence and the conclusion must be linked to
NOTES .other. The conclusion must support the key sentence' Ifyou are writing a
paragraph on shakespeare and in your introductory sentence you say that
:Shuk"rp"rt" *"s a great dramatist' your conclusion must be supporting the
sarhe view. Thus these three pans. The key sentence the body and
conclusion all are written well, they make a readable piece'
and re-
Some paragraphs have been given here as models for you to read
read them and then practice writing on the same pattern :

1. My Hobby
a very good pasttime. It teachers you a lot of things about life'
A good novel is the
rituals and a lot more. It also reveals how the people of that period found
o their problems. Thus a novel doesn't only narrate a story but it is also the hisory
of ttrat period. The second most important thing a novel does to us it that is refines
a good habit
and beautifies our language. Therefore reading novels can be termed
and informing too.

2. India
From the Himalayas in the north to the Indian Ocean in the south from the Arabian
sea in the west to the Bay of Bengal in the east lies an ancient
land. It is called India.
lndia is a vast country of more than one billion people who consider it their

It is fike a mother to those people who speak different languages, practice different
nation we
rituals, customs, adopt various life styles and yet unite themselves in one
call India. It is our beloved motherland. Thus India is not only an area of land
it is a thought, a beautiful feeling in one billion hearts which throb for it'

3. Libraries
Libraries are homes of books. They are the storehouse of knowledge and informa-
tion. They are one of the best gifts a generation can pass on to the next
be or
Just arrange a library at your home and nobody in your family could ever
remain illiterate. There aer both public and private libraries. The public libraries

run and maintained by govemment bodies or social organisations' They are big in
size. The private libraries are arranged, collected and managed by a particular
person mostly in his house. They are relatively smaller and can have a few dozen
or a few hundred or rarely even a few thousand books. Public or private libraries
are knowledge banks and must be kept and managed well' A percon who is into
226 the habit of visiting a library even once a week will be enlightned, informed and will
4. Your Ideas of a Happy Life Section I : Composition
Alexander Pope has written, .Happy the man whose wish and care few patemal
acres bund'. I agree to this idea that contentrnent and self-control are
two strong
pillars of happiness. A person's first mission in life should
be to conuol his mind. It,s NOTES
easier said than done but to get a precious thing like happiness
one must pay this
price. It needs a lot of practice. A mind should be trained not
to be a storehouse
of information but to be able to entertain just one thought at a fime, and
that too
a positive or a good thought. This habit helps us win over
worres or anxieties. Ii
helps the mind to be calm and thus be happy. If we sarted finding
happiness within,
we wouldn't run after worldly gains and joy and peace will be
our personal natue.
I never say don't be the master of infinite but wam people not to be its slave.
plenty but be happy with little. This is called contentment.
There fore, these two
things-self-conhol and contentment lay the foundation of happiness. .

5 Mahatma Gandhi
once Einstein wrote about the Mahatma, "Generations to come wourd hardly
lieve that such a person in flesh and brood had ever walked on earth".
such a
person was Mahatna Gandhi. From an ordinary man laden
with weaknesses he had
tumed himself into the incamation of truth and non-violence. Bom on
2 octoper
1869 at Porbunder in Gujrat this man had stired the entire worrd
with a n"* *uy
to fight for one's rights, 'satyagraha'. he influenced great leaders
of many genera_
tions. Martin Luther King Junior and Nelson Mandela practised his priniciples
their lives and created history. He fought the British fearlessly to win
fuedom for
India. Even his enemies were his admirers of his fearlessness, truthfulness
and the
principles of Ahimsa that he practised. He was shot dead by an extremist
'Nathuram Godse' on 30 January 194g. we calr him father of
nation. we should
follow his principles of Truth and Ahimsa in life.

6. Mother
Great things have been said about mothers. The holy .There
euran says, is Heaven
under the feet of a mother'. Somebody else said 'since God couldnot be
everywhere at a time, he created mothers'. Mothers are embodiment of love,
affection, compassion and what not. she is the one who keeps the child in her
womb for nine months and even after his birth feeds and rears him till he becomes
a self-reliant person. A mother has a great role to play in her child,s life.
she is the
first teacher of her baby. Children of a virtuous mother can rarely be bad or
ordinary. They train them to be good citizens of their nation. Napolean used
to say,,
Give me good mothers and I will give you a great nation'. She builds the character
of her child. It's why mothers have been given a higher position in children,s rife
than their fathers.

Communication Skills & 7. Your Aim in Life
Perconality DeveloPment just
An aimless is life is worthless. Therefore, everybody should have a -A gooa
aim in his [fe. Everybody has an aim. Almost every body tries to achieve
it' but only
in their
NOTES few succeed. Why? It's because there are very few people who have faith
aims and 0re abitity within them to achieve it. God has a masterplan
for everybody
question is
who has been sent on this eafth. That is his mission on earth. Now the
'how a person should know what mission he has to accomplish in his life" The
do something so
answer io it is simple' Everybody is born with an innat abitity to
well that no body can do it like him. Just because of this ability he feels attracted
you feel interested in'
to certain fields, certain tasks. Now yours is to identify what
arca or task
What's there that when you do you feel happy and fulfilled' That very
Whatever your aim in it should have enough seope to express
can be your aim.
nation and the
creative ability. It should also be in the welfare of the society, the
world. Therefore we should decide a worthy aim and strive to achieve

8. The Winter Season

winter is one of the four sasons that we experience in India. It's a beautifrrl
nights are
It starts in November and lasts till February. The days are short and the
heat of the
long. The sin's rays fall slantingly on the earth' We we get rid of the
,"rJhing sun. The dew mps begin to smile on crimson rose petals' Warm
a very healthy
are out and sitting in the sun is a treat of the day' Winter is also
season. What we eat digests well and we feel stronger' We don't
feel exhausEd as

we do in the summer heat. we can work harder and still not feel tired. sitting
pleasant' On top of that
around fire in the evening and sleeping in the quilt is very
it is also a season of festivals. Dussehra, Diwali, vasant Panchmi, Makar sankanti
a beautiful season.

ChechYour Proglsc
35. Write a modal Para'
in [ife.

Section B : Composition
E-mail Writing

Emails have come up as unique, innovative usefur and the fastest means
of written
communication. In a trice, our letters travel to the person sitting on
the other side
of the globe. I believg it has saved writen communication from fading
into oblivion.
Now the question is how to write emails. There are certain format to be followed
and a few rules to be adhered to. The things that we should pay
attention to are
as follows.
o We should know who our readeris because again like letters our language
and tone have to be set as per the kind of reader we have.
o The email should be curt or polite. Generally, emails, whether formal
informal are wrifien to accomprish some p,rpose, therhfore it should not
Iong enough to disract the reader. Formality and politeness are two warch-
words. They can guide us to write an effective e-mail.
o No matter whether an email is formal or informal it stilr shouldbe porite and
. We must avoid using slangs even in personal emails.
There are some email etiquettes that we should follow :
o Always use an informative and short line to write the subject.
o If you have attachments to send, mention in the email what are the attach-
ments about.
. If you receive email attachments from somebody, don't forget to write him
o Read your ernail after you finished writing it. It will save you from many
typing and language errors. you might need to add or remove something oi
there may be a grammatical or spelling error that you can rectify on tiire.
o Business emails should be short, simple and straightfor ward.
o Contractions like-I'll, won't, can,t, he,s - are permitted to be used in emails. 229
But avoid incomplete senlences.
Communication Skills & See an of a business email :

Personality DeveloPment To:

Subject : Clear
subject line

Dear Madam,

I am a commerce graduate and working with a domes- pur-


tic call centre. I want to join an international BPO, but sell and talling
about why you
for 0rat I need to improve my English' I've heard about
are writing this
the Here Mind mine training centres and your l,anguage ennil.
Training Programmes. I am interested to know in detail
about them so that I may decide to join one suitable for
my needs.

Could you please send me some more information re- Talking about
garding the courses, the time duration required for each
of them and the fee structure torr. It would help me a lot
to take a positive decision regarding it.

Looking forward to Your rePlY

With regards
Arpana Sen Signature

Arpana Sen
238, Central Avenue
M.G. Road Your address

A Polite to the email received.

Dear Apama,
Thanking for writing
Thank you for showing interest in our language training
then saying whal has
programmes. As per your enquiry all the detailed beEn done and what
infromation is being given below. Please find attached kind ol attachment ha'/e
herewittr a PDF conaing the fee details and the duration been sent.
of the courses.
As far as deciding about joining a course of your need lrwitation o@nded

is concemed please drop-down at any of our centres nnkirg tcr leel he

requirernent of it.
and the concemed people will assess you to know which
course you should opt for'
You are welcome to contact me through emails if you Section B : Crmposition
want to know anything more. Promising help in
Richa Sharma

You have seen business or offrcial emair retters. Now see how the informal
ema s
are written. Though the format its the same. The tone and the words chosen

Dear Aditi,
It has been long since I saw you. yesterday my husband and I were
talking about you and I thought of enquiring where you are and what
you are doing.
[,ast Monday I saw Keya. She has come back from Australia and is
planning to setup, a health-care centre in this city. She has grown
slimmer and more beautiful.
How is your husband doing? Did he start the business project he had
been talking about when we met last. What about you? Working some
where orjust sitting at home. Send a picture of your little son.
I hope to see you soon when I visit Delhi. Rest is ok.
Affectionately yours
Kamya hiya
E-38, Vasant Kunj
Mall Road

Chedrr/our Progrcsc
36. Write down a modat
of the informal

Communication Skills &
Perconality DeveloPment
Writing Resume

You must be aware of the importance of resume in a young man's or woman's

A few basic things they need to leam before they set out in search of a career or
job. Resume writing and preparing cover letters are among them' We are giving
Llow a few models of simple and good resume. Keep these things in mind before
attempting to write Your resume.
o Write separate resume for different interviews.
o Keep your CV or resume short and simple up to two pages'
o Try to project your positive side accurately in the CV'
o Use all the tools like capitals, boldtype, spacing etc to make
your Resume
Now your name is the
RATAI'I RAJ title ol ths Resume
C-36, Nehru Enclave email :
Kamran Nagar mob :09347312349
lndaur, M.P. Ph. : G-?346142
Data ol bilth 2nd July 1990 A lew people, now
lndian don'l trink it necessary
to supply psrsonal
Marihl Status Single
Obiective To lind work as centre cGordinator
in a Training lnstitution that will help
me to go ahead in the same field.
Profile A hardworking innovative and cre- It helps the interviewsr
ative graduate in English with a work kno what sort of
expedence ol 6 monhs. person you are.
2006-2009 Graduation in English (Hons.), Delhi
2004-2006 Higher Secondary (Physics, Maths,
2004 Xh, CBSE, St. Johns school. lndore,
Jun 2009-May 20i0 Language Trainer cum centrs man'
ager Elixir lnstitute ol Training,
Languages Known Hindi, English and Maralhi,
lnterests Writing poetry meeting new People, Your interests should

232 travelling new places. pove you are a

Relerences Available on demand creative pe6on.
l{ow loolrd a CV Britiah style : Section I : Compositkm

Name Bavi Pa*ash

Address Katya House, B.D. Colony, Jabalpur.
Mobile 09325732180 NOTES
Phone 0--234562.|
Oblective To lind a role in TV or Film Prcduc-
tion company so that I can Propel
my career lo a new height in he
same field.
Profile An innovative and outgoing gradu-
ate wih work sxperEnce of 1 year
wih a reputed Adverlising Agency.
Educational Oualilicatlon
2009 MA in Medh studies and Film Po.
duction, Mahatma O.nOni
Universty, Pune,

2006-2009 Graduate in Media Studies, Ma-

hatma Gandhi univemity, Pune.
2004-2006 St. Mary School, Jabalpur. )e (94o/d,
lf you have a lot ol
CBSE Board. experierrcs in the lild
Work Experlence you are lmking lor a i:b
put abo,o education.
June 2007.July 2009 WodGd with Hind Advertising a re
puted Advedising Agency as a copy
writer and assishnt in making Ad-

April 2006-March 2007 Taught English to small and large

groups with a Language Training
lnstitule and worked as a Centre
Manager as well.

Skills :

Languages Hindi, English, Spainish, near na-

live speaker ol English, Good knowl-
edge of Microsaft otfice, comfort-
able working on photoshop also.
lnterests Acting in theatres, writing stodes,
Debating, Editing Ad films, etc.

References Enclosed with tp CV.

ChedrYour Prot ss
37. hrmisiraspedmm of
a British style C.V.

Communication Skills &
Personatity Development
Writing a Cover Letter

A good C.V is incomplete without a good cover letter if you are applying for ajob.
It is a formal letter. It advocates your candidature for the post you applied for. It
should be neatly written or typd on a single Page.
A few things to take care of
o In the first Paragraph write the purpose of writing, which job you are
applying for and how you came to know about it.
o In the second Paragraph write which job you are in right now. Mertion the
responsibilities, making it relevant to the post you are applying for.
o How your selection can benefit the company should be the subject matter
of the third Paragraph.
. Say when you are available for the Interview in the fourth Paragraph.
The Format :

Address yours

<- Address of <- Date

the addressee

<- Salutation

Body of the Cover letter

- Courteours leave taking

e- Your Signature in full

234 <- Your Name
201, Residential Block
Amrapali Apartment
M.G Road
Banglore NOTES
Tel : --2347518
I I Aprit 2010
Mr. K. Ambasth
Human Resouce Manager,
Juari Seeds
5, K-Block,
Dear Mr. Ambasth,
While scanning the Wednesday Times of India (7 April 2010) I came acrross
your advertisement regarding the post of an accountant in your compony. This
letter of mine refers to that only and humbly submits my candidature for the
above-mentioned post.
At present I am working with a Private Management college as a senior ac-
countant. I, here, look after all the financial planning and transaction with rea-
sonable success. I have got letters of appreciation for this job from the president
of the trust which runs and manages the college.
If given I believe, I can work with the same zeal and care for your
a chance.
company and prove my worth. I can succesfully deal with clients and customers
ot all Empemment.
I am available for the interviewas for the next 4 weeks as summer holidays are
on in tlre instirution.
I am looking forward to hearing from you.

Yors faithfrrlly
Raj Rastogi
Raj Rastogi
Note : C.V is enclosed with the letter for your kind perusal.

OrcckYor Prcgees
37. hrmish aspecimen of
a Cover-letter for
applying a ;ob.

Communication Skills & Answer of Check Your Progress :
Perconality Devetopment
I . The first period of English, from 400 to I I 50 is called old English or Anglo-

2. The art ofprinting was innoduced in English by 1476.
3. The prerequisite to listening is attention and concentration. Unless the student
pays attention to the speakers speech , all that is spoken will not be assimilated
by his menal faculties and will be wasted.
4. The exact sound produced from one vocal chord depends upon the way in
which the throat, mouth and nasal cavities are adjusted.
5. This difficulty arises because the alphabetic symbol used in writing and their
sound in speech is different The lener "[-P' sounds different in the words - 'use',
'but' and'put'.
The reason for this is that in written English we have only 26 alphabers . While in
spoken English we have as many as 44 sounds which increase at times.
6. In a dictionary first the word is given , followed by is pronunciation, next the
part ofspeech it belongs to and then is meaning. Besides this the dictionary also
gives the abbreviations, foreign words and phrases and meric conversion table.
Ifa student truly befriends a dictionary he will always be the gainer.
7 . The Americans recommended the set of I 2 words may be spelled as follows in
the year 1898.
8. The five features regarding writing right are writing neat, simple, cohe couristent
and legible.
9 . Following necessary nrles must be followed in producing very positive writing :
. Avoiding l:nguages . Unnecessary words limiting.
. limitingpleonasms . Limiting words which have no sanse
. Avoiding long senten@s . Jargon & double negatives
. mixingmeaphus
10. Punctuation is a very important aspect of writing , without it, the words would
follow each other in a endless stream and the meaning of the sentence will be
lost. Rrntuation makes the meaning clear.
ll. Devoleping ability of questions and answers means adding questions tag very
gainful art ofleandng good english.
12. Body language comprises of gesnues and movements of the body or body parts
in rcsponse to confrontation with another individual.
13 . A group discussion can be categorically divided into thrce different phases :
(1) Initiation/Intoduction.
(2) Body ofthe group discussion.
(3) SummarisatioruCorrclusion.
14. C.V. means Curriculam Vitae means 'Course of Life".
15. Countable Nouns or countables are the names ofobjects,people etc. that can
be counted. As for example book, pen, apple, boy, sister, doctor, horse etc.
Countable Nouns have plural forms such as books, pens, boys, fathers etc.

236 16. Uncountable Nouns or uncountables are the names of things that we cannot
count. As for example, oil, sugar, gold, beauty etc. The uncountable Nouns
mainly denote substances, matter and abstract things. Uncountable Nouns do Section B : Composition
not have plural forms. As far example we do not say 'sugars' , 'golds' , 'milks'
17 . lntenogative pronouns are used for asking questions. For example :

. Who is there? Who are you ?

18. Article are divided into two classes. They are indifinite (A & An) and definite
19. There are four genders ofNouns. They are :

. Masculine, ' Feminine,

. C-omnron . Neuter.
20. There are three degree ofAdjectives. They are :

. Fositive . Comparative

' SuPerlative
21. Following are the kinds of the verb :

(r) Intransitive Verb G) Transitive Veft

(D Phrasalverb (iv) Linkingve6
(v) Auxiliaryve6
22. The Conjuctions are oftwo kinds. They are :

(A) Coondinat'mg:
(i) Comulative (ii) Alternative
(iii) Adversative (iv) Illative.
(B) Subordinaling:
O Time (ii) Cause or Reason
(iii) Result or Consequence (iv) Condition
(v) Comparison (vi) Concession
23. A collection of words which makes sense, but not complete sense is called a
24 . A group of words which forms part of a sentence and contains a subject and a
predicate is called a clause.
25 . Modal Auxiliaries can't be used like a main verb. Neither do they help in Tense
Modal Auxiliaries express dre attitude ofthe speaker.
Can, could, may, might, shall, should, will, would' need, dare, must, ought to
erc. are Modal Auxiliary Verbs.
26. A word that modifies the wearing ofa verb, an adjective on another adverb is
called an adverb. The words quickly, very and quite are there for adverbs.
27 . Linking devices are therse devices wich join together sentences and after make
more compact they arc :

(t) Co-ordinating
(i) Subordinating&
(ii) CoordinatingConjunctions. 237
Cdmmunication Skills & 28. A verb must be ln agreement with its subject m number and person. Often, the
Personality Development verb is made to agree in number with a noun near it instead of with its proper
29. One must remember the following to leamup Tenses :
(, Verians forms of 'Ienses
(ii) RecognitionofTenses
(n) Conect use ofthe verb of Number and Person ofthe Subject in a Tenses.
(iv) Correct placing of the subject. object and verb in a Tense.

30. A Compound worrd formed by using two or more simple words :

It is also formed by making some change in the body of the simple word. This
also formed with the help of prefix and suffix etc.

31. To build up word power the students must practise the following habits to en-
large their vocabulary :
l. Readins :

Besides rcading text books in English, one should read fiction, news paper,
magazines, essays, to enrich one's vocabulary.
2. Consulting dictionary :

To strengthen one's group on correct usage of words and spelling.

3 . Consult the dictionary !o lookup for homonyms. sygAgylng.l1tlgttylgs :

The vocabulary that your prepare mind help you to find the words with
which you express yourself more clearly. more effectively and more pre-
32. Editing means the final Draft should be checked and rechecked sincerely. It
should be ensured that the text is true from spalling and gramatical errors be-
sides heading, subheading quotation, footnotes, tables figures and references
and appendixes and checkeds are checked and rechecked.
J.'. In all kind of letters there are six points of form to be taken care of. These are
(, The heading consisting of (a) writer's address and (b) the date.
(ii) The courteous greetings or salutation.
(iii) The communication or message - the body of letter.
(iv) The subscription, or courteous leave-taking or conclusion.
(v) The signature
(vi) The superscription on the envelope (ifsent by surface mail)
34. Dear Kamal,
I hope you are in good spirit. I received your letter yesterday and came to lhow
that your examinations were over.
I believe summer vactions have legun in your college and you must be getting
ready to say good-bye to the hostel for two months and retum home. I have also
come back from Pune yesteday. This time I am planning to have a I 5 day,s fip
to Massoorie. One of my uncles who lives there has invited me to the trip. The
most encouraging thing is he has permittd me to bring at least one friend with
238 me, Since then, I have been thinking about you.
If you haven't yet made any specific plan regarding the summer vacation, you Section B : C-omposition
are warrnly welcome to accompany me to Massoorie. It's a beautifirl hill station
in Gadhwal range.
Think and write about your opinion on my proposal. How are Uncle and Auntie.
Convey my regards to them. NOTES

Affectionately youn
35. An aimless is life is worthless. Therefore, everybody should have a just and
good aim in his life. Everybody has an aim. almost every body tries to achieve it,
but only few succeed. Why? It's because there are very few people who have
faith in their aims and the ability wiilrin them to achieve it. God has a mastrplan
for everybody who has been sent on this earth. That is his mission on earth.
Now the question is 'how a person should know what mission he has to accom-
plish in his life'. The answer to it is simple. Everybody is born with an innate
abitity to do some0ring so well that no body can do it like him. Just because of
this ability he feels attracted to certain fields, certain tasks. Now yours is to
identify what you feel interested in. What's there that when you do you feel
happy and fulfilled. That very area or task can be your aim. Whatever your aim
in it should have enough seope to express your creative abiliry. It should also be
in the welfare of the society, the nation and the world. Therefore we should
decide a worthy aim and strive to achieve it.
36. To:
Subject : ins whereabouts

It has been long since I saw you. Yesterday my husband and I were talking
about you and I thought ofenquiring where you are and what you are doing.

[,ast Monday I saw Keya. She has come back from Australia and is plaming
to setup, a health-care centre in this city. She has grown slimmer and more

How is your husband doing? Did he start the business project he had been
talking about when we met last. What about you? Working some where or
just sitting at home. Send a picture of your little son.

I hope to see you soon when I visit Delhi. Rest is ok.

Affectionately yours

Kamya Priya
E-38, Vasant Kunj
MallRoad xtg
Communication Skills &
Personality Development
37. 201, Residential Block
NOTES M.G Road Banglorc
Tel: --2347518
ll April2010
Human Resouce Manager,
Iuari Seeds
5, K-Block,

DearMr. Ambasth,

While scanning the Wednesday Times of India (7 April 20 I 0) I came across

your advertisement regarding the post ofan accountant in your compony. This
letter of mine refers to that only and humbly submits my candidature for the
above-mentioned post.

At present I am wod<ing with a Private Management college as a senior accoun-

tant. I, herc, look after all the financial planning and transaction with rcasonable
success. I have got letters ofappreciation for this job from the president of the
trust which runs and manages the college.

If given I believe, I can work with the same zeal and care for your
a chance.
company and prove my worfh. I can succesfully deal with clients and customers
of all temperament

I am available for the interviewas for the next 4 weeks as summer holidays are
on in the instinrtion

I am looking forward to hearing from you.


Raj Rastogi

Note : C.V is enclosed with the letter for your kind perusal.

ff n


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