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International Journal of Emerging Trends & Technology in Computer Science (IJETTCS)

Web Site: www.ijettcs.org Email: editor@ijettcs.org


Volume 6, Issue 5, September- October 2017 ISSN 2278-6856

Geospatial Database Generation and Analysis


for Disaster Management: A Case Study of
Jodhpur City
S. K. Yadav1 and S.L.Borana2
1,2
RSG, DL, Jodhpur-342011, Rajasthan, India

Abstract: The paper aims to describe applications of 2. LITERATURE REVIEW


Geographic Information System (GIS) and Geospatial database
for analysis of satellite imagery and geospatial information to Sparse research has been conducted in the development
collection, assess, and visualize public amnesties features for of emergency planning tools through integration with
Disaster Management scenario in Jodhpur city. An approach optimization models and/or simulation models.
has been designed to explore the scope for the combination of Optimization models are mathematical constructions or
emergency Management and GIS. Spatial data play an representations of systems that strive for the ultimate goal
important role in decision-making during the response phase of
an emergency situation. Detailed information about various
of determining the globally best solution or solutions for
public utilities were Identified, labelled, georeferenced and the constrained system. These models are largely
displayed on imagery of the study area. Database of fifteen prescriptive in nature, recommending a solution or making
important classes of amenities were prepared using GIS, GPS an optimal decision. Simulation models provide a dynamic,
and field photo. Attribute database of all fifteen features were descriptive form of modelling to enable the understanding
integrated with the basemap of the study area. The study shows of the behaviour of the system under a wide-variety of
that integration of GIS and Geospatial databases are effective
and store relevant raster/vector data types for the analysis and
complex parameter configurations. Simulation models
decision making. used in emergency planning consist of three basic types:
Keywords: Geospatial Databases, GIS, Public Amenities, micro-simulators, macro-simulators, and meso-simulators.
Disaster Management Micro-simulators attempt to track the detailed behaviour of
individual entities in the simulated situation; whereas,
1. INTRODUCTION macro-simulators make no attempt to track the detailed
behaviour of individual entities. Meso-simulators are a
Emergency evacuation planning is of critical importance to
basic compromise between micro- and macro-simulators
our nations response to both man-made and natural
that usually involves discrete simulation that tracks the
disasters. A geographic information system (GIS) is a
behaviour of groups of entities.
computer-based software tool that facilitates the mapping
A prime example of deep coupling is in the research of
and analysis of information within a geographical area.
Wang (2005), which integrates a simulation model with
Although mapmaking and geographic analysis can be
GIS. Wang (2005) presents the benefits and challenges of
performed via manual methods, it is far easier and faster
integrating three components of information technology: a
using GIS. Using GIS a hazard mapping and its affect on
GIS, simulation models, and a 3D visualization. Although
the people can be easily estimated for proper rescue
a few such integrated systems exist, the development of
management. The main objectives of this study is to create
each of these components has mostly been independent.
geospatial database of Police station, Hospitals and
One challenge has been the coupling of a GIS and
Basemap of the Jodhpur city and performing spatial
simulation models, especially in terms of sharing
analysis for population affected and monitoring the
information. In this approach to deep coupling, a single
situation using rescue by concerned authorities.Main
user interface controls both the GIS and the simulation
objective of the project is to prepare geospatial database of
models, even if they remain separate systems. Another
important features of the Jodhpur city. Presently such data
challenge has been visualizing the results after the GIS and
base is not available. In future it may provide the base for
simulation models have been integrated.
many kinds of projects and it may prove a good collection
of data to disseminate information at various levels for
different purposes.The outcome of the project will provide 3. STUDY AREA
a collection of information /data which may be Jodhpur, one of the largest district of Rajasthan states is
disseminated for various projects and activities. centrally situated in western region of the state(Fig.1).
Jodhpur city is located at 26N 18' latitude and 73 E 04'
and at an average altitude of 224m above mean sea level.
In general the contours are falling from North to South and
Volume 6, Issue 5, September October 2017 Page 220
International Journal of Emerging Trends & Technology in Computer Science (IJETTCS)
Web Site: www.ijettcs.org Email: editor@ijettcs.org
Volume 6, Issue 5, September- October 2017 ISSN 2278-6856
from North to Southeast with maximum level of 370m and Schools and Colleges DEO, NIC, Jodhpur
minimum of 210m. The present population is about 1.05 Road Network PWD, Jodhpur
million and has been functioning as one of the engines Shopping Malls, Marriage JMC, Jodhpur
powering the Indian economy. It is not surprising that in Hall and Theaters
the early 18th century, when Jodhpur was under British Govt. Offices ( Central/ Collectrate Office,
control, the city was barely 5 sq. km. in size and today State) JODHPUR
spread is 243.9 sq. km. Police Station/ Post Police Commissioner
Office, Jodhpur
Railway network DRM Office, Jodhpur
Petrol Stations and Gas Regional Offices of
depot HPCL, IOC, HP,
Jodhpur
Electric Supply station DISCOM, Jodhpur
Communication Network GM, BSNL, Jodhpur
Playground and Community JDA & JMC, Jodhpur
center

The properties of the Landsat satellite images used are are


given in Table 2. To accomplish objective of the research
work, the software used are i) ARCGIS 9.2, ii) ENVI 4.5,
iii) ERDAS 9.1, alongwith field data and proper geo-
tagging were also marked with GCPs.The data collection
team also collect GCP data using handheld GPS unit and
field photograph of each feature class.

Table 2. Basic Properties of Landsat Data


Year Date Acquired Spacecraft ID Sensor ID
2014 May - 2014 LANDSAT_8 "OLI"
2015 May - 2015 LANDSAT_8 "OLI"
Figure 1 Map of the Study Area.

4. DATASET USED AND METHODOLOGY


The methodology approach for this research work was to
develop a GIS database of Jodhpur city using spatial and
attribute data. The spatial data comprises of all the
thematic and topographic maps viz., land use/land cover,
JMC maps, Satellite imagery and town planning map etc.
and the attribute data is composed of mainly detailed
information collected from various government and private
sectors and field data collected from the site. These steps
involved in deriving all these data and sources and their
transformation are discussed in flowchart (Fig.2).
The attribute data consists of field data and collateral data.
The field data is acquired through the field survey by
collecting detailed information from concerned
organizations and department in Jodhpur city. These data Figure 2. Flowchart for Development of Geospatial
base entered into Microsoft Excel format for linkup in database .
ArcGIS Software. The sources of collected data are listed
in Table 1. 5. RESULT AND DISCUSSION
Table 1. Data Type and Source of Acquisition 5.1 Creation of Base map
The Base map of the study area has been created using
Type of Data Source of Data Satellite Data and ground truth data collection using GPS.
Surface hydrology and PHED Department , All major Rail & Road network has been integrated using
Water Tanks Jodhpur GIS S/W (Fig.3). Attribute Data of each class is also
Hospital & Medical CMHO, Jodhpur interlinked in Metadata.
Facilities

Volume 6, Issue 5, September October 2017 Page 221


International Journal of Emerging Trends & Technology in Computer Science (IJETTCS)
Web Site: www.ijettcs.org Email: editor@ijettcs.org
Volume 6, Issue 5, September- October 2017 ISSN 2278-6856

Figure 3 Base Map and its attribute database Figure 4 Overlay of JMC Wards on Landsat Image
5.2 Public Amneities Database
All major utility services have been shown in Table.3 some
utility services as like density of roads, industries, hospital,
schools, garden and other (post office, fire station etc.) are
seen on large scale. Adopting the above detailed
methodology observations were taken at each and every
feature class. Location of the site was observed using GPS,
photo for reference and other details as mentioned in the
data form were also recorded.
Table 3.Public Amenities identified in the study area.
No. of Utility (%)
S.No Name of Public Amenities
Records
11.8
1 Water Tank/Pumping Station 77
Hospitals & Medical 13.8
2 90
Facilities
3 Educational Institutes 88 13.4
4 Educational Institutes 28 4.2
5 Shopping Malls & Theater 19 2.9
Figure 5. Population Density of JMC Area
6 Playground/Garden 12 1.8
7 Govt. Offices/Institute 27 4.1
5.4 GIS Database Creation
8 Police Stations/Post 33 5.1
GIS database is prepared as with spatial and non spatial
9 Gas Services/Depot 36 5.5 data. Every accident spot is specifically located at their
10 Petrol filling stations 48 7.3 exact geographic positions. In sum, 50 Hospital, 25 Police
11 Electric sub/supply station 36 5.5 station and 20 fire accident spots are spotted with their
12 Communications 20 3.1 attributes. The designed GIS database layers and their
13. Fire Stations 4 0.61 fields are:
14 Hotel& Restaurant 37 5.6
15 Marriage & Community Hall 88 13.4
1. City Boundary (Area, Perimeter)
16 Open Water Bodies 14 2.1 2. Ward Divisions (Ward No, Area, Males, Females, Total)
17 Railway Network 8 1.2 3. Roads (Name, One Way, Speed limits, Length,
18 Road Network 15 2.3 Category)
4. Fire Accident Spots (Stn_ID, Stn_Name, Place,
5.3 City Wards & Population Distance, Date, Time)
The density of population is maximum in ward no. 50 5. Hospitals & Ambulance Services (ID, Name, Address,
followed by ward no 46, 37, 32, 47, 15 and 49 due to large Contact)
built up area (Fig. 4).Ward wise population density in 6. Fire & Rescue Stations (ID, Name, Address, Contact)
Jodhpur city is shown in Fig. 5. 7. Police Stations (ID, Name, Address, Contact)
A composite map is generated which depicts the features
of interest viz. police posts, Road, rail network, Fire
stations, markets, hospitals etc. The mapped features shall
Volume 6, Issue 5, September October 2017 Page 222
International Journal of Emerging Trends & Technology in Computer Science (IJETTCS)
Web Site: www.ijettcs.org Email: editor@ijettcs.org
Volume 6, Issue 5, September- October 2017 ISSN 2278-6856
have attribute information alongwith GPS coordinates.
Spatial queries were performed to reveal disaster/incident
born locations within the study area. The best route
distance travelled to the rescue place from the incident spot
shall be demarcated.. All major Rail & Road network has
been integrated using GIS S/W. Attribute Data of each
class is also interlinked in Metadata.

5.5 Attribute Database of Hospital and Police Station


Adopting the geospatial database of amenities essential
required in disaster scenarios and observations were taken
at each and every feature class using GIS queries .
Location of the site was observed using GPS, photo for
reference and other details as mentioned in the data form
were also recorded(Fig. 6).

Figure7(a-d) Geospatial Maps of Public Amneties of


Hospital,Petrol Pump,Fire station and Schools.

5.7 GIS based buffer analysis of Public Utility


services.
Buffer zone of 5,7.5 & 10km were created on basemap
using GIS spatial analysis tools(Fig.8) The map clearly
shows that there is maximum concentration of civic
amenity establishments within five kilometer radius from
the center of the city zone-I (Buffer Zone-5km) and the
concentration decreases slowly towards the peripheries.
The spatial disparity can be gauged from the fact that out
Figure 6: Attribute database sheet of Hospitals and Police of the total number of amenity establishments (680) in the
Station. city, zone-I has 462(68%) while as in the zone-II (Buffer
Zone-7.5km) it equals to 184 (27%) and rest 34(5%) are
beyond zone-II.
5.6 Creation of Geospatial Map (Police Station, Fire
station, Schools, Petrol pump and Hospitals)
Using Satellite Data and ground truth database a GIS map
of Police Station and Hospitals has been created using GIS
S/W. Base Map and spatial distribution of Police Station &
Hospitals has been integrated in Geospatial Manner for
query analysis (Fig.7a-d). The above GIS output has been
generated based on the attribute data collected during
fieldwork and linked with satellite imagery on the GIS s/w.
These geospatial outputs were used for query analysis for
all disaster scenario analysis

Volume 6, Issue 5, September October 2017 Page 223


International Journal of Emerging Trends & Technology in Computer Science (IJETTCS)
Web Site: www.ijettcs.org Email: editor@ijettcs.org
Volume 6, Issue 5, September- October 2017 ISSN 2278-6856

Figure 9. Displaying of public amenities overlaid with


colour markings indicating areas in Disaster scenario.
Figure 8. Buffer map of the Amenities within the 5, 7.5
and 10 km radius. 6. CONCLUSION
GIS is an important tool for analyzing, visualizing and
display of spatial & non spatial data in Disaster
5.8 Geospatial Analysis of Emergency Planning
preparedness. Geospatial data with attribute information
An approach has been designed to explore the scope for the and GPS data are useful for planning, monitoring and
combination of Emergency management and GIS. Spatial decision making. Sixteen feature classes were identified for
data are important segment for assessing the need to detailed attribute information. These feature classes are
address disasters in rural areas or in towns or cities. This directly relevant with disaster monitoring and spatial query
study mainly focuses on spatial data requirements to target analysis.
the needs of asset mapping in city, where the focus is on
more confined urban areas. Geospatial tools are used in Acknowledgment
geospatial analysis to visualize the hazard zone and its The authors are thankful to the Director DL, Jodhpur for
impact on civil populations (Fig.9). This propose study help and encouragement during the study. The authors are
shall be useful in a disaster strikes, emergency planners also thankful to Head Mining Department, JNV University,
need to be prepared to handle many important duties, such Jodhpur for his critical suggestion and encouragement
as directing evacuations and distributing emergency
supplies. Therefore, emergency planners rely on decision
support systems, which help them to carry out these duties.
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International Journal of Emerging Trends & Technology in Computer Science (IJETTCS)
Web Site: www.ijettcs.org Email: editor@ijettcs.org
Volume 6, Issue 5, September- October 2017 ISSN 2278-6856
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AUTHOR
Dr S.L Borana received ME (Electronics &
Communication) and PhD from JNV
University, Jodhpur. Presently he is working
in Defence Laboratory, Jodhpur and has
experience of 13 years in the area of remote
sensing and GIS. His research interests include: Remote
Sensing & GIS, Disaster Mgt, Image Processing.

Dr S.K Yadav received MSc (Geology) and


PhD from JNV University, Jodhpur.
Presently he is working in Defence
Laboratory, Jodhpur and has experience of 18
years in the area of remote sensing and
terrain analysis. His research interests include: Remote

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