Information

System GPRS/EGPRS Global Description
A30808-X3247-L24-5-7618

GPRS/EGPRS Global Description

Information System

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Important Notice on Product Safety
DANGER - RISK OF ELECTRICAL SHOCK OR DEATH – FOLLOW ALL INSTALLATION INSTRUCTIONS. The system complies with the standard EN 60950 / IEC 60950. All equipment connected to the system must comply with the applicable safety standards. Hazardous voltages are present at the AC power supply lines in this electrical equipment. Some components may also have high operating temperatures. Failure to observe and follow all installation and safety instructions can result in serious personal injury or property damage. Therefore, only trained and qualified personnel may install and maintain the system.

The same text in German: Wichtiger Hinweis zur Produktsicherheit LEBENSGEFAHR - BEACHTEN SIE ALLE INSTALLATIONSHINWEISE. Das System entspricht den Anforderungen der EN 60950 / IEC 60950. Alle an das System angeschlossenen Geräte müssen die zutreffenden Sicherheitsbestimmungen erfüllen. In diesen Anlagen stehen die Netzversorgungsleitungen unter gefährlicher Spannung. Einige Komponenten können auch eine hohe Betriebstemperatur aufweisen. Nichtbeachtung der Installations- und Sicherheitshinweise kann zu schweren Körperverletzungen oder Sachschäden führen. Deshalb darf nur geschultes und qualifiziertes Personal das System installieren und warten.

Caution:
This equipment has been tested and found to comply with EN 301489. Its class of conformity is defined in table A30808-X3247-X910-*-7618, which is shipped with each product. This class also corresponds to the limits for a Class A digital device, pursuant to part 15 of the FCC Rules. These limits are designed to provide reasonable protection against harmful interference when the equipment is operated in a commercial environment. This equipment generates, uses and can radiate radio frequency energy and, if not installed and used in accordance with the relevant standards referenced in the manual “Guide to Documentation”, may cause harmful interference to radio communications. For system installations it is strictly required to choose all installation sites according to national and local requirements concerning construction rules and static load capacities of buildings and roofs. For all sites, in particular in residential areas it is mandatory to observe all respectively applicable electromagnetic field / force (EMF) limits. Otherwise harmful personal interference is possible.

Trademarks: All designations used in this document can be trademarks, the use of which by third parties for their own purposes could violate the rights of their owners.

Copyright (C) Siemens AG 2004.
Issued by the Information and Communication Mobile Group Hofmannstraße 51 D-81359 München Technical modifications possible. Technical specifications and features are binding only insofar as they are specifically and expressly agreed upon in a written contract.

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This document consists of a total of 300 Pages. All pages are issue 5.

Reason for Update
Chapter/Section All Reason for Update New Release BR7.0.

Issue History
Issue Number 1 2 3 4 5 Date of Issue 07/2003 09/2003 12/2003 03/2004 08/2004 Reason for Update First issue for the New Release BR7.0. Second issue for BR7.0 Third issue for BR7.0 Fourth issue for BR7.0 Fifth issue for BR7.0

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Contents
1 1.1 1.2 2 2.1 2.2 2.3 3 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.5.1 3.5.1.1 3.5.1.2 3.5.2 4 4.1 4.2 4.2.1 4.2.2 4.3 4.3.1 4.3.2 4.3.3 4.4 4.4.1 4.4.2 4.4.3 4.4.4 4.4.5 4.5 4.5.1 4.5.2 4.5.3 4.6 4.6.1 4.6.2 4.7 4.7.1 4.7.2 4.7.3 Introductions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 Generality. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 Structure of the Manual . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 Siemens Features Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 BR5.5 Feature Description. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 BR6.0 Feature Description. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 BR7.0 Feature Description. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 GPRS/EGPRS Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 GPRS and EGPRS Modulation Principles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 Network Architecture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 GPRS/EGPRS Protocol Stack . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 Data Flow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 RLC/MAC Block and Radio Block Structures. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 RLC/MAC and Radio Block Structures: Data Transfer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 RLC/MAC Block and Radio Block Structures for GPRS Data Transfer . . . . 40 RLC/MAC Block and Radio Block Structure for EGPRS Data Transfer. . . . 41 RLC/MAC Block Structure: Control Signalling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 Radio Interface Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 GPRS/EGPRS Physical Channels. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 Channel Coding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 GPRS Channel Coding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 EGPRS Channel Coding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 Temporary Block Flow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 Multiplexing MSs on the same PDCH: Downlink Direction . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 Multiplexing MSs on the same PDCH: Uplink Direction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 Multiplexing MSs on the same PDCH: Configuration. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59 GPRS/EGPRS Logical Channels. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59 Packet Broadcast Control Channel (PBCCH) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60 Packet Common Control Channel (PCCCH) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61 Packet Data Traffic Channel (PDTCH) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 Packet Dedicated Control Channels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 Coding of GPRS/EGPRS Logical Channels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 Mapping of Logical Channels onto Physical Channels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 PDCH without the Specific GPRS/EGPRS Signalling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 PDCH Carrying both PBCCH and PCCCH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 PDCH Carrying PCCCH. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 Packet Timing Advance Estimation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 Initial Timing Advance Estimation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 Continuous Timing Advance Update . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 Multislot Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70 Mobile Station Classes for Multislot Capabilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 Mapping of Uplink Packet Traffic Logical Channels. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 Mapping of Downlink Packet Traffic Logical Channels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73

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5 5.1 5.1.1 5.1.2 5.1.3 5.2 5.3 5.3.1 5.3.2 5.3.2.1 5.3.2.2 5.3.2.3 5.3.2.4 5.3.2.5 5.3.3 5.3.3.1 5.3.3.2 5.3.4 5.3.4.1 5.3.4.2 5.3.5 5.3.6 5.3.6.1 5.3.6.2 5.3.6.3 6 6.1 6.1.1 6.1.2 6.1.3 6.1.4 6.2 6.3 6.3.1 6.3.2 6.3.3 6.3.4 6.3.5 6.4 7 7.1 7.2 7.2.1 7.2.1.1 7.2.1.2

Radio Resources Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74 Enabling Packet Switched Services in a Cell . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75 Enabling GPRS Service in the Cell. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76 Enabling EGPRS Service in the Cell . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78 Aspects Related to Carrier Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80 Configuration of GPRS Channels in a Cell . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82 Management of Packet Data Channels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 Generalities about Resource Assignments. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 Horizontal/Vertical Allocation Strategies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 Vertical Allocation Strategy (VA). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 Horizontal Allocation Strategy (HA) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87 Switching between VA and HA According to Radio Conditions . . . . . . . . . 88 Switching between VA and HA according to Abis Interface Conditions . . . 91 Allocation of Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91 Management of Incoming GPRS/EGPRS Requests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92 PCU Algorithm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94 TDPC Algorithm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100 Upgrading Strategies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105 Upgrade of Radio Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105 Upgrade of Abis Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107 Incoming CS Calls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108 Waiting Queue Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109 Pre-emption of PDCH Channels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110 Pre-emption of PDT Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111 Forced Intracell Handovers of Already Established CS Calls . . . . . . . . . . 112 Hardware and Software Architecture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113 Supported BSC Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114 “Standard” BSC. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115 High Capacity BSC with the Old Rack . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118 High Capacity BSC with the New Rack . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121 PPCU and PPXU Redundancy and Configuration Rules . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122 BTS Equipment Supporting GPRS and EGPRS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123 PCU Frames and Dynamic Allocation on the Abis Interface. . . . . . . . . . . 124 Concatenated PCU Frames . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126 Hardware supporting Flexible Abis Allocation and Concatenated PCU Frames 129 Configuration of the Abis Interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131 Algorithms Regarding Flexible Abis Allocation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133 Abis over satellite links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135 Packet Switched Services Supported on CCCH/PCCCH . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135 Gb Interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Physical Layer. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Network Service Layer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sub-Network Service: Frame Relay on Gb Interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Examples of Addressing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Frame Relay Structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 138 139 144 144 147 151

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7.2.1.3 7.2.2 7.2.2.1 7.2.2.2 7.3 7.3.1 7.3.1.1 7.3.2 7.3.3 7.3.3.1 7.3.3.2 7.3.3.3 8 8.1 8.1.1 8.1.2 8.1.3 8.1.4 8.1.5 8.2 9 9.1 9.2 9.3 9.3.1 9.3.1.1 9.3.1.2 9.3.1.3 9.3.2 9.3.2.1 9.3.2.2 9.4 9.4.1 9.4.2 9.5 9.6 9.6.1 9.6.2 9.7 9.7.1 9.7.2 9.8 9.8.1 9.8.2 9.8.2.1 9.8.2.2

Procedures for PVCs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 154 Network Service Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 155 Load Sharing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 156 Control Procedures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 156 BSSGP Protocol. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157 BSSGP Addressing: BSSGP Virtual Connections (BVCs). . . . . . . . . . . . . 158 BVC Procedures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161 Quality of Service (QoS) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161 SGSN-BSS Flow Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 162 MS Flow Control Message . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166 BVC Flow Control Message . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 168 Flow Control sending criteria (for both BVC and MS) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172 Load Control for Packet Switched Services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175 Dynamic PTPPKF Reconfiguration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175 System Initialization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 177 Creation of a PCU Object and Enabling a NSVC for It . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 178 PCU Crash . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 181 PCU Comes Back in Service . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 182 Time Needed to Execute PTPPKF Reconfiguration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 184 PCU Overload Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 184 GPRS/EGPRS Procedures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 186 Mobile Stations for Packet Switched Services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 186 Network Structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 186 Mobility Management Functionalities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 187 Mobility Management States . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 187 IDLE State . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 188 STAND-BY State . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 188 READY State . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 189 Mobility Management Procedures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 190 Attach Function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 190 Detach Function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 192 Radio Resource Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 192 Packet Idle State . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 192 Packet Transfer State . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 193 Correspondence between RR States and MM States . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 193 Packet Data Protocol Functionalities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 193 INACTIVE State . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 194 ACTIVE State. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 194 Activation and Deactivation of a PDP Context . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 195 PDP Context Activation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 195 PDP Context Deactivation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 196 Access to the Network (Establishment of a TBF). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 196 Medium Access Modes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 196 TBF Establishment Initiated by the MS on CCCH/PCCCH . . . . . . . . . . . . 197 8 Bit or 11 Bit Uplink Access . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 197 Establishment using a One Phase Access . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 199

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. . . . . . .8. . . .9. .9.9. . . . . . . . . .3. . . . .9. . . . . . . . . . . C31 Criterion. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 9. . . . . . . . . .1 TBF Establishment using a Two Phases Access . . . . . . . . . .8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cell Re-selection Algorithm. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 9. . . . . . .8. Cell Selection and Re-selection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . GPRS/EGPRS Functionalities . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. .1. . .3. . .1 10. .3. . . Handling of Neighboring Cells . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . EGPRS Acknowledged Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 200 202 203 204 205 207 208 211 212 213 213 213 214 216 216 216 218 218 219 222 222 223 225 226 230 231 231 234 234 234 236 236 237 239 240 242 242 244 245 246 247 248 248 249 250 252 252 A30808-X3247-L24-5-7618 7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 9. . . .8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9. . . . .4. . . . . .9. . . . . . . . . . . . . Uplink TBF Using the Unacknowledged Mode . . . . .1. . . Operations on Uplink TBF. . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 10. . . . . . .9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . Supported QoS Attributes . . . . . . . . . . .5 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Uplink Access on PRACH (Access Persistence Control) . . . . . . . . .8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . GPRS Acknowledged Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Release of an Uplink TBF . . . . . . . . Configuration of an Adjacent Cell with GSUP= TRUE . . . .9. . . . . . . .3. . . . . .3 10.3 9. .2 10 10. . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . .8. . . . . . TBF Establishment for EDGE Mobile Stations . . . . .1 9. . . . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . . . . Acknowledged Mode for RLC/MAC Operation . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C32 Criterion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 10. . . . . . .9. . . . Uplink TBF Using the Acknowledged Mode . .3 9. . . . . . . . Measurements for Cell Selection and Re-selection . . Notes About Concurrent TBFs . . . .3 10. . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 10. . . . . . .1 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Unacknowledged Mode for RLC/MAC Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Configuration of an Adjacent Cell with GSUP= FALSE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . GSM-UMTS Re-selection Algorithm: Circuit Switched Case . . . . . . . .1 9. .1. . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . .2 10. .2 10. . . . . .8. . . . Release of a Downlink TBF . . . . . . . . . .3 9. . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Notes About GPRS/EGPRS TBF Scheduling. . . . . Suspend/Resume Procedures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 9. . . . . . . . . . . .1 9.1. . . . . . . . Discontinuous Reception .9.1. . . . . RLC Data Block Transfer . . . . . GPRS/EGPRS Neighboring Cells and Involved Parameters . . . . .9 9.9. . .8. Network Operation Modes for Paging. . .2. . . .1. Network Controlled Cell Reselection and Traffic Control Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . .3 10. .2 9. . . . . . . . Cell Re-selection from GSM/GPRS/EGPRS Network to UMTS Network . . Management of GPRS/EGPRS Neighboring Cells. . .7 9. . . . . .1. Operations on Downlink TBF . . . . . .2 9. . Network Controlled Cell Reselection . . . . . . . .7.4 9. . . . . . . . . . . . Contention Resolution.6 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 10. . . . . . . . . . . . . TBF Establishment Initiated by the Network on CCCH/PCCCH . . . Scheduling Process . GPRS/EGPRS Path Loss Criterion (C1 Criterion) .4 9. . . . . . . . . .9.7.4.9. . . . . .1 9. . . . . . . .9. . . . . .2 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . Anomalies During an Uplink TBF . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . .Information System GPRS/EGPRS Global Description 9. . . . . . . . . .1 9. . . .1 10. . . Cell selection and Re-selection Criteria . . . . .4 10.4 9. .4. . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . Abnormal Cell Re-selection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. GSM-UMTS Re-selection Algorithm: Packet Switched Case . . . . . .2 10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . .4 10. . . . . . . . . . . . Polling Procedures . .2. .6 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 10. . . . . . . . .2 10. . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 9. . Relative Reserved Block Period Field (RRBP) . . . . . .9. . . Handling of UMTS Neighboring Cells . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9. .8. . . . .5 9.5 10. . .3. . . .1. . . . Acknowledged and Unacknowledged Modes on Downlink TBFs . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 271 EGPRS: Switching Points . .3.2. . . . . . . . .2 10. . . . . 255 Radio Link Network Controlled Cell Reselection Algorithm .1 10. . . . . . . . . . 258 Network Controlled Cell Reselection Algorithm for Traffic Control Strategy . . . . . . . . . .2 10. . . . . . . . . . . . .2 10. . . . . . . . .5.3. . . . .3 10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . 267 “Quality Traps” Disadvantage . . .2 10. . . . . . .2 10. . 271 Link Adaptation for EGPRS . . .1 10. . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . .2 10. . . . . . .1.5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 10. .1 10. . 280 Database Parameters and Objects . .4 10. . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . 270 GPRS: Link Adaptation Algorithm . . . . . .2 10. . . .1. .1 10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . .5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .GPRS/EGPRS Global Description Information System 10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 262 Measurement at the MS Side. . . .3 10. . 267 GPRS: Switching Points. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 261 Power Control Algorithm . . . . 283 Abbreviations . . . 259 Power Control . . . 298 8 A30808-X3247-L24-5-7618 . . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . . 256 GPRS/EGPRS Traffic Control Strategy . . . . . . . . . . . . .5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1.1 10. . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 10.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 265 Link Adaptation . . . . . . . . . . . . . 265 Link Adaptation for GPRS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 10. .1. . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . 265 BTS Output Power . . . . . . . . . . . . 277 Selection of the Candidate Initial Coding Scheme . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . .5. . . . . . 263 Packet Idle Mode: Measurements for Power Control. . . . . . 263 Packet Transfer Mode: Measurements for Power Control . . . . . . . . . .5.4. . .3 11 12 Measurement Reporting. . 264 Derivation of Channel Quality Reports.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . 272 EGPRS: Link Adaptation Algorithm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . .5.5. . . . . . . . . . . .

.11 Fig. . . . 58 Example of Mapping of the PBCCH Channel. Fig. . . . . . . Fig. 68 Continuous Timing Advance Update Feature . . . Fig. . . . . . . . Fig. . . . . 50 EGPRS Coding Schemes and Families. 72 Example of TRXs enabled to support Packet Switched Services. . .12 3. . . 62 Example of Mapping of two PCCCH Channels. . .18 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . Fig. . .Information System GPRS/EGPRS Global Description Illustrations Fig. . . . . . . . . 4. .. Fig. . . .17 4. . 67 Example of Uplink Configuration with PRACH Channel. . . . . . . 62 Example of Mapping of the PCCCH Channel. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15 Fig. . . . . . . . .15 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4. . 77 Example of TRXs enabled to support GPRS and EGPRS. . 3. 37 Data Flow from the SGSN to the MS.10 4. . . . . . . . . . . .8 3. . . . .14 Fig. . . Fig. . . . . . . . .14 3. . 42 Radio Block for Control Messages (Signalling). . . 4. . . . . . . . Fig. . . . . . . . . . Fig. 32 Protocol Stack for Data Transmission in GPRS/EGPRS Network. . 31 GPRS/EGPRS Network Architecture. . . .1 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 Data Flow across Protocol Layers in case of EGPRS(MSC7. . . . . 40 Radio Block structure for Data Transfer on the “Um” Interface .4 Fig. . . . .1 4. . 61 Packet Common Control Channels . . . Fig. .5 Fig. . . . . Fig. 52 Interleaving of MCS9 Coded Data into Two Consecutive Normal Bursts54 Interleaving of MCS6 Coded Data into Four Consecutive Normal Bursts . . . . . . . . . . Fig. . . . . 4. . . . 40 RLC/MAC Block structure for Data Transfer with one RLC Data Block field 41 RLC/MAC Block structure for Data Transfer with two RLC Data block fields 41 Radio Block for Data Transfer with one RLC Data Block field . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Fig. Fig. . . . . . . .. . . . . 80 Example of GPRS/EGPRS configuration. . . . . . . 30 Basic 8 PSK Constellation of Signal Vectors . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 Multiplexing Mobile Station on the same PDCH (Downlink) . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 Multiplexing Mobile Station on the same PDCH (Uplink). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 RLC/MAC block’s structure for Data Transfer . . . ..9 3. . . .16 Fig.6 3. . . . . . . . 4. .. . . . . . Fig. . . .11 4. . . . . . 4. . . . 63 Example of Mapping of Logical Channels in the Physical Channel (Downlink Direction). . . . . .3 4. .13 3. . . . . . . . .19 5. . . . . . Fig. . . Fig. . .1 5. . . . . . . .3 A30808-X3247-L24-5-7618 9 . . Fig. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 Coding of the RLC/MAC Block using CS-1 . . . . . . . Fig. . . . . .MSC6) . . . .9 4. . . . Fig. . . . . . . . 42 RLC/MAC Block Structure for Control Messages . Fig. .4 3. . . . . 4. . . . . . . . . . Fig. . . .6 Fig. . . . . . Fig. . . .8 4. . . . . 45 Multiframe Structure for a PDCH . . . 84 Fig. . . . 3. . . . .7 Fig. . . . . .13 4. . . Fig. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 3. . . . . . . .. . .12 4. . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70 Example of Multislot Configuration . . 35 Data Flow across Protocol Layers in case of GPRS/ EGPRS(MSC1. . . . 3. . .10 Basic GMSK Constellation of Signal Vectors. . . . . . . . . Fig. . . . . . . . . . . . 45 GPRS Coding Process . . . . . .5 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 3.MSC9) . . . Fig. . Fig. . . 42 Packet Data Channel (PDCH) within a TDMA frame. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 4. . . . . 42 Radio Block for Data Transfer with two RLC Data Block field . . .7 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 Example of Downlink Configuration with PBCCH and PCCCH Channels . . . 65 Example of Mapping of Logical Channels in the Physical Channel (Uplink Direction). . . .2 5. .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89 Allocation Algorithm followed by the PCU. . . . . . . . 6. 143 Example of Frame Relay Link (GTS=3&4&7&8). . . . . . . . 152 Frame Relay Frame Structure . . . . . . . 136 CCCH/PCCCH Message Handling. . . . . . . . . . . Fig. . . . . Fig. . Fig. 5. . . . . . . . . Fig. 131 Mapping of CCCH/PCCCH Channels on the Abis Interface. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 170 MS-FLOW-CONTROL . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143 Example of Frame Relay Link (GTS=3&4&5&6). . 130 Standard BSC: Relationship between PCU Frames and Abis Allocation according to the BTSE Type . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145 Creation of a NSVC . . . . . . . . . . 173 Example of PTPPKF Distribution During System Initialization . . . . . . . . . .10 6.9 7.4 5. . . . . . . 147 BSC Configured with One PCU and Two FR Links (64 kbit/s each). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Fig. . Fig. Fig. . 99 Allocation Algorithm followed by the TDPC . .GPRS/EGPRS Global Description Information System Fig. . . . . . 178 10 A30808-X3247-L24-5-7618 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Fig. . . . . . . .10 7. . . . . Fig. . . . . . . . . Fig. . .21 7. Fig. .19 7. 149 BSC Configured with Two PCUs and Two FR Links each one. . . Fig. . . . . . . 153 Periodic Polling Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . Fig. . . . . 87 Example of Horizontal Allocation Algorithm . .1 6. . . . . . . . . .4 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Example of Vertical Allocation Algorithm .6 7. . . . . .3 7. . . . . . . . . . Fig. . . . .2 7. . Fig. . . . 104 Hardware and Software Entities supporting the GPRS/EGPRS technology 113 View of the BSC Rack with and without PPCU Boards. . .12 7. . . . . . . 88 Example of a Cell Configured with Five TRXs. .9 Fig. . . . . . . . Fig. . Fig. . . . . . . . . . . . . Fig. Fig. . . . . . . . . . Fig. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 155 Distribution of Packet Switched Data Traffic among Different Cells . . . . . . . . . . . . Fig. . .. . . . . . . . . . . . Fig. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 163 Token Leaky Bucket (in SGSN) . .7 5. . . . . . . . . . . . .16 7. . .1 7. . . . . . . . . . 141 Example of Frame Relay Link (GTS=3). . . . . . . . . Fig. . . . . .5 5. . 6. . . 122 Fundamental Principle of Concatenated PCU Frames . . . . .11 7. . . . . . .8 7. . 6. 137 Gb Interface: Protocol Stack . . .. . Fig. . . . Fig. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 7. . . . . . . . . . . . .5 7. . Fig. . . . 6. . . . . .15 7. . . . . . . . 164 Closed Loop Control . 116 View of the “High Capacity” BSC with the Traditional Rack. . 173 SGSN does not answer with MS-FLOW-CONTROL-ACK message . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 5. . . . . . . 165 Example Cell Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 Fig. . . . . . . Fig. . . . . . . .5 6. . Fig. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .20 7. . . . . . Fig. . . . . . .4 7. . . . 160 Cascaded Flow Control. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .22 8. . .11 7. . . 118 High Capacity BSC with the New Rack . . . . . 126 Abis Mapping for a downlink MCS9 radio block requiring 5 Abis subslots . Fig. .17 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . 138 Different Connection Types between the BSC and the SGSN. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140 Example of Frame Relay Links . . . . . 143 Network Service Layer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Fig. . Fig. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .14 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Fig. 128 High Capacity BSC: Relationship between PCU Frames and Abis Allocation according to the BTSE Type . . . . . . .2 6. . . . .7 Fig. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Fig. . . . . . . . . . . . .8 6. . . 150 Frame Relay Network Connecting two DTE Devices . . . . . 148 BSC Configured with One PCU and Two FR Links (128 kbit/s each one). .18 7. 144 Gb Interface with a Frame Relay Network . Fig. . . . . 130 BSC handling of BTS Equipment with Software Releases not supporting the Abis Dynamic Allocation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13 7. . . . .3 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

10 9. . . . .4 Fig. . . . . .6 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 229 Resume Procedure (The MS has changed the Routing Area) . . . . . . . . . . 228 Resume Procedure (the MS has remained in the same cell . . . . . . . . 223 Release of a Downlink TBF . . . . 200 Two Phases Access on CCCH . . . . . . . . . . 201 Packet Access Reject Procedure. 8. . . . . . . Fig. . .2 10. . . . . . . . 219 Release of an Uplink TBF .13 9. . . . . . Fig. . 198 One Phase Access on PCCCH . . . . . . . . . . .9 9. .Information System GPRS/EGPRS Global Description Fig. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Fig. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Example of PTPPKF Distribution when a New PCU is Created . . . . .18 10. . . . . . . . . . . .4 10. . . . .4 9. . . 221 Control Procedure Executed by the Network during a Downlink TBF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 230 Management of Adjacent Cells . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 207 Behavior of T3182 Timer and N3102 Counter . . . . . . .16 9. . . . . .3 10. . . Fig. . . 181 Example of PTPPKF Distribution when a PCU Comes Back in Service . . . Fig. . . 224 Suspend Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Fig. . . . . .17 9. . 266 Gross Throughput Depending on CS and C/I (dB) . . . . . . . 8. . Fig.11 9. . . . . Fig. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Fig.7 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 221 Release of Resources on the Network Side during an Uplink TBF (in case of T3169 timer expiration) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 188 Radio Resource States . . . .3 Fig. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12 9. . .1 10. . Fig. . 218 Detection of Anomalies during an Uplink TBF on the Network Side . Fig. . . . . . .2 Fig. . . . 243 Network Controlled Cell Reselection Procedure . . . . . . . . Fig. . . .2 9.5 Fig. . .15 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 9. . . . . 255 CS1 and CS2 Throughput Depending on C/I (dB). . . . . . . . .5 10. . 205 TBF Establishment Initiated by the Network on PCCCH . . 268 BLER as Function of C/I (dB) for all GPRS Coding Schemes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Successful Resume) . . . . . Fig. . . . . . . . . 8. . . . . . . . . . . . Fig. . . . .1 9. . . 192 Packet Data Protocol States . . 272 A30808-X3247-L24-5-7618 11 . . . . . . . . . . 187 Mobility Management States . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Fig. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9. 194 Coding of the 11 Bit Access Burst . . . .8 9. . . . Fig. . . . . . . . . 179 Example of PTPPKF Distribution when a New PCU is Created . . 180 Example of PTPPKF Distribution in Case of PCU Crash. . . . . Fig.Step 1. . . . . . . . . . Fig. Fig. . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Fig. . Fig. . . . . . . Fig.14 9. . 269 Simulation Results for Family A (+MCS1) without IR . . . . Fig. . . . . . .Step 2. . 183 Network Structure: Example . . . . . . . . .

on the other hand it ensures a better management of available resources. since needs for mobile data transmission are rapidly increasing due to the current world wide activities based on the exchange of big amount of informations with the minimum time delay and maximun efficiency the growth in the area of data transmission is much higher and faster than in the area of speech transmission. but also low rate data transmission and several supplementary services have been provided to the final users. videotelephony). – additional costs arise for the user. TDMA access type. is the circuit switched data transmission that it requires and it uses. For this reason the HSCSD technology is essentially suited for whose applications involving high. In principle.GPRS/EGPRS Global Description Information System 1 Introductions 1. Nevertheless. not only pure speech transmission. This means that EGPRS will rely completely on underlying GSM functionality. for its forthcoming multimedia applications. a higher data transmission rates in the GSM network can be achieved by the HSCSD feature (High Speed Circuit Switched Data). which will: – increase the number of users. For this reason it is expected that both UMTS and GPRS/EGPRS networks will coexist in the near future. in fact when circuit switched connections are used the following limitations arise: – efficient resource management becomes difficult to reach. however.g. One disadvantage of the HSCSD feature. exceeding HSCSD limits. The incoming third generation of mobile networks. 200 kHz channeling.1 Generality With the implementation of the second generation of the mobile systems. The Enhanced General Packet Data Service (EGPRS) represents the GPRS upgrade and offers the opportunity to achieve those high data rates by preserving the most important GSM air interface features (e. Due to its GSM/GPRS compatibility EGPRS is the optimal packet data feature for established GSM operators. EGPRS is also a good opportunity for those operators (so called “UMTS-losers”) to make an evolutionary step to their mobile networks and provides the opportunity to offer in advance services normally offered by 3rd generation networks. however. due to the digital transmission mode they use. it provides a high protection for old investments and requires only small new investments. the General Packet Data Service (GPRS) has been developed. Looking at the fact that only a limited number of operators per country have been assigned UMTS licenses. Using the GPRS technology it is possible to reach a maximum data throughput of about 150-170 kbit/s per each user. at least 384 kbit/s. but constant. much more bandwidth. To further increase data rates. transmission rates (e. GPRS is intended to provide the possibility of transmitting large volumes of data in a very short time. by combining four timeslots of the TDMA frame.g. UMTS will serve mainly hotspots that require up to 2 Mbit/s data 12 A30808-X3247-L24-5-7618 . cell planning processes). With HSCSD it is possible to match the ISDN transmission rate. – reduce the costs arising for individual users (volume-oriented fees). requires.. by introducing a new modulation scheme (8 PSK instead of GMSK).

For each object the link to the chapters of the manual that describe it is given. A30808-X3247-L24-5-7618 13 . The following information is shown for each Feature Sheet (or Change Request): – its number and title. Besides. each parameter is linked to a specific table of the BSC:CML manual is executed. a link to the features that describe the parameter is also executed. that describes: – the meaning of the parameter. – its default value. – the release of the Feature Sheet (or Change Request).Information System GPRS/EGPRS Global Description services per subscriber and GPRS/EGPRS will be used to cover the rest of the area offering up to 384 kbit/s data services. Besides starting from the objects of the BR5. a link to the features that describe the parameter is assigned. can find in the manual the location where the parameter is explained and also which are the other documents that add more information on it. the parameters involved in the subject are also described. when a subject is shown. who wants to know the meaning of one parameter. – in the fourth table all the non specific GPRS/EGPRS database objects which are involved in packet switched (PS) services are listed in the alphabetical order. – the range of the parameter.2 Structure of the Manual This manual describes in detail the GPRS/EGPRS technology with a particular attention to the provided features considering that the satisfaction of almost all customers derives from an optimized system’s usability and cost saving. Besides the general description of GPRS and EGPRS features the Siemens solution is detailed. For each object the link to the Feature Sheets (or Change Requests) that introduce or describe the object is given. The Chapter: "2 Siemens Features Description"is completely dedicated to identifying all the Siemens Feature Sheets (or Change Requests) for the GPRS/EGPRS technology. For each parameter. in the last chapter of the manual four different tables are inserted: – in the first table all the parameters. – in the second table the non specific GPRS/EGPRS parameters which are described in the manual since they are also related to packet switched services are listed in alphabetical order. – in the third table all the database objects which are related to the GPRS/EGPRS technology only are listed in alphabetical order. – the commands to which the parameter belongs to. Finally. 1. which are discussed in the manual are listed in the alphabetical order. in this way a user. For each parameter one or more links to the chapters of the manual where the parameter is described and in addition also a link to the title of the related Feature Sheets (or Change Requests) that introduce or describe the parameter in Siemens technology are introduced. one or more links to the chapters of the manual where the parameter is described is given. starting from the parameters of the BR5. related to the GPRS/EGPRS only.5 release onwards.5 release onwards. The manual is organized in the following way: when a feature requires the description of one or more database parameters. – a brief description of the Feature Sheet (or Change Request). Therefore its main purpose is to allow users in understanding the main characteristics of packet switched (PS) data services.

• The Chapter: "7 Gb Interface" is dedicated to the Gb interface. The frame relay protocol.GPRS/EGPRS Global Description Information System The manual is subdivided in several chapters: • The chapter: "1 Introductions" explains the purpose of the manual and its structure. i. that is adopted to correctly distribute the relevant GPRS/EGPRS traffic among the internal resources of the BSC. showing the new architecture. the interface that connects the BSC to the core network. – power control. is described.. – the assignment of more physical channels to the same mobile station. • The Chapter:"2 Siemens Features Description" is the collection of all the Siemens Features related to the GPRS/EGPRS technology. • The Chapter:"4 Radio Interface Description" details the GPRS/EGPRS radio interface. – PDP context activation/deactivation. A short description is also added to each chapter for introducing the reader to its content.e. the following topics are detailed: – the physical layer. – Packet Data transfer main procedures. In particular. • The Chapter:"11 Database Parameters and Objects" is like an attachment because it contains tables that collect all the managed objects and related parameters discussed in the manual. such as: – GPRS/EGPRS attach/detach. • The Chapter: "5 Radio Resources Management" introduces the not simple concept of Radio Resource Management and shows how the user can configure the resources of the cell. a link to the feature that is affected is executed. which characterizes the Gb interface. • The Chapter:"9 GPRS/EGPRS Procedures"describes the main procedures regarding the packet switched services (PS). the protocol stack and the data flow across the several network entities. – permanent virtual connections. Toghether with the description are provided some examples are very important to clarify how the resources can be handled. – traffic control management. to allow him to manage both circuit switched (CS) and packet switched (PS) services. • The Chapter: "6 Hardware and Software Architecture" describes the hardware and software modules that are requested for the introduction of packet switched services. when a parameter is described in the manual. • The Chapter: "3 GPRS/EGPRS Overview" comprises a general discussion about the packet switched (PS) services. • The Chapter: "8 Load Control for Packet Switched Services" explains the load control mechanism. that means the configuration of new logical channels. – examples of configuration. 14 A30808-X3247-L24-5-7618 . – procedures regarding the Gb interface. their mapping on physical channels and the rules that allow: – sharing the same physical channel among several mobile stations. • The Chapter: "10 GPRS/EGPRS Functionalities" introduces the more recent GPRS/EGPRS algorithms regarding: – cell selection/re-selection. – link adaptation. in this chapter also the Packet Control Unit toghether with its main features are described.

5 This Change Request aligns the system to the last version of the ETSI standard for the release ‘97.0 release. CR .5 This Change Request introduces the possibility to configure static GPRS channels (not PBCCH or PCCCH) to support data traffic only.F189 GPRS Improvements Step 1 A30808-X3247-L24-5-7618 15 . Besides for each Feature Sheet (or Change Request) the following additional informations are provided: – FSH number and title. 31BIS Release BR5.F017 Packet Downlink Assignment Procedure on CCCH Release BR5. the parameters and the functionalities regarding the packet switched data service (PS). Each feature is related to its Feature Sheets (FSH) or corrresponding Change Request (CR).1 BR5. which is mandatory. CR . – a summary of the content. 30BIS. CR .5 This Change Request introduces the Packet Downlink Assignment procedure.Information System GPRS/EGPRS Global Description 2 Siemens Features Description This chapter is the collection of all the features related to the GPRS/EGPRS analyzed and implemented up to the current SBS BR 7.5 This feature is the most important one for the GPRS technology. 2. CR . 31. it describes the objects. on the CCCH channel. – the release in which the feature has been implemented.F135 GPRS Alignment to SMG 30.5 Feature Description FSH 0720 GPRS: HW and Basic SW for Packet Control Unit (PCU) Release BR5.F187 GPRS: Non signalling Channels PDCH Static Allocation Release: BR5.

GPRS/EGPRS Global Description

Information System

Release: BR5.5 This Change Request introduces some improvements regarding the GPRS service, with the purpose to increase mainly the customer acceptance and performance of the GPRS.

CR - F190 Support of Non-DRX Mode after Change to Packet Idle Mode Release: BR5.5 This Change Request allows the reduction of about 50% of the time that is needed to send data blocks from the Gb interface to the Mobile Station. The target is reached by accelerating the packet downlink assignment procedure.

CR - F191 Improve Robustness of GPRS Packet DL Assignments Release: BR5.5 This Change Request allows the reduction of the delay that occurs between the transmission of downlink assignment messages and the beginning of packet downlink data transfers (in a first step, see CR - F190, the delay that characterized downlink assignment procedures has been reduced. However the delay can still be on average reduced by 50% with the realization of this CR).

CR - F205 GPRS Improvements Step 2 Release: BR5.5 This Change Request introduces some improvements regarding GPRS service, to increase customer acceptance and performance of GPRS.

CR - F287 Decrease Round Trip Delay Time and Improve Web Browsing Performances Release BR5.5 This Change Request allows the improvement in the overall performance of the interaction between many TCP/IP based applications and the GPRS network.

CR - X232 GPRS Improvements for BR5.5 Release: BR5.5 This Change Request allows the improvement in the GPRS network, by introducing the following features without O&M impacts: - GPRS channels on all the TRXs of a cell; - horizontal allocation.

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CR - X366 Change Polling Strategy during Delay TBF Release Release: BR5.5 This Change Request allows the reduction the time needed by the MS to establish a concurrent uplink TBF, when the downlink TBF is kept open using the Delay TBF release procedure, introduced by CR - F287.

2.2

BR6.0 Feature Description
FSH 0397 High Capacity BSC Release BR6.0 This feature introduces the first step for the High Capacity BSC (HC BSC step1), that exploits the rack already used in the previous releases.

FSH 0457 Service Dependent Channel Allocation Strategy - Step1 Release BR6.0 This feature introduces new strategies to manage Circuit Switched, GPRS and HSCSD calls.

FSH 0503 GPRS: Automatic Horizontal Allocation Release BR6.0 This feature introduces the horizontal allocation strategy, and the parameter used to handle it.

FSH 0512 Packet Transfer on non BCCH TRXs without Downlink Power Control Release BR6.0 This feature introduces the possibility to configure the GPRS service on the TRXs chosen by the operator.

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GPRS/EGPRS Global Description

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FSH 0515 Improvement in GPRS scheduler Release BR6.0 This feature introduces a new mechanism to schedule data blocks to be sent/received to/from the users.

FSH 1928 Miscellaneous Impacts from Q3IG and DIG Release BR6.0 This feature introduces the new method to configure both intra-BSC and inter-BSC neighboring cells.

CR - F092 Implementation of FRS0457: Service Dependent Channel Allocation Strategy Step 1 Release: BR6.0 This Change Request allows implementation of the Service Dependent Channel Allocation Strategy - Step 1, described in FSH 0457, in BR6.0 release.

CR - F119 Update of FRS 1928 (Miscellaneous impacts from Q3IG and DIG) Release: BR6.0 This Change Request is an update of FSH 1928.

CR - F208 Rework of default values for Power Control, Handover, Adjacent Cell and BTS Release: BR6.0 This Change Request introduces new default values for some parameters.

CR - X260 GSM-UMTS Cell Selection/Re-Selection Release: BR6.0 This Change Request allows GSM/UMTS users to perform a cell reselection from GSM cells to UMTS cells.

CR - X263 GPRS scheduler Modification Release: BR6.0

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This Change Request is due to the decision to implement only a few parts of FSH 0515.

CR - X411 Removal of limitation in the number of GPRS adjacent cells Release: BR6.0 This Change Request increases to 32 the maximum number of GSM adjacent cells supporting GPRS.

CR - X482 UMTS-GPRS Cell reselection Release: BR6.0 This Change Request allows GPRS users to perform a cell reselection from GSM cells to UMTS cells without loosing the service.

CR - X617 New Attribute Definition and Default Adjustment Release: BR6.0 This Change Request introduces the TIMEDTBFREL parameter and new default values for some GPRS parameters.

CR - X669 GPRS Resume Procedure Release: BR6.0 This Change Request allows implementation of the GPRS resume procedure already foreseen for next releases.

CR - X685 New PTPPKF Object Management in Case of Unavailability of TRXs Supporting GPRS Release: BR6.0 This Change Request establishes that when all the TRXs supporting GPRS in a cell are excluded from the service, because LOCKED and/or disabled, the related PTPPKF object instance is excluded from service too (put into DISABLED state).

CR - X706 Reserved GPRS Channels Management Modification Release: BR6.0 This Change Request introduces the GMAPERTCHRES parameter and a new definition for the GDCH one.

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CR - X912 Modification of “Busy Traffic Channel” Calculation Release: BR6.0 This Change Request establishes that GPRS non reserved channels must be taken into account in the calculation of BUSY TRAFFIC CHANNELS only if the setting of the DGRSTRGY parameter does not allow GPRS downgrade.

CR - X1086 GPRS - Uplink Balanced Assignment of Resources Release: BR6.0 This Change Request allows to implement an Uplink Balanced assignment of resources; so it will be possible to vary the number of timeslots assigned in Uplink direction on TBF basis for those MSs that support the dynamic allocation of resources in downlink and uplink directions (Multi-slot mobiles class 6,7,10,11 and 12).

CR - X1519 Enable Throughput of GPRS Attach/Detach Requests to/from Rel. 99 Release: BR6.0 This Change Request allows stopping discarding the ATTACH ACCEPT message when it contains optional fields; without this CR the discarding happened when using Rel. 99 Handset in BR6.0 (Rel. 98) networks.

CR - X1553 Network Adaptation to Present MS Implementation Regarding PCCCH Operation Release: BR6.0 This Change Request assures that PPCH is not used for data transfer in CS-2; otherwise the MS will not be able to decode the radio blocks, and interprets them as "corrupted". Then the downlink signalling counter expires, causing reselection to another cell or loss of connection.

CR - X1681 Enlarge Fast Polling Period During Delayed DL TBF Release: BR6.0 This Change Request allows speeding up the MS uplink establishment during the Delay DL TBF Release Time. Improvements of about 80 ms are expected on Ping Delay time and also on FTP throughput.

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CR - X1706 Possibility to Enable/Disable Peak Throughput Management Feature Release: BR6.0 This Change Request allows the possibility to Operator to enable/disable the Peak Throughput Management feature. This permits to reduce the time to perform the GPRS Attach procedure.

2.3

BR7.0 Feature Description
FSH 0418 GPRS: Network Controlled Cell Reselection Release BR7.0 This feature introduces new strategiesfor the management of both GPRS and EGPRS packet switched data traffic. It introduces new parameters for packet switched cell reselection from GSM to UMTS.

FSH 0419 Support of CS3, CS4 Release BR7.0 This feature introduces new GPRS coding schemes.

FSH 0420 MAC Protocol Enhancements for EDGE Release BR7.0 This feature introduces the enhancements regarding the MAC protocol that is used for the support of the EDGE functionality. The feature sheet also comprises enhancements regarding both RLC and BSSGP protocols. It introduces some EDGE parameters related to the previous protocols and new flags to enable and disable GPRS and EGPRS on a cell basis.

FSH 0429 EDGE: Flexible Abis Allocation Strategy (FAAS) Release BR7.0 This feature introduces a new strategy to manage resources of the Abis interface. With this strategy it is possible to assign in a dynamic way, more than one Abis subslot to a single air timeslot. New PCU frames are also defined.

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X0158 Enable/Disable GPRS and/or EDGE Support on Call Basis Release: BR7.0 This feature introduces new algorithms to manage radio resources when packet switched services (GPRS/EGPRS) are enabled.0 This feature introduces enhancements in the process that manages the transmission/reception of GPRS/EGPRS radio blocks on the radio interface. to enable GPRS and EGPRS services on cell basis.0 This feature introduces the link adaptation algorithms regarding both GPRS and EGPRS services.0 This feature describes the flow control procedure on the Gb interface.0 This Change Request introduces two new attributes related to the PTPPKF object.0.0 This feature introduces a further enhancement of the High Capacity BSC step1 implemented in BR6.It’s called: “2nd step of the High Capacity BSC”. FSH 0514 Gb/MS flow control (GPRS Step 1 Completion) Release BR7. based on new rack and boards. FSH 0527 2nd Step of the High Capacity BSC Release BR7. FSH 0550 EGPRS/GPRS Scheduler Enhancements Release BR7. FSH 0516 GPRS Resource Management Release BR7. CR .GPRS/EGPRS Global Description Information System FSH 0444 Link Quality Control: (LA) Release BR7. 22 A30808-X3247-L24-5-7618 .

Without this feature Cingular fears.NCGPENTIME.NCSAMERA. that they cannot meet their business case due to waste of resources. It contains the general and unuseful information that some parameters are under investigation.NCGTEMPOFF.0 This Change Request introduces changes in PDCH pre-emption.Information System GPRS/EGPRS Global Description CR .X1150 Improvement of CS Channel Allocation Release: BR7. when a circuit switched call must be served in a congested cell.X1454 Multiplexing of GPRS and EGPRS on the same Timeslot Release: BR7. The requirement contained in this Change Request asks the alignement of the FRS to the current implementation (Feature Sheet). CR .0 This Change Request asks the addition of the following attributes that are necessary for the implementation of the feature: Network Controlled Cell Reselection ADJC object: NCGRESOFF. The following attribute have to be added for the Handover from GSM to UMTS BSC object: BSCT3121 CR . Especially Cingular and Vodafone D2 is asking for this functionality.0 The current description of FRS AEK514 (MS/Gb flow control) does not reflect the current implementation.NCRARESH .X1362 New O&M Attributes for Network Controlled Cell Reselection Release: BR7. CR .0 This Change Request allows multiplexing of GPRS and EGPRS mobile stations on the same PDCH dynamically.The possibility of multiplexing GPRS and EGPRS mobiles on the same channel enables that the customer is not forced to have separeted channels for those mobile types.X1152 Adaptation of FRS AEK0514A to the Current Implementation Release: BR7. A30808-X3247-L24-5-7618 23 .NCC1THRSADJC PTPPKF object: NCC1THRS.

0 With this CR it is requested to decrease the Ping Delay Time by reducing the internal PCU queue from 3 to 1(or max2) radio blocks. that means more or less no internal queueing but immediate sending of data when available. Also pure UL traffic like FTP put is not handeled optimally. In this way the duration of Immediate Assignment procedure is reduced.0 This Change Request allows to transmit immediate assignment message after that. Tests with a multislot class 6 MS have shown. if there is a considerable amount of uplink traffic available.Mobile stations (MS) which provides a dynamic allocation of the number of uplink and downlink time slots (multislot class 6.X1507 GPRS Improvements on Ping Delay Release: BR7. for Mobile Staions able to use more than one timeslot in the uplink direction. CR . This improvement can save approximately 20-40 msec per direction and it's requested only on PPXU. 11 and 12) should be able to use the maximum number of time slots in uplink direction compatible with dynamic allocation for data transfer. 7. on each PDCH involved in TBF and which has to be aligned. that with two simultaneous ftp connections. which causes as acknowledged protocol also traffic in the opposite direction. 10. in case of downlink preferred configuration (3+1) the downlink throughput is worse than in uplink preferred configuration (2+2). CR . The MS indicates the amount of uplink data with a special parameter in the channel request description and the newtwork should take this parameter into account by assigning the time slots for both uplink and downlink TBFs. one in uplink the other in downlink direction (duplex FTP). only two complete uplink PCU frame have been received by BSC.X1495 Uplink Balanced Assignment of E(GPRS) Resources Release: BR7. since the network changes to downlink preferred allocation as soon as first DL TBFs for TCP/IP acknowledgments arrive.0 This Change Request introduces a new strategy to better manage concurrent TBFs. Because of the delayed acknoledgement packets (caused by the queue in MS or notebook which is always full concerning the uplink traffic) the downlink transfer is reduced (stalled condition).X1656 Shortening of Duration of Immediate Assignment Procedure for GPRS Release: BR7. This is due to the fact that ftp connections are based on TCP as transfer protocol. 24 A30808-X3247-L24-5-7618 .GPRS/EGPRS Global Description Information System CR .

3) DL Block scheduler activated around 5 .X1738 GPRS/EGPRS: Improvement of ABIC/PCUX Interface to Shorten PCU reaction time Release: BR7.5 msec.5 ms before DL Frame Request (currently 20 . This means that the UL frames are segmented into 4 parts. no further improvements is possible. and it's feasible only on PPXU Important points to be outlined are the following: .5 ms before starting Abis transmission (currently 20 .16 ms). 2) DownLink (DL) Frame Request from DSP moved to roughly 9 . by improving AbIC-PCUX interface.6.This change also increases the probability that a GB downlink data is transmitted over the first block requested by DSP (SW modifications required on both AbIC and PCUX). This allows the parallel processing between receiving data from Pentium and transmission over ABIS interface (SW modifications required on AbIC only).X1742 Enable/Disable of Delayed DL TBF During Mobility Management A30808-X3247-L24-5-7618 25 .This can be achieved with the following modifications: 1) Delay of Up Link frame interrupt to 4 ms (Currently 10 ms).The new performance is highly challenging and requires a complex tuning between PCUX Operating System.Timing is referred to a low_load condition.Information System GPRS/EGPRS Global Description CR .16 ms). The granularity of DL interrupt is lowered to 2.0 Step 1) approximately 40 msec on PCU round trip time.0 With this Change Request it's requested to furtherly shorten PCU reaction times (round trip Delay on Abis. allowing the parallel processing between receiving information from the Abis and sending data to Pentium (SW modifications required on both AbIC and PCUX). Abis-GB and Gb-Abis crossing times). With the current PPXU card. 20-25 msec on Gb-Abis and some msec on Abis-Gb crossing time.7. . AbIC and UPK. The coexistence of these improvements should further save (with respect to BR 7. allowing the PCUX to implement a very precise and timing mechanism. CR .

To handle this event the BSC has not to order to mobile to move again into this adjacent target cell . in spite of good radio link scenario . until the timer TRFPSCTRL is expired . The Multislot class will be considered only if peak throughput information has inconsistent values as already planned (e.X1850 No “ping_pong” behaviour for mobiles which do not transmit packet cell change failure Release: BR7. This means for example that 1 TS will be assigned for signalling procedures and more TS for data depending on the information sent by SGSN.0.0 This Change Request allows to prevent “ping_pong” effect due to questionable Mobile Station behaviour during Netowrk Controlled Cell Reselection. The Siemens customer Cingular has decided not to launch GPRS with CS3&CS4 in all their markets.X1869 Disable CS3&CS4 Release: BR7. otherwise BSC may not track mobile in its cell change. When delayed TBF release during MM procedures is enabled (to optimise GPRS attach time): the assignement of resourses is done using the peak throughput information but the TBF in this case is maintained active during "transaction" from signaling to data. When delayed TBF release during MM procedures is disabled (current implementation): the assignment of resourses is done using the peak throughput information every time the TBF is established for the different procedures (signalling or data). It is activated when EDGE is on and de-activated when EDGE is off.GPRS/EGPRS Global Description Information System Release: BR7. CR .0).g. this means that 1 TS will be assigned for signalling procedures and an upgrade procedure will be activated on the same TBF to assign more TS for data. Therefore this CR allows to enable/disable the CS3&CS4 feature independently from EDGE feature activation 26 A30808-X3247-L24-5-7618 . This action trust in the fact that mobile’s TLLI used in the old serving cell and mobile’s TLLI used in the adjacent target cell may differ only for one bit ( bit 30th . Taking the example made before.which distinguish between local / foreign TLLI ) . CR .This procedure requires also that BSC stores informations related to mobile after the end of each TBF at least for the time STGTTLLIINF ( storage TLLI Info). Currently the CS3&CS4 featrue is dependent on the EDGE activation.0 Siemens is introducing the GPRS CS3&CS4 in BR7.0 IIn this Change Request it is requested to maintaine active the delayed TBF also during Mobility management procedures considering always the peak throughput information for the assignment of resourses. esourses). It's requested to give the possibility to the operator to decide if enable or disable delayed TBF release during Mobility Management procedure in order not to have problems with other customers.

A30808-X3247-L24-5-7618 27 .extension to BR 7. The CR1300 asks to extend to the release BR 7. BR 7. For the reason that Nokia has already implemented the Common BCCH feature”. CR X-2230 Title: Release: Description: Enhancement of throughput of 8PSK Mobile Stations when multiplexed with GMSK Mobile Stations BR 7. Removal of BSS restrictions in extended band. For FHSY the new implementation allows the configuration of FH laws in the extended band overlapping into the primary band.0 the patch provided with the CR 688: “Modification of Common BCCH Implementation via Patch”.For the GPRS the GSUP can be set also in a different band that the BCCH one. The throughput decreasing of EDGE Mobile Station in 8PSK modulation could be at maximum at 35% with BLER = 0 (no interference) and at maximum 31% in the normal field condition while currrently its degrading is near to 70%.Besides currently there are in progress commercial negotiations with the customer Eurotel in Czech Republic.0 This Change Request enables the usage of a common BCCH on the 900MHz frequency and it allows the releases of the GPRS/EGPRS services on both 900 and 1800 MHz.0 This Change Requests asks the implementation of the patch solution described in the Change Request 1300 (Common BCCH for Cingular .Information System GPRS/EGPRS Global Description CR-X2132 Title Release: Description: .0) also for the frequencies 900 / 1800.0 This change request asks to implement the requirements described in the FRS AEK550. BR7. Siemens has the big opportunity to swap NOKIA out of the customer’s network. No overlapping between primary/extended band and DCS shall be kept CR X-2199 Title: Release: Description: Common BCCH Improvements for 900 and 1800Mhz BR 7. the patch solution described in the Change Request is the precondition for a successful commercial strategy. The customer asks the use of the common BCCH and (E)GPRS in the inner area.0 This Change Request requires to remove some limitations on the GPRS and FHSY. CR X-2263 Title: Release: Description: Common BCCH allowing E(GPRS) in the complementary Band. It is left to the user choiche the decision to enable the GPRS on the Extended band.

0 This Change Request asks the following improvements for the GPRS/EGPRS system: 1) For the First Ping the number of the PDT assigned to a single block has to be set to 2 if concatenated PCU frames are used in the cell and to 1 if standard PCU frames are used. CR X-2325 Title: Release: Description: (E) GPRS improvements on first ping and gap between IAMCD and PRR/TBF start BR7.0 This Change Request asks to enable/disable the Directed Retry to UMTS independently from the setting of the enable/disable flag of the imperative Handover to UMTS. Therefore it is requested to enlarge the repetition rate to refresh the system info in order to decrease the number of the TBF released in the network. 2) In the current load there is a gap of roughly 350-450ms between the IACMD and the PRR in case of 2 phase access. BR 7.GPRS/EGPRS Global Description Information System CR X-2313 Title: Release: Description: Enable Directed Retry to UMTS Independent of Enable Imperative Handover HO). 28 A30808-X3247-L24-5-7618 . 3) In the current load the BCCH change mark is changed about every 15 minutes to refresh the system info. 4) Improvement and Optimization of the GPRS and EGPRS Link Adaptation Thresholds. The FRS AEK0490 shall be updated accordingly to this Change Request. The Mobile Station will release the ongoing TBF to read all the incoming systeminfo even if they are not changed. For this reason a reduction/optimization of the overall delay for all kinds of the PRR/TBF start has to be applied for cases with both idle channels as weel as active channels.

the GSM/DCS network works in circuit switched connection mode. if this higher data rate is enabled) is reached by combining more radio channels to a given user.6 kbit/s (or larger than 14.4 kbit/s.. . non-periodic (i. In other words. Circuit switched connections (CS) are what is provided by the GSM architecture for speech and data services. which is typical of data transmission.1 GPRS and EGPRS Modulation Principles").e.e. See for more details the chapter: "3. and the allocation of these channels is flexible as follow: – from 1 to 8 radio interface timeslots can be allocated for TDMA frame..0 release. EDGE is applied only to packet services. by the HSCSD feature. However.. packet switched services) as a function of service load and also on the basis of different operator’s needs. i. substantially. including a new kind of modulation (8PSK. for both GPRS and EGPRS technology the packet switched (PS) technique has been implemented for supporting both data and signalling transfer in an efficient manner.. it gives to the customer the exclusive use of a certain amount of bandwidth for the duration of the requirement. i The well known word EDGE (Enhanced Data rates for the GSM Evolution) applies both to the circuit switched (CS) and to the packet switched (PS) services. The connection is set up on demand and released when the caller breaks the connection. and using new specific RLC/MAC control messages or new specific information elements in GPRS RLC/MAC control messages. the generic term EDGE is used in O&M attributes that. bursts) data transmission. it means that circuit switched connections do not provide an optimized way to support data traffic. EDGE is referred and it is applied to the packet switched (PS) services. Note that EDGE is mainly a characteristic of the Air Interface. – uplink and downlink resources are allocated separately. New GPRS/EGPRS radio channels are defined. MCS9).e.. for each transceiver of the cell. the same timeslot can be assigned to different users at the same time.Information System GPRS/EGPRS Global Description 3 GPRS/EGPRS Overview The General Packet Radio Service (GPRS) and the Enhanced General Packet Radio Service (EGPRS) allow packet switched data transmission on the framework provided by the GSM mobile network. In order to improve and optimize the use of both the network and radio resources. In the remainder of this manual. A30808-X3247-L24-5-7618 29 ...e. the world EDGE means EGPRS and viceversa. could be used to define the support of EDGE also for the circuit switched (CS) service. when a circuit switched connection is established and the user does not transmitt information. – radio interface resources can be shared dynamically between speech services (i. • frequent transmission of small volumes of data.e. In the current BR 7. in some future release. besides the already used GMSK modulation. circuit switched services) and data services (i. the coding of the radio blocks using a specific set of modulation and coding schemes (MCS1. Nevertheless. When the GPRS/EGPRS technology is not configured. unlike what happens in GSM). The word EGPRS (Enhanced GPRS) applies only to the packet switched (PS) services. – timeslots are shared by the active users (i. the specific resources are wasted because they are not available for other users requesting the services. Data transmission with bandwidth larger than 9. • not frequent transmission of large volumes of data. That means. Applications that take advantage of GPRS/EGPRS services should exhibit one or more of the following characteristics: • intermittent. Whenever in this document the word EGPRS is adopted.

30 A30808-X3247-L24-5-7618 . Fig. This modulation scheme. called GMSK (Gaussian Minimum Shift Keying). (see Fig. 3.1 Basic GMSK Constellation of Signal Vectors The GPRS uses four different channel coding schemes (see the chapter: "4.2. within 200 KHz bandwidth. The GMSK digital modulation format relies on shifting the carrier 180˚ in phase to produce a binary modulation scheme capable of delivering 1 bit/symbol (see Fig.1 GPRS Channel Coding") to provide different levels of protection to the packets on the air interface. however it cannot supply fast data services since it only transmits 1 bit/symbol.1).GPRS/EGPRS Global Description Information System 3. With this 8PSK modulation. 3. provides good spectral performance and an adequate data rates for GSM voice applications. The EDGE technology uses the same bandwidth allocated for GSM voice and GPRS data services. 3. Each phase represents a symbol and carries three bits of information. there are eight distinct phase changes that the decoder will look for the conversion into binary data.2).1 GPRS and EGPRS Modulation Principles The GPRS technology is an evolution of the existing GSM technology and it uses the same modulation scheme. but delivers a higher capacity and fast data services to the mobile network by using a new modulation scheme called 8 PSK (8-level Phase Shift Keying).

it is possible during symbol changes for the signal trajectory to pass through the origin (I/Q value 0.2 EGPRS Channel Coding") using both GMSK and 8PSK modulations are introduced and a link adaptation algorithm allows automatic switching between coding schemes. GMSK modulated MCS1 MCS2 MCS3 Tab.8 kbit/s EDGE 8 PSK.0). EDGE uses a 3pi/8-shifted 8PSK approach. In the following table a comparison of the physical layer parameters is depicted.1 shows which EDGE coding schemes are GMSK modulated and which are 8 PSK modulated. 3. To avoid this possibility. which causes both a very high Peak to Average Value (PTA) and a high dynamic range of the signal.1 8 PSK modulated MCS5 MCS6 MCS7 EGPRS Coding Schemes and their Modulation A30808-X3247-L24-5-7618 31 . 3 bit/sym 270833 kbit/s 348 bit 69. Nine coding schemes (from MCS1 to MCS9.2 Basic 8 PSK Constellation of Signal Vectors As a consequence. The Tab.2.6 kbit/s Modulation Symbol Rate Payload per Burst Gross Rate per Time Slot With the classical 8 PSK modulation scheme. by which with every phase transition. the symbols rotate by 3pi/8 causing a shift of the I/Q constellation relative to its previous starting position. GSM GMSK. as described in the chapter: "4. the EDGE’s 8 level-shift keying modulation scheme allows a radio throughput increase of almost 3 times the radio throughput of GPRS with the same number of timeslots with big advantages for the final users. 1bit/sym 270833 kbit/s 114 bit 22. 3. 3.Information System GPRS/EGPRS Global Description Fig. based on the radio environment condition.

It is also possible to connect the SGSN 32 A30808-X3247-L24-5-7618 . the network has to schedule the access keeping some of them in a wait queue for avoiding traffic congestion.1 EGPRS Coding Schemes and their Modulation 3. 3. the GPRS/EGPRS network is put on the top of the GSM existing one but without substitute it. 3. It is at the same hierarchical level as the MSC and it can be connected to the Base Station System (BSS) via a Frame Relay network. 3. As shown in Fig.3 GPRS/EGPRS Network Architecture.GPRS/EGPRS Global Description Information System GMSK modulated MCS4 8 PSK modulated MCS8 MCS9 Tab.3. Fig.2 Network Architecture Generally the packet data network establishes a logical connection between the users but does not guarantee an immediate access to the transmission network: when more users ask the access to the transmission resources at the same time. But for providing the Packet Switched (PS) services two new network nodes in the GSM core network have to be introduced: • Serving GPRS Support Node (SGSN): the SGSN keeps track of the individual Mobile Station location and performs security functions and access control. In fact the network architecture still grants that speech and data transmission with circuit switched connections (CS) are controlled by the MSC (through the A interface).

Gateway GPRS Support Node (GGSN): the new node GGSN provides: – interworking with external packet switched (PS) networks. A30808-X3247-L24-5-7618 33 .1 Attach Function".3. Besides the Gb interface is “standard” and it guarantees multi-vendor capabilities. To allow co-ordination of activities between the MSC and the SGSN. the Mobile Station first activates the packet data address that it wants to use. In order to send and receive packet switched (PS) data.7 Activation and Deactivation of a PDP Context" This context is used for routing purposes when the user: – will send data to the external data network. Besides the HLR has to be upgraded with GPRS/EGPRS subscriber information.This operation establishes a logical link between the Mobile Station and the SGSN. but these two entities can also reside on the same physical node. and it provides the following functions: – paging via the SGSN. in order to inform the Mobile Stations about the specification Release implementation in the SGSN. – management of IP addresses.2. So at the end of a successful GPRS attach procedure. containing information pertaining to. the SGSN establishes a PDP context with the related GGSN as it is described in the chapter: "9. the SGSN establishes with the mobile station a mobility management session. In this way the Mobile Station will be recognized by the corresponding GGSN and then interworking with external data networks can begin. In order to access to the packet switched (PS) services.. mobility and security etc. It specifies the data flow and the requested protocols (see the Chapter: "7 Gb Interface") and consists of connections which carry both data and signalling simultaneously. and optionally the MSC/VLR can be enhanced for a more efficient coordination of GPRS and non-GPRS services and functionalities like for example the following: – paging of circuit switched calls through the SGSN. The interface between the SGSN and the GGSN is the “Gn” Interface. The security management functions for the GPRS/EGPRS technology do not differ for those implemented for the GSM system: the SGSN performs authentication and cipher setting procedures based on the same algorithms.3). – notification of incoming GPRS/EGPRS specific data. • The SGSN and the BSC are connected through the Gb interface. – SMS over GPRS. using the Frame Relay protocol. i The SISGSNREL99 parameter is broadcasted in the cell. keys.e. the only difference is that GPRS/EGPRS networks require a ciphering algorithm optimized for packet data transmission. for example. Packet Data Protocol context activation). During this procedure.Information System GPRS/EGPRS Global Description and the BSS via nailed-up connections (NUCs) or through point-to-point connections. It is described in detail in the chapter: "9. – combined GPRS and non-GPRS location updates. and criteria adopted in GSM. the Gs interface must be supported (see Fig. a Mobile Station (a specifc hardware and software is needed for being able to provide GPRS services) first makes its presence known to the SGSN by performing a GPRS attach procedure. The GGSN could be connected to the SGSN via an IP-based GPRS/EGPRS backbone network. which is called PDP context activation (i. 3.Two GGSN nodes can be interconnected through the so-called “Gp” Interface.

The User data is transferred transparently between the Mobile Station and the external data networks with a method known as encapsulation and tunnelling: data packets are completed with GPRS/EGPRS specific protocol information and transferred between the Mobile Statopm and the GGSN of competence. and it enables an easy introduction of additional interworking protocols in the future. For the purpose.1 GPRS/EGPRS Physical Channels". User data can be compressed and protected with retransmission protocols. the MS can start the transmission or reception of data. At the end of the successful execution of the attach and of the PDP context activation procedures. This transparent transfer method lessens the requirement for the GPRS PLMN to interpret external data protocols. to get a consistent. 34 A30808-X3247-L24-5-7618 . See for more details the chapter: "4. The Temporary Block Flow allows unidirectional transfer of data through the allocated radio resources.GPRS/EGPRS Global Description Information System – will receive data from the external data network. this physical connection is called “Temporary Block Flow”. efficient and reliable data transmission. the Mobile Station must establish a physical connection with the network.

A30808-X3247-L24-5-7618 35 .4: Protocol Stack for Data Transmission in GPRS/EGPRS Network. It supports the physical radio channel used to transfer packet data. therefore its main task is the segmentation and reassembling of the LLC frames transmitted between the BSS and the SGSN. • LLC: the Logical Link Control layer provides a logical connection between the Mobile Station and the SGSN even if no physical connection is established.It provides a reliable link over the air interface that fits the block structure of the physical channel. The different layers for the Um. – the channel combining to provide up to eight physical channels to one Mobile station.It provides the access to the physical radio resources. Fig. It is responsible for the physical allocation of the packet data channels (PDCHs).4 Protocol Stack for Data Transmission in GPRS/EGPRS Network. Gb. • RLC: the Radio Link Control layer is the protocol specified for the Um and the Abis interfaces.Information System GPRS/EGPRS Global Description 3.3 GPRS/EGPRS Protocol Stack The GPRS and EGPRS technology is supported at every level of the OSI stack by a set of protocols that are represented below (See the figure 3. Gn and Gi interfaces provide the following functions: • GSM RF: the GSM RF is the protocol specified for the Um and the Abis interfaces. The physical connection is set up by the RLC/MAC layer when there is data to transmit.) toghether with the corresponding interfaces starting from the air-interface (“Um”) up to the core Network (“Gn” Interface between the SGSN and the GGSN). 3. In addition it performs: – a sub-multiplexing to support more than one Mobile Station by one physical channel. • MAC: the Media Access Control layer s the protocol specified for the Um and the Abis interfaces. Abis.

GPRS/EGPRS Global Description Information System • • • • • BSSGP: the BSSGP protocol is specified for the Gb interface and it is used to transfer LLC frames together with related information between the SGSN and the BSC.. It performs the following tasks: – encryption.4 Data Flow This chapter describes the way data is transmitted from the core network (SGSN) up to the Mobile Station. The different kinds of data packets are encapsulated in IP packets since IP is the GPRS/EGPRS internal network protocol. The encryption function grants the best security for the data transmission whereas the compression and the segmentation are performed to limit the amount of data transferred by the LLC layer.MSC9 coding schemes are used (see description below). Such information include QoS (Quality of Service) and routing information. 3.. X. – compression. Its main task is the encapsulation/de-encapsulation function. Depending on the supported network protocol (IP. and vice versa. – segmentation/re-assembling. CLNP). SNDCF: the Sub Network Dependent Convergence Protocol is the protocol specified for the logical interface between the Mobile Station and the SGSN. because they are not dependent from the underlying network. The encapsulated data packets are then transferred between the GSN nodes. IP/X. 3.5: “RLC/MAC Block and Radio Block Structures” and the figure 3.5 represents the data flow in case of GPRS and EGPRS when the MSC1.6 represents the data flow in case of EGPRS when the MSC7.MSC6 coding schemes are used. – The Fig. there are several kinds of network layers.6: “Data Flow across Protocol Layers in case of EGPRS(MSC7. Application: The higher layers (for example the “Application Layer”) are outside the scope of the GPRS/EGPRS.MSC9)” represent in which way the different protocol’s layers handle the data flow: – The Fig. GTP: The GPRS Tunnelling Protocol is specified for the Gn interface.. – multiplexing/de-multiplexing of signalling information and data packets. 36 A30808-X3247-L24-5-7618 . 3.25: The network layer represents the network protocol that supports the information transferred over the GPRS/EGPRS network starting from the Mobile Station up to the GGSN.25.. The figure 3.

MSC9) It is supposed that an IP data packet has to be sent from an external data network to a mobile subscriber. The following steps are performed: A30808-X3247-L24-5-7618 37 .5 Data Flow across Protocol Layers in case of GPRS/ EGPRS(MSC1. i Precondition is that the Mobile Station has already executed the “attach” procedure and it has already activated the PDP context towards the involved data network.. 3....Information System GPRS/EGPRS Global Description Fig.MSC6) Fig. 3.6 Data Flow across Protocol Layers in case of EGPRS(MSC7.

3. MCS8 and MCS9 coding schemes are used. the paging procedure is used to localize the subscriber.GPRS/EGPRS Global Description Information System 1. More details are described in the chapter: "6. to the right BTS.. when the SGSN knows the location of the Mobile Station (i. across the Gb interface.MSC9). the BTS executes the described operations on it. these blocks have a well defined length (according to the used coding scheme). the GGSN searches for the relevant PDP context and forwards the data unit towards the right SGSN. the SGSN decapsulates the IP data packet and (by means of the SNDCP protocol) it subdivides the data packet in a certain number of LLC frames (data is also encrypted and compressed). i RLC/MAC blocks are sent across the Abis interface. by means of PCU frames.e.standard PCU frames: they allow the transmission of a restricted number of bits every 20 msec and so they support only CS1 and CS2 GPRS coding schemes. 6. the BTS executes the following operations for the received RLC/MAC blocks: – block coding.3 PCU Frames and Dynamic Allocation on the Abis Interface". a single RLC/MAC block contains two Information Fields. the cell where the Mobile Station is camped on). each received RLC/MAC block reaches. after these operations. a fixed length of 1368 bits. these LLC frames are sent to the right BSC. – when EGPRS MCS7. after these operations. a single RLC/MAC block contains one Information Field only. the LLC frames are segmented in a certain number of RLC/MAC blocks. the RLC/MAC block 38 A30808-X3247-L24-5-7618 . the BTS executes the described operations on it. As in the GSM system. a single contains one Information Field only. it is important to make a distinction among the following different cases: – when GPRS coding schemes are used.e. independently from the applied coding scheme. but also CS3 and CS4. using the IP address which has been assigned to the Mobile Station during the PDP context activation procedure. The RLC/MAC blocks are then sent through the Abis interface.. from MCS1 to MCS4). each received RLC/MAC block reaches.concatenated PCU frames: they support not only CS1 and CS2 GPRS coding schemes. – puncturing. after these operations. the BTS executes the described operations on it. a single RLC/MAC block contains one Information Field only. and all the EGPRS coding schemes (MSC1. independently from the applied coding scheme. The original IP data unit is encapsulated in a new one (using the GTP protocol). the Internet Service provider sends the IP data packet unit to the GPRS/EGPRS network. The LLC frames have a variable length.. a fixed length of 1392 bits. independently from the applied coding scheme. . since they have to be sent on the radio interface. each received RLC/MAC block reaches. – interleaving. 2. after these operations. Regarding these operations. 5. which has a limited capacity. – when EGPRS GMSK coding schemes are used (i. the BTS executes the described operations on the RLC/MAC block. a fixed length of 456 bits. 4. and the new IP address is the IP address of the SGSN. – when EGPRS MCS5 and MCS6 coding schemes are used. – convolutional coding. 7. Two kinds of PCU frames exists: .

i After block coding. • Radio Block: a Radio Block is a RLC/MAC block that is generated after the BTS has applied the block coding (i. 3.7: “Data Flow from the SGSN to the MS. and it is still called Radio Block.. Fig. then this block is sent using PCU frames towards the BTS that will apply the right coding. independently from the applied coding scheme. Each Radio Block is then sent on the radio interface by means of 4 Normal Bursts. To avoid mis-understanding in this manual. after these operations the interested block will reach a fixed length of 456 or 1392 bits. – up to 114 bits in cases of EGPRS when GMSK modulation is used. Abis and Um interfaces (in the uplink direction the same data flow is transmitted but in the opposite order). 8. – up to 348 bits in cases of EGPRS when 8PSK modulation is used.Information System GPRS/EGPRS Global Description reaches. the BTS will apply the convolutional coding and both puncturing and interleaving procedures. it is a RLC/MAC block plus some coding bits). The block that is obtained after different coding procedures is called Radio Block. A30808-X3247-L24-5-7618 39 .” shows the data flow between the SGSN and the Mobile Station in the downlink direction through the Gb. in fact each Normal Burst can transmit: – up to 114 bits in cases of GPRS.e. the following definitions are used: • RLC/MAC block: a RLC/MAC block is a block generated in the BSC (by the RLC/MAC layer) starting from the LLC-PDU.7 Data Flow from the SGSN to the MS. The figure 3. a fixed length of 1392 bits.

whereas the same RLC/MAC Block structure is used for the management of control messages.9 Radio Block structure for Data Transfer on the “Um” Interface".5 RLC/MAC Block and Radio Block Structures Different RLC/MAC block (and as a consequence different Radio Block) structures for data transfer and control message transfer purposes are defined. as represented in the "Fig.8 RLC Data RLC/MAC block’s structure for Data Transfer The RLC/MAC block is sent to the BTS.1 RLC/MAC Block and Radio Block Structures for GPRS Data Transfer A RLC/MAC block for data transfer supported by the GPRS technology consists of one MAC Header. 3.9 RLC Data BCS Radio Block structure for Data Transfer on the “Um” Interface 40 A30808-X3247-L24-5-7618 .1. one RLC Header and one RLC Data Block as represented in the "Fig.8 RLC/MAC block’s structure for Data Transfer". 3. 3. that will apply a block coding for the error detection. are always carried by four Normal Bursts on the “Um” radio interface. two different RLC/MAC Block structures are defined for GPRS and EGPRS data transfer.1 All the different RLC/MAC block types. 3. adding to the RLC Data Block field the “Block Check Sequence (BCS)” field. is then transmitted on the “Um” air interface and carried by four Normal Bursts. MAC Header RLC Header Fig. – the RLC Data Block field contains octets from one or more LLC PDUs.5. RLC/MAC and Radio Block Structures: Data Transfer As it has been described. puncturing and interleaving. At the end of the operation the Radio Block is generated. MAC Header RLC Header Fig.5.GPRS/EGPRS Global Description Information System 3. This Radio Block. – The RLC Header contains control fields with different values for the uplink and downlink directions and it has a variable length. after convolutional coding. The RLC/MAC block structure for data transfer is different between GPRS and EGPRS. 3. after the coding. i 3. – The MAC Header contains control fields with different values for the uplink and downlink directions and it has a constant length of 8 bits.

In cases of RLC/MAC blocks constituted by two RLC Data Block fields . 3.2 RLC/MAC Block and Radio Block Structure for EGPRS Data Transfer A RLC/MAC block for data transfer supported by the EGPRS technology consists of one RLC/MAC Header. that will apply a block coding for the error detection. 3. – the RLC Data Block field contains octets from one or more LLC PDUs. (see the "Fig. At the end of the operation the Radio Block is generated. whereas the coding schemes from MCS7 to MCS9 use a RLC/MAC block constituted by two RLC Data Block fields to reach a more high data rate as represented in the "Fig. At the end of the checks and after convolutional coding. The RLC/MAC Header does not interact from the RLC Data Block and it has its own check sequence.11 RLC/MAC Block structure for Data Transfer with two RLC Data block fields". and one or two RLC Data Blocks. A30808-X3247-L24-5-7618 41 .1. puncturing and interleaving. each field has its own block check sequence whereas the RLC/MAC Header is common for both the fields. 3. 3. RLC/MAC Header Fig. – the Header Check Sequence (HCS) is used for the error detection of the header part.13 Radio Block for Data Transfer with two RLC Data Block field" is transmitted on the “Um” Air Interface and carried by four Normal Bursts.13 Radio Block for Data Transfer with two RLC Data Block field" in case two RLC Data Blocks are inserted). Besides two different block codings are applied for the error detection: – the Block Check Sequence (BCS) is used for the error detection of the data part.10 RLC/MAC Block structure for Data Transfer with one RLC Data Block field"). 3.5.10 RLC Data Block RLC/MAC Block structure for Data Transfer with one RLC Data Block field RLC/MAC Header Fig.Information System GPRS/EGPRS Global Description 3.The EGPRS coding schemes from MCS1 to MCS6 use a RLC/MAC block constituted by only one RLC Data Block field only (as represented in the "Fig.11 RLC Data Block RLC Data Block RLC/MAC Block structure for Data Transfer with two RLC Data block fields The RLC/MAC block is sent to the BTS. 3.12 Radio Block for Data Transfer with one RLC Data Block field"in case only one RLC Data Block is inserted and the "Fig. 3. the RLC/MAC Block structure represented in the "Fig. It also has a variable length. – the RLC/MAC Header contains control fields with different values for the uplink and downlink directions.

3.15 Radio Block for Control Messages (Signalling).15 Radio Block for Control Messages (Signalling).13 Radio Block for Data Transfer with two RLC Data Block field 3. MAC Header RLC/MAC Control Message BCS Fig. 3. 3. – the RLC/MAC Control Message field contains one RLC/MAC control message. 42 A30808-X3247-L24-5-7618 . The Header and the RLC?MAC Control Message have the following structure: – the MAC Header contains control fields with different values for the uplink and downlink directions and it has a constant length of 8 bits. MAC Header RLC/MAC Control Message Fig. At the end of the operation the Radio Block is generated as represented in the "Fig. It is always carried by four normal bursts.12 Radio Block for Data Transfer with one RLC Data Block field RLC/MAC Header HCS RLC Data Block BCS RLC Data Block BCS Fig. It consists of one MAC header and one RLC/MAC Control Message as represented in the "Fig. 3.14 RLC/MAC Block Structure for Control Messages".14 RLC/MAC Block Structure for Control Messages The RLC/MAC block is sent to the BTS that will apply a block coding for the error detection by the addition of a Block Check Sequence (BCS) field.2 RLC/MAC Block Structure: Control Signalling The same RLC/MAC Block for transferring a control message (for example a signalling message) is supported by the GPRS and the EGPRS technology. 3. puncturing and interleaving the Radio Block is then transmitted on the “Um” Air interface and carried by four Normal Bursts.GPRS/EGPRS Global Description Information System RLC/MAC Header HCS RLC Data Block BCS Fig.". 3.5. After convolutional coding.

– Packet Access Reject: This message is sent by the network to the Mobile Station to indicate that the network has rejected its access request. – Packet Control Acknowledgment: This message is sent from the Mobile Station to the network for the acknowledge of control blocks sent in the downlink direction. but as four Access Bursts.Information System GPRS/EGPRS Global Description The following control messages can be transmitted in the downlink direction within a RLC/MAC Signalling Block Structure: – Packet Paging Request: This message is sent by the network to trigger the channel access by up to four Mobile Stations for a connection’ s establishment. A30808-X3247-L24-5-7618 43 . – Packet Uplink Ack/Nack: This message is sent from the network to the Mobile Station for the acknowledgement of data blocks sent in the uplink direction. The following control messages can be transmitted in the uplink direction within a RLC/MAC Signalling Block Structure: – Packet Downlink Ack/Nack:This message is sent from the Mobile Station to the network for the acknowledgement of data blocks sent in the downlink direction. i The Packet Control Acknowledgment message is not formatted as a single RLC/MAC block. – Packet Power Control/Timing Advance: This message is sent by the network to the Mobile Station for the reconfiguration of either the “timing advance (TA)” and/or the power control parameters. – Packet Downlink Assignment: This message is sent from the network to assign resources to the Mobile Station in the downlink direction.

Functional object PTPPKF Meaning This Functional Managed Object models the Point to Point service in a cell.1 GPRS/EGPRS Physical Channels The physical channel (one timeslot of the TDMA frame) assigned to the Packet Data Services (PS) (either statically or dynamically) is named “Packet Data Channel (PDCH) as represented within the "Fig. These settings are specified in the chapter: "5 Radio Resources Management". At the end of the PTPPKF Managed Object successfully creation the cell is allowed to support Packet Switched (PS) services on the basis of the configuration settings assigned by the user. In the Containment Tree the PTPPKF Managed Object is hierarchically dependent from the BTS Managed Object. It allows a cell to provide Packed Switched (PS) data services supported by the GPRS/EDGE technology. and they cannot be used for circuit switched services (even if no GPRS/EGPRS users are exploiting these channels). This Managed Object models the functional end-to-end communication between the BSS and the core network (SGSN). but circuit switched services have an higher priority than GPRS/EGPRS packed swtiched ones. This command creates an instance of the PTPPKF Managed Object Class (MOC). accordingly to the user’s preferences. the user shall create the PTPPKF object (Point To Point Packet Function) related to that cell and then he/she shall configure properly all the related attributes.1 Packet Data Channel (PDCH) within a TDMA frame" 44 A30808-X3247-L24-5-7618 . In the GPRS/EGPRS system two types of radio channels have been defined: 1. 4. PTPPKF Managed Object. Dedicated radio channels (also called static channels): these channels are permanently assigned to GPRS/EGPRS packet switched services. For each BTS instance (that means for each configured cell) it is defined only one PTPPKF Managed Object Instance (MOI) subordinated to it.1 Once packet switched services have been enabled. 4.GPRS/EGPRS Global Description Information System 4 Radio Interface Description For the configuration of the packet switched data (PS) services in a specific cell. the radio resources of the cell can be assigned to either GPRS/EGPRS packet or circuit switched services. Its default value is always “0”. On-demand radio channels (also called dynamic channels): these channels are shared between packet switched services and circuit switched services accordingly to the current requests. 4. The configuration’s operation is permitted if the super-ordinated BTS and at least one instance (but it is recommended to create always all the instances) of the NSVC (Network Service Virtual Container) Functional Managed Object have been previously created. Tab. The operation can be done locally from the Local Maintenance Terminal (LMT) or from the Network Management System (Radio Commander) by means of the command: “Create PTPPKF”. 2. Only one istance (default value: “0”) of the PTPKF Managed Object can be configured for the superior BTS.

.2. 52 TDMA Frame .B11 sent on the radio interface inside the PDCH multiframe are coded differently depending on the packet switched (PS) service used (GPRS or EGPRS).1 GPRS Channel Coding Four coding schemes: “CS1.1 7 Packet Data Channel (PDCH) within a TDMA frame When a timeslot is used for GPRS/EGPRS (that means when the timeslot is a PDCH one).2 Channel Coding The Blocks B0. referring to the structure of the GPRS RLC/MAC block for data transfer as represented in the "Fig. with x= 0.6 Packet Timing Advance Estimation"). In the following chapters the differences between the two services are described from the coding process point of view. 4.2 GPRS Coding Schemes" below summarizes the main characteristics of each coding scheme. CS2.T = PTCCH Fig.5 RLC/MAC Block and Radio Block Structures".8 RLC/MAC block’s structure for Data Transfer".11). 4. CS3 and CS4” are defined for GPRS RLC/MAC blocks used during the data transmission.i = Idle frame .Bx = Radio Block . A30808-X3247-L24-5-7618 45 . – 2 frames used for the continuous timing advance update procedure described in the chapter "4.. The "Tab. 4.2 Multiframe Structure for a PDCH 4. 3.Information System GPRS/EGPRS Global Description TDMA frame GPRS/ EGPRS 0 PDCH Fig.PDCH Multiframe B0 B1 B2 T 4 frames B3 B4 B5 i B6 B7 B8 T B9 B10 B11 i 1 frame . each block can convey a RLC/MAC Radio Block containing either data or signalling as described in the chapter: "3. the multiframe structure for this PDCH consists of 52 TDMA frames structured as follow: – 12 blocks (one block is composed by 4 frames and it is represented as Bx. – 2 idle frames represented as “I” and used for measurements. 4.

the first step of the coding procedure is to add a Block Check Sequence (BCS) for the error detection.2 8 kbit/s (160 bit/20 msec) 12 kbit/s (240 bit/20 msec) 14. – 315 bits in cases of CS3.3 GPRS Coding Process"): 1. It is executed with the purpose of obtaining the target coding rate. is detailed in the "Fig. for every coding scheme. The BTS will then execute the following operations (the coding process. 46 A30808-X3247-L24-5-7618 . the third step consists of the addition of four tail bits. – 431 bits in cases of CS4. delivered by means of PCU frames to the encoder of the BTS. the message (RLC/MAC block). 3. Then an half rate convolutional coding for the error correction is applied (for CS4 there is no coding specific for the error correction). 4.GPRS/EGPRS Global Description Information System Coding scheme Bits of RLC Data Field (without spare bits) 160 240 288 400 Spare bits in RLC Data Field 0 7 3 7 Network Data Rate Bits of RLC/MAC Header (including USF) 24 24 24 24 Total size of the RLC/MAC block (bits) CS1 CS2 CS3 CS4 Tab. the fourth step consists of the puncturing operation. 4. the second step consists of the USF pre-coding (except for CS1). has a fixed size of (obviously the same thing is valid for the message delivered from the BTS to the BSC): – 184 bits in cases of CS1. 2.4 kbit/s (288 bit/20 msec) 20 kbit/s (400 bit/20 msec) 184 271 315 431 GPRS Coding Schemes According to the coding scheme used. – 271 bits in cases of CS2. 4.

it was not possible to use them. only 271 bits of data can be transmitted. using the flexible Abis allocation strategy. and the GPRS capacity on the Abis was limited to 16 kbit/s. A30808-X3247-L24-5-7618 47 . in order to be able to reach the higher coding schemes (CS3/CS4). even if the initial coding scheme could be supported by standard PCU frames. concatenated PCU frames are introduced in the system. whereas CS4 uses 431 bits). in the PCU frame. CS1 and CS2 coding schemes have been introduced. every 20 msec. So. The PCU frame format (concatenated or standard) is chosen at the Initial Time Alignment phase. with standard PCU frames. USF= 3 bit USF pre-coding Block code16 bit + 4 tail bit 294 bit 338 bit Convolutional code (R=1/2) Puncturing Interleaving 268 bit 312 bit 271 bit 315 bit 274 bit 318 bit 588 bit 676 bit 456 bit 456 bit CS4 USF= 3 bit Modulation USF pre-coding 440 bit Block code 16 bit 456 bit Interleaving 428 bit 431 bit Fig. i To get more information about concatenated PCU frames and the flexible Abis allocation strategy refer to the chapter:"6. 4.3 GPRS Coding Process In the first implementation of GPRS. on the Abis interface. To support CS3 and CS4 coding schemes. In fact.3 PCU Frames and Dynamic Allocation on the Abis Interface". as described in the chapter: "6. regarding the Abis interface. when CS3/CS4 are supported at O&M level with the configuration of the related parameters. the selected PCU frame format is “Concatenated”. Since CS3 and CS4 contain a number of data bits higher than 271 (CS3 uses 315 bits. Standard PCU frames were designed to carry the necessary signalling and data information between the BSC and the BTS.Information System GPRS/EGPRS Global Description CS1 USF= 3 bit Modulation Block code 40 bit + 4 tail bit 228 bit Convolutional code (R=1/2) 456 bit Interleaving 181 bit CS2 / CS3 184 bit Mod. the information is transmitted using two kinds of PCU frames: a) Concatenated PCU frames are used when the support of CS3/CS4 is enabled at both BSC and at BTS level. and the Abis throughput per radio channel (PDCH) is increased to n X 16 kbit/s.3 PCU Frames and Dynamic Allocation on the Abis Interface". Therefore. and cannot be changed dynamically during data transfer. b) Standard PCU frames are used when the support of CS3/CS4 is disabled at the BSC or at the BTS level.

then the maximum GPRS coding scheme will be CS-2 and CONCATENATED PCU frames will be used on all the TRX supporting EGPRS or GPRS. then the maximum GPRS coding scheme will be CS-2 and CONCATENATED PCU frames will be used on all the TRX supporting EGPRS or GPRS. By means of the bit17 of the MNTBMASK attribute the GSUP can be enabled. otherwise (bit 25 of MNTBMASK=TRUE) the max coding scheme usable is forced to CS2 independently from the CSCH3CSCH4SUP value set to TRUE.EEDGE = TRUE. (Change Request 2132). By means of both the bit17 and the bit24 toghether of the MNTBMASK attribute. the CS-1 and CS-2 coding schemes are enabled in the BSS. The MNTBMASK attribute is related also to the feature: “Common Bcch allowing GPRS/EGPRS in the complementary band” introduced in BR7. the GSUP can be enabled.bit 25 of the MNTBMASK attribute = 1. i When enabling the CS-3 /CS-4 coding schemes the precondition is that the bit 25 of the MNTBMASK attribute has to be set to FALSE.0 by the Change Request 2263.when CSCH3CSCH4SUP is set to FALSE. This implies to send all the frequencies (P900 and E900) within the “SystemInfo1 message” causing a limitation on the number of possible frequencies that could be used in the cell up to 22 independently from their value. The number could be larger than 22 only if the frequencies are welldistributed.GPRS/EGPRS Global Description Information System As default.bit 25 of the MNTBMASK attribute = 1 . . then the CSCH3CSCH4SUP attribute becomes a flag for stating if CONCATENATED PCU frames or STANDARD PCU frames will be used in the whole PTPPKF. Instead in a PTPPKF Managed Object so configured: . For the purpose the CSCH3CSCH4SUP attribute of the BSC Managed Object allows the user to enable/disable CS-3/CS-4 coding schemes at the BSC level.CSCH3CSCH4SUP = TRUE. As a consequence the TRXMD can be set to EGPRS also in TRX in the E900 sub-band. .. This also means that in a PTPPKFManaged Object so configured: . The user can then enable/disable the support of CS3/CS4 on a cell basis configuring the CSCH3CSCH4SUP attribute of the PTPPKF Managed Object. Therefore the check that the CSCH3CSCH4SUP attribute has to be set to TRUE for enabling EGPRS services is kept. STANDARD PCU frames are used. on all the TRX supporting EGPRS or GPRS of the related PTPPKF Managed Object: . CONCATENATED PCU frames are used .when CSCH3CSCH4SUP is set to TRUE. By means of the bit24 of the MNTBMASK attribute (plus an object patch) the feature can be enabled also for GSMDCS. With bit 25 of MNTBMASK set to 1. As a consequence the TRXMD can be set to EGPRS in all the 48 A30808-X3247-L24-5-7618 . that is. . both in EXT900 and in GSMDCS cells with BCCH in P900.EEDGE = FALSE. This limitation is applied not only to the cells allowed to the GPRS service but to all the EXT900 or the GSMDCS cells in the BSC. the BSC capability to support CS3/CS4 coding schemes can be enabled/disabled by the user.CSCH3CSCH4SUP = TRUE.

support the CS3/CS4 coding schemes. BTS+. the stealing bits of the block are used to indicate the actual coding scheme (see for more details the chapter: "4. In order to simplify the decoding. E900 and DCS1800) within the “SystemInfo1 message” causing a limitation on the number of possible frequencies that could be used in the cell up to 16 independently from their value. the requirements are the following: • Only High Capacity BSC(s) support the CS3/CS4 coding schemes.3 Selection of the Candidate Initial Coding Scheme"). For GPRS the user can set the preferred initial coding scheme configuring the INICSCH attribute. the initial coding scheme is the only one used for the data transmission in the cell. if enabled.4. .2 EGPRS Channel Coding"). • BTS1. For this reason and considering also that the usage of the bit17 and the bit24 normally is related to a specific cell planning strategy and not to a punctual demand. in order to support GPRS TBFs with CS3 or CS4 coding schemes. which coding scheme has to be used as preferred for the data transmission. Then the link adaptation algorithm (the algorithm is described in the chapter: "10. As it is described in the chapter: "6 Hardware and Software Architecture". if at least one cell is configured in the BSC. Instead this operation is permitted during the offline generation/conversion of the database. i The user defines a value of coding scheme to be used when a data transmission starts configuring the INICSCH parameter. it is strongly recommended not to change the bit17 and the bit24 when the bit17 is in use . carrying 57X2 bits of information each one. A30808-X3247-L24-5-7618 49 . If the link adaptation is not enabled.Information System GPRS/EGPRS Global Description TRXs of the cells (both 900 and 1800 cells).5 Link Adaptation"). This implies to send all the frequencies (P900.5. The coding process of a RLC/MAC block. This value will be used only when the system does not have any other information to choose the initial coding scheme (more details are described in the chapter: "10. on a cell basis. using CS1. The usage of the bit17 stand alone and the usage of the bit24 and the bit17 toghether of the MNTBMASK attribute implies modification in the content/encoding of the SystemInfo1 message for all the cells in the BSC and consequently of the MobileAllocations that have to be transmitted to all the BTSs connected to the BSC. The user can also indicate.2. For the purpose a very complex procedure is needed but it is not implemented in the BSC in the current release.5 Coding of GPRS/EGPRS Logical Channels". E-microBTS and PicoBTS.4 Coding of the RLC/MAC Block using CS-1": the 456 bits obtained after BTS coding are sent across four Normal Burst. This limitation is applied not only to the cells allowed to the GPRS service but to all the GSMDCS cells in the BSC. can change the coding scheme of the TBF according to specific radio conditions. 4. The number could be larger than 16 only if the frequencies are welldistributed. when a new transmission is initiated (whereas signalling uses always the CS-1 coding scheme as described in the chapter: "4. is shown in the "Fig.

3.8 kbit/s (176 bit/20 msec) EGPRS Coding Schemes 50 A30808-X3247-L24-5-7618 . 4.10 RLC/MAC Block structure for Data Transfer with one RLC Data Block field"and the "Fig.2 EGPRS Channel Coding As it has been described in the chapter "3. referring to the structure of the EGPRS RLC/MAC block for data transfer (see the "Fig.1 GPRS and EGPRS Modulation Principles". 4. 3. 4. are defined for the EGPRS RLC/MAC Blocks.3 summarizes the main characteristics of each coding scheme.11 RLC/MAC Block structure for Data Transfer with two RLC Data block fields"). Normal Burst Tail Encrypted bits 57 bits Training Sequence Encrypted bits 57 bits Tail Guard period Stealing bits Fig.4 Coding of the RLC/MAC Block using CS-1 4.3 8.2.GPRS/EGPRS Global Description Information System PCU RLC/MAC block USF TFI 3 bits Data bits 181 bits BCS 40 bits Tail 4 bits R=1/2 Convolutional Code Encrypted RLC frame 456 bits 456 bits are split in 4 Normal bursts. The Tab..MCS9”. both GMSK and 8 PSK modulated. Coding scheme Bits of RLC Data Field (without spare bits) 176 Net Data Rate Bits of RLC/MAC Header DL/UL (including USF) 31/31 2 FBI+E fields (bits) Total size of the RLC/MAC block DL/UL (bits) 209 MCS1 Tab. the following nine different modulation and coding schemes: “MCS1.

and 1138 bits in cases of MCS8 in the uplink direction. and 487 bits in cases of MCS5 in the uplink direction. and 946 bits in cases of MCS7 in the uplink direction. – Apadding. Obviously the message transmitted from the BTS to the BSC has the sane size for the different MCSs: The MCSs are divided into different families: – A. and 631 bits in cases of MCS5 in the uplink direction.Information System GPRS/EGPRS Global Description Coding scheme Bits of RLC Data Field (without spare bits) 224 296 352 448 592 448+448 544+544 592+592 Net Data Rate Bits of RLC/MAC Header DL/UL (including USF) 31/31 31/31 31/31 28/37 28/37 40/46 40/46 40/46 2 2 2 2 2 FBI+E fields (bits) Total size of the RLC/MAC block DL/UL (bits) 257 329 385 478/487 622/631 940/946 1132/1138 1228/1234 MCS2 MCS3 MCS4 MCS5 MCS6 MCS7 MCS8 MCS9 Tab. by means of PCU frames. two or four payload units are transmitted. – 622 bits in cases of MCS6 in the downlink direction.6 kbit/s (420 bit/20 msec) 22. – 940 bits in cases of MCS7 in the downlink direction. instead for the family C only one or two payload units are transmitted. – 478 bits in cases of MCS5 in the downlink direction. 4. – 1132 bits in cases of MCS8 in the downlink direction. 28 octects for the B family and 22 octets for the C family respectively. and 1234 bits in cases of MCS8 in the uplink direction. – 329 bits in cases of MCS3.3 11. – 1228 bits in cases of MCS9 in the downlink direction. A30808-X3247-L24-5-7618 51 . one.2 kbit/s (1184 bit/20 msec) 2+2 2+2 2+2 EGPRS Coding Schemes According to the coding scheme used.8 kbit/s (296 bit/20 msec) 17. – 257 bits in cases of MCS2.6 kbit/s (592 bit/20 msec) 44. – C. Different code rates within a family are achieved by transmitting a different number of payload units within one Radio Block.4 kbit/s (1088 bit/20 msec) 59. Each family has a different basic unit of payload: 37 (and 34) octects for the A and Apadding family. the message (RLC/MAC block) delivered. to the encoder embedded in the BTS software has a fixed size as follow: – 209 bits in cases of MCS1. – 385 bits in cases of MCS4. – B.8 kbit/s (896 bit/20 msec) 54.4 kbit/s (448 bit/20 msec) 29.2 kbit/s (224 bit/20 msec) 14. For the families A and B.

MSC-6. 52 A30808-X3247-L24-5-7618 . they are split into two separate RLC data fields of the same RLC/MAC block (that means with separate sequence numbers and BCSs. 3. coding schemes and possible units of payload.2.11 RLC/MAC Block structure for Data Transfer with two RLC Data block fields"). MSC-4 Tab.2. MSC-6. MCS8 and MCS9). 4. 4.4EGPRS Coding Schemes and Families Fig.5 EGPRS Coding Schemes and Families" represents the different relationships among families.5 EGPRS Coding Schemes and Families When 4 payload units are transmitted (MCS7. FAMILY A A Padding B C CODING SCHEMES MSC-3. MSC-5. as reported in the "Fig.4 shows the correspondence between the families and the related coding schemes. whereas the "Fig. 4. MSC-8 MSC-2. MSC-9 MSC-3.GPRS/EGPRS Global Description Information System The Tab. MSC-7 MSC-1. 4.

only the header is interleaved over 4 normal bursts. MCS2..3).0. 4. the third step is the activation of a 1/3 rate convolutional coding with constraint length 7 for error correction. the radio block is rectangular interleaved over 4 bursts (see the Fig. Depending on coding scheme. The coding and puncturing scheme of a RLC/MAC radio block is clearly outlined in the RLC/MAC header within the Coding and Puncturing Scheme indicator field (CPS)..0. i For MCS8 and MCS9.2. MCS9) and the "Fig. The header type of an incoming EGPRS radio block is indicated with stealing bits of the Normal Bursts: – 12 stealing bits are used in cases of MCS1. three different header types are defined as follow: • Header type 1 is used with coding scheme MCS7. As it has been described in the chapter: "4. The puncturing operation takes advantage of the different puncturing schemes Pi (where i = 1. MCS3 and MCS4. 4. the header part of the Radio Block (i. 12bits) for the error detection.1.0. which has impact on Incremental Redundancy as Link Quality Control method. the first step of the coding procedure of the data part of the RLC/MAC Block is to add a Block Check Sequence (BCS. the fourth step is the execution of the puncturing operation for obtaining the target coding rate.Information System GPRS/EGPRS Global Description This can be clearly seen by comparing the "Fig. 4.e. After the reception of a RLC/MAC block from the BSC. 5. stealing bits (8 bits) are also used to indicate the coding scheme used in cases of GPRS radio blocks. the RLC/MAC header) is independently coded from the data part of the Radio Block. 4. 2.0. MCS3 and MCS4 coding schemes. As fifth and last step . 4. MCS6).1. Hence the block length for each RLC block is: – 4*114 = 456 bit in cases of GMSK modulation.0 0. – 8 stealing bits are used in cases of MCS5.6 Interleaving of MCS9 Coded Data into Two Consecutive Normal Bursts" (family A.1 Stealing Bits Tab.0. the second step consists of the addition of six tail bits (TB). the Pi for each MCS corresponds to different puncturing schemes achieving the same coding rate.7). the BTS executes the following operations: i To ensure strong header protection.2.0.1. 4.0. The MCS7 header and data are interleaved over 4 bursts. • Header type 3 is used with coding scheme MCS1. 4.0.5. – 4*348 = 1392 bit in cases of 8 PSK modulation (including stealing symbols).2.5Coding of Stealing Bits for GPRS and EGPRS Radio Blocks A30808-X3247-L24-5-7618 53 . MCS8 and MCS9 coding schemes. • Header type 2 is used with coding scheme MCS5 and MCS6. 3.6 and the Fig. MCS7. MCS8 and MCS9. Coding Scheme GPRS CS1 GPRS CS2 GPRS CS3 none 1.0.1 GPRS Channel Coding".7 Interleaving of MCS6 Coded Data into Four Consecutive Normal Bursts" (family A. The data blocks are interleaved over 2 bursts only. 1. MCS6. MCS2. Stealing bits coding is represented in the Tab.

The FBI (Final Block Indicator) bit and the E (Extension) bit do not require extra protection: they are encoded along with the data part.0.1. MSC3. The USF is encoded to twelve symbols similarly to GPRS.0.6 Interleaving of MCS9 Coded Data into Two Consecutive Normal Bursts 54 A30808-X3247-L24-5-7618 .0. MSC9 Stealing Bits 0. There are twelve stealing bits for GMSK mode which indicate two header formats: the first eight of the twelve stealing bits indicate CS4 to allow Mobile Stations supporting GPRS services to decode the header type 3 and to read the USF field of the header (more details about the meaning of the USF field are described in the chapter: "4.5Coding of Stealing Bits for GPRS and EGPRS Radio Blocks There are eight stealing bits for 8PSK mode which indicate four header formats. MCS4 MSC5.0.0.0.0. (that is 12 bits for GMSK modes and 36 bits for 8PSK modes).1. Fig. which are represented by a binary 3 bit field in the MAC Header.0 0.0.1.0.0.1.1.0 1.GPRS/EGPRS Global Description Information System Coding Scheme GPRS CS4 MSC1.0.3 Temporary Block Flow" ).1.0.0.1.0.1. 4. MSC2. The USF field has eight states.0. 4. MSC6 MSC7.0. MSC8.0.1.1 Tab.0 0.0.2.1.

3 Selection of the Candidate Initial Coding Scheme"). if enabled. The link adaptation algorithm. as described in the chapter: "4. • in the downlink direction all the Mobile Stations supporting EGPRS services are obliged to support the 8 PSK modulation.Information System GPRS/EGPRS Global Description Fig. For supporting the EGPRS coding schemes. concatenated PCU frames are used in the A30808-X3247-L24-5-7618 55 . on a cell basis. when a new transmission is initiated (whereas signalling always uses the CS1 coding scheme.7 Interleaving of MCS6 Coded Data into Four Consecutive Normal Bursts The user can also configure . the coding scheme that has to be used as preferred for the data transmission. the initial coding scheme is the only one used for the data transmission in the cell (details about the coding schemes’ management are described in the chapter "10. This value is adopted only when the system does not know any other information for choosing the initial coding scheme (see the chapter "10. – the IMCSULNIRGMSK attribute suggests the MCS to be used in the uplink direction if the Mobile Station supports only the GMSK modulation in this direction. can change the coding scheme of the TBF according to the radio conditions. so the INIMCSDL attribute suggests the MCS to be used in the downlink direction for all the EGPRS Mobile Stations. therefore: – the IMCSULNIR8PSK attribute suggests the MCS to be used in the uplink direction if the Mobile Station supports the 8 PSK modulation in this direction. The user can set the preferred initial coding scheme with the following parameters: • in the uplink direction.4. i The user has to set a value of the coding scheme to be used when a data transmission starts. 4.1 Mobile Stations for Packet Switched Services". If the link adaptation algorithm is not enabled.5 Coding of GPRS/EGPRS Logical Channels"). not all the Mobile Stations that support the EGPRS services support also the 8PSK modulation.5 Link Adaptation").5. as it is described in the chapter "9.

in cases of RLC/MAC control message.8 Access to the Network (Establishment of a TBF)"). is set up giving to the Mobile Station: – a PDCH (i. between the Mobile Station and the network. and it comprises the transmission of a number of RLC/MAC blocks carrying one or more LLC PDUs. Each TBF is then identified by the TFI together with: • the direction (UL or DL) in which the RLC data block is sent. The TFI is assigned to a Mobile Station in a resource assignment message that precedes the transfer of LLC frames (both in the uplink and the downlink directions) belonging to one TBF. the network sets the TBF mode in the PACKET UPLINK ASSIGNMENT.1 Multiplexing MSs on the same PDCH: Downlink Direction A downlink TBF. The TBF is characterized by a set of allocated radio resources on one or more PDCHs.e. PACKET DOWNLINK ASSIGNMENT or IMMEDIATE ASSIGNMENT message (see "9. used to support the unidirectional transfer of LLC PDUs on packet data physical channels (PDCHs). The TBF is established: • in uplink direction to transfer data (or signalling) from the Mobile Station to the network. 56 A30808-X3247-L24-5-7618 . – a TFI (each mobile station has its own TFI value). All the Mobile Stations which have a downlink TBF on the same PDCH execute the following steps: 1. 4. The assigned TFI is unique among simultaneous TBFs in the same direction. associated to a single PDCH. 4. • in downlink direction to transfer data (or signalling) from the network to the Mobile Station.e.3. a timeslot).: – TBFs belonging to the same direction of transmission must have different TFI values.. in cases of RLC data block. • the direction (UL or DL) in which the RLC/MAC control message is sent and the message type. – TBFs belonging to different directions of transmission could have the same TFI value. and the Abis throughput per radio channel (PDCH) is increased to nx16 kbit/s. see "9. For each TBF. as well as in the control messages associated to the LLC frame transfer (e. A TBF can operate in either GPRS or EGPRS mode. and decode the TFI value. A TBF is maintained only for the duration of the data transmission.1 Mobile Stations for Packet Switched Services". they read all the downlink blocks inside the multiframe.GPRS/EGPRS Global Description Information System system. the network assigns a Temporary Flow Identity (TFI)..g. using the flexible Abis allocation strategy as described in the chapter: "6. The same TFI is included in every RLC header belonging to a particular TBF. i The EGPRS TBF mode is supported by EGPRS capable MSs only.3 Temporary Block Flow The Temporary Block Flow (TBF) is the physical connection.3 PCU Frames and Dynamic Allocation on the Abis Interface". i. acknowledgements). in order to address the RLC entities.

3. The "Fig. The "Fig. in the same PDCH. the Uplink State Flag (USF) is used (on a PDCH basis) to allow multiplexing of uplink Radio blocks. – an Uplink State Flag (USF).1 Medium Access Modes"). execute the following steps: 1. a timeslot). A30808-X3247-L24-5-7618 57 . see "3. then the Mobile Station sends its uplink data on the next uplink block.Information System GPRS/EGPRS Global Description 2. they read all the downlink blocks inside the multiframe. Fig. associated to a single PDCH. Then all the mobile stations.5 RLC/MAC Block and Radio Block Structures"). if the TFI is the one assigned to the Mobile Station. 4.8. then the Mobile Station doesn’t send its uplink data on the next uplink block.8 Multiplexing Mobile Station on the same PDCH (Downlink) 4. 3. if the TFI is not the one assigned to the Mobile Station. or on next four uplink blocks. 4.e. if the USF is not the one assigned to the Mobile Station. that is sent in the downlink direction (the 3 bits belong to the MAC header. – a TFI (each mobile station has its own TFI value). from a number of MSs. It enables the coding of 8 different USF states which are used to multiplex the uplink traffic.. which have an uplink TBF on the same PDCH. 4.2 Multiplexing MSs on the same PDCH: Uplink Direction An uplink TBF. and decode the USF value. the block is skipped.8 Multiplexing Mobile Station on the same PDCH (Downlink)" represents the mobile station behavior.3. this means that the block belongs to it and then data is taken. if the USF is the one assigned to the Mobile Station. 2. or on the next four uplink blocks. The USF is used in Dynamic Access Modes (see "9. and comprises 3 bits at the beginning of each Radio Block.9 Multiplexing Mobile Station on the same PDCH (Uplink)" represents the Mobile Station behavior in cases of uplink transmission on the next uplink block. is set up with the purpose to provide to the Mobile Station: – a PDCH (i.

either CS 1 to CS 4 or MCS 1 to MCS 4.5 RLC/MAC Block and Radio Block Structures"). eight USF values are used to reserve the uplink to different Mobile Stations. i. with the informations stored in this field. to a GPRS mobile station.. The only problem is that if 8PSK modulation is used in the downlink blocks (because downlink blocks are related to a EDGE TBF). . The dynamic allocation using USF granularity requires that a GPRS Mobile Station is able to do what the USF in an EGPRS GMSK block. To inform the Mobile Stations the network uses the RRBP field which is contained in all the downlink blocks (it is contained in the MAC header of both data and control blocks. The GPRS and EGPRS Mobile Stations can be multiplexed dynamically on the same PDCH by utilizing the USF. in those blocks that assign the next uplink radio block. by means of the following rule: . So. the transmission of control blocks in the uplink direction (e. the Mobile Stations that have an uplink TBF do not transmit in the next uplink block (since they don’t find their USF value). that it must transmit in the uplink block that the network has reserved for it.4. see the chapter "3.2 Packet Common Control Channel (PCCCH)"). In this way. to those Mobile Stations that have established a downlink TBF. to transmit the Packet Downlink Acknowledge message).e. to transmit in uplink direction. – may use the 8PSK modulation for the other blocks.. a GPRS mobile station multiplexed on the same channel is not able to decode the USF value.g.GPRS/EGPRS Global Description Information System Fig. the network: – uses the GMSK modulation.7 USF values are used for 7 Mobile Stations that have established an uplink TBF.4 Relative Reserved Block Period Field (RRBP)"). or the next four uplink radio blocks. see "4. This is enabled by setting stealing 58 A30808-X3247-L24-5-7618 . while the network informs the Mobile Stations with the downlink TBF.9 Multiplexing Mobile Station on the same PDCH (Uplink) i On PDCHs (not carrying PCCCH.one USF value is used to allow. the network informs the Mobile Stations that they must send a control block in the uplink direction (see the chapter "9.8. So when the network wants to permit to one Mobile Stations. 4. that doesn’t have an uplink TBF. it sets the USF field to this reserved value.

if standard GPRS Mobile Stations are multiplexed on the PDCH. on the same physical data channel (PDCH): – in uplink direction up to 7 Mobile Stations can be multiplexed on the same physical data channel. this number is imposed by the Timing Advance Index (TAI) necessary for the Timing Advance Update procedure (see the chapter "4. – in the downlink direction. – in total (uplink and downlink) up to 16 Mobile Station can be multiplexed on the same physical channel. this means that: – a standard GPRS Mobile Station is able to detect the USF in EGPRS GMSK blocks. If. since the USF is signalled in the same way. standard GPRS or MCS-1 to MCS-4). Further.e.6 Packet Timing Advance Estimation"). this number is imposed by the Timing Advance Index (TAI) necessary for the Timing Advance Update procedure (see the chapter "4.2 EGPRS Channel Coding"). for instance. in fact. 4. This is however not needed for USF detection.3 Multiplexing MSs on the same PDCH: Configuration As it has been described.2.4 GPRS/EGPRS Logical Channels Regarding packet switched services (PS) the following Packet Data Logical Channels have been defined: • Packet Broadcast Control Channel (PBCCH). – an EGPRS Mobile Station can not differentiate CS4 blocks and EGPRS GMSK blocks by only looking at the stealing bits.Information System GPRS/EGPRS Global Description bits in the EGPRS GMSK blocks to indicate CS4 (see the chapter "4. 7 Mobile Stations are using a PDCH in the uplink direction.6 Packet Timing Advance Estimation"). 4. The coding and interleaving of the USF is done as defined for CS4. Due to synchronization aspects related to the Mobile Station. more than one Mobile Station can be multiplexed. The risk that the rest of the block will be misinterpreted as valid information is assumed to be low. at least one Radio Block every 360 ms on the downlink direction must use GMSK (i.. • Packet Common Control Channel (PCCCH). • the second field specifies the maximum number of users in the downlink direction. either in the downlink or in the uplink direction. up to seven USF values can be used to multiplex Mobile Stations on the same PDCH in the uplink direction. it will only have to try to decode the remainder of the GMSK blocks in one way in order to determine if they were aimed for it. • Packet dedicated control channels (PTCCH and PACCH). It is composed of two fields: • the first field specifies the maximum number of users in the uplink direction. this because every Mobile Station shall receive a radio block at least every 360 ms. A30808-X3247-L24-5-7618 59 . up to 16 Mobile Stations can be multiplexed on the same physical data channel. • Packet Data Traffic Channel (PDTCH).3. assuming that the EGPRS MS knows if it is in EGPRS or standard GPRS mode. at most 9 Mobile Stations can use the same PDCH but in the downlink direction. The GMANMSAL attribute allows the user to define the maximum number of users that can share the same timeslot (PDCH) in uplink (UL) and downlink (DL) direction.

it starts reading the system information on the BCCH channel. • PSI5 message contains specific parameter for measurement reporting and network controlled cell reselection. • PSI3 quater message is sent by the network on the PBCCH or PACCH providing information on 3G Neighbour Cells and additional measurement and reporting parameters. a MS in GPRS attached mode monitors the PBCCH only. to allow circuit switched operation to Mobile Stations that support both the services. when this last is configured. the MS understands if the cell supports the GPRS service or not. In this way.4 Packet Dedicated Control Channels") where single Access Bursts are used. The presence of the PBCCH is not mandatory in a cell supporting packet data (PS) services. PSI2. • PSI2 message is sent by the network on the PBCCH channel. the packet data specific system information is broadcast on the BCCH (in the system information 13 message).1 Packet Broadcast Control Channel (PBCCH) Within the GSM network. system information messages are regularly broadcasted by the BCCH and busy TCHs. From 60 A30808-X3247-L24-5-7618 . PSI 3.. PSI13 (see the specification: GSM 04. PSI3 quater. which are specific for the GPRS/EGPRS technology. If the cell supports the service. The PBCCH logical channel broadcasts Packet data specific System Information (PSI). In addition to this kind of information. With the help of system information the Mobile Station is able to decide whether and how it may gain access to the network via the current cell. PSI3 ter. the Mobile Station starts reading the system information 13.g. the PBCCH reproduces the information transmitted on the BCCH. From the BCCH channel. when the timeslot is assigned to the GPRS/EGPRS users. that provides GPRS cell specific information. providing the Mobile Station with GPRS/EGPRS cell specific access-related information (e.4. if the PBCCH is not allocated.60): • PSI1 message is sent by the network on either the PBCCH or PACCH channel.4. PSI3 bis. mobile allocations and PCCCH channel descriptions applicable for the packet access in the cell. can share the same physical channel (on the same PDCH). 4.GPRS/EGPRS Global Description Information System These different packet data logical channels. The following Packet System Information exists: PSI1. When a GPRS mobile station camps on a cell. • PSI13 message is sent by the network on the PACCH channel (when the PBCCH channel is not configured). i The sharing of the physical channel is based on blocks of 4 consecutive Normal Bursts. • PSI3 bis message is sent by the network on the PBCCH and PACCH providing information of the BCCH allocation in the neighbour cells and cell selection parameters for non-serving cells. • PSI3 ter message is sent by the network on the PBCCH or PACCH providing information on additional measurement and reporting parameters. with the exception of the PTCCH (uplink direction) and the PRACH (see the chapter :"4. for control of the PRACH. Power Control Parameters). Network Control Order. • PSI3 message is sent by the network on the PBCCH or PACCH providing information of the BCCH allocation (BA(GPRS)) in the neighbour cells and cell selection parameters for serving cell and non-serving cells. Routing Area Code. PSI5. for description of control channels and optional power control parameters. providing information of reference frequency lists. providing information for cell selection. Page Mode.

10). – Packet Paging Channel (PPCH): this channel is used. is allocated on a PDCH physical channel (see Fig. for GPRS/EGPRS mobile stations. more information and parameters regarding packet switched (PS) data services are transmitted. If the cell supports the service. when configured. Only one PDCH can support the PBCCH channel. i. to page a Mobile Station prior to the downlink packet transfer. Additionally the PSI13 message within the PACCH contains GPRS Cell Options updated for EGPRS. 4.. A30808-X3247-L24-5-7618 61 . to send resource assignments to Mobile Stations prior to the packet transfer. the Mobile Station also learns if the PBCCH channel is configured in the cell. b) if the PBCCH is supported. it understands if the cell supports the GPRS service. 7 i When. 4. in the packet transfer establishment phase. it is not possible to configure the packet system information in two different PDCHs (it is like the GSM system.Information System GPRS/EGPRS Global Description system information 13. will be present in the PSI1 message.8. If it is configured. the Mobile Station knows that EGPRS is available reading GPRS Cell Option IE in the System Information 13 message and finding the EGPRS Packet Channel Request support indication field. the Mobile Station stops reading system information on the BCCH and starts reading packet system information on the PBCCH. in the downlink direction only. TDMA frame BCCH PBCCH 0 PDCH Fig. i The PBCCH channel.11 Packet Common Control Channels").4 TBF Establishment for EDGE Mobile Stations"). in the downlink direction only. updated for EGPRS. When an EGPRS mobile station camps on a cell it starts reading system information on the BCCH channel. where the BCCH channel always resides in the slot 0 of the BCCH TRx). 4.2. for example new cell re-selection criteria are implemented (see the chapter:"10. – Packet Access Grant Channel (PAGCH): this channel is used.e.4. This field indicates if the EGPRS PACKET CHANNEL REQUEST message is supported in the cell (see for more details the chapter: "9. introduced to support packet data services. the Mobile Station starts reading the system information 13 message that provides information regarding the EGPRS availability too.1 Cell Selection and Re-selection"). the PBCCH is used instead of the BCCH.2 Packet Common Control Channel (PCCCH) The PCCCH channel comprises logical channels used for common control signalling.10 Example of Mapping of the PBCCH Channel. From the BCCH channel. GPRS Cell Options. then: a) if the PBCCH is not supported. 4. From the system information 13 the Mobile Station also learns if the PBCCH channel is configured in the cell. These common channels are the following: (see also the "Fig. PPCH uses paging groups in order to allow the usage of DRX mode.

2 Channel Coding"). The existence and the location of the PCCCH (i.e.e. Packet Random Access Channel PRACH . 4.".12 Example of Mapping of the PCCCH Channel.".GPRS/EGPRS Global Description Information System – Packet Random Access Channel (PRACH): this channel is used..the PCH.12 Example of Mapping of the PCCCH Channel. in the uplink direction only.to initiate uplink transfer . 7 62 A30808-X3247-L24-5-7618 . Access Bursts are used on the PRACH channel (see for more informations the chapter: "4.to request allocation of new PDTCHs Packet Common Control Channels PCCCH Packet Paging Channel PPCH . 4.11 Packet Common Control Channels .to page a MS prior of a downlink transfer Packet Access Grant Channel PAGCH Fig.. the already configured CCCH channels (i. Whenever the PCCCH channels are not allocated. by a Mobile Station to initiate the uplink transfer for sending data or signalling information. TDMA frame BCCH PBCCH + PCCCH 0 PDCH Fig. in the same way and with the same GSM functionalities. AGCH and RACH) are used to execute the described operations. it can configure another PCCCH in another PDCH as represented in the "Fig. i The first PCCCH channel is automatically allocated when the PBCCH channel is configured.13 Example of Mapping of two PCCCH Channels. 4. and it resides in the same PDCH containing also the PBCCH as represented in the "Fig. 4.to allocate resources PCCCH channels do not have to be allocated permanently on the cell. the existence and the location of the PDCH channel that support the PCCCH) are broadcast on the cell. If the user needs more packet common signalling resources.

13 Example of Mapping of two PCCCH Channels. the following restrictions must be satisfied (see also the chapter: "4.3. PDTCHUp<=7 PDTCHDown<=16 PDTCHUp + PDTCHDown <=16 4.. A30808-X3247-L24-5-7618 63 . 4. A PDTCH includes also its dedicated control channels (see the chapter "4. PACCH also carries resource assignment and reassignment messages.3 Multiplexing MSs on the same PDCH: Configuration"). while the PACCH channel allows transmission of the related signalling blocks. 7 4.Information System GPRS/EGPRS Global Description TDMA frame BCCH PBCCH + PCCCH PCCCH 0 PDCH Fig.e. comprising the assignment of resources for PDTCH(s) and for further occurrences of PACCH. For instance. one Mobile Station uses multiple PDTCHs in parallel for individual packet transfer (i.4 Packet Dedicated Control Channels Two types of packet dedicated control channels are supported by the GPRS/EGPRS services: • Packet Associated Control Channel (PACCH):The PACCH channel conveys signalling information related to a given Mobile Station.4 Packet Dedicated Control Channels"). it uses a PDTCH on each assigned PDCH). for a mobile originated packet transfer. so the PACCH channel shares with PDTCHs the resources that have been currently assigned to one Mobile Station. Regarding the PDTCH assignment. It is temporarily dedicated to one Mobile Station. All packet data traffic channels are uni-directional: – uplink PDTCH (PDTCH/U).3 Packet Data Traffic Channel (PDTCH) The PDTCH is a channel allocated for data transfer. The PACCH channel is always associated to PDTCH channels: the PDTCH channel allows transmission of data blocks.4. according to the direction of transmission: Uplink Direction (UL): – Packet Control Acknowledgment. according to the GMANMSAL attribute of the PTPPKF Managed Object. The signalling information includes for example acknowledgements and power control information. In the multislot operation (see the chapter: "4.4.7 Multislot Configuration"). – Packet Downlink Ack/Nack. – downlink PDTCH (PDTCH/D) for a mobile terminated packet transfer. the following control messages can be carried by the PACCH channel.4.

B4. B7. • for all the packet control channels. – coding schemes from MCS5 to MCS9 in cases of support of the EGPRS technology with 8PSK modulation. B9. B2. – coding schemes from MCS1 to MCS4 in cases of support of the EGPRS technology with GMSK modulation. A block allocated to a given logical channel comprises one radio block or. 4. • PTCCH/D is coded using the CS1 coding scheme. The GPRS/EGPRS logical channels are mapped dynamically onto a 52-multiframe See the "Fig. – Packet Power Control/timing Advance. B3. i Sometimes to allow the estimation of the timing advance. 4 random access bursts. the following considerations are necessary: • Packet Data Traffic channels (PDTCHs) use: – coding schemes from CS1 to CS4 in cases of support of the GPRS technology.4. The PTCCH/U is used to transmit the random access burst to allow the estimation of the timing advance for one Mobile Station in packet transfer mode. B11. 4.2. It must be noted that the PRACH channel. B10. the CS1 coding scheme is always used. instead of transmitting a radio block.8. the PTCCH/D is used to transmit timing advance information updates to several Mobile Stations. when it is used in the uplink direction.5 Mapping of Logical Channels onto Physical Channels A physical channel allocated to carry packet logical channels is called a Packet Data channel (PDCH). defined as: “B0. four access bursts are sent (see the chapter: "9. with the exception of the PRACH and PTCCH/U. but it is composed of four access bursts. two coding schemes are specified (8 bit coding and 11 bit coding.5 Coding of GPRS/EGPRS Logical Channels Regarding the coding of packet switched logical channels.2 Multiframe Structure for a PDCH".GPRS/EGPRS Global Description Information System • Downlink Direction (DL): – Packet Uplink Ack/Nack. The following configuration can be used for a single PDCH: 64 A30808-X3247-L24-5-7618 . Packet Timing Advance Control Channel (PTCCH): this type of channel is used in the timing advance update procedure (see "4. B5. B1. B8. see the chapter: "9. The 52-multiframe consists of 12 blocks of 4 consecutive frames. according to either the configuration’s actions done by the user or to the direction of transmission. it’s not composed of a single block of four frames. 4. From the configuration point of view the 12 blocks are put in an ordered list.1 8 Bit or 11 Bit Uplink Access"). • both PRACH and PTCCH/U use access bursts.6 Packet Timing Advance Estimation"). A PDCH channel carries packet logical channels only.” A single PDCH carries different logical channels. in the uplink direction only. 2 idle frames and 2 frames used for the PTCCH channel. B6.8. for access bursts. The type of channel may vary on a block by block basis.5 Polling Procedures").

the following statements are significant: • in the downlink direction (see the "Fig... 4. 4.15 Example of Mapping of Logical Channels in the Physical Channel (Uplink Direction). The mobile owner of the PDTCH/D or PACCH/D is indicated by the parameter TFI (Temporary Flow Identifier). the following statements are significant: A30808-X3247-L24-5-7618 65 .4 Relative Reserved Block Period Field (RRBP)". The Mobile Station may transmit a PDTCH block or a PACCH block on any of the uplink blocks used for the purpose. 4. The occurrence of the PACCH/U associated to a PDTCH/D is indicated by the network by polling the Mobile Station to transmit the PACCH/U block (as described in the chapter:"9. transmitted in the downlink of the same PDCH.14 Example of Mapping of Logical Channels in the Physical Channel (Downlink Direction). 4.Information System GPRS/EGPRS Global Description a) the PDCH does not carry the specific GPRS/EGPRS signalling (for example PBCCH and PCCCH channels). PDCH Multiframe (uplink direction) PDTCH/U PDTCH/U PACCH/U PDTCH/U PACCH/U PDTCH/U Fig.B11) in the 52-multiframe structure for a given Mobile Station on a given PDCH is indicated by the value of the Uplink State Flag (USF). c) the PDCH carries GPRS/EGPRS common signalling (for example PCCCH) but not the PBCCH channel. • in the uplink direction (see the "Fig.1 PDCH without the Specific GPRS/EGPRS Signalling When the PDCH does not carry GPRS/EGPRS specific signalling.2 PDCH Carrying both PBCCH and PCCCH When the PDCH carries both the PBCCH and the PCCCH channels.5. PDCH Multiframe (downlink direction) PDTCH/D PACCH/D PACCH/D PDTCH/D PDTCH/D PDTCH/D Fig. 4.15 Example of Mapping of Logical Channels in the Physical Channel (Uplink Direction).8. 4.") all blocks can be used as PDTCH/D or PACCH/D: the logical channel type is indicated in the block header. The USF is contained in the header of the preceding block.14 Example of Mapping of Logical Channels in the Physical Channel (Downlink Direction). b) the PDCH carries both PBCCH and PCCCH channels.5.") all blocks can be used as PDTCH/U or PACCH/U: the occurrence of the PDTCH/U (and/or the PACCH/U) at the given block(s) Bx (where Bx = B0.

B3.16 Example of Downlink Configuration with PBCCH and PCCCH Channels" shows an example of one PDCH carrying both the PBCCH and the PCCCH channels. PAGCH. following the order: B6. To configure additional blocks to carry PAGCH. – the next remaining blocks can be configured for PAGCH. B5. B9. the BPRACHR attribute allows the user to indicate how many blocks must be reserved in a fixed way to the PRACH channel. B3. the BSPBBLK attribute can be configured by the user: this attribute allows the specification of at most four blocks. B11. all the multiframe) for the PRACH channel. B10. 4.2 Multiframe Structure for a PDCH") is reserved for the PBCCH channel. B7. – the remaining blocks are used for PPCH. B1." shows an example of one PDCH carrying PRACH channel. The "Fig. Remember that in a PRACH block. at most 9 blocks can be dedicated to the PAGCH channel by the BPAGCHR parameter. following the order: B0. the user can also configure up to 3 more blocks as additional PBCCH. 4. PDTCH/D and PACCH/D. note how the blocks assigned to the logical channels change according to the value given to the BPRACHR attribute. It can be noted how the number of blocks assigned to the logical channels change according to the value of the BSPBBLK attribute.e. B8. where 3 blocks are dedicated to the PBCCH channel by setting the value of the BSPBBLK attribute to 2. PDTCH/D and PACCH/D. To configure additional blocks as PBCCH blocks. b) UPLINK DIRECTION: – in the uplink direction. 66 A30808-X3247-L24-5-7618 . PDTCH/D and PACCH/D. B9. B6. 4.. 4 random access bursts are always sent. each block can be used as PRACH. In this example. the BPAGCHR attribute can be configured by the user. The "Fig. B2. since three blocks are always dedicated to the PBCCH channel.GPRS/EGPRS Global Description Information System a) DOWNLINK DIRECTION: – the first block (B0) of the multiframe (see the "Fig.17 Example of Uplink Configuration with PRACH Channel. PDTCH/U and PACCH/U. B4. This attribute allows the specification of at most 12 blocks. The user can reserve up to 12 blocks (i.

Information System GPRS/EGPRS Global Description BSPBBLK BPAGCHR 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 : BO B1 B2 B3 B4 B5 B6 B7 B8 B9 B10 B11 PBCCH PAGCH + PDTCH + PACCH PAGCH + PDTCH + PACCH + PPCH Fig.16 Example of Downlink Configuration with PBCCH and PCCCH Channels BPRACHR 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 BO B1 B2 B3 B4 B5 B6 B7 B8 B9 B10 B11 PRACH PRACH + PDTCH + PACCH A30808-X3247-L24-5-7618 67 . 4.

6.17 Example of Uplink Configuration with PRACH Channel. the BPAGCHR attribute can be configured by the user. B3. see "9. b) UPLINK DIRECTION: – in the uplink direction each block can be used as PRACH. 4. B8. B2.1 Initial Timing Advance Estimation The initial timing advance estimation is based on the single access burst carrying the Packet Channel Request. the mobile station is not allowed to send normal bursts on the uplink direction until it receives a valid timing advance value.GPRS/EGPRS Global Description Information System Fig. 4 random access bursts are always sent. The timing advance procedure is organized into two parts: – initial timing advance estimation.3 PDCH Carrying PCCCH When the PDCH carries the PCCCH channel (without the PBCCH one).. the following statements have to be considered: a) DOWNLINK DIRECTION: – up to 12 blocks can be configured for PAGCH. B6. B11. B1.6.e. PDTCH/D and PACCH/D.1 Mobility Management States"). PDTCH/U and PACCH/U. PDTCH/D and PACCH/D. When Packet Downlink Assignment has to be sent without prior paging (i. This value is used for the uplink transmissions until the continuous timing advance update provides a new value (see the chapter: "4.6. It is important to outline that in a PRACH block. the continuous timing advance update procedure has been introduced by the specification (see the chapter: "4. B7. The Packet Uplink Assignment or Packet Downlink Assignment (see the chapter: "9.2 Continuous Timing Advance Update"). B5. B9..6 Packet Timing Advance Estimation The packet timing advance estimation procedure is used to derive the correct value for timing advance that the Mobile Station has to use for the uplink transmission of radio blocks. PDTCH/D and PACCH/D. When timing advance information is not provided in the assignment message.2 Continuous Timing Advance Update"). B10.3. to configure blocks to carry PAGCH. The user can reserve up to 12 blocks (i. following the order: B0. the BPRACHR attribute allows the user to indicate how many blocks must be reserved in a fixed way to the PRACH channel. B4. 4. 4. 4.8 Access to the Network (Establishment of a TBF)") then carries the estimated timing advance value to the Mobile Station. no valid timing advance value may be available. – the remaining blocks are used for PPCH.e.5. in order to reduce the time between a packet downlink assignment message and 68 A30808-X3247-L24-5-7618 . This attribute allows the specification of at most 12 blocks. PAGCH. when the MS in the Ready state. Since this procedure could create some delays between the packet downlink assignment message and the beginning of the data transfer in downlink direction. all the multiframe) for the PRACH channel. To get a valid timing advance value. – continuous timing advance update.

4 and 6. The network can also send the timing advance information within the Packet Timing Advance/Power Control and Packet Uplink Ack/Nack messages on the PACCH.. On the uplink. 4.5 Polling Procedures" describes more details about it): 1. the Mobile Station sends an access burst in the assigned PTCCH/U. The network calculates the initial timing advance value from these access bursts. within the Packet Downlink Assignment. a specific polling procedure is executed to get the timing advance value. which is used by the network to derive the timing advance value. 2. The "Fig. the network assigns to the Mobile Station (besides the TFI) the parameter: Timing Advance Index (TAI) and a PTCCH channel.g. The TAI value defines the used PTCCH/U subchannel. • For the downlink packet transfer. e.6. For example: – the Mobile Stations that have sent their access bursts in idle frames number 0.Information System GPRS/EGPRS Global Description the effective beginning of downlink data transmission. The following statements have to be considered: • For the uplink packet transfer within the Packet Uplink Assignment the network assigns to the Mobile Station (besides the USF and the TFI) the parameter: Timing Advance Index (TAI) and a PTCCH channel. by means of the PACKET TIMING ADVANCE/POWER CONTROL message. TAI= 1 identifies the multiframe number n and the idle frame number 2). The TAI parameter specifies the PTCCH channel that the Mobile Station will use. This TA-message is transmitted in the A30808-X3247-L24-5-7618 69 . will receive their TA-message (with information about the timing advance to be used) in the TA-message number 2. With the Packet Downlink Assignment message the network polls the MS to send a Packet Control Acknowledgment message formatted as four access bursts. This polling procedure is basically the following (The chapter: "9.g.2 Continuous Timing Advance Update The Mobile Stations in Packet transfer mode use the continuous timing advance update procedure. – the MS with TAI= 5 sends its access burst every eight multiframes in the idle frame number 10. – the MS with TAI= 1 sends its access burst every eight multiframes in the idle frame number 2. The network.8. • the TA-message is sent from the network to Mobile Stations and it is composed of a radio block sent over four frames. 4. The new timing advance value is sent via a downlink signalling message (TA-message) on PTCCH/D.. sends to the MS the calculated timing advance value.18 Continuous Timing Advance Update Feature" shows the mapping of both the uplink access bursts and the downlink TA-messages on groups of eight 52multiframes: • the TAI value shows the position where a slot is reserved for a Mobile Station to send an access burst in the uplink direction (e. 2. This procedure is carried on the PTCCH allocated to the Mobile Station. 3. The network analyzes the received access bursts and determines a new timing advance value for all the Mobile Stations performing the continuous timing advance update procedure on that PDCH.

will receive their TA-message (with information about the timing advance to be used) in the TA-message number 3. Fig. 70 A30808-X3247-L24-5-7618 . In this configuiration one Mobile Station may use multiple PDTCHs in parallel for individual packet transfer. 20 and 22. 10. distributed on the frames number 16. In this context. allocation refers to the list of PDCHs that may dynamically carry the PDTCHs for that specific Mobile Station.8. This is referred to as the “multislot packet” configuration. a specific packet polling procedure has to be executed (see the chapter: "9.GPRS/EGPRS Global Description Information System downlink direction in terms of a radio block. 12 and 14. – several PDTCH/Ds for one mobile terminated communication.18 Continuous Timing Advance Update Feature The continuous timing advance update procedure could create some delays between the packet downlink assignment message and the beginning of the data transfer in the downlink direction. This TA-message is transmitted in the downlink direction in terms of a radio block. 12 and 14. i 4. – the Mobile Stations that have sent their access bursts in idle frames number 8. distributed on the frames number 8. 18. 10.5 Polling Procedures" for more details about the procedure). 4.7 Multislot Configuration Multiple packet data traffic channels can be allocated to the same Mobile Station. The PACCH may be mapped onto any of the allocated PDCHs. In order to reduce the time between a packet downlink assignment message and the effective beginning of downlink data transmission. The network may allocate to a Mobile Station: – several PDTCH/Us for one mobile originated communication.

6 1 2 2 3 2 3 3 4 3 4 4 4 Maximum number of slots Rx_max Tx_max 1 1 2 1 2 2 3 1 2 2 3 4 2 3 3 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 5 Sum 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Minimum number of slots Ttb 4 3 3 3 3 3 3 2 2 2 2 2 Tra Mobile Station Multislot Classes where the fields: “Rx_max. – Tx_max describes the maximum number of timeslots that the Mobile Station can use per TDMA frame in the uplink direction. 4. the following rules must be satisfied when more than one timeslot is assigned: 1.Information System GPRS/EGPRS Global Description When a multislot configuration is used. 3. It shall be able to support all integer values of timeslots (from 0 to Rx_max) in the downlink direction.. 4.6 (only the first 12 classes are represented in the table): Multislot class 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Tab. timeslots must be adjacent (i. timeslots must belong to the same frequency hopping law.e. A30808-X3247-L24-5-7618 71 . 4.. Sum. it will belong to a multislot class as defined in the Tab. – Mobile Allocation Index Offset (MAIO). Tx_max. – Hopping Sequence Number (HSN).. they must have the same: – Mobile Allocation (MA). 2. both Base Band Frequency Hopping and Synthesizer Frequency Hopping are supported. timeslots must belong to the same frequency (i.e. accordingly to its multislot capability. Ttbm.e.7. they must have neighboring timeslots numbers-TN). to the same TRX).1 Mobile Station Classes for Multislot Capabilities When a GPRS/EGPRS Mobile Station supports the configuration of multiple timeslots. It shall be able to support all the integer values of timeslots (from 0 to Tx_max) in the uplink direction. a certain number of timeslots (PDCHs) are allocated to the same Mobile Station. i. timeslots shall have the same training sequence code (TSC). 4. Tra” have the following meaning: – Rx_max describes the maximum number of timeslots that the Mobile Station can use per TDMA frame in the downlink direction. i Regarding frequency hopping for GPRS/EGPRS services.

The MS must be able to support all combinations of integer values of Rx and Tx timeslots where. after having transmitted in the uplink direction.e. i Type 1 Mobile Station are not required to transmit and receive at the same time. For type 1 Mobile Station it is the minimum number of timeslots that will be allowed between the end of the last previous received timeslot and the first next transmit timeslot or between the previous transmit timeslot and the next transmit timeslot when the frequency is changed in between.e.. 4. 1 timeslot) before transmitting. When the Mobile Station has monitored its last downlink timeslot. The "Fig. 4. it shall wait Tra timeslots (i.19 Example of Multislot Configuration" shows an example regarding a Mobile Station with multislot class=8: the MS has established concurrent TBFs. it shall wait Ttb timeslots (i. 2 timeslots) before starting to monitor on the downlink direction. whereas Type 2 Mobile Station are instead required.. Tra relates to the time needed for the Mobile Station to perform adjacent cell signal level measurement and get ready to receive after it has transmitted in the uplink direction. and it has 4 timeslots in the downlink direction and 1 timeslot in the uplink direction (between downlink and uplink TDMA frames there is a temporal offset of 3 timeslots). For type 1 MS it is the minimum number of timeslots that are allowed between the previous transmit or receive timeslot and the next receive timeslot when measurement is to be performed between. Rx<=Rx_max and Tx<=Tx_max. This minimum requirement is used when adjacent cell power measurements are not required by the service selected. 1 <= Rx + Tx <= Sum .Uplink Ttb Fig. For type 2 MS it is the minimum number of timeslots that are allowed between the end of the last receive burst in a TDMA frame and the first receive burst in the next TDMA frame.Downlink d d u 0 7 0 d d 7 7 TDMA frame .2 Mapping of Uplink Packet Traffic Logical Channels The PDCHs where the Mobile Station may expect occurrence of its PDTCH/U(s) or PACCH/U for a originated transfer is indicated in the resource allocation messages.7. Mobile Class = 8 Rx = 4 Tx = 1 Sum = 5 Ttb= 1 Tra = 2 0 d d TDMA frame . Ttb relates to the time needed for the Mobile Station to get ready to transmit.19 Example of Multislot Configuration Tra 4. The 72 A30808-X3247-L24-5-7618 .GPRS/EGPRS Global Description Information System – – – Sum is the total number of uplink(Tx) and downlink(Rx) timeslots that the Mobile Station can use per TDMA frame (when it has established a TBF in both the directions).

– a TAI is available in one of the assigned timeslots. the following conditions shall be satisfied: – one common downlink TFI is available in all timeslots (TFI is the same on all the PDCHs). The logical channel type is indicated in the block header. – a TAI is available in one of the assigned timeslots. an USF value is assigned to it. the following conditions shall be satisfied: – one common uplink TFI is available in all timeslots (TFI is the same on all the PDCHs).3 Mapping of Downlink Packet Traffic Logical Channels The PDCHs where the Mobile Station may expect occurrence of its PDTCH/D(s) or PACCH/D for a mobile terminated transfer is indicated within the resource allocation messages. A30808-X3247-L24-5-7618 73 . The Mobile Staiton owner of the PDTCH/D or PACCH/D is indicated by the related TFI parameter (Temporary Frame Identifier). To establish a multislot downlink Temporary Block Flow. For each PDCH allocated to the Mobile Station.7. 4.Information System GPRS/EGPRS Global Description PACCH/U is allocated respecting the resources allocated to the Mobile Station and to its multislot class. – one USF is available for each PDCH in the set. To establish a multislot uplink Temporary Block Flow.

PDCHs). as well..GPRS/EGPRS Global Description Information System 5 Radio Resources Management The PTPPKF functional object represents point to point packet data services in a cell. – at least one PCU (see. decide to dedicate permanently or temporarily some physical resources (i. The master-slave concept is only valid when control signalling is carried on PCCCH. – the packet common control channel (i. • Capacity on demand concept: GPRS/EGPRS does not require permanently allocated PDCHs. The creation of the PTPPKF object for a specific cell can be done only if: – the BTS object has been already created for the cell. However. A cell supporting GPRS/EGPRS may allocate resources on one or several physical channels in order to support the packet switched data traffic. the concept is no longer valid. if controllo signalling is carried by the existing CCCH. Either during or after having enabled GPRS/EGPRS services in a cell. 74 A30808-X3247-L24-5-7618 . all GPRS/EGPRS attached MSs camp on it. "6 Hardware and Software Architecture") has been created. PDTCH and PACCH). it is possible to allocate additional PCCCH resources on one or several PDCHs (see "6.e.e.e. Point to point data services regard: • GPRS service.. the operator can configure. shared by GPRS/EGPRS MSs. according to his needs.. all GPRS/EGPRS attached MSs camp on the BCCH/CCCH. the existence of PDCH(s) does not imply the existence of PBCCH/PCCCH. The physical channels (i. When the PCCCH capacity is inadequate. The allocation of physical channels to circuit switched services and packet switched services is done according to the following two principles: • Master-slave concept: at least one PDCH. – at least one permanent virtual connection (see "7 Gb Interface") has been configured for the PCU. i When no PBCCH/PCCCH channels are allocated in a cell. PCCCH can be allocated either as the result of the increased demand for packet data transfers or whenever there are enough available physical channels in a cell (to increase the quality of service). When PCCCH is allocated in a cell. packet switched data services using the traditional GMSK modulation.e. the network can allocate more physical channels as PDCHs.4 Packet Switched Services Supported on CCCH/PCCCH"). Other PDCHs. the radio resources of the cell. are taken from the common pool of physical channels available in the cell. PCCCH). are used for both user data transfer and dedicated signalling only (PACCH). – user data and dedicated signalling (i. accommodates: – the packet broadcast channel (PBCCH).. acting as a master. acting as slaves. • EGPRS service: EGPRS introduces the 8PSK modulation in the existing GSM network.e. The allocation of capacity for these services can be based on the needs for actual packet transfers which is here referred to as the "capacity on demand" principle. The operator can. i.. PDCHs) to the packet switched data traffic When the PDCHs are congested due to the GPRS/EGPRS traffic load and more resources are available in the cell.

provided that the GPRS service is available and there are radio resources configured to support EDGE. i.. the operator is clear that the PTPPKF cannot provide service. 5. the operator can use different strategies to configure packet switched data services in a cell. and configure some dynamic timeslots for GPRS/EGPRS data.. Moreover. both (GPRS and EGPRS) packet data services. has to manage two specific parameters. the user can specify some parameters (belonging to the PTPPKF object) that allow him to configure the two services according to his needs. even if it unlocked.2 Enabling EGPRS Service in the Cell"). meaning that the EGPRS service can be actiivated if the CS-3/CS4 coding schemes are enabled. at least one TRX that supports the GPRS service. and configure some static timeslots for GPRS/EGPRS data. to enable GPRS and EGPRS. CS4). among the total number of TRXs configured for the cell. i. the EEDGE flag cannot be set to TRUE if CSCH3CSCH4SUP parameter is set to FALSE. d) not reserve any timeslot for GPRS/EGPRS specific signalling. and configure other static timeslots (which will not be shared with circuit switched services) for GPRS/EGPRS data. but setting EGPRS=TRUE is the first step in the procedure that allows the configuration of the EGPRS service in the cell (see "5. he can: a) reserve at least one static timeslot for GPRS/EGPRS specific signalling. 2.. e.Information System GPRS/EGPRS Global Description According to previous concepts. b) reserve at least one timeslot for GPRS/EGPRS specific signalling. when a PTPPKF object instance is created. neither GPRS service nor EGPRS service are enabled as default. The default value of the EGPRS flag is FALSE. which of them will handle packet data services (see "5.e.. the operational state of PTPPKF is disabled. in cases of EGPRS=FALSE.. the EGPRS flag (enable GPRS) allows to make available or not available the whole Packet Data services in the cell..g. But it must be noted that: – before setting EGPRS=TRUE for a specific cell..e. they are: 1. c) not reserve any timeslot for GPRS/EGPRS specific signalling. The EGPRS flag has the same functional behavior as the command lock/unlock on the PTPPKF object.1. – to enable EGPRS services in the cell is not sufficient to set EGPRS=TRUE but other parameter settings are required (see below). the only difference is that. this means that when creating the PTPPKF object instance. when creating a PTPPKF object instance). e) not reserve any timeslot for GPRS/EGPRS specific signalling. the EEDGE (enable EDGE) flag allows making available or not available the EGPRS service in the cell. the cell is disabled to support.1 Enabling Packet Switched Services in a Cell When configuring GPRS/EGPRS services on a cell (i. In fact..1. It is not allowed to make the EGPRS service available (EEDGE=TRUE) if the GPRS service is not available (EGPRS=FALSE) or if no TRX in the cell has been configured to support EDGE. In this way.e. MCS9). Among the parameters of the PTPPKF object. So the user. and configure other dynamic timeslots (which will be shared with circuit switched services) for GPRS/EGPRS data. for this cell.. in general.. two of them allow making available or not packet data services in the referred cell. and configure both some static and some dynamic timeslots. A30808-X3247-L24-5-7618 75 . the user will specify.1 Enabling GPRS Service in the Cell"). he can choose. both GPRS (based on CS1. and EGPRS (based on MCS1.

! The GPRS service will not be enabled in a cell. Before setting the EGPRS parameter to true. the EGPRS parameter. 5.meaning that the max coding scheme usable will be CS-2 independently from CSCH3CSCH4SUP value set to TRUE. Fig.1 Enabling GPRS Service in the Cell As it has been described in "5. after having created the PTPPKF object. if the user does not enable it on at least one TRX of the cell. where three of them (i.GPRS/EGPRS Global Description Information System Nevertheless.Other parameter settings are required to enable EGPRS services in the cell(see "5.2 Enabling EGPRS Service in the Cell"). i. is set to FALSE as a default value. that allows making available or not available the whole Packet Data services in a cell (both GPRS and EGPRS). 76 A30808-X3247-L24-5-7618 . in general. TRX0. when a PTPPKF object instance is created..The default value of the EEDGE flag is FALSE. the user must set to “TRUE” the GSUP attribute belonging to the TRX object.1.1 shows an example of one cell with five TRXs. the user must enable the GPRS service on a TRX basis. TRX3 and TRX4) have been enabled to support the packet switched services. the operator shall set the bit25 of MNTBMASK parameter to TRUE. both packet data services.e. 5. the EGPRS service can be also activate without activation of CS3/CS-4 (see note below). To enable.. i.e. i To make available the EGPRS service without activation of CS-3 /CS-4 coding schemes. the user must enable at least one TRX to support packet data services. it is enabled to support both GPRS and EGPRS. Setting GSUP=TRUE means that the TRX is enabled to support..1.e.1 Enabling Packet Switched Services in a Cell". in general packet switched data services on a specific TRX.

1 Example of TRXs enabled to support Packet Switched Services. i. 5. or if it will be used for EGPRS too. The association between a TRX and the boards (CU or E-CU) of a BTSplus is performed automatically by the BTS equipment. GPRS and EGPRS services. From the BTS equipment point of view. the TRXMD parameter is used. E-CUs (EDGE carrier units)..e. i i Regarding the detailed procedure to enable EGPRS. GSM-CUs. The user. i.Information System GPRS/EGPRS Global Description TDMA frame TRX 0 BCCH 0 7 GSUP=TRUE TDMA frame TRX 1 0 GSUP=FALSE 7 TDMA frame TRX 2 0 7 GSUP=FALSE TDMA frame TRX 3 0 GSUP=TRUE 7 TDMA frame TRX 4 0 GSUP=TRUE 7 Fig.e. it can assume two values: – GSM: it is the default value that means that the TRX can be used for GSM. 2. taking into account suggestion from the operator (i. please refer to "5. carrier units able to support GSM and GPRS services.. To indicate how the TRX has to be used.e.1.. BTSplus equipment can be equipped with two different types of carrier units (see 6.2 Enabling EGPRS Service in the Cell". and also for both GPRS and EGPRS if GSUP=TRUE. A30808-X3247-L24-5-7618 77 .2): 1. and also for GPRS if GSUP=TRUE. can indicate if the TRX will be used for GSM/GPRS only. the TRXMD setting). carrier units able to support GSM. – EDGE: it means that the TRX can be used for GSM. beside enabling the TRX to support packet data services (with GSUP parameter). the TRXMD parameter is the criterion used to allocate a carrier unit type (GSM-CU or E-CU) to the transceiver.

that is: it is not mandatory to set this attribute to TRUE first on the BCCH TRX.2 Configuration of GPRS Channels in a Cell"). In this case. some static and dynamic GPRS channels on them (see "5. the TRXs supporting GPRS must always belong to the complete cell area. – The setting of a TRX to GSUP=TRUE must be executed only when all the TRX’s channels are not available to the service (this situation can be reached by executing a shutdown for all these TCHs: this is suggested to avoid impacts on CS calls. all the TRXs for which the GSUP is set at TRUE must belong to the BB900 band. – It is possible to set as first GPRS TRX any TRX of the cell. he must execute a series of operations to enable it. It is possible to set GSUP =TRUE for whatever TRX of the cell. all the TRXs for which the GSUP is set at TRUE must belong to the extended band. the same band of BCCH) can have GSUP=TRUE. one mobile that accessed the cell with one band could not work with the other one. if the BCCH belongs to BB900 band. with the following exceptions: – In cases of Concentric Cells.GPRS/EGPRS Global Description Information System After having enabled one or more TRXs to support GPRS.1.. – the EGPRS parameter of the PTPPKF object to TRUE. if the BCCH belongs to the extended band. after having set for one or more TRXs: – GSUP=TRUE – TRXMD=GSM the user must set to TRUE the EGPRS parameter of the PTPPKF object. This is due to the fact that the two GSM and DCS bands have different propagation factors. In this way the condition of no TRXs with GSUP =TRUE (condition that puts the PTPPKF object in DISABLE state) also happens when there is a BCCH outage. to enable GPRS on a cell and TRX basis. thus it could be that on cell borders only the frequency of one band is received. – In cases SYSID=F2ONLY.e.1 Enabling GPRS Service in the Cell". 78 A30808-X3247-L24-5-7618 . the user can configure. Once one or more TRXs have been enabled to support the GPRS service.1. all the TRXs that support GPRS must belong to the same band of the BCCH TRX (and this coincides with the band of the Complete Area). only the TRXs with TRXFREQ belonging to BB900 band (that is. to definitely enable the GPRS service in the cell. according to his needs. After that if the user wants to enable EGPRS service in one or more cells of the BSC. – The setting of a TRX to GSUP = TRUE has to take into account the Multislot constraints for TSC and Frequency Hopping parameters. the user must set: – the GSUP parameter of the TRX object to TRUE (for each TRX he wants to enable support of packet data services). the whole BTS is put Out of Service from both circuit switched and packet switched services point of view. – In cases of cells having SYSID=EXT900. it is suggested to also configure GSUP =TRUE for the BCCH TRX. – In cases of GSMDCS (common BCCH) cells. 5.2 Enabling EGPRS Service in the Cell As it has been described in "5. i Beside the TRXs of a cell on which the user wants to configure the packet switched data services. – In cases SYSID=F2ONLY. i.

After having enabled EGPRS on a TRX basis. To indicate how the TRX has to be used. i. TRX3) have been enabled to support GPRS only and one of them (TRX5) has been enable to support a EGPRS too. Fig. where two of them (i. packet data services on a specific TRX. To activate EGPRS service on a specific TRX. TRX0.e. after having enabled at least one TRX to support EGPRS. EGPRS service will not be allowed in the BSC. Setting GSUP =TRUE means that the TRX is enabled to support in general both packet data services. he has to enable it both on a TRX basis and on a cell basis. If the user does not set to TRUE the ESUP parameter. in general. As described in "5. – EDGE: it means that the TRX can be used for GSM and also for both GPRS and EGPRS.e.2 shows an example of one cell with five TRXs. the TRXMD parameter is used. beside enabling the TRX to support packet data services (with the GSUP parameter).. it is enabled to support both GPRS and EGPRS. After the user has enabled EGPRS service on a BSC basis.1. the ESUP parameter can not be set to true if the NTWCARD parameter (BSC object) is not set to either SNAP or SNAP_STLP. to enable. 5. i.Information System GPRS/EGPRS Global Description The ESUP parameter of the BSC object allows the user to enable EGPRS services in the whole BSC. the user must set to “true” the GSUP attribute belonging to the TRX object.. Since EGPRS can only be enabled on high capacity BSCs.1 Enabling GPRS Service in the Cell". the user has to indicate that the TRX will also be used for EGPRS. the user can enable EGPRS on a cell basis by setting to TRUE the EEDGE parameter.e. A30808-X3247-L24-5-7618 79 . it can assume two values: – GSM: it is the default value that means that the TRX can be used for GSM and also for GPRS. To enable EGPRS service on a TRX the user must set the TRXMD parameter to the EDGE value..

to be used for packet switched services (see "5. some static and dynamic channels on them.2 Configuration of GPRS Channels in a Cell").2 Example of TRXs enabled to support GPRS and EGPRS.1. The attribute is available for the operator by GETINFO TRX and GETINFO BTS commands.1): 80 A30808-X3247-L24-5-7618 . Once one or more TRXs have been enabled to support the EGPRS service. the EDGE capability of a Carrier Unit(CU) is modelled with a read only attribute called TRX CAPABILTY. – GPRS and/or EGPRS services From the BTSE point of view.3 Aspects Related to Carrier Configuration As described before. it is possible to specify whether a TRX supports: – GSM services. the user can configure. It reflects the real capabilities of the TRX independently of the TRXMD parameter setting. and it can assume the following values: – GSM: the TRX is associated to a carrier Unit without EDGE capability. 5.GPRS/EGPRS Global Description Information System TDMA frame TRX 0 BCCH 0 7 GSUP=TRUE TRXMD=GSM TDMA frame TRX 1 0 GSUP=FALSE 7 TDMA frame TRX 2 0 7 GSUP=FALSE TDMA frame TRX 3 0 GSUP=TRUE TRXMD=GSM 7 TDMA frame TRX 4 0 GSUP=TRUE TRXMD=EDGE 7 Fig. 5. by means of the GSUP and TRXMD attributes. according to his needs. – UNKNOWN: the BSC has no knowledge about the carrier Unit associated to TRX. – EDGE: the TRX is associated to a carrier Unit with EDGE capability. 5. The following combinations of TRXMD and TRX CAPABILITY are possible (see Tab.

Try to allocate all EDGE-TRX to E-CUs Try to allocate all GSM-TRX to GSM-CUs Try to allocate all remaining GSM-TRX to E-CUs Try to allocate all remaining EDGE-TRX to GSM-CUs (the state of the TRX changes to enabled-degraded).Information System GPRS/EGPRS Global Description TRXMD GSM GSM GSM EDGE EDGE EDGE Tab. A change of the functional configuration may be caused by: – creation/deletion of a TRX. Reconfiguration of TRXs due to a change of Functional Configuration When TRXs are reconfigurated. – breakdown of CU allocated to BCCH-TRX.In this case.1 TRX CAPABILTITY GSM EDGE UNKNOWN GSM EDGE UNKNOWN Meaning The TRX is working with GSM functionality The TRX is working with GSM functionality No CU is related The TRX is working with GSM functionality since no E-CU is available The TRX is working with EDGE functionality No CU is related Combinations of TRXMD and TRX CAPABILITY Values TRX-CU assignment procedure The BTSE shall try to find an optimal allocation between the required TRX operation modes and the available CU types according to the following rules: 1. 2. ! If the BCCH-TRX is involved in the TRX-CU assignment procedure(it can happen. a shutdown/create/unlock procedure should be applied to the whole cell and not only to the single TRX involved. In some cases. If necessary. 4.if a EDGE property of the BCCH-TRX itself is modified or if the BTSE-internal optimization algorithm touches the BCCH-TRX). the changes of TRX configuration may lead to a loss of traffic for one or two TRX. Try to allocate the BCCH TRX to the appropriate CU type. an automatic reconfiguration according to the rules shown above is performed. – modification of the TRXMD attribute of a TRX. A30808-X3247-L24-5-7618 81 . – commissioning of TRX after breakdown. – breakdown of CU allocated to complete area TRX in case of concentric cells. 5. 5. It is an operator’s task to avoid the loss of traffic by taking the right measures. the whole Cell involved. 3. Therefore the appropriate configuration procedures have to be performed: Shutdown/Create/Unlock command sequence. the BTSE checks if the allocation among TRXs and CUs is still optimal.

the following statements show how the user can configure the GPRS/EGPRS service on the TRXs where GSUP =TRUE: 1. If 8PSK modulation is used for timeslots of the BCCH TRX. the user indicates how the slots belonging to these TRXs will be managed.2.the timeslot 0 is used to trasmit system information and signalling. using the TRXMD parameter. and the operator is informed. the related channel is reserved for packet switched services. by setting the GDCH attribute of the chosen CHAN object. if the BCCH TRX is enabled to support EDGE. By means of the EBCCHTRX attribute. The GDCH attribute can assume the following values: – PBCCH: i.GPRS/EGPRS Global Description Information System i In case of Baseband frequency hopping all TRXs involved in the same hopping law must be homogeneus. the user can reserve. specific for EDGE mobile stations (see "4.e. but EBCCHTRX is set to FALSE. these timeslots may use an 8PSK mean power which is at most 4 dB lower than the power used for GMSK modulated timeslots. Configuration of the BCCH Transceiver for EGPRS The EGPRS PACKET CHANNEL REQUEST message. some slots to packet switched services only. If a TRX with TRXMD = EDGE gets TRX_CAPABLITY = GSM (e.1). and data. the use of the 8PSK modulation on the BCCH carrier is critical and the operator can enable/disable it. is only supported by EDGE-CUs. due to a reconfiguration) the hopping for the TRX related to this hopping law is stopped in the cell. the timeslot 0 is not allowed to use this modulation. it means that only GMSK modulated coding schemes of EDGE will be supported on the BCCH TRX (besides GPRS coding schemes). the RF power level may be ramped down between timeslots to facilitate switching between RF transmitters. on a channel basis.e. Synthesizer frequency hopping is not affected. So. 82 A30808-X3247-L24-5-7618 . and supports GPRS/EGPRS system information.g. The BCCH carrier is continuously transmitted on all timeslots and without variation of RF level. which implies the allocation of a EDGE-CU to the TRX. in fact: . 5. however. This is necessary for compatibility with Mobiles which do not support EDGE.2 Configuration of GPRS Channels in a Cell After having defined how many TRXs will support GPRS and EGPRS services (see 5. So. i..8. the operator can decide whether the channels of the BCCH-TRX are available for EDGE 8PSK services or not. The user can define these “only GPRS/EGPRS slots” on a channel basis.4. Therefore the use of the EGPRS PACKET CHANNEL REQUEST message can be forced by configuring the BCCH-TRX in EDGE mode. these slots will be statically allocated to GPRS/EGPRS signalling (PBCCH and PCCCH) and will not be used for circuit switched services.4 TBF Establishment for EDGE Mobile Stations").1 Packet Broadcast Control Channel (PBCCH)" and "9. common signalling. i Even if the BCCH TRX is created in EDGE mode to support 8PSK modulation. they must have the same TRXMD value.

If for example. i Only one physical channel can be configured to carry the PBCCH logical channel (i. if e. Then. It indicates a percentage.3) that three TRXs of a cell are configured and enabled to support PS services (according to what has been described in paragraph 5. the user can indicate this number of static GPRS/EGPRS slots using the GMANPRES attribute of the PTPPKF object.g. – TRX3 supports GPRS only. i As it has been described. TRXs are enabled to support GPRS only or both GPRS and EGPRS. the user sets the GPDPDTCHA attribute (PTPPKF object).1). but only a “number of channels”. he must configure another channel as PCCCH. other static timeslots for PS services (i. setting GSUP =TRUE means that that TRX is available for PS services in general. the user can choose among the remaining available slots (on TRXs where GPRS is supported) the maximum number of dynamic GPRS/EGPRS channels. in fact: – 6 slots are available on TRX0. these channels will be shared between PS and CS services. the related channel is reserved for packet switched services. according to the actual request of resources. according to the TRXMD parameter value and to the availability of EDGE-CUs. then 4 slots will be reserved by the system for GPRS/EGPRS traffic on the TRXs where GSUP =TRUE. if the operator then needs more PCCCHs. this percentage is applied to the total number of available slots (on TRXs where GPRS/EGPRS are supported) decreased by the number of both static GPRS/EGPRS slots and slots reserved for GSM signalling. the first TRX (TRX0) is the BCCH one and contains one SDCCH timeslot.. – 8 slots are available on TRX4.e. then. The difference. the total number of available slots for PS and CS services is equal to 22.e. and regards GPRS/EGPRS traffic channels only. and supports GPRS/EGPRS common signalling. let’s suppose (see Fig. and particularly: – TRX0 and TRX4 support GPRS and EGPRS.e.. according to the TRX where they are assigned they will be used for GPRS only or for EGPRS too (obviously only on TRXs with GSUP =TRUE). whereas using GMANPRES the configuration is made without indicating the channel. and data. only one channel can be configured as the PBCCH). So. Besides. is that with GDCH the configuration is made on a channel basis and regards GPRS/EGPRS signalling channels only. not shared with CS services). among the remaining timeslots. To configure this number of shared slots. using GMANPRES. 2..Information System GPRS/EGPRS Global Description – PCCCH: i. the user configure some static timeslots. the user defines 4 static slots for packet switched services. the user can then configure. The percentage indicates the maximum number of dynamic GPRS/EGPRS slots. 3. the second and the third TRXs (TRX1 and TRX2) are completely dedicated to circuit switched services . PBCCH and PCCCH channels can be defined on BCCH TRX only. – 8 slots are available on TRX3. 5. with respect to the configuration of static slots using the GDCH attribute. A30808-X3247-L24-5-7618 83 . on TRXs where packet switched services are supported. To clarify previous concepts.

.2 ) * 50/100 = 10 So. in this cell we will have (on TRXs where GSUP=TRUE): – 2 slots statically allocated for packet switched services (one signalling slot defined on a channel basis using the GDCH attribute and the other one defined on a cell basis using GMANPRES) – 10 slots shared between PS and CS services (according to the previous formula and the GPDPDTCHA setting).Number of GPRS/EGPRS static slots(defined by GDCH and GMANPRES)]* GPDPDTCHA/100 = = ( 22 . 5.GPRS/EGPRS Global Description Information System TDMA frame TRX 0 BCCH SDCCH 0 GDCH=PBCCH 7 GSUP=TRUE TRXMD=EDGE TRXCapability=EDGE TDMA frame TRX 1 SDCCH 0 GSUP=FALSE 7 TDMA frame TRX 2 SDCCH 0 7 GSUP=FALSE TDMA frame TRX 3 0 7 GSUP=TRUE TRXMD=GSM TRXCapability=GSM TDMA frame TRX 4 0 7 GSUP=TRUE TRXMD=EDGE TRXCapability=EDGE Fig. – GMANPRES=1 then.3). – GDCH= PBCCH for one CHAN object (CHAN:6) of the BCCH TRX (see Fig. the maximum number (N) of GPRS/EGPRS channels shared with CS services is obtained by the following formula: N= [Total number of available timeslots on TRXs with GSUP=TRUE .3 Example of GPRS/EGPRS configuration. If the user sets: – GPDPDTCHA= 50 (i. 84 A30808-X3247-L24-5-7618 .e. 5. 50%).

i It must be underlined that the previous example is only valid if HOPMODE=SYNHOP. When the PCU request arrives at the TDPC. according to the used strategy and to the needed resources. timeslots 0 of all non-BCCH TRX are never allocated for GPRS/EGPRS. 2. In order to provide the best possible throughput for each user. the GMANMSAL attribute (PTPPKF object) is used. i. the TDPC is responsible for: 1. the system considers the Peak Throughput Class to calculate the number of resources to be assigned to a new TBF.2 Horizontal/Vertical Allocation Strategies"). the assignment of the Abis interface subslots related to these PDCHs. checks if the actual used strategy is the vertical one or the horizontal one (see "5.2. starting from the MS multislot class and the required peak throughput. The PCU.. the number of PDCHs) requested for TBF establishment. – when downlink TBF is derived from the Qos Profile IE of the DL-UNITDATA. the TDPC tries to satisfy the request.1 Management of Packet Data Channels Generalities about Resource Assignments The radio resource assignment to a mobile station requiring an uplink or a downlink TBF establishment is performed under the BSC control. Obviously both the TRX1 and the TRX2 will be used for circuit switched services only.. i Trying to maximize the throughput is the most important criteria in radio resource search. As soon as HOPMODE=BBHOP (independently of whether or not frequency hopping is enabled). given in throughput per timeslot.1 Attach Function"). the assignment of the proper radio resources on the air interface (PDCHs). the remaining slots on the TRXs where GSUP=TRUE).3.e. c) Coding Scheme to apply. after calculating the number of requested resources. 5. through co-operation between the PPCU/PPXU processors (involved in PDCH management and scheduling functions for UL and DL data transfer.3. it is composed of two fields: the first indicates the maximum number of users in the uplink direction. It defines the maximum number of GPRS/EGPRS users that can share the same timeslot (PDCH). b) Peak Throughput: – when uplink TBF is derived from the Channel Request description inside the Packet Resource Request or Packet DL Ack/Nack. to define how many users can be multiplexed in a PDCH. Finally.e. the second one specifies the maximum number of users in the downlink direction.3.3 5. it sends the correct request to the TDPC.. Then. see "6 Hardware and Software Architecture") and the TDPC processor (dedicated to resource management). the PPCU/PPXU. According to the requests received by PPCU/PPXU. When a new GPRS/EGPRS request arrives at the BSC. The resource allocation algorithm tries to assign to each TBF a number of timeslots that depends on the required Peak Throughput Class.Information System GPRS/EGPRS Global Description – 10 slots reserved for CS services (i. see "9. A30808-X3247-L24-5-7618 85 .e. estimates the number of radio resources (i. a) MS Multislot Class (it is sent from the MS to the network during the GPRS attach procedure.

e. it could happen that (according to what has been described in "6.3. 5.3. the PPCU/PPXU knows: 1.5. they are filled with idle PCU frames. before 86 A30808-X3247-L24-5-7618 .2 Horizontal/Vertical Allocation Strategies When a new request of GPRS/EGPRS resources arrives at the BSC.2 TDPC Algorithm"). otherwise other actions have to be executed (see "5. the complete algorithm is summarized in chapter 5. Note that.GPRS/EGPRS Global Description Information System If required channels are found. the allocated PDCH(s) for the “released” TBF are still seen as allocated even if they are no longer active. Finally. the criterion is to multiplex the maximum number of mobiles on each channel. according to the chosen GMANMSAL value (see 5. by means of the TEMPCH parameter. The timer is used to avoid continuous requests of Abis resources from the PPCU to the TDPC.1 Vertical Allocation Strategy (VA) When GPRS/EGPRS channels are handled using the Vertical Allocation (VA) algorithm.2. whereas chapter 5. the number of PTDs (equal to the number of Abis subslots) related to the PDCHs still in use.3. From this point.2. it knows: – the timeslots (PDCHs) with at least one TBF assigned. due to downgrade to a coding scheme needing less PDTs than the initial ones. the number of PDCHs in use at a given time. in fact to every PDT has corresonding Abis 16 kbit/s subslots that the PCU requires for the TDPC. increasing the data transfer throughput for all the involved mobiles (see 5. they are: • the VERTICAL ALLOCATION (VA) strategy: before assigning a new slot to GPRS/EGPRS service. – PDCHs for which the Empty Channel Timer is running.3.2.3. by means of specific parameter settings. The user can manage the allocation strategy according to his needs. when the last MS associated to a PDCH is released. In this way not too many users are multiplexed on the same PDCH. before releasing it waits until a timer defined by the TEMPPDT parameter expires. The value of this timer is set. the already used slots must be filled as much as it is possible. the PCU.3.3 describes how the radio interface situation triggers the switching from HA to VA and vice versa. In fact. 2.3. It is important to underline how the chosen strategy depends upon both from radio resources availability and Abis resources availability. the “virtual” assignment persists for the duration of the Empty Channel Timer.2. according to parameter settings. since it is the TDPC that manages Abis resources. This strategy is intended to distribute the incoming GPRS/EGPRS calls on all the available PDCHs.4 describes the analogous topics for what concerns the Abis interface. two different strategies are provided to assign packet switched data channels. to avoid continuous requests (in cases of high GPRS/EGPRS traffic) from the PPCU to the TDPC.1). 5.1 Concatenated PCU Frames") for a PDCH one or more corresponding PDTs are useless.2). Chapter 5.3.3. i. When the timer is still active. on a cell basis. i.2.2. the TDPC sends the ACK message to the PCU.3. • the HORIZONTAL ALLOCATION (HA) strategy: it is introduced in the system to allow higher bit data rates when the cell is not congested.e... When a PDT is filled with idle PCU frames.

In this way each timeslot is used for a lower number of calls and the throughput is better than that for the vertical allocation strategy. A30808-X3247-L24-5-7618 87 . timeslots from 5 to 7 remain free because the BSC multiplexes the 2 mobiles on the same 3 PDCHs.. as much as it is possible. This is obtained by filling an already used PDCH. for example. the BSC will assign timeslots number 2. if the BSC is in VA condition and over each radio timeslot is multiplexed only one mobile station. the BSC will multiplex the 3 mobiles over 3 different radio channels trying to uniformly distribute the resources. the mobile requests. the BSC assigns new radio channels to the GPRS/EGPRS mobiles instead of increasing the number of mobiles multiplexed on the already busy channels. 5. for example. if three GPRS/EGPRS mobile requests (single slot) arrive to BSC.4 Example of Vertical Allocation Algorithm When the vertical allocation strategy is used. • MS multislot capability. 2 mobile stations perform 3DL+1UL GPRS/EGPRS calls.2 Horizontal Allocation Strategy (HA) The Horizontal Allocation (HA) strategy is intended to distribute the incoming GPRS/EGPRS calls on all the available PDCHs.2. 5. In this way. compatibly with: • network settings of GMANPRES. all the 3 mobiles would be multiplexed in the same timeslot (compatibly with GMANMSAL setting).5. 5. TS0 BCCH TRX TS1 TS2 TS3 TS4 TS5 TS6 TS7 bcch sdcch MS1DL MS1DL MS1DL MS1UL MS2DL MS2DL MS2DL MS2UL Fig. If. as drawn in Fig. With flat distribution. If flat distribution was not used. using “flat distribution”. will assign them the timeslots number 2. If. 6 and 7 to the second call.3. as drawn in Fig. 3 and 4 to the first call. GPDPDTCHA and GMANMSAL attributes. 3 and 4. 2 mobiles perform 3DL+1UL GPRS/EGPRS calls. When a new request of PDCH channels arrives at the BSC and radio channels for GPRS service are still available.Information System GPRS/EGPRS Global Description assigning a new PDCH. the BSC e. in a fair way.4. the BSC tries to multiplex. In this way not too many MSs are multiplexed on the same PDCH increasing the data transfer throughput for all the involved mobiles. then timeslots number 5.g. 5.

i The GASTRTH contains a third field. 5.Number of GSM signalling channels Obviously the number of Idle Channels is the number of “not busy” channels inside the pool of all the available channels of the cell. The percentage is calculated as the number of idle channels in the cell with respect to the number of available channels in the cell (TCHs or PDCHs. The aim of this feature is to use the horizontal allocation when the cell is not loaded. two thresholds are defined: – one threshold (ThresholdIdleChannelHV) represents the transaction from the horizontal allocation to the vertical one. otherwise the adopted strategy will be the vertical one. The threshold.e. These thresholds. called ThresholdIdleChanEU.GPRS/EGPRS Global Description Information System TS0 BCCH TRX TS1 TS2 TS3 TS4 TS5 TS6 TS7 bcch sdcch MS1DL MS1DL MS1DL MS2DL MS2DL MS2DL MS1UL MS2UL Fig. – the other threshold (ThresholdIdleChannelVH) represents the transaction from the vertical allocation to the horizontal one.Number of OUT OF SERVICE channels . used to activate horizontal/vertical allocation. and also slots statically reserved to GPRS/EGPRS).3.2. The number of available channels in the cell is calculated as: Available Channels = Total number of configured channels .4.Number of GPRS/EGPRS static channels (defined by both GDCH and GMANPRES) . To avoid frequent changes between HA and VA strategies..1 Upgrade of Radio Resources"). the BSC switches autonomously from VA to HA (and vice versa) in relation to the traffic load in the cell (i.3 Switching between VA and HA According to Radio Conditions Taking into account the radio interface. do not consider slots containing GSM signalling. this field represents a threshold that is used in the radio resource upgrade strategy ("5.5 Example of Horizontal Allocation Algorithm 5. Then the percentage of idle channels in the cell (to be compared with the thresholds of the GASTRTH parameter) is given by: Percentage of Idle Channels in the cell = Idle Channels / Available Channels 88 A30808-X3247-L24-5-7618 . such as BCCH or SDCCHs slots. that causes the transaction from one allocation algorithm to the other one. represents the percentage of idle slots in the whole cell.3. in relation to the number of busy air timeslots). are managed by the GASTRTH attribute (PTPPKF object).

then the real value that is compared to the thresholds is 10% and not 11%).6 Example of a Cell Configured with Five TRXs. if the internal evaluation estimates that the percentage of idle channels in the cell is 10. – TRX3 supports the GPRS/EGPRS service. that represents the percentage of idle channels in the cell. then each timeslot represents.9%. – TRX1 and TRX2 do not support GPRS/EGPRS. two available channels. is truncated. so decimals are not taken into account in the comparison with thresholds. – the timeslots of the TRXs (with the exception of the BCCH and the SDCCH ones) are defined as TCHF_HLF. three of them supporting GPRS/EGPRS (see Fig. For example. TDMA frame TRX 0 BCCH SDCCH 0 7 GSUP=TRUE TDMA frame TRX 1 SDCCH 0 GSUP=FALSE 7 TDMA frame TRX 2 SDCCH 0 7 GSUP=FALSE TDMA frame TRX 3 0 GSUP=TRUE 7 TDMA frame TRX 4 0 GSUP=TRUE 7 Fig. A30808-X3247-L24-5-7618 89 .Information System GPRS/EGPRS Global Description i It is important to highlight that the evaluated value. Let’s consider a cell with five configured TRXs. from the circuit switched services point of view. but it is out of service. 5.6) where: – TRX0 contains BCCH and SDCCH logical channels. 5.

two conditions. vertical allocation is used. related to radio interface. If the percentage again exceeds the 40% threshold. for the transaction from VA ---> HA. a return back to HORIZONTAL one is applied only when the cell is completely idle.16 . in the cell. for the transaction from HA ---> VA. when VERTICAL allocation is used. So. the Horizontal Allocation strategy is used. in this case: (100 * Idle channels) / Available channels < 30 ----> Idle channels = 14. So. two available channels). when the percentage of idle slots is over 40%. the number of idle channels falls below the threshold set by the GASTRTH parameter. It should be noted that when horizontal allocation is used to assign GPRS/EGPRS resources. GDCH and GPDPDTCHA parameters. i • • BCCH and SDCCH signalling channels are not considered. the vertical Allocation strategy is used. If. according to the above formula (without considering GSM signalling channels): Available channels = 72 . If the percentage of idle slots falls under 30%. for instance. when in the cell the number of idle channels reaches 14. the GASTRTH parameter has been set with the following values: – ThresholdIdleChannelHV=30%. but the thresholds have to be set to reasonable values (also taking into account the number of configured TCHs in the cell). i The difference between the two thresholds of the GASTRTH parameter should not be too high.6 = 50. In this case: (100 * Idle channels) / Available channels > 40 ----> Idle channels = 21. i 90 A30808-X3247-L24-5-7618 . then the Number of static GPRS/EGPRS channels to be considered in the previous formula is equal to 6 (since each timeslot reserved to packet switched services represents. Otherwise it could happen that. can determine the transition to the vertical one: the first condition occurs when. number of OUT OF SERVICE channels = (8 * 2) = 16. horizontal allocation is used.GPRS/EGPRS Global Description Information System In this case: • total number of configured traffic channels = (6 + 7 + 7 + 8 + 8 ) * 2 = 72. and this is not a real hysteresis behavior. only traffic channels are taken into account. Then. if we set GMANPRES= 3 (without setting the GDCH value for any channel). the second one occurs when the number of channels assigned to GPRS/EGPRS users reaches the maximum number of channels configured for PS services by means of the GMANPRES. when in the cell the number of idle channels equals 21. the horizontal allocation algorithm is restored. from the circuit switched services point of view. – ThresholdIdleChannelVH=40%.

e. the maximum number of GPRS channels manageable by the single PCU. in cells belonging to a BTSM with dynamic Abis management. if the thresholds on radio resources (on a cell basis) also allow that.3.e.Information System GPRS/EGPRS Global Description 5.2. To manage the resource allocation process.4. the maximum number of PDT manageable by the single PCU. according to the flexible Abis allocation strategy (see 6. to take the right countermeasures. two of them allow management of the vertical/horizontal allocation strategy and are here described. the number of used Abis resources of a BTSM depends on which services are currently running on the cells managed by the BTSM.3. according to different contexts: A30808-X3247-L24-5-7618 91 . a set of thresholds regarding Abis allocation usage is introduced. in the BR7. Then according to the availability/unavailability of PDTs on the PCU side: – when the percentage of busy PDTs on a PCU is 100%.4.2. slowing down the allocation of new Abis resources. see "6.3. GASTRABISTH is composed of four fields. i. then vertical allocation is applied..3 and 5.3. In fact. Activating the vertical allocation in cases of Abis scarcity is useful to re-use in multiplexing the already allocated Abis subslots.. the level of congestion of the Abis interface.0 release. the remaining two regard the upgrade of Abis resources and are discussed in "5. The user can set these thresholds by the GASTRABISTH parameter (gprsAllocationStrategyAbisThresholds) of the BTSM object. So the switching from vertical allocation to horizontal allocation and vice versa is also influenced from the Abis interface.2 Upgrade of Abis Resources": • the first threshold (thresholdIdleAbisHV) defines the percentage of idle Abis subslots of the BTSM (over the available Abis subslots of the BTSM) under which vertical allocation strategy for Abis scarcity is activated on the radio interface (for all the cell of the BTSM).2.1 Supported BSC Types". Then it is very important to check. then horizontal allocation is applied (provided that thresholds of GASTRTH and GASTRABISTH parameters do not lead to vertical allocation).4 Switching between VA and HA according to Abis Interface Conditions Taking into account the Abis interface. the following situations are possible during the allocation of radio resources. • the second one (thresholdIdleAbisVH) defines the percentage of idle Abis subslots of the BTSM (over the available Abis subslots of the BTSM) over which horizontal allocation can be activated again on the radio interface. besides the radio interface situation.2. the BSC switches autonomously from VA to HA (and vice versa) in relation to the number of exploited Abis resources (i.3. in relation to the number of busy Abis subslots). the switching to vertical/horizontal allocation is also driven by the availability/unavailability of PDTs on PCU (remember that with the high capacity BSC. In summary. Constraints on these two Abis thresholds are: thresholdIdleAbisHV < thresholdIdleAbisVH 5.5 Allocation of Resources Besides the situations described in 5. is fixed to 256). – when the percentage of busy PDTs on a PCU is less than100%.3).

. than horizontal allocation is triggered. if there is Abis scarcity. The introduction of channel allocation strategies requires a mechanism to use/reuse the system resources. when it is needed.3 Management of Incoming GPRS/EGPRS Requests With the introduction of packet switched data calls. and the percentage of idle Abis subslots in the BTSM becomes greater than the ThresholdIdleAbisVH field of the GASTRABISTH parameter. in order to better comply with the operator’s choices. – there is no PDT exhaustion for the PCU that manages the cell. the percentage of idle air timeslots in the cell is greater than the ThresholdIdleChannelHV field of the GASTRTH parameter. To avoid possible misalignment between TDPC and PCU. The TDPC informs the PCU about the used strategy via the allocation flag (HA/VA). c) starting from horizontal allocation. the PCUs that are handling cells belonging to the impacted BTSM are informed. d) starting from horizontal allocation. – there is no Abis resources scarcity. a mechanism is foreseen for which an audit. i. When a new GPRS/EGPRS request arrives at the BSC. asks to the TDPC to set-up new channels for packet switched services. than vertical allocation is triggered. 5.GPRS/EGPRS Global Description Information System a) horizontal allocation in a cell is used if at the same time these three conditions are satisfied: – there is no radio scarcity in the cell. the percentage of idle Abis subslots in the BTSM becomes lower than the ThresholdIdleAbisHV field of the GASTRABISTH parameter. the percentage of idle Abis subslots of the BTSM managing the cell is greater than the thresholdIdleAbisHV field of the GASTRABISTH parameter.. if there is radio scarcity. as regards the allocation flag..e. the PCUs that are assigned cells belonging to the impacted BTSM are informed. than vertical allocation is triggered.e. and the percentage of idle air timeslots in the cell becomes greater than the ThresholdIdleChannelVH field of the GASTRTH parameter. i.e. 92 A30808-X3247-L24-5-7618 . In this sense it is very important to optimize the resource allocation in order to use each TRX in the best possible way. the percentage of idle air timeslots in the cell becomes lower than the ThresholdIdleChannelHV field of the GASTRTH parameter.. Regarding the management of different services. if there is PDT exhaustion in the PCU.3. e) if the vertical allocation of the cell is due to radio scarcity only. f) if the vertical allocation of the cell is due to Abis scarcity only. it starts a process that is responsible for the management of all the incoming requests: the PCU. a new clear and flexible strategy for channel allocation is required.e. than vertical allocation is triggered. is sent to communicate to the PCU the current allocation strategy used on the TDPC side.2 Configuration of GPRS Channels in a Cell"). and to satisfy each new request according to the customer’s setting (both for Data and for Speech calls). The allocation strategy used is managed and implemented in the TDPC. running every 10 seconds for each equipped and in service PCU. The aim of the task in PCU/TDPC is to allocate the requested resources according to the operator setting and to the Mobile Station preferences. than horizontal allocation is triggered. i. i. This flag is updated each time the TDPC replies to PCU requests for resources. b) starting from horizontal allocation. the operator can configure in the cell static and dynamic GPRS/EGPRS timeslots (see "5.

because higher data rates are possible with a lower number of radio resources. EDGE TRXs are preferable for EDGE-capable mobiles.. a clear usage policy for the BCCH TRX channel allocation is guaranteed. But. only GPRS coding schemes can be used). From the configuration point of view. a request to establish a TBF with the following requirements arrives at the BSC: Peak throughput = 80 kbit/s Multi-slot capability = 4 timeslots According to the request. as it has been said.1. or 4 radio resources (83. the BSC finds two solutions. The PCU and the TDPC A30808-X3247-L24-5-7618 93 . in principle. In this case. we can expect better performances from a TBF operating in EGPRS mode (instead of GPRS mode). This parameter. and if radio resources are insufficient on EDGE TRXs and available on non-EDGE TRXs.g.2 kbit/s. a nonEDGE TRX could be preferable. the second using NG timeslots on a non EDGE TRX. that specifies whether the 8PSK modulation is allowed on the BCCH TRX (see " Configuration of the BCCH Transceiver for EGPRS").9. a parameter is provided.Information System GPRS/EGPRS Global Description The radio resources allocation algorithm keeps into account the availability of EGPRS service. because the peak throughput is sustained with the minimum number of radio resources. Both on TDPC and on PCCU. where: NE = 2 (with MCS9) NG = 4 (with CS4) The ‘best’ solution is to allocate 2 radio timeslots on the EDGE TRX. But if only 1 radio resource (NE’) is available on an EDGE TRX. both for the voice and data calls. trying to maximize the throughput is the most important criteria in radio resource research. the sustainable throughput is only 59. and should be considered better solutions. 3 radio resources (62. allows the operator to indicate on which TRX (BCCH or not BCCH) a certain type of call (voice or data) will be preferably allocated. on a non-EDGE TRX allow sustaining of the peak throughput.2 kbit/s). The aim of the algorithm is: maximize the throughput in the limits of specified peak throughput (if specified). To distinguish EDGE TRXs from non-EDGE TRXs. due to specific retransmissions rules and incremental redundancy (see "9.4 kbit/s). In this way. since they are not available for service at all.1. Let us consider an example. and the presence of EDGE capable mobiles and TRXs: in fact MSs that support EGPRS could be assigned either to TRX supporting EDGE (exploiting EGPRS coding schemes) or to TRX supporting GPRS (in this case.2 EGPRS Acknowledged Mode"). or GPRS data rates are slightly better (e. the radio resource research algorithm will also take into account the EBCCHTRX attribute. minimizing the number of allocated radio resources. both on TDPC and PCU. CS4 versus MCS4). called CPOLICY. to allow. the Resource Manager looks at the ‘TRX availability’ dynamic attribute of the TRX (see "5. the first using NE timeslots on an EDGE TRX. when the multislot capability of a mobile is high. and even when data rates are comparable. Therefore. for an EGPRS TBF. In fact. an higher flexibility for different operator’s strategies.3 Aspects Related to Carrier Configuration"): TRX with ‘unknown’ ‘TRX availability’ are not taken into account.

5. for both 94 A30808-X3247-L24-5-7618 . i This chapter describes the PCU algorithm in cases of new GPRS/EGPRS calls. a ‘stand by’ queue). the request is inserted in a waiting queue (i.3. the first actions are taken by the PCU that handles the cell from which the request is arrived.3.2 Channel Coding".GPRS/EGPRS Global Description Information System administer this setting when they have to assign resources to GPRS users (see "5. and the CPOLICY parameter. So. the following information is provided: • Mobile capability (GPRS or EGPRS). and the related queue is called queuing list. The horizontal/vertical allocation algorithm on TDPC receives as input a PDCH_Request message from the PCU containing. are discussed in "5. If the incoming GPRS request cannot be satisfied (because some timeslots have to be free for the GPRS multislot calls. in the following sections the parts are described. as it has been described in "4.1 PCU Algorithm When a new request of GPRS resources arrives at the BSC. • Candidate Initial Coding Scheme (CS/MCS).3. As it has been described. • Multislot class. In fact the Queuing feature is related to circuit switched calls only. TRXs supporting EGPRS or GPRS only. according to the Call Policy. the Call Policy is disregarded: BCCH TRX will be considered after all the other EDGE TRXs even if the CPOLICY parameter is set to DATA_CALL_ON_BCCH.3.2 TDPC Algorithm"). the EBCCHTRX attribute should be set to TRUE.3.3.. in cases of new resources requested for already established calls. the algorithm used to assign GPRS resources is split in two parts: one is performed on the PCU and the other one on the TDPC. among other information. the BCCH TRX is checked AFTER all the non-EDGE TRXs and before all the other EDGE TRXs. • required Peak throughput. That is: if the CPOLICY parameter is set to DATA_CALL_ON_BCCH and the BCCH TRX is a EDGE TRX. taking account GPRS and EGPRS mobiles. the user can set the preferred initial coding scheme. When a new request is sent to the PCU.6 Waiting Queue Management"). a list of suggestions for channels to be granted by TDPC. The “already busy for GPRS/EGPRS” channels can be assigned only by the PCU. this criterion is more important than the call policy. or because the cell is congested). ! The The waiting queue where the “not served GPRS requests” are inserted.1 PCU Algorithm" and "5.3. If the operator wants to give more priority to the BCCH TRX. When the EDGE BCCH TRX doesn’t support 8PSK (EBCCHTRX=FALSE). TRXs are sorted giving priority to the non EDGE TRXs. the BCCH TRX is checked AFTER all the EDGE TRXs and before all the other non-EDGE TRXs.e. while idle channels can be assigned only by the TDPC. and it will be served as soon as the proper actions have been performed (see "5. The upgrading procedure.3. TRXs are sorted giving priority to the EDGE TRXs. • in cases of non-EDGE capable mobiles. is different from the queue related to the Queuing feature. That is: if the CPOLICY parameter is set to DATA_CALL_ON_BCCH and the BCCH TRX is a non-EDGE TRX. the research algorithm basically follows these rules : • in cases of EDGE capable mobiles. this criterion is more important than the call policy.4 Upgrading Strategies".

. the sum of the acknowledged blocks and the not acknowledged one. used in the resource assignment process. the PCU holds in memory. i To get more detailed information about initial coding scheme handling. neverthless the PCU maintains this information only for a specific period of time..3 Selection of the Candidate Initial Coding Scheme". neverthless the PCU maintains this information only for a specific period of time. The O&M configured initial BLER is only used if no information about a MS in a cell is available when a new TBF starts. see "9.5.Information System GPRS/EGPRS Global Description GPRS and EGPRS services.e. besides the last coding scheme. calculates the optimal number (N) of radio resources that allow the maximum “initial target throughput” of the data transmission.9 RLC Data Block Transfer"): BLER= NACK_Blocks/(ACK_Blocks+NACK_Blocks) The user can define the initial BLER value. otherwise the “historical BLER” is used. before starting to search radio resources on the TRXs. Multislot Class) Peak Throughput NOT Available Multislot Class where: ceil = round up to the upper integer PT = required Peak Throughput T_I_CS =throughput (maximum data rate) of “Candidate initial coding scheme” BLER = it is the initial BLER value. please refer to "10. the last coding scheme (either CS or MCS) used in the uplink/downlink directions for TBFs associated to the MS. The optimal number of radio resources that the PCU calculates depends on: – the availability of the Peak Throughput in the request. via the INIBLER parameter. The aim of the search on the PCU side is to find a number of adjacent PDCHs in order to maximize the throughput of the TBF. The BLER value is defined as the number of radio blocks to be repeated (not acknowledged blocks) versus the number of transmitted radio blocks in total (i. – the mobile station capability. The different possibilities are described: A30808-X3247-L24-5-7618 95 . The PCU. if this information is still available. the last measured BLER value (historical BLER) associated to the MS. – otherwise the O&M configured value. to be used when a new TBF starts.e. So the Candidate Initial Coding Scheme will be: – the coding scheme stored in the PCU memory. In fact. the PCU stores in memory. In fact. if the MS is EGPRS capable or not. The O&M configured initial coding schemes are only used if no information about a MS in a cell is available when a new TBF starts. for each mobile station. The Initial BLER corresponds to the INIBLER value if no “historical BLER” information is available. i. for each mobile station. The general formula to calculate the number of “optimal” number of radio resources (N) is the following: Peak Throughput Available N Min(ceil ( PT / (T_I_CS x (1-BLER) ).

only NG will be calculated. when the MCS and CS used to calculate the ‘initial target throughput’ are ‘homologous’ (e. different solutions (i.3. in cases of Abis/PDT resources scarcity it is not guaranteed that the resource assignment will result in the best solution in terms of throughput (see "5. only NE will be calculated.9. these will be in the same TBF mode. the multislot class is taken into account. only the calculation for NG is performed. When the PCU has calculated the optimal number of radio resources. c) When the peak throughput is not available. this is because. – calculation for the ‘optimal’ number NG of radio resources for non EDGE TRX (based on the ‘candidate’ initial CS).7). – in cases where a concurrent TBF is in progress with TBF mode EDGE.g. 5. the better solution is that which provides the highest Initial Target Throughput.e. C/I. because better performances are expected from EGPRS specific retransmission rules and incremental redundancy (see "9.1. there is no guarantee that the ‘initial target throughput’ is really achieved.. etc. used to compare different radio timeslot configurations. CS4/MCS4). i 96 A30808-X3247-L24-5-7618 . b) In cases of mobiles without EGPRS capability and in cases where the peak throughput is available. This situation can occur. prefer EGPRS on EDGE TRXs and GPRS on non-EDGE TRXs.3. maximize the “Initial target throughput”. In cases of Horizontal Allocation strategy the PCU starts a search on all the TRXs usable for GPRS or EGPRS according to the kind of request.2 TDPC Algorithm"). it starts executing a pre-search of radio resources on available TRXs..GPRS/EGPRS Global Description Information System a) In cases of mobiles with EGPRS capability and in cases where the peak throughput is available. Then. because the actual throughput depends on several factors: radio conditions. if a MS is assigned concurrent TBFs.2 EGPRS Acknowledged Mode").8). solutions allocating N radio resources on EDGE TRXs are preferred to solutions allocating N radio resources on GPRS TRXs. i When the initial target throughput per PDCH on GPRS TRXs is slightly better than the initial target throughput per PDCH on EDGE TRXs. The “Initial target throughput” is just an indicator. for example.6) and the initial GPRS CS in the cell is CS4 (data rate 20. for a ‘pure’ UL or DL TBF setup (no concurrent TBF in progress): – calculation for the ‘optimal’ number NE of radio resources for EDGE TRX (based on the ‘candidate’ initial MCS). The criteria used to find resources are the following (in order of priority): 1. availability of Abis and PDT resources. in case the initial MCS in the cell is MCS4 (data rate 17. For example. 2. in cases where a concurrent TBF is in progress with TBF mode GPRS. multiplexing factor. Link Adaptation. different radio timeslot configurations) are compared in terms of ‘initial target throughput’ instead of ‘number of timeslot’. In particular. two calculations must be performed. a different process is applied according to the allocation strategy currently in use (the PCU algorithm is shown in Fig. 3 radio timeslots in EGPRS TBF mode are preferable to 3 radio timeslots in GPRS mode. the basic formula to calculate the initial target throughput per timeslot is: Initial target throughput per timeslot = throughput (maximum data rate) of the candidate initial CS/MCS This value is multiplied by the number (NG or NE) of radio resources to get the better solution.

the PCU does not need to ask new idle PDCH channels to the TDPC. the channels already allocated in packet transfer mode. A30808-X3247-L24-5-7618 97 . On PCU... if all the chosen timeslots are already available at PCU side. minimize the overall weight on the affected PDCHs.7 Notes About GPRS/EGPRS TBF Scheduling" to read how Qos attributes are mapped to scheduling priority).Information System GPRS/EGPRS Global Description 3.Service Precedence in the downlink direction. i. 6. UL radio priority and DL service precedence are mapped into a unique ‘internal priority’ so that UL and DL TBFs are comparable. The request also contains the number of Abis resources needed to support the TBF. the current Abis allocation is not enough to support the candidate initial coding scheme. it could happen that.. i. the PCU will sent a request to the TDPC for additional Abis resources using the PDCH_Abis_Upgrade message (see "5. In this case.9. maximize the number of adjacent timeslots with respect to the ones already in packet transfer mode. In order to handle parallel requests. according to the flexible Abis allocation strategy. i The following QoS parameters are taken into account in the resource allocation process on PCU side: .e. the timeslots are assigned by PCU immediately (i. maximize the number of empty channels (i.. each PDCH(i) is assigned a ‘total weight’ W(i) given by: W(i) = Sum of W(k) where W(k) is the weight of all the TBF(k) multiplexed on the PDCH(i).3. but without assigned TBF.2 Upgrade of Abis Resources").g.. Internally. this is because e. 5.e. free PDCHs for which the TEMPCH timer is running (these channels are also called pre-allocated) 2. SCHWEIPRI4. the idea is to reduce the number of new timeslots to asked of the TDPC for the incoming request. 4. in addition to the other criteria. new PDT/Abis allocation is necessary to support the new TBF. even if no new PDCH has to be allocated. tries then to minimize the total weight of the suggestions to be sent to TDPC.7.e. the association between priorities and weights is performed by the following O&M attributes: SCHWEIPRI1. The output of this algorithm is a possible configuration on one TRX. i. these channels are seen by the PCU as allocated until the TEMPCH timer expires)..e. the TRX belonging to this suggestion is set as “frozen” and excluded from subsequent searches until either the TDPC answers (positively or not) or a protection timer expires. when new idle channels are necessary at the PCU side.9.Radio Priority in the uplink direction. With the Vertical Allocation strategy.e.4. choose the preferred TRXs according to the CPOLICY parameter. SCHWEIPRI2. But in this case. SCHWEIPRI3. According to its priority. Internal priority’ here mentioned coincides with the ‘scheduling priority’ used by the scheduler process (see "9. no PDCH_Request message is sent to TDPC). Two cases exist: 1. the timeslots already available at PCU side are the empty channels. the algorithm for radio resources presearch. It must be noted that when horizontal allocation is used. each TBF is assigned a ‘weight’. So. in case some timeslots are not immediately available. . a PDCH_request message is sent to the TDPC indicating this configuration as a suggestion (the request also notifies the TDPC of the “Initial Target Throughput per timeslot). as described in 9.

5. This leads to better system performances in terms of TBF throughput. the TBFs are spread on all the already assigned timeslots. see "5. In this case no new PDCH has to be allocated. that when vertical allocation is used. i. the TRX belonging to the suggestions is set as “frozen” and excluded from subsequent searches until either TDPC answers (positively or not) or a protection timer expires. free PDCHs for which the TEMPCH timer is running (these channels are also called pre-allocated). 98 A30808-X3247-L24-5-7618 . 3. – empty channels. so the PCU could send a request to TDPC for additional Abis resources by the PDCH_Abis_Upgrade message (to have more details about upgrade of Abis resources. a PDCH_request message is sent to the TDPC indicating the suggestion to be preferred in the search. timeslots already available at PCU side are: – timeslots already assigned to GPRS users. prefer EGPRS on EDGE TRXs and GPRS on non EDGE TRXs. 2. maximize the number of empty channels. they are assigned immediately. choose the preferred TRXs according to the CPOLICY parameter.GPRS/EGPRS Global Description Information System When the Vertical Allocation strategy is used. on all the TRXs. maximize the initial target throughput. containing active TBFs.e. In case some timeslots are not immediately available. minimize the overall weight on the affected PDCHs. but it could happen that the current PDT/Abis allocation is not enough. This is done by multiplexing the new TBF on the timeslots already in packet mode that are not in the busy state (the busy state is set when the number of TBFs multiplexed on a PDCH reaches the GMANMSAL value).2 Upgrade of Abis Resources").. If all the chosen timeslots are already available at the PCU side. The criteria used to find resources are the following (in order of priority): 1. It must be noted. in order to handle parallel requests. The output of this algorithm is a possible configuration on one TRX. the layering method is the following (flat distribution): instead of multiplexing continuously on the same timeslot (until the GMANMSAL value is reached). Also in this case.4.3. 4.

Information System GPRS/EGPRS Global Description MS/SGSN request Calculate the number of requested PDCHs according to: .Peak Throughput -Mobile Station Capability -Candidate Initial Coding Scheme Horizontal Allocation type? Vertical Find channels according to HA criteria Find channels according to VA criteria NO PCU needs new PDCH channels? YES NO PCU needs new PDCH channels? YES Send PDCH_Request to TDPC Send PDCH_Request to TDPC PCU needs new PDT? YES PCU needs new PDT? YES NO NO Assign channels already in Packet Mode Send PDCH_Abis_Upgrade to TDPC Assign channels already in Packet Mode Send PDCH_Abis_Upgrade to TDPC Fig.Multislot Class .7 Allocation Algorithm followed by the PCU A30808-X3247-L24-5-7618 99 . 5.

New PDCHs can be required in the cases that follow: – when a new PS call must be established. the PCU can send to the TDPC two kinds of message: a) the PDCH_Request message. The HA/VA indicator. is allocated with the vertical allocation on PDCHs already filled with TBF requiring less Abis resources. the TDPC goes on to search through all the TRXs. The PDCH_Request message received from the PCU contains the following information: • Number of timeslots. When the PCU needs new PDCH channels to be assigned to the incoming GPRS/EGPRS call. in cases of upgrade of radio resources). the case regarding new incoming PS calls is here described.3. the suggestion contains the following information: – relative number of TRX. The only mandatory check (on TDPC) 100 A30808-X3247-L24-5-7618 . it tries to satisfy the request using as many pre-allocated channels as it can.e.1). This indicator is used to indicate in which allocation type (HA/VA) the PCU has sent the message to the TDPC. The cases requiring the upgrade of already assigned resources (PDCHs or Abis) are discussed in "5. this message also specifies the number of Abis resources needed to support the TBF.. i.3. Only if it is not possible to exactly satisfy the suggestion. they are the channels for which the TEMPCH timer is still running (see "5. – bit map containing 1 for each timeslot pre-allocated by the PCU in the suggested configuration. Number of needed Abis subslots for each PDCH.GPRS/EGPRS Global Description Information System 5. it sends to the TDPC a PDCH_Request message. – when the upgrade of the coding scheme of one TBF requires that more Abis resources are assigned.e. but new Abis resources are needed. when new PDCHs on the air interface must be assigned.1 PCU Algorithm").2 TDPC Algorithm As it has been described (see 5. which uses a coding scheme requiring a certain number of Abis resources.3. but without assigned TBF. It is important to underline the following feature: Abis/PDT scarcity does not affect the radio resource assignment algorithm of TDPC.4 Upgrading Strategies". in order to find out the best configuration that matches the requirement fixed further.. – when a PS call already established needs more radio resources (i. If again the request is not satisfied.3.3. when new PDCHs on the air interface must not be assigned. As a general rule.3. the TDPC will first try to satisfy the suggestion sent by the PCU. • Suggestion. – bit map containing 1 for each timeslot selected by the PCU in the suggested configuration (there is 1 for both pre-allocated and idle channels in the configuration). This message is sent in the following cases: – when a new TBF. b) a PDCH_Abis_Upgrade message.3. i • • Pre-allocated channels are the channels already in packet transfer mode.

if no idle channels have been assigned (even if some preallocated channels were present in the PCU request).8. The TDPC algorithm is described in Fig. Hence.3. So if the incoming request can be satisfied using the timeslots reserved exclusively for PS services (fixed by the operator using the GMANPRES attribute) no downgrade or reject is performed on the incoming request. and the initial target throughput is based on the number of radio timeslots that can be actually activated.3.4.2 Upgrade of Abis Resources"). first in the queuing list and then in the waiting queue. and the request is for additional resources. if the incoming GPRS/EGPRS request is for more than one timeslot. So. When Abis/PDT resources are not enough to completely satisfy the request (activation of new PDCHs and possible upgrade of already allocated PDCHs). also in this case.3. the TDPC verifies if there are some pending requests.Information System GPRS/EGPRS Global Description concerns the availability of one Abis/PDT per new PDCHs in the selected radio timeslot configuration. A30808-X3247-L24-5-7618 101 . if necessary and possible (see "5. 5. upgrade up to the requested number of PDTs per PDCH the already allocated PDCHs in the configuration. i This mechanism is not applied to timeslots reserved for exclusive use of the GPRS/EGPRS services. – a different situation occurs when an incoming request arrives at the TDPC from the PCU and no channels are currently allocated for PS services. no matter of the value of the thresholdIdleAbisStopUpgrade field of the GASTRABISTH parameter (see "5. the new request will not be served immediately. This is done in order to optimize the usage of resources and it can produce a short delay in serving the new requests. If any pending request exists then the TDPC puts the incoming GPRS/EGPRS request in the waiting queue because it is necessary to serve the old calls first. the TDPC will allocate new PDCHs trying to assign them the requested number of Abis/PDTs per PDCH and. it will be included in the waiting queue. in this case. In this case. – a PDCH_KO message. if necessary and possible (see "5. When the involved BTS is congested. the request from the PCU is rejected and the TDPC sends a PDCH_KO message to the PCU. the incoming multislot request is downgraded to a single timeslot request. In this case. when the BTS is congested. At this time if the request cannot be served immediately. in case of Abis/PDT resources scarcity it is not guaranteed that the initial coding scheme can be supported.2 Upgrade of Abis Resources"). upgrade up to the requested number of PDTs per PDCH the already allocated PDCHs in the configuration. when resources are available and either the queuing list or the waiting queue is filled with some pending request. even if there is no congestion from a BTS point of view. No attempt is done to search radio resources minimizing the number of new allocated Abis/PDT resources. when the BTS is congested. the TDPC distinguishes between upgrade requests and new requests: – an upgrade request is detected each time the PCU requires additional timeslots for GPRS/EGPRS service. If the BTS is not congested.2 Upgrade of Abis Resources"). the number of PDTs per PDCH specified in the request is downgraded.4.4. This means that some timeslots are currently allocated for PS data transmission. Then the TDPC will answer to the PCU with: – a PDCH_Setup message when at least one idle channel has been assigned.

2 Horizontal/Vertical Allocation Strategies". The PDCH_Setup message always contains the current allocation value (VA/HA) on TDPC. choosing the preferred TRXs according to the CPOLICY parameter. If the request is completely satisfied by the available resources. If no new idle channels are assigned. the resources will be assigned on a not preferred TRX. according to the other criteria.6 Waiting Queue Management"). the TDPC will answer to the PCU with a PDCH_KO message. the number of adjacent busy channels for GPRS/EGPRS is higher. minimizing the number of forced intracell handovers of circuit switched calls. on not preferred TRXs. so the TDPC will answer to the PCUC with a PDCH_Setup message. if any.3.3 Forced Intracell Handovers of Already Established CS Calls"). this message has a field as a bit map containing the HA/VA indicator. as it can (resulting from PCU suggestions). The HA/VA indicator is set to horizontal allocation or vertical allocation depending on the situation of radio interface and Abis interface. 2. 5. If one or more intracell handovers have to be executed. then the allocation is performed on TRX0 even if TRX1 may have more than the required timeslots free. • it should be noted as the priority related to the preferred TRX is the lowest one. • in case more than one allocation with the same number of timeslots is possible on different TRXs. i Note that for the previous algorithm.GPRS/EGPRS Global Description Information System In case both the queues are empty. For instance if the system is handling a request for three timeslots. the request is served immediately. The following considerations can also be done: • each time more than one solution is found to satisfy a request. when new channels are assigned. using as many pre allocated channels.7 Multislot Configuration"): – same frequency hopping law. without the need to execute forced intracell handovers.6. the allocation is performed according to the order of priority listed above. whereas TRX1 has no empty channels. The algorithm on TDPC will search idle channels following these criteria: 1. the request is put in waiting queue and the management is delegated to the waiting queue manager process (see "5. 102 A30808-X3247-L24-5-7618 . the allocated PDCHs must have (see also "4.3. it is chosen that for which. described in "5. the search including forced intracell handovers is applied only if forced intracell handovers have been enabled by the operator (see "5. 3. but only TRX0 has one “empty channel”. prefer EGPRS on EDGE TRXs and GPRS on non-EDGE TRXs. • for PDCH allocation in multislot configurations.3. and both TRX0 (BCCH) and TRX1 (non BCCH) have three available timeslots. the TDPC has to check if the incoming request can be completely satisfied by available system resources. This is done to reduce holes in the configuration and to facilitate the assignment for new incoming GPRS/EGPRS calls when the VA is active. 4. – same MAIO. so if the request can be satisfied. maximizing the initial target throughput. – same training sequence code (TSC).

If what is assigned by the TDPC does not fit what is required by the PCU. plus another channel already available at PCU side where another TBF is running (since there are not any pre allocated channels).Information System GPRS/EGPRS Global Description • • – adjacent time slot numbers. In this way the PCU will try to layer the call on already busy for GPRS/EGPRS channels. The first three rules have to be followed during the configuration phase. because either the maximum number of PS channels or the Vertical allocation threshold has been reached. it assigns these two channels and also sets the VA/HA flag to VA. if the PCU has to assign to a GPRS/EGPRS user three channels. the PCU requires three idle channels to the TDPC (let us suppose that the PCU does not indicate any pre allocated channel in the suggestion). when it selects timeslots to be allocated to GPRS/EGPRS users. The PCU then uses the two channels assigned by TDPC. The fourth law is dynamically followed by TDPC. and the TEMPCH timer has expired. the subsequent deallocation of the allocated PDCH occurs when all the TBFs present on it have been released. For instance when the HA is used. that means that all timeslots (defined as TCH) must have the same hopping law and the same training sequence code. If the TDPC can assign only two channels. this last tries to expand the proposed configuration using timeslots already available and adjacent to the new ones. the TDPC will force the VA. if the TDPC answers with PDCH_KO to the PCU because no GPRS/EGPRS channels are available or because no idle channels are assigned and there are no pre allocated ones. A30808-X3247-L24-5-7618 103 .

GPRS/EGPRS Global Description Information System Reception of PDCH_Request from PCU YES Is the Cell congested? NO Are queues empty? NO Put the call in Waiting Queue NO YES Upgrade New call or Upgrade? New call Are there available resources immediately? YES Downgrade the (E)GPRS call to 1 timeslot NO Send PDCH_KO to PCU (if necessary set VA) Assign the resources Is it possible to free resources using Intracell Handover? Put the downgraded call in Waiting Queue Calculate HA/VA threshold YES Put the multislot call in Waiting Queue YES Threshold overcome? NO YES Were there pre-allocated channels in the PCU request? NO Set VA Assign pre-allocated PDCHs Calculate HA/VA threshold Send PDCH_KO to PCU (Set VA) YES Threshold overcome? NO Send PDCH_Setup to PCU Set VA Send PDCH_KO to PCU Fig. 5.8 Allocation Algorithm followed by the TDPC 104 A30808-X3247-L24-5-7618 .

5.3.5 Link Adaptation") and to upgrading of radio resources. Depending on the position of the TBF on the TRX. A30808-X3247-L24-5-7618 105 . – loss of radio resources due to pre-emption or O&M commands.Information System GPRS/EGPRS Global Description 5.3. the PCU is not allowed to request new PDCHs to TDPC for upgrading reasons. The choice between the radio resource on the left or on the right of the current allocation is performed using the same criteria used in the first allocation of radio resources (see 5.1).3. the downgrading of CS/MCS is managed before the upgrading of radio resources. the upgrading of radio resources is different from the upgrading of Abis/PDTs.4. the upgrading of radio resources is performed one step a time. The radio resources upgrade is attempted if the already allocated resources are less than what can be supported by the MS multislot class. As it can be seen. the best additional PDCH could be already allocated to GPRS/EGPRS.5) when conditions get better. if necessary. several additional radio resources could be necessary to fill the gap to the required number of radio resources.4 Upgrading Strategies Two kinds of upgrading strategies are defined according to different situations: 1. once detected the upgrading condition. The additional PDCH can be requested only if both the following conditions are satisfied: 1. – decreasing of the “maximum sustainable throughput”. upgrading of radio resources: additional radio resources could become necessary to sustain the peak throughput. As long as vertical allocation is in progress. due to the worsening of radio conditions. Note that in case the worsening of radio conditions would lead simultaneously to a step of Link Adaptation (downgrading the CS/MCS and possibly the Abis/PDTs. only when the downgrading of CS/MCS procedure is completed. However. it means that radio resources are added one at a time. these upgrading strategies are discussed separately. for effort reasons. upgrading of Abis/PDT resources: it can be required by Link Adaptation (see 10. additional radio resources could become necessary to sustain the peak throughput. It is a general rule on PCU that procedures cannot be nested: hence the upgrading of radio resources will be started. The additional radio resource must belong to the same TRX and must be adjacent to the radio resources already assigned to the TBF. each time one of the upgrading conditions is detected. the horizontal allocation is in progress. in the present release.3. Therefore a radio resource upgrading strategy is necessary. that occurs under completely different conditions. In general. or it could be necessary to request it to TDPC. The events triggering the radio resource upgrading (upgrading conditions) are: – increasing of the peak throughput requirement. 2. or by the PCU when in the same PDCH has to fill a TBF with an higher coding scheme with respect to those already substained. So.1 Upgrade of Radio Resources After the first allocation of radio resources. see "10.

3. the SGSN can request a variation in peak throughput specifying a different value of throughput in the ‘QoS Profile’ information element of the DL-UNITDATA. 106 A30808-X3247-L24-5-7618 . by default.2. But PDCHs already allocated to GPRS/EGPRS can be assigned to a TBF for upgrading reasons no matter of the thresholdIdleChanEnableUpgrade value. At system initialization. but only if the conditions regarding horizontal allocation and the percentage of idle timeslots are verified. the enableRadioUpgradingFlag is DISABLED both on PCU and TDPC sides. and is set to ENABLED at the first check detecting the horizontal allocation condition. as specified in 2) Change in “Maximum Sustainable Throughput”. It enables the possibility to allocate new PDCHs to GPRS/EGPRS for upgrading reasons. the mobile can request a variation in peak throughput submitting a PACKET_RESOURCE_REQUEST message and specifying a different value of peak throughput in the ‘Channel Request Description’ information element. The thresholdIdleChanEnableUpgrade does not enable the ‘upgrading strategy’.3 Switching between VA and HA According to Radio Conditions".GPRS/EGPRS Global Description Information System 2. the number of idle radio timeslots in the cell is higher than the thresholdIdleChanEnableUpgrade field of the GASTRTH attribute. While a downlink TBF is in progress. unless the thresholdIdleChanEnableUpgrade value is 100 (this value means: new PDCHs cannot be allocated to GPRS for upgrading reasons). The extension is tried by adding one adjacent TS to the actual configuration. The check is performed on the TDPC. Multislot Class). the variation of peak throughput is taken into account only if a peak throughput value higher than the currently managed value (in the same UL or DL direction) is specified. In the following the upgrading conditions are discussed. Besides. In both cases (DL/UL). The PCU is informed by a flag (enableRadioUpgradingFlag) added in all the messages containing the allocation status flag. In case radio resources are missing and the upgrade is not possible. the upgrading request is dropped. so the PCU will send to TPDC a PDCH_Upgrade_Reqeust message. the thresholdIdleChanEnableUpgrade threshold does not affect the assignment of resources for new incoming TBFs. where: ceil = round up to the upper integer new PT = new required Peak Throughput T_A_CS =throughput of the Actual Coding Scheme BLER = it is the actual BLER. The upgrading will be attempted again if a decreasing of maximum sustainable throughput is detected. i The number of idle timeslot is calculated in the same manner as described in "5. the number of required timeslots is defined as: Number of required TSs = min (ceil ( new PT / (T_A_CS x (1-BLER)). An extension to the number of allocated timeslots is tried if the number of currently allocated timeslots is lower than the number of required timeslots. 1) Change in Peak Throughput Requirement While an uplink TBF is in progress.

when the maximum sustainable throughput becomes lower than the maximum tolerable degradation of the peak throughput. the upgrade is performed. leading to a change in ‘Maximum sustainable Throughput’.2 Upgrade of Abis Resources According to flexible Abis allocation strategy. new Abis resources could become necessary. either the BLER or the used CS/MCS coding scheme can change.3. – it can be required by the PCU when in the same PDCH has to set up a TBF with a higher coding scheme with respect to those already multiplexed on the PDCH (see "5. the ACCEPTGDEGR attribute is suggested to be set to 0 (no degradation allowed. that is: Maximum sustainable throughput = T_A_CS x (1-BLER) x #TS where: T_A_CS =throughput of the Actual Coding Scheme BLER = it is the actual BLER #TS = number of allocated timeslots to the TBF A check on the maximum sustainable throughput is performed periodically. radio resource upgrading always attempted as soon as the upgrading condition is detected). due to variations in radio conditions. but only if the conditions regarding horizontal allocation and the percentage of idle timeslots are verified.3 Management of Incoming GPRS/EGPRS Requests"). hence the ‘downgrading’ of radio resources is not managed). for already assigned radio channels. only the decreasing in maximum sustainable throughput is taken into account (increasing.: – it can be required by Link Adaptation when the radio conditions gets better (see "10. since the variations in Maximum sustainable throughput can be very frequent.3.ACCEPTGDEGR) x PT where: T_A_CS = throughput of the Actual Coding Scheme BLER = it is the actual BLER PT = Peak Throughput ACCEPTGDEGR= it is an O&M parameter So. only the decreasing below a given threshold will be managed. An extension to the number of allocated TSs is tried if: T_A_CS x (1-BLER) x Currently allocated #TS < (1. A30808-X3247-L24-5-7618 107 .5 Link Adaptation").4. so the PCU will send to TPDC a PDCH_Upgrade_Reqeust message.Information System GPRS/EGPRS Global Description 2) Change in “Maximum Sustainable Throughput” During a TBF lifetime. with a period defined by the UPGRFREQ attribute. Moreover. in order to reach the required radio resource allocation in several steps. The extension is tried by adding one adjacent timeslot to the actual configuration. The Maximum sustainable throughput is defined as the maximum throughput that would be achieved by a given TBF if it was alone on the multislot configuration. i As long as the ‘one radio resource a time’ algorithm is implemented. e.g. As a general rule. 5.

In any case. in BTSMs where the Abis resources/radio resources ratio is quite low. Instead. the default value of the threshold is 0. i 5. therefore. for some operators it could be preferable to disable the Abis upgrading before the switch to vertical allocation. but further upgrading of Abis resources is forbidden. and to running TBFs versus incoming TBFs. Moreover. Constraints on the Abis thresholds are: thresholdIdleAbisStopUpgrade < thresholdIdleAbisRestoreUpgrade There is no constraint between the Abis threshold to switch to vertical allocation (see "5. meaning that the Abis upgrading is disabled only in case of complete Abis congestion. so that the residual Abis resources in the pool can be by preference available to set up new CS services (this will be the trend in case of vertical allocation) or even to new PS services (in case horizontal allocation is still active). and vice versa. The secondary aim of this threshold is to avoid the allocation of additional Abis resources to running packet services in case of Abis scarcity. CS pre-emption or O&M commands). the operator is free to set the one lowest than the other. in case of runtime Abis release (due to worsening of radio conditions. the released Abis is not allowed to be allocated again to running TBFs. in BTSMs where the Abis resources/radio resources ratio is quite high. the first allocation of Abis resources to a TBF is performed with the same criteria used under normal conditions (looking at the candidate initial coding scheme). • thresholdIdleAbisRestoreUpgrade field: it defines the percentage of idle Abis subslots of a BTSM (over the available Abis subslots managed by the BTSM) over which the Abis upgrade requests to TDPC are restored for all the cells managed by the PCU and belonging to the involved BTSM. Note that moving this threshold from the default value.3.GPRS/EGPRS Global Description Information System The user can manage the upgrade strategy of Abis resources by two fields of the GASTRABISTH parameter. the Abis upgrading should be disabled only in case of complete Abis congestion or at least after the switch to vertical allocation.5 Incoming CS Calls When a circuit switched call (deriving from either a normal assignment or an external incoming handover) comes into the cell with no free radio channels. The two fields are: • thresholdIdleAbisStopUpgrade field: it defines the percentage of idle Abis subslots of a BTSM (over the available Abis subslots managed by the BTSM) under which the PCU must disable the Abis upgrading requests to TDPC for all the cells managed by the PCU and belonging to the involved BTSM.4 Switching between VA and HA according to Abis Interface Conditions") and the Abis threshold to disable the ‘Abis upgrade requests’.2. the following algorithm is applied: 108 A30808-X3247-L24-5-7618 . The main aim of this threshold is to avoid useless signalling between PCU and TDPC in case of nearly complete Abis congestion. When this threshold is overcome. a reduction in PS throughput is expected.3. As a general configuration rule. in order to obtain the highest benefit from Link Adaptation. the choice will depend on the relative preference given from the operator to circuit switched calls versus packet switched TBFs.

if also the Directed Retry cannot be started (e.g. these calls are put in the queuing list (if the Queuing feature has been enabled).3. The TDPC. in fact.6 Waiting Queue Management"). if the incoming CS call finds the cell in a congested state. could also be put in the waiting queue.. the call is put in the waiting queue in order to find the required resources. b) GPRS requests that arrive when other calls are present in the waiting queue or in the queuing list. a packet data transfer may be downgraded. then the TDPC must analyze a second time these pending requests to serve them. 4..3. To free resources for the CS call put in waiting queue.g. it could also happen that when the CS calls have to be served. before checking the waiting queue.Information System GPRS/EGPRS Global Description 1. in cases of a multislot call. CS calls that arrive: a) when no radio resources are available in the BTS. 2. no Abis resources are available to serve the incoming call. the CS call is put in the Waiting Queue. if preemption cannot be started for whatever reason (e. these calls are downgraded to 1 timeslot before being inserted in the waiting queue.6 Waiting Queue Management As it has been described in "5. there are some cases for which the TDPC inserts the incoming requests in the waiting queue.. if enabled.5 Incoming CS Calls") b) when no Abis resources are available in the BTSM that manages the BTS.3.2 TDPC Algorithm". in these cases. c) GPRS requests that must wait for intracell handovers. the following GPRS/EGPRS calls are put in waiting queue: a) GPRS/EGPRS requests that arrive when the cell is congested and no GPRS calls are present in the cell. the CS calls are put in the waiting queue (see "5. 3. the static GPRS/EGPRS channels can not be pre-empted by CS calls (see "5. Even in this case. the feature is not enabled or the feature is enabled but the Handover Condition Indication message does not contain any cell) the queueing procedure is started.3. if the queueing procedure is not enabled. In any case. the Directed Retry procedure is started. in the worst case. The task is activated by a timer. the multislot call is inserted in the waiting queue. analyses the queueing list. According to the flexible Abis allocation strategy (see 6. To summarize. A30808-X3247-L24-5-7618 109 . 5. or released.3.e. If the queueing list contains some pending request (i. the TDPC will immediately manage resources of the queueing list. if the Queuing feature is not enabled. the feature is not enabled). i The queuing procedure puts the CS call in the Queueing List that is different from the Waiting Queue. the first attempted task is to preempt one vulnerable CS call. if both the pre-emption and the directed retry fail or have not been enabled. some CS calls). Otherwise.3).

So the classic Queueing procedure already implemented always has a higher priority than the waiting queue management.e. The downgrade of an already active HSCSD call is executed only if the number of used timeslots is greater than one (i.. Three types of action can be performed by the process to serve pending requests on the waiting queue: 1.3. the transmission is interrupted (to avoid GPRS/EGPRS downgrading. Then the system finds the released resources which are available for the specific cell.GPRS/EGPRS Global Description Information System After this procedure. As it has been described (see "5. Downgrading of already active HSCSD multislot calls: the downgrade of already active HSCSD calls. or if the queueing list is empty. consists in a decrease of the number of timeslots already assigned to PS services.2 Configuration of GPRS Channels in a Cell"). When the downgrade of PS calls is performed.5 Incoming CS Calls"). The user can choose the preferred downgrade strategy through the DownGradeStrategy parameter (DGRSTRGY).5 Incoming CS Calls"). If the resources are not enough to serve all the entries present in the waiting queue.3.6. the user can select the downgrade strategy. these have been included in the Idle List structure. Use resources just released by the TDPC: in case the system had released any system resources. Downgrading of already active PS multislot calls: the GPRS/EGPRS downgrade process. are used first by the Queueing process and only later on by the Waiting Queue process. 2. – to serve incoming CS requests in the waiting queue (see "5. i Note. and the timeslot is preempted for downgrading.5 Incoming CS Calls"). This attribute allows the user to choose among five different strategies: – Downgrade of HSCSD calls first – Downgrade of GPRS/EGPRS calls first – Downgrade of HSCSD calls only – Downgrade of GPRS/EGPRS calls only – No Downgrade 5.3. once more.3. one of the GPRS/EGPRS channels is “preempted” and the channel is released. that the resources that are released. the process will analyzes the waiting queue. i No active GPRS/EGPRS calls are downgraded to free resources for incoming GPRS/EGPRS calls. at least one timeslot must remain allocated for the HSCSD call) 3. is performed in two situations only: – to serve GPRS/EGPRS pending requests in the waiting queue. the downgrade of already active PS multislot calls is performed to serve incoming CS requests in the waiting queue. Regarding the downgrade of already active GPRS/EGPRS and HSCSD multislot calls. the operator can assign static GPRS/EGPRS timeslots as explained in "5. In the case in which a PS data transmission uses only one timeslot for GPRS/EGPRS. the following Downgrading mechanisms are activated. the TDPC can send to the PCU the order to release one or 110 A30808-X3247-L24-5-7618 .1 Pre-emption of PDCH Channels The preemtpion of a PDCH is executed to serve an incoming CS call (see "5.

note that: Note that: – before downgrading a PDCH on a TRX where CS calls are seen as preferred. in the order: 1. as described. That is: only PDTs with SFC=1.. The preemption of some PDCHs can result in the reconfiguration of some TBFs (also partially allocated on ‘residual’ PDCHs) and in the release of some other TBFs (completely allocated on the preempted PDCHs). PDCH channels for which the PDCH empty timer is running). then to PS dynamic channels. then moving on the next TRX. PDCH pre-emption orders are sent: 1. 5. it can result in the reconfiguration of some TBFs (partially allocated also on ‘residual’ PDCHs) and in the release of some other TBFs (completely allocated on the preempted A30808-X3247-L24-5-7618 111 . this step is repeated until the required number of PDTs is found. – independently on the value of the DGRSTRGY parameter.4 can be removed from PBCCHs and PCCHs. In each selected cell.. Cells belonging to the ‘exhausted’ BTSM are spread over several PCUs (see "8 Load Control for Packet Switched Services"). In case of unavailability of Abis resources. in case of CS pre-emption due to unavailability of Abis resources. For example. and sends it a pre-emption order. starting from the first TRX and highest timeslot numer and removing one PDT per timeslot. PDTs with ‘PDT empty timer’ still active (as it has been described in "5.3.. a free channel on not preferred TRXs (not preferred for CS calls) is searched first (i. 2. so. or in case no Abis resources are available to serve incoming CS requests put in the waiting queue. if there are some empty channels (i. PDT pre-emption orders are managed with the aim to balance the distribution of PDTs among cells and to disturb as little as possible the running TBFs. the algorithm selects. due to unavailability of radio resources in a cell. Since the PDT pre-emption management can result in the release of some PDCHs.6. the CPOLICY parameter is negletted).e. they are used to serve the CS call. On PCU.Information System GPRS/EGPRS Global Description more PDCHs in a cell (PDCH_preemption_order). first to PDCHs with the ‘PDCH empty timer’ still active. if no empty channels exists.e. On the PCU. the pre-emption management will not cause the release of PBCCHs and PCCCHs (or the pre-emption of static GPRS/EGPRS channels). the “PDT empty timer” can be defined by the user via the TEMPPDTparameter). the same ‘pre-emption level’ used when radio resources unavailability is applied. The downgrade of the PDCH channels is applied. the TDPC selects the PCU with the highest number of PDTs allocated to the ‘exhausted’ BTSM.1 Generalities about Resource Assignments".3. until the number of the reserved channels for PS services is reached in the cell (reserved PS channels cannot be downgraded). then the rules defined by the DGRSTRGY parameter are followed to free resources for the CS call. the “PDCH empty timer” can be defined by the user via the TEMPCH parameter. 2.2 Pre-emption of PDT Resources The TDPC can send to the PCU a PDT pre-emption order in case no PDT or Abis resources are available for PBCCH/PCCCH activation. in case of unavailability of Abis resources in a BTSM pool.

In this case. the same behavior implemented in case of PDCH pre-emption (see 5. the TDPC tries to allocate it. to another one in the same cell.3.g.6. if there is at least one free channel in the cell (and the maximum number of timeslots assigned to PS services has not been reached).3 Forced Intracell Handovers of Already Established CS Calls When a request comes from the PCU for a new PDCH. a forced intracell handover starts to free timeslots for GPRS users. In case the release of the PDTs does not cause the whole PDCH release. a forced downgrade of the coding scheme is performed for all the TBFs multiplexed on the involved PDTs. The forced intracell handover allows the moving of a CS call from one timeslot. causing a forced intracell handover for circuit switched calls. 5. 112 A30808-X3247-L24-5-7618 . i The decision whether pre-emption may be made on circuit switched services is taken by the TDPC. It could happen that in the transceivers supporting GPRS/EGPRS there are not free and consecutive timeslots..GPRS/EGPRS Global Description Information System PDCHs).1) is ensured. the user must set the ENFOIAHO parameter (Enable Forced Intracell Handover) to TRUE.6.3. Otherwise (release of the whole PDCH). PDCHs can be released provided that the number of residual PDCHs allocated in the cell is higher or equal to the number of reserved PDCHs. because the already assigned PDCHs are full and the remaining timeslots are dedicated to circuit switched calls. e. To enable forced intracell handover.

– management of the protocols supporting the “Gb” interface. Depending on the BSC type this FMO can be implemented by means of the boards PPCU (for the standard BSC) or PPXU (for the High Capacity BSC). It supports the packet data interworking between the “Gb” interface and the “Abis” interface. 6. The PCU functional managed object models the physical packet control unit designed to implement the packet switched services (PS) in the SBS system. Functional object PCU Meaning This Functional Managed Object (FMO) represents the Packet Control Unit designed to implement GPRS services in the SBS system. Fig. The CCU unit within the BTS provides the following functions: – Channel coding functions. congestion control. the Packet Control Unit (PCU) has been designed for the BSC. – Radio Channel Management functions. including buffering and re-transmission of RLC blocks.1 Hardware and Software Entities supporting the GPRS/EGPRS technology The PCU unit within the BSC provides the following functions: – Channel Access Control functions. The CCU software is downloaded to the BTS from the BSC. like power control. 6. – LLC layer PDU segmentation into RLC blocks for downlink transmission. 6. received signal level and information related to timing advance. including received quality level. PCU Functional Managed Object (FMO) Tab. The functionalities of the PCU are supported by the Channel Codec Units (CCUs) which have been implemented in the BTSs (see the "Fig.1 Hardware and Software Entities supporting the GPRS/EGPRS technology").Information System GPRS/EGPRS Global Description 6 Hardware and Software Architecture For the management of Packet Switched Services in the SBS system. including FEC and interleaving. for example access requests and grants. broadcast control information. – RLC layer PDU re-assembly into LLC blocks for uplink transmission. – Radio channel measurement functions. – PDCH RLC ARQ functions.. etc. – Continuous Timing Advance update.1 A30808-X3247-L24-5-7618 113 . – PDCH scheduling functions for uplink and downlink data transfer.

the High capacity BSC based on the same rack as the “standard” one. – LAPD signalling. – packet data handling capability. but equipped with the new SNAP switching matrix called “High capacity BSC with the old rack” (see the chapter: "6. that provides better capabilities with respect to the “High capacity BSC with the old rack” due to the installation of the new LICD cards. In case of PPXU boards for the High Capacity BSC each PCU can handle 256 PDTs on the Abis interface and up to 64 FRLs on the Gb interface. the BSC equipped with the SN16 switching matrix and with older peripheral processors called “standard BSC” (see the chapter: "6.3 High Capacity BSC with the New Rack").1. 6.1. 3.1 “Standard” BSC").e. the High capacity BSC based on a new rack called “High capacity BSC with the new rack” (see the chapter: "6.0 release the BSCs that can be installed in the Siemens customers’ mobile networks are the following: 1. 114 A30808-X3247-L24-5-7618 . whereas High Capacity BSC with new Rack is called HC BSC 120. that provides better performances in terms of: – connectivity (i.1 Supported BSC Types In the current BR 7.1. High Capacity BSC with Standard Rack is also called HC BSC 72. i According to the maximum number of supported PCM line interfaces. 2. The Packet Data Terminal (PDT) represents a basic 16 kbit/s resource for the packet switched services manageable by the PCU..2 High Capacity BSC with the Old Rack").GPRS/EGPRS Global Description Information System In case of PPCU boards for the standard BSC each PCU can handle up to 64 PDTs on the Abis interface with a maximum number of 16 FRLs on the Gb interface. FRL is the Functional Managed Object that models the physical link connection on the “Gb” interface. In the next chapters it will be described in detail the difference that the support of the GPRS/EGPRS technology requires in terms of hardware supported and software applications to the standard and High Capacity BSC and also to the different BTS types. The connection can be realised through the A interface (PCMA link) or directly to the SGSN through the PCMG link. number of supported PCM lines).

from packet switched data services point of view. five Abis subslots are associated to this PDCH (see the chapter: "6. and so only one PDT is busy in the PCU that manages this PDCH (in this case.For example. there is a one to one relationship between PDCH and PDT). is assigned in terms of Packet Data Terminals. each PCU unit consists of two PPCU boards: – one of them is in Providing Service state. A30808-X3247-L24-5-7618 115 . The Packet Data Terminal (PDT) represents a basic 16 kbit/s resource for the packet switched services manageable by the PCU. and it is used as a spare board. taking into particular account their hardware and software resources configured for supporting the GPRS and EGPRS technology. The PPCU boards are inserted in the BSC rack in place of some PPLDs.Information System GPRS/EGPRS Global Description i In the next paragraphs the different BSC types are described.1 “Standard” BSC In the Standard BSC. – the other one is in Cold Stand-by state. when a single PDCH is associated to a GPRS user using CS1 coding scheme. The capacity of the PCU. 6. it is called PDCH). 6. it is also associated to a single Abis subslot.1. is the radio timeslot associated to packet switched services (that means when the timeslot is associated to the packet switched services. the PPCU processors are used to implement the PCU unit. but when a single PDCH is associated to an EGPRS user using MCS9 coding scheme. and so five PDTs are busy in the PCU that manages this PDCH (in this case.that means that a PCU supports a certain number of Packet Data Terminals. there is a one to five relationship between PDCH and PDT). as it has been described in the chapter "4 Radio Interface Description". It is also important to make a distinction between the terms “Packet Data Channel (PDCH)” and “Packet Data Terminal (PDT)”. The Packet Data Channel (PDCH). as it is shown in the Fig.2. This number of Packet Data Terminals corresponds to the number of Abis subslots (16 kbit/s) manageable by the PCU.3 PCU Frames and Dynamic Allocation on the Abis Interface") .

GPRS/EGPRS Global Description Information System Fig. • the creation of the PCU:1 involves the creation of both the PPCU:2 and the PPCU:3. Since the PPCUs are inserted in the BSC rack in substitution of some PPLDs. Two instances of the PCU object can be created: – PCU:0. The creation of one PCU object implies the consequent creation of the two related PPCU boards (active and cold-standby): • the creation of the PCU:0 involves the creation of both the PPCU:0 and the PPCU:1. some PPLDs may not be equipped.2 View of the BSC Rack with and without PPCU Boards. – PCU:1. The rule is shown in Tab. The system firstly creates the two PPCU objects. After the first card reaches the Providing Service state. the PCU starts the configuration alignment. 6. 116 A30808-X3247-L24-5-7618 . and then the PCU object.2. 6. when the user creates a PCU object instance.

it can handle up to 128 GPRS channels (PDCHs). This data flow is divided in two data rates of 1 Mbit/s each one: 1. as a consequence. Each PPLD board can manage up to 8 LAPD channels. i. Each Packet Control Unit is able to handle at most a data rate of 2 Mbit/s. so. a data rate of 1 Mbit/s towards the Abis interface. For each BSC.e. see "7 Gb Interface"). it is possible to configure up to 150 cells and. and the number of configurable LAPD channels is 48. the number of PPLD boards decreases to 6. When only one PCU is created. reducing the signalling capability of the BSC. a data rate of 1 Mbit/s towards the Gb interface. When the standard BSC is fully equipped with two PCUs. when both the PCU instances are created.. this flow allows the management of the Gb interface at most 16 Frame Relay Links (64 kbit/s each one. 112 LAPD channels are available in the BSS. i EGPRS is not supported by the standard BSC due to its low capacity in terms of PDTs. When some PPLD boards are removed to introduce PPCU boards. this flow allows the management of the Abis interface at most 64 GPRS channels (16 kbit/s each one).Information System GPRS/EGPRS Global Description PCU instance PCU:0 PPLDs to be removed PPLD:11 PPLD:12 PPLD:13 PPLD:14 PCU:1 PPLD:7 PPLD:8 PPLD:9 PPLD:10 Tab. 64 PDTs. up to 150 PTPPKF object instances. A30808-X3247-L24-5-7618 117 . when 14 PPLD boards are used. 2. 6. and the number of configurable LAPD channels is 80.2 PPLD Boards to Be Removed according to the PCU Object Instance. the number of PPLD boards becomes 10. the number of LAPD channels decreases.

2 High Capacity BSC with the Old Rack Using the same rack of the previous releases.e. as PPXU or PPXL. the switching matrix of the “standard” BSC).e. Fig.. the PPXX one) acts. from the functionality point of view. – PPXU boards to manage GPRS and EGPRS services. the SNAP card allows the interface of 48 lines at 8 Mbit/s coming from LICD and PPXX (double bandwidth in comparison with the SN16. it is possible to get a BSC with a higher capacity by changing some boards (see Fig. which can interface 24 lines).1. – PPXL boards to manage both LAPD and SS7L signalling. In order to get a High Capacity BSC using the traditional rack.3). 6.GPRS/EGPRS Global Description Information System 6. the following boards are used: • a new switching matrix board.3 View of the “High Capacity” BSC with the Traditional Rack...e. called SNAP. 118 A30808-X3247-L24-5-7618 . i It is important to underline that the hardware of both PPXLs and PPXUs is named PPXX. 6. depending on the slot position inside the BSC rack. In comparison with the SN16 (i. • new peripheral processor boards i. the same board (i.

when the SNAP switching matrix is used (high capacity BSC with the old rack). i A PPXU card is automatically created when the PCU object with the same instance is created.e the creation of the PCU:0 involves the creation of the PPXU:0.1 for PCU-0.e. The new switching matrix is introduced in the system through the handling of the NTWCARD attribute. Mixed configurations are not possible. which provides 8 lines at 8 Mbit/s towards PPXXs. i When the NTWCARD is set to NTWSN16. This is allowed by the SNAP switching matrix. the creation of the PCU:1 involves the creation of the PPXU:1. 6. – PCU:5. 6. without trade-off) both GPRS/EGPRS and LAPD channels.3 shows the correspondence between the boards of the “standard” BSC and those of the high capacity BSC from packet switched services point of view. this attribute can assume the values: – NTWSN16. Tab. Standard BSC (no GPRS) PPLD-3 PPLD-4 PPLD-5 PPLD-6 PPLD-7 PPLD-8 PPCU-2 PPXU-2 Standard BSC (full GPRS configuration) PPLD-3 PPLD-4 PPLD-5 PPLD-6 PPXU-1 PPXU-0 High capacity BSC Tab. a couple of PPCUs are created (PPCU 0. – PCU:1. In the high capacity BSC. – PCU:2. only the SNAP and the new PPXU and PPXL boards are allowed.3 for PCU-1).Information System GPRS/EGPRS Global Description This doubled number of lines increases independently (i. and the remaining six are used for PPXU boards (each PPXU board has its own 8 Mbit/s line). The PPXUs are all placed in the extended rack (as it is for the PPCUs). and so on. To handle packet switched services. six instances of the PCU object can be created: – PCU:0. Otherwise (if NTWCARD=NTWSN16). PPCU 2. when SN16 switching matrix is used (standard BSC). the BSC works with PPCC. The creation of one PCU object implies the consequent creation of one PPXU board: i. – PCU:4. Two lines are used for handling LAPD and SS7 level 2 signalling protocols with the new PPXL boards. to get more GPRS/EGPRS channels it has been necessary to increase the number of boards assigned to packet switched functionality and to increase also their capability. – NTWSNAP. if NTWCARD= NTWSNAP.. – PCU:3.3 Correspondence between the Boards of the Two Types of BSC A30808-X3247-L24-5-7618 119 . When the attribute value is NTWSNAP. PPLD and PPCU boards.

e. is able to handle at most a data rate of 8 Mbit/s. if either GPRS CS3 and CS4 coding schemes. The redundancy schema used is called “load balancing”: with this schema all six boards are simultaneously in service and the packet switched traffic is distributed among all six boards (see "8 Load Control for Packet Switched Services"). Each PPXU board and. each PCU can handle up to 256 PDTs. as a consequence. or EGPRS coding schemes are used.3 Correspondence between the Boards of the Two Types of BSC Since each PPXU is connected to the SNAP matrix by an 8 Mbit/s line.GPRS/EGPRS Global Description Information System Standard BSC (no GPRS) PPLD-9 PPLD-10 PPLD-11 PPLD-12 PPLD-13 PPLD-14 Standard BSC (full GPRS configuration) PPCU-3 High capacity BSC PPXU-3 PPXU-4 PPCU-1 PPXU-5 PPCU-0 Tab. each PPXU board. This data rate of 8 Mbit/s is split into 128 time slots of 64 kbit/s each. a data rate constituted of 64 time slots of 64 kbit/s towards the Abis interface. and as a consequence each PCU. a data rate constituted of 63 time slots of 64 kbit/s towards the Gb interface. 120 A30808-X3247-L24-5-7618 . 2. this flow allows the management of the Abis interface at most 64 X 4 = 256 GPRS/EGPRS channels (16 kbit/s each one). When the BSC is fully equipped with six PCUs. this means that 1+1 redundancy (used in the standard BSC) is no longer possible and a different redundancy schema is provided. 5 boards (i. With the high capacity BSC it is possible to configure up to 250 cells and. 256 PDTs do not strictly correspond to 256 PDCHs. this implies that each board will normally work in relax (the required real time traffic can be spread over 6 boards instead of 5). This data flow is divided into two data rates: 1. i. it can handle up to 1536 PDTs (256 X 6) and 378 Frame Relay Links (63 X 6). see "7 Gb Interface"). 256 PDTs i Please remember that. the number of handled PDTs becomes 1280 (256 X 5). then 127 timeslots can be used effectively. this flow allows the management of the Gb interface at most 63 Frame Relay Links (64 kbit/s each one. 1280/256 boards) have to be considered in service simultaneously. Since one of these time slots is used to transmit the CRC related to the others. up to 250 PTPPKF object instances.. to reach 1280 PDTs (that is the number of packet switched resources provided by the high capacity BSC).. 6. If the 6th board is used for redundancy purposes.e. as a consequence.

Regarding PPXU boards. PPXL boards already present in the high capacity BSC with the old rack. this includes the increase from 9 to 10 of the LICD number. then the old rack is still used but in this case only the SNAP matrix and new PPXU and PPXL boards are allowed. If the user wants to use the new BSC rack. to cope with the increased heat generated by the BSC.1 “Standard” BSC" and "6. directly fed by the 48 V.1. When the BSC is fully equipped with twelve PCUs. As previously described (see "6.e. With respect to the old rack. the BSC is made by the old rack and it works with SN16. the redundancy schema is always the “load balancing” one: all the twelve boards are simultaneously in service and the packet switched traffic is distributed among all the twelve boards (see "8 Load Control for Packet Switched Services"). the NTWCARD attribute allows specification of the BSC type. the following additional changes are introduced: • the 2 EPWR (power supply devices in the expansion module) are removed to make room for PPXU and STLP.2 High Capacity BSC with the Old Rack"). If the 12th board is used for redundancy purposes. if either GPRS CS3 and CS4 coding schemes. or EGPRS coding schemes are used. as a consequence. • sense points in the new board CPEX for monitoring the fan alarms have been introduced. • on the top of the BSC.1. • new rack configuration and back plane: this will allow doubling the number of used PPXU (PPXX supporting GPRS/EGPRS) from 6 to 12. For this reason. With the high capacity BSC it is possible to configure up to 400 cells and.4 shows the high capacity BSC with the new rack. A30808-X3247-L24-5-7618 121 . the number of handled PDTs becomes 2816 (256 X 11). the STLP. the PPXX and the STLP are provided with an internal power supply.1. i. 6.2 High Capacity BSC with the Old Rack". In order to achieve these goals. and from 4 to 6 of the circuit number of LICD on which a PCM line can be created. 756 PDTs do not strictly correspond to 756 PDCHs. one more card than QTLPs equipped in the old rack. with new STLP boards (and obviously also with SNAP and PPXU/PPXL boards). which is used in place of the QTLP in the new rack. these boards have the same characteristics already described in "6.1. • support of 12 PCUs and PPXUs.3 High Capacity BSC with the New Rack The current release foresees a new BSC rack to get a new BSC with high capacity. this implies that each board will normally work in relax (the required real time traffic can be spread over 12 boards instead of 11). he must set the NTWCARD attribute equal to the NTWSNAP_STLP value. the new BSC rack provides the following innovations: • support to the new line interface card. PPCC. if the attribute value is NTWSNAP. it will also allow housing 10+2 STLP. a box containing 6 fans has been introduced. powered by the 48 V. up to 400 PTPPKF object instances. The new rack contains the SNAP matrix and new PPXU. • new fan box for heat dissipation. In fact if NTWCARD is set to NTWSN16. PPLD and PPCU boards. it can handle up to 3072 GPRS/EGPRS PDTs (256 X 12) and 756 Frame Relay Links (63 X 12).Information System GPRS/EGPRS Global Description 6. i Please remember that.. Fig.

GPRS/EGPRS Global Description Information System Fig.4 PPCU and PPXU Redundancy and Configuration Rules As previously described.1. In this case the 1+1 redundancy is no longer possible and a different redundancy schema called “load balancing” is provided (see 6. with the standard BSC two boards are deputed to manage GPRS service: they are named PPCU. No dynamic data is present on the spare board so the redundancy schema is defined.4 High Capacity BSC with the New Rack 6.1. in BSC terminology. For safety reasons both boards have a spare copy.1.2 and 6.3) 122 A30808-X3247-L24-5-7618 . 6. The creation of one PCU object implies the consequent creation of the two related PPCU boards (active and standby). six or twelve boards are deputed to manage GPRS and EGPRS services: they are named PPXU. When the high capacity BSCs are used. as cold standby.

if a couple of PPCU boards fails (i. – when the active PPCU board fails. some GSM-CUs can be replaced by E-CUs at any arbitrary CU rack position. This behavior also regards the PPCUs even if they use the cold stand-by redundancy.Information System GPRS/EGPRS Global Description It has been described that: • the standard BSC can manage up to 150 GPRS cells. when the user creates a PTPPKF object instance. speaking about GPRS and EGPRS services. the following solutions are available: 1. the cells served by it are dynamically distributed among the other PCUs. but. he does not have to assign the GPRS (or EGPRS) cell to a specific PCU. different solution can be adopted according to the operator’s needs. that is used to distribute and redistribute the GPRS/EGPRS cells of one BSC among the available PCUs. HSCSD and GPRS (with all its coding schemes) services. the system assigns it to one of the two PCUs (the less busy).. The E-CU hardware is able to handle: – GSM... • the high capacity BSC with old rack can manage up to 400 GPRS/EGPRS cells. all the GPRS/EGPRS traffic of the PCU will be managed by the other couple of PPCU boards (i.e. as it has been said. during PTPPKF creation. the stand-by one will replace the damaged one (according to stand-by redundancy). – when a PCU becomes unavailable. To implement EGPRS. BTS equipment supporting CS1 and CS2 coding schemes only 3. • the high capacity BSC with old rack can manage up to 250 GPRS/EGPRS cells. BTS equipment supporting EDGE and all GPRS coding schemes 2. so the user can configure up to 400 PTPPKF object instances.e. is described in "8 Load Control for Packet Switched Services" chapter. if a PCU becomes unavailable). In fact. but it is the system that assigns the cell dynamically to one of the available PCUs. existing BTSplus sites must be upgraded with EDGE capable carrier units (E-CU) featuring the new 8-PSK modulation technique. so the user can configure only up to 150 PTPPKF object instances. the requirements are the following: A30808-X3247-L24-5-7618 123 . This behavior. In fact. using the standard BSC: – when a new cell is created. i.2 BTS Equipment Supporting GPRS and EGPRS Regarding BTS equipment. the system assigns it to a PCU (the less busy one). different kind of features are provided according to the equipment used. the upgrade is only supported for BTSE types belonging to the BTSplus generation. by the other PCU) according to the load balancing criteria (as it happens in the high capacity BSC). An important thing to be underlined (for all the BSC types) is that when the user configures a cell to be used for packet switched services. mixed configurations with CUs and E-CUs as well as configurations with E-CUs only are possible. 6. To introduce EDGE into the network. is a direct consequence of the load balancing redundancy of the PPXUs: – when a new cell is created. Regarding GPRS coding schemes. BTS equipment supporting GPRS CS3 and CS4 but not EDGE EDGE support is limited to the BTSplus platform. so the user can configure up to 250 PTPPKF object instances. – enhanced GPRS service (EGPRS).e. The algorithm.

for GPRS CS3/CS4 or EGPRS.4 shows how packet switched services can be mapped in 16 kbit/s. or N*16 kbit/s Abis resources (per radio timeslot). The Flexible Abis allocation strategy (Dynamic Allocation) is a general strategy used to handle the Abis resources in a flexible way. which is based on a single 16 kbit/s slot. the flexible Abis allocation strategy must be coupled with the management of up to 4 Abis PCM lines per BTS. from one to up to five 16 kbit/s Abis subslots (16 kbit/s each one). picoBTS and enhanced micro BTS. the flexible Abis allocation strategy adapts the Abis capacity to the required air interface capacity (in cases of Link Adaptation/new TBF establishments/old TBF releases).GPRS/EGPRS Global Description Information System • • BTS1 base stations support GPRS CS3/CS4 coding schemes. and the EDGE feature also have big impacts on the existing Abis interface. BTS+. Then. in cases where the higher coding schemes (CS3/CS4) are enabled. With the dynamic Abis allocation. BTS1. which must be modified: • the Abis configuration of standard PCU frames (used for GPRS CS1/CS2 coding schemes). e-microBTS. picoBTS. the following equipment support the flexible Abis allocation strategy: • all the possible BSC configurations (standard BSC and high capacity BSCs.5 Link Adaptation"). 6. support GPRS CS3/CS4 coding schemes (also if a mixed configuration of GSM-CU and EDGE-CU boards is present). as well as the GPRS data. in a flexible way. Note that the flexible Abis allocation strategy is a slow process compared to GPRS/EGPRS Link Adaptation (see "10. • in cases where the capacity of each air interface timeslot can vary during runtime. The introduction of CS3 and CS4 coding schemes for GPRS. • the BTSplus mainline with GSM-CU and EDGE-CU. The EGPRS data is submitted via "concatenated PCU frames" (see 6. is not sufficient and does not manage the transport of high data rates per air timeslot exploited by GPRS CS3/CS4 coding schemes and EGPRS. the number of Abis subslots that can be associated to a radio timeslot depends on the service type.1).3 Note that it is up to the operator to ensure the consistency between software configuration and BTS hardware. and all EDGE coding schemes requiring more than 16 kbit/s Abis throughput for specific radio channels. • the total Abis capacity per BTS increases with the introduction of higher data rates at the Um interface.1 Supported BSC Types"). i 6. PCU Frames and Dynamic Allocation on the Abis Interface This chapter describes the distribution of GPRS/EGPRS traffic channels on the Abis interface. Hence the flexible Abis allocation strategy provides the opportunity to assign to each air interface timeslot. Tab. From the hardware platforms point of view. see"6. A flexible Abis allocation strategy is necessary to support GPRS CS3-CS4 coding schemes. hence the two processes must be synchronized.3. 124 A30808-X3247-L24-5-7618 .

It must be clear that: • flexible abis allocation means that the association between radio timeslots and Abis timeslots is performed by radio signalling procedures. – unused capacity of an air interface timeslot can be released in the Abis interface and exploited by other air interface timeslots. These timeslots will be used to transfer information between the BTSM and the BSC. in the BSC database. the static allocation between radio and Abis channels is performed by the system (BSC) at configuration time. considering: – a discussion about concatenated PCU frames (see 6.1). To simplify the configuration procedures. – EGPRS and GPRS Link Adaptation can be performed during runtime without loss of service. 6. stored into BSC database and signalled to BTSM by O&M signalling procedures.3. the different topics related to this feature are discussed. A30808-X3247-L24-5-7618 125 . – it is possible to reach a data rate up to about 60 kbit/s per packet data channel (PDCH) on the Abis interface.2). • static abis allocation means that the association between radio timeslots and Abis timeslots is performed during O&M procedures. In the following.3. – hardware supporting flexible Abis allocation and concatenated PCU frames (see 6. the flexible Abis allocation strategy is managed by two different processes: 1. carriers and even between different cells of the same base station site. There is not a fixed one-to-one (1 x 16 kbit/s) or one-to-two (2 x 16 kbit/s) association from air interface timeslots to Abis subslots.Information System GPRS/EGPRS Global Description 16 kbit/s GPRS channels supporting CS1 and CS2 only N x 16 kbit/s EGPRS (up to 5x16 kbit/s) GPRS channels supporting CS3/CS4 (up to 2x16 kbit/s) Tab. 2. according to service priorities and QoS constraints. the operator commands used to configure both “flexible” and “static” allocations for a BTSM are the same. then these Abis resources are shared between different timeslots.4Mapping of Services onto Abis Resources The flexible Abis allocation strategy coupled with the concept of concatenated PCU frames gives the operator the following advantages: – the Abis interface handling is more efficient: a common pool of Abis timeslots is associated to a BTSM. – release bandwidth in case of congestion. harmonizing the O&M management of “flexible” and “static” BTSM. Generally speaking. The Abis allocation algorithm is able to: – assign sufficient Abis bandwidth to an air interface timeslot during run time. the first task is the configuration one: the operator can assign to every BTSM a pool of Abis timeslots. i The traditional Static Abis management is kept for backward compatibility with the previous releases. In cases of “static” BTSM. the second task relies on the flexible allocation and release of resources taken from the Abis pool. The association is fixed during runtime and can only be changed via O&M reconfiguration.

MCS9) – GPRS Step II (CS3/CS4 data rates) – GPRS Step I (CS1/CS2 data rates) Concatenated PCU frames require partially more bandwidth (e.3. see Tab. which allow a maximum chain of up to 32 concatenated PCU subframes (see Fig..g. The SFC is coded by 5 bits.5)..2 and Tab. whereas to transmit voice traffic. algorithms regarding flexible Abis allocation (see 6. 6. which can be used in the future.3).GPRS/EGPRS Global Description Information System – – configuration of the Abis interface (see 6. The subframes contain an index ranging from 1 to 5 called Sub-Frame-Counter (SFC) plus several control parameters and spares. The receiving side (either PCU in uplink or BTS in downlink direction) is able to reassemble the subframes to achieve the original complete RLC/MAC block. This higher bandwidth is achieved by concatenating several 16 kbit/s subframes (1 up to maximum 5 EDGE subframes).3): 126 A30808-X3247-L24-5-7618 . the similar TRAU frames are used. At the moment.…. a PDCH with a MCS9 TBF on it requires 16 kbit/s*5 = 80 kbit/s. 4. for each coding scheme of GPRS/EGPRS services. 6.3. In total. The Sub-Frame-Counter (SFC) indicates the sub-frame number and provides the sequence order of the 16 kbit/s channels.5 Fundamental Principle of Concatenated PCU Frames Concatenated PCU frames transport. Concatenated PCU can handle: – EGPRS (MCS1. 64 kbit/s and even 80 kbit/s) than the current 16 kbit/s ones. the following number of bits.4).1 Concatenated PCU Frames The PCU frame is used to transmit packet data traffic on the Abis interface. 48 kbit/s. A PDCH with multiplexed EDGE and GPRS TBFs requires an Abis allocation due to the highest used coding scheme. 6. with 32 kbit/s. in the downlink and in the uplink direction respectively (that represents the size of the transmitted RLC/MAC Block. 4. 5 subframes (instead of 4) are necessary for 60 kbit/s MCS8/MCS9 because of the huge in band signaling overhead.3. SFC=00000 MCS/CS SFC=00001 SFC=00010 SFC=000100 Data Data 1st Subframe Following Subframes Last Subframe Fig.

. which is outlined in the control bits of the first subframe..Information System GPRS/EGPRS Global Description Coding scheme CS1 CS2 CS3 CS4 MCS1 MCS2 MCS3 MCS4 MCS5 MCS6 MCS7 MCS8 MCS9 Tab. Multiplexing of GPRS and EGPRS mobile stations is also possible if concatenated PCU frames are used in both cases (i.. 6..5 Number of bits transmitted in DL/UL (corresponding to the total size of the RLC/MAC block) 184 271 315 431 209 257 329 385 478/487 622/631 940/946 1132/1138 1228/1234 The useful payload part of the concatenated PCU frames is filled as follows: • GPRS: Block Header. A30808-X3247-L24-5-7618 127 . • EGPRS MCS1.e. The n*16 kbit/s subframes of an air interface timeslot are arbitrarily distributed over PCM 24/30 Abis lines: they are not necessarily allocated a block of subsequent Abis subslots.9: Block Header. FBI/TI.. Data • EGPRS MCS7. Data 2nd part Header Check Sequences (HCS). FBI/TI. due to the selected Coding Scheme. MSs using different coding schemes can be multiplexed on the same timeslots (PDCH) on the air interface. E. The subframes can be completely disordered on the PCM lines of the BTSM as long as they are within the defined pool of the BTSM.. Block Check Sequences (BCS) and Tail Bits are added by the BTS coder.. The BTS and the BSC know how many Abis subslot are allocated to an air interface channel and both know which PCU subframe with which SFC is mapped on each 16 kbit/s Abis subslot. Hence. That means: in cases of multiplexing several TBFs on the same PDCH. the mapping of the radio block payload to the PCU frame data bits is given and it is also clear which PCU frame data bits must be filled with the pattern and which (maybe) are idle. which is of course possible. FBI/TI.6: Block Header. for this PDCH.. Data 1st part. E. all TBFs have PCU frames with the same SFC on a specific Abis subslot. Data. on the same timeslot it is not possible to multiplex users which are exploiting new concatenated PCU frames and others working with the standard PCU frames). They do not have to guarantee any ordered sequence in ascending way due to increasing SFC.. E.

g. In cases of a coding scheme. FBI 124 Data Bits 272 Data Bits 196 Data Bits 76 bits (11111. 6.6 has a payload of maximum 216 bits.. the shape of the first subframe and the other consecutive subframes is a little bit different... These idle subframes are based on the coding of the additional subframes.. those completely unused subframes are idle subframes also filled with the bit pattern 111111. . Although all subframes have an equal size of 40 Octets = 320 bit (16 kbit/s bit rate). for a given PDCH.. all allocated TBFs use the same Abis subslots for concatenated PCU frames with the same SFC.11) Filling Pattern SFC=00010 SFC=00011 SFC=00100 40 Bits RLC/MAC Header (incl. e. 6. the first subframe in Fig. all others can carry up to 272 bit. the rest in the last data subframe are filled with a predefined bit pattern. USF) 2 bits E... Concatenated PCU Frames SFC=00000 216 bits 174 Data Bits SFC=00001 272 bits 272 Data Bits 146 Data Bits 2 bits E..GPRS/EGPRS Global Description Information System But. Fig. as it has been said. 11111111.6 Abis Mapping for a downlink MCS9 radio block requiring 5 Abis subslots 128 A30808-X3247-L24-5-7618 . which requires less subframes than the PDCH has allocated. 6. FBI 1st RLC Data Block 2nd RLC Data Block Fig.. As soon as a selected coding scheme requires less than the full number of data bits.6 shows an example of the Abis mapping for a DL MCS9 radio block requiring 5 Abis subslots..

MSs using MCSs lower than MCS9 have some idle PCU frames with a filling pattern (e.. 9) configuration. standard or high capacity BSC). Another case in which idle PCU-sub-frames are used to fill up the allocated Abis capacity is when a Link Adaptation of a TBF to a lower data rates occurs (i. Standard PCU frames are used whenever the BTS does not support concatenated ones (see "6. 1111111. the release of allocated Abis capacity is not executed immediately. dynamic Abis allocation does not imply “concatenated PCU frame” usage in packet flows.3. 6. in fact dynamic Abis allocation does not imply the usage of concatenated PCU frames..2 Hardware supporting Flexible Abis Allocation and Concatenated PCU Frames As it has been described. whether they need it or not. due to the requirement that all TBFs on a particular PDCH occupy the same Abis capacity. The “unused” Abis capacity is filled with idle PCU sub-frames with filling pattern.e..g.. i Standard PCU frames can be still used even combined with the flexible Abis allocation strategy.).2 Hardware supporting Flexible Abis Allocation and Concatenated PCU Frames"). 6.3..7 and Fig. Fig. in this case.. A30808-X3247-L24-5-7618 129 . in order to extend all the concatenated PCU frames to the same MCS-j (j=1. Let us consider an Abis channel that is allocated for a maximum bandwidth for a MS using MCS9.Information System GPRS/EGPRS Global Description Since users multiplexed on the same PDCH can not use a different number of PCU subframes on Abis.. because to reduce signalling overhead. depending on the BTSE type and on the BSC type (i. MCS9/MCS6.e. 6. idle PCU subframes with filling patterns are used on the Abis subslots not carrying data payload..8 show the relationship among standard/concatenated PCU frames and flexible/static Abis allocation. because of the impossibility of the air interface to maintain MCS9 with good quality).

CS1.Only Standard PCU frames supported .. Concatenated PCU frames BTS1 with BBSIG44.. 6.CS4 supported . E-microBTS II .8 Standard BSC: Relationship between PCU Frames and Abis Allocation according to the BTSE Type 130 A30808-X3247-L24-5-7618 .Standard/Concatenated PCU frames supported . 6..Dynamic Abis allocation supported Standard PCU frames Dynamic Abis allocation BTS1 without BBSIG44 ..CS4 supported . E-microBTS .Standard/Concatenated PCU frames supported .CS4 supported . E-microBTS .Only CS1 and CS2 supported .7 High Capacity BSC: Relationship between PCU Frames and Abis Allocation according to the BTSE Type BTSplus. E-microBTS II .Dynamic Abis allocation supported Standard PCU frames Fig..Dynamic Abis allocation supported Concatenated PCU frames Dynamic Abis allocation BTS1 without BBSIG44 .Dynamic Abis allocation supported Standard PCU frames Fig.MCS9 supported on EDGE carriers -Dynamic Abis allocation supported High Capacity BSC Both standard and concatenated PCU frames are supported.CS4 supported .. picoBTS.Standard/Concatenated PCU frames supported .CS1..GPRS/EGPRS Global Description Information System BTSplus..CS1....MCS1.CS1.MCS9 supported on EDGE carriers -Dynamic Abis allocation supported Standard BSC Only standard PCU frames are supported.Only Standard PCU frames supported .Only CS1 and CS2 supported . picoBTS..Standard/Concatenated PCU frames supported .MCS1. Standard PCU frames BTS1 with BBSIG44.

9 gives such an example.Information System GPRS/EGPRS Global Description The following considerations can be done: – standard PCU frames are used whenever GPRS CS3/CS4 and EDGE are not supported. – concatenated PCU frames are used whenever EDGE and/or CS3 and CS4 (more than 16 kbit/s per radio timeslot) are supported. decreasing to 64 PDCHs in case of CS3/CS4). – in all the previous cases. The BSC software is backward compatible and it is able to handle BTSs running with old software releases.Only CS1 and CS2 supported . The only difference is that in cases of “static” BTSM. GPRS CS3/CS4 and EGPRS are not supported. and standard PCU frames are always used. BSC Hardware Software Release supporting Dynamic Allocation All BTS Hardware with Static Abis Software Release . – operator commands for a release supporting the flexible Abis allocation strategy have a “backward compatible” meaning and management (Abis pool definition is internally handled in a “static” way for “old” BTS software releases). In this case only GPRS CS1/CS2 radio channels are supported (GPRS CS3/CS4 or EGPRS capabilities cannot be configured).9 BSC handling of BTS Equipment with Software Releases not supporting the Abis Dynamic Allocation 6. – GPRS CS3/CS4 and EGPRS are not supported on “standard” BSC.3. when BTSs with old software releases are connected to a BSC with a release supporting the flexible Abis allocation strategy. the procedures used to configure both “flexible” and “static” allocations for a BTSM. are the same. 128 PDCHs. the static allocation between radio and Abis channels is performed by the system A30808-X3247-L24-5-7618 131 . Fig.Only Static Abis allocation supported Dynamic Abis allocation Standard PCU frames Static Abis allocation Fig. 6.Only Standard PCU frames supported . – the BSC is able to reject operator commands not compatible with “old” BTS software releases. There are not any problems handling such kind of situations since: – static allocation and standard PCU frame format are implemented on BSC. 6.3 Configuration of the Abis Interface As it has been described. due to its “low” GPRS capacity (max. in this case. supporting only static Abis allocation. the mapping between radio timeslots and Abis timeslots is dynamic (at channel activation).

In cases of GPRS and EGPRS. The “subpool” concept is necessary for O&M purposes. As a consequence. This is an operator constraint. 132 A30808-X3247-L24-5-7618 . can be defined on the same PCMB line. to the LPDLMs related to the BTSM). the slot [1. to the same BTSM) by the ASSLAPD parameter.. One more time it must be noted that: – in cases of BTS supporting dynamic Abis allocation. all the concepts explained below. linking them to the same LPDLM instance (i. the Abis Subpool is a set of 16 kbit/s Abis subslots belonging to a single PCMB line. through the ASSLAPD.. routed together with the LPDLM instance (previously associated to the BTSM) configured on the same PCMB line. the Abis Pool is the amount of 16 kbit/s Abis subslots reserved to the BTSM for traffic services (i. So. Abis subslots are selected from the Abis Pool and statically allocated to radio channels by O&M procedures. The SUBTSLB object indicates one subslot of a PCMB line. specifying the PCMB instance. multidrop with/without cross connections) and also for cross connectors external to the BSS network elements. and the subslot number [0. to manage a correct fault propagation from LPDLM to Abis resources..3]. the user to connect the BSC to a specific BTSM can create a certain number of subpools that will contain a specific number of timeslots of the Abis interface. – in cases of static Abis allocation. are valid. Abis subslots are selected from the Abis pool and allocated to radio channels at channel activation. So. i Remember that a BTSM can be connected to the BSC by. To configure an Abis subpool the SUBTSLB object is used. To manage the Abis allocations two concepts are introduced: the Abis Subpool and the Abis Pool.. the relationship between radio channels and Abis subslots is sent to the BTS by O&M Abis signalling (at radio channel creation). The number of Abis subslots to be statically associated to the air timeslot is always 1 for BTSs running with old SW releases. and each line must contain at least one LPDLM related to the BTSM. – ASSLAPD (Associated Lapd): it indicates the LPDLM instance (and as a consequence the BTSM) that is related to this subslot. at most.e. the user must create more instances of the SUBTSLB object. four PCMB lines. Abis pools and subpools have the following properties and features: • different Abis subpools. Referring to a specific BTSM.e.31] of the selected line. belonging to the same or different Abis pools. when creating a SUBTSLB instance the user must specify the following attributes: – NAME: it indicates the subslots of a PCMB line. over different PCM lines and it is not necessary at all to guarantee that the subslots neighbor each other. for both “flexible” and “static” Abis allocations. valid for all kind of BSS configuration (star. • subpools can be distributed over all connected PCMB lines of a BTSM (at least one subpool per line). changes of the Abis resources assigned to an air interface timeslot are possible during TBF-operation via the channel modification command. • the Abis subslots allocated to a radio channel may be distributed over different subpools. configured on different PCMB lines and associated. it is the amount of SUBTSLB instances. loop. to create on a PCMB line a subpool for a specific BTSM.GPRS/EGPRS Global Description Information System (BSC) at configuration time. Referring to a BTSM. unless differently stated.

Information System GPRS/EGPRS Global Description • overlaps between different pools and subpools are forbidden. Abis subslots are selected from the pool and allocated to radio channels by O&M procedures.3. such that in cases of multiplexing several GPRS/EGPRS TBFs on the same PDCH. For each allocated Abis subslot. But each Abis subslot of a Radio Channel is coupled with a specific SFC. Changes of the Abis resources assigned to a PDCH are also possible during TBF operations by the MODIFY ABIS CHANNEL message. All PCU frames with the same SFC must be transported with the same 16 kbit/s Abis subslot. – 5 Abis subslots in case of MCS8/MCS9 coding schemes. The 16 kbit/s Abis subslots. the initial Abis assignment can be changed dynamically during operation due to: – radio propagation conditions of the channels (Link Adaptation. which are assigned to a Radio Channel (PDCH). – 2 Abis subslots in case of CS2 (using concatenated PCU frames) CS3/CS4 and MCS2/MCS3/MCS4/MCS5 coding schemes. for each radio channel of a cell. i In cases of static Abis allocation. CS2 (using standard PCU frames) and MCS1 coding schemes. – pre-emption of circuit switched services over packet switched services (see "5. Dynamic Abis allocation consists of the selection. A30808-X3247-L24-5-7618 133 . default applicable coding scheme. then the BSC informs the BTS by the CHANNEL ACTIVATION message. the BSC call processing (TDPC) handles dynamically GPRS/EGPRS PDCHs which could require: – 1 Abis subslot in case of CS1. PCU resources actual availability. Abis resources actual availability.2 Pre-emption of PDT Resources"). 6. this selection is executed by the BSC during the channel activation procedure. In cases of GPRS/EGPRS services. the PCU subframes belonging to a specific PDCH (or air interface timeslot) can be distributed via all available Abis subpools. As far as possible.3. the number of Abis resources actually allocated at service setup depends on several factors: required peak throughput. predetermined way. related to the list of BTS (cells) fed by the pool. the radio channel/Abis subslot relationship is sent to the BTS by O&M Abis signalling. of one or more idle and in service Abis subslots.6. belonging to the pool associated to the BTSM that contains the cell. The Abis pools are present on TDPC database. – 4 Abis subslots in case of MCS7 coding scheme. the data of each TBF is transported in a fixed. In cases of packet switched services. can be located arbitrarily at the Abis pool/subpools and must not obey any rules due to increasing or decreasing subframe counter (SFC). one PDT is allocated.4 Algorithms Regarding Flexible Abis Allocation Regarding packet switched services. Abis idle lists are built and updated according to the O&M operator commands issued on the SUBTSLB object. – 3 Abis subslots in case of MCS6 coding scheme. even if the subpools are located on different PCMB lines.5). So. The Abis subslots allocated to the same radio channel may be distributed over different PCMB lines and it is not necessary at all to guarantee that the subslots are adjacent to each other. see 10. the Abis subslots for the same PDCH are selected from the same PCMB.

b) if there is an upgrading capacity. then the Abis subslots are aligned and finally the coding scheme of the TBF(s) can be switched. As it has been said.GPRS/EGPRS Global Description Information System The pool is managed with a “soft boundary policy”. the BTS connects the indicated Abis resources with the Air interface timeslot. the BTS connects the concatenated PCU frames depending on their SFC with the particular Abis channel(s). Furthermore. however that superfluous Abis resources are not immediately released. After having received the CHANNEL ACTIVATION message.as a parameter the list of Abis subslots and their corresponding subframe counters (SFC). then the Abis capacity is changed by the MODIFY ABIS CHANNEL message. In the following sections the two case are discussed. All the cells belonging to the same BTSM share the same Abis pool. MODIFY ABIS CHANNEL Message If a GPRS/EGPRS channel changes its properties (e. This process is possible only if enough Abis capacity is free in the Abis pool and if enough PCU resources are available. 134 A30808-X3247-L24-5-7618 . information on the SFC numeration is given too. otherwise it sends the CHANNEL ACTIVATION NACK. It is not allowed to modify the SFC to an already allocated Abis subslot. each cell may pick up Abis resources from the pool as long as the ‘guaranteed minimum’ is left at the other cells’ disposal. – the MODIFY ABIS CHANNEL message. The operator can set the guaranteed minimum number of subslots per cell by the GUARMABIS parameter (BTS object). it must be clear that a MODIFY ABIS CHANNEL deletes the subframes with the highest SFCs in cases of downgrading and adds subframes with adjacent higher SFCs in case of upgrading. the used coding scheme must be changed). The CHANNEL ACTIVATION message contains the following additional information: • a list of 16 kbit/s Abis subslots assigned to the air interface timeslot. • the PCU frame format type: it can be standard or concatenated. timeslot) and Abis resources (subslots from the Abis pool) are included in the CHANNEL ACTIVATION message sent from the BSC to the BTS.just like the CHANNEL ACTIVATION message . The MODIFY ABIS CHANNEL message must submit . according to link adaptation procedure.g. CHANNEL ACTIVATION Message Both air interface (carrier. the BSC informs the BTS about the Air timeslots/Abis subslots relationship by two messages: – the CHANNEL ACTIVATION message. unused PCU/Abis resources are released after a given amount of time. first the Abis capacity is changed by the MODIFY ABIS CHANNEL message. If the CHANNEL ACTIVATION message activates a GPRS or EGPRS PDCH. first the coding scheme of (all) TBFs on the PDCH is adapted by PCU RLC/MAC signalling messages. which guarantees a minimum percentage of Abis subslots for each cell. If the activation is successful. when a new PDCH is set up. in cases of multiple Abis subslots. the BTS sends CHANNEL ACTIVATION ACK to the BSC. It must be guaranteed that the lists within CHANNEL ACTIVATION and MODIFY ABIS CHANNEL are equal besides the changes which are made. when for one or more already assigned PDCHs a different number of Abis subslots is needed. the following sequence must be respected in Abis Allocation and coding scheme change: a) if there is a downgrading capacity.

A30808-X3247-L24-5-7618 135 . it is convenient to use GPRS/EGPRS PCCCHs as soon as packet switched traffic increases beyond a certain threshold. additional BTSs or a BSC may be deployed to support higher traffic loads and/or a larger geographical area. so that GPRS/EGPRS common control signalling packets access a CCCH following its mapping rules. To avoid packet switched signalling load on traditional CCCHs.4.10): a) Dedicated CCCH: PCCCH is mapped in the multiframe of a Packet Data Channel (PDCH). This mechanism is mandatory. the common control signalling is carried in a logical channel dedicated to GPRS/EGPRS traffic. The main disadvantage of the satellite Abis configuration is that the remote locations relies heavily on the equipment located at the hub side so hand-offs and also eventual subscriber to subscriber calls must go over the satellite link increasing load and traffic. Besides the feature “AMR Link Adaptation” does not work together with the Abis Satellite link. 6. so that packet switched signalling traffic has no influence on normal signalling. and the overall traffic capacity is improved. 6. b) Shared CCCH: no dedicated control signalling channels exist for packet switched data services. Besides the value of the attribute: “nRLCMAX” (this attribute determines the number of the RLC data blocks before the Ack/Nack block is requested) of the PCU Managed Object has been changed from “20” to “15” for reducing the problem related to the Abis satellite’s delay.Information System GPRS/EGPRS Global Description The MODIFY ABIS CHANNEL message contains the following information: – the involved timeslot (specifying carrier and timeslot numbers).2) it has been described how it is possible to support GPRS/EGPRS common signalling either on already existing CCCHs (shared CCCHs) or on dedicated CCCHs (PCCCHs). The configuration’s parameters toghether with the related commands requested for the Abis over satellite links are described in the manual: “CML:BSC”. which could possibly support satellite connections to several remote locations. whenever a dedicated CCCH is not allocated. – the new list of 16 kbit/s Abis subslots assigned to the air interface timeslot. This attribute is not configurable. 6.5 Abis over satellite links The Abis interface is supported over satellite links. in this case. This transmission mode is the most common implementation and it is often used to extend the GSM and GPRS/EGPRS services to new locations with minimal infrastructure costs.4 Packet Switched Services Supported on CCCH/PCCCH In the previous chapters (see 4. For the reason that GSM traffic grows also at remote sites. These logical channels are mapped on different physical resources (see Fig.3. An existing MSC and BSC can be used. The satellite Abis configuration has the advantage that a minimal expense is requested for deploying the service.

10 Mapping of CCCH/PCCCH Channels on the Abis Interface. In both cases signalling messages are processed in the PCU. the messages are analyzed: GPRS/EGPRS related messages are written by TDPC via Telephonic Bus in the Dual Port RAM of the PPCU/PPXU. In the following sections a short description is given about the message handling which is implied by the described mechanisms (see Fig.GPRS/EGPRS Global Description Information System TDMA frame CCCH PCCCH PDCH PCMB line 0 LAPD 31 Fig. where they are processed. 136 A30808-X3247-L24-5-7618 . which is realized in BSC by means of PPCU/PPXU cards (Peripheral Processors for GPRS/EGPRS). The channel is routed via switching matrix to a PPLD where the LAPD protocol is processed. In the TDPC. The timeslot is routed via switching matrix directly to the PPCU/PPXU where the channel is processed. 6. where the PCCCH is mapped. 6. The extracted messages are read by TDPC via Telephonic Bus from the PPLD Dual Port RAM.11): a) Dedicated CCCH: messages are carried in a PCU frame on the 16 kbit/s timeslot related to the physical PDCH. b) Shared CCCH: messages are carried in the LAPD channel related to the BTSE.

6. On the other side shared CCCHs is supported in any case to provide the first access when no specific GPRS/EGPRS signalling channels are allocated.Information System GPRS/EGPRS Global Description Fig. A30808-X3247-L24-5-7618 137 . The advantages of the first method (dedicated CCCH) are straightforward: – on the air interface CCCH performances for normal GSM traffic are not reduced because of the packet switched data messaging.1 Mobile Stations for Packet Switched Services") attached to GPRS/EGPRS to listen to their circuit switched paging channel on CCCH. Shared CCCHs are the only way to allow Class B MSs (see "9.11 CCCH/PCCCH Message Handling. PPCU/PPXU and TDPC.3.1 Network Operation Modes for Paging").8. when the optional Gs interface between the MSC and the SGSN is not implemented (see "9. – the TDPC does not waste real time to route packet switched data messages toward PPCUs/PPXUs and to multiplex in LAPDs the messages received from the PPCUs – the Telephonic Bus is not loaded (twice) by the exchange of messages among PPLD. – on the Abis interface the capacity of the LAPD link is not shared between GSM and GPRS/EGPRS traffic.

1. The Gb interface is based on Frame Relay (FR) as specified in GSM 08. Fig. Several BSCs may be interfaced to one SGSN on the Gb interface. 7. where a single user has the only use of a dedicated physical resource throughout the lifetime of a call.GPRS/EGPRS Global Description Information System 7 Gb Interface The Gb interface connects the BSC to the SGSN.1 Gb Interface: Protocol Stack The several layers realize the following functions: • L1: it specifies the Layer 1 of the Gb interface. c) The Gb interface is supported also over satellite links. b) GPRS/EGPRS signalling and user data are sent in the same physical channel. Specific procedures for defining the multiple frame operation mode necessary for the transmission of the “I” frames have been implemented.. The transmission of information at application level is supported by UI frames (Unacknowledged information/Downlink-Unitdata). The main characteristics of the Gb interface are: a) The resources are given to a user upon activity (when data is sent or received) and they are reallocated immediately thereafter. No dedicated physical resources are required to be allocated for signalling purposes (like e. this is in contrast to the A interface. transferring signalling information and user data.In any case only the parameters defined in the specification: “Q933” can be configurable. but their values do not depend from data link/physical layer over satellite. 7. As a consequence of this the matter than the Gb interface can be suppported also by satellite links is not relevant. the A interface where SS7 links are used to transmit signalling between the BSC and the MSC). The “T200” and “k” attributes are not configurable by the user because they are not used. Frame Relay (FR) is used for GPRS/EGPRS in a first phase. • Network Service (NS): it performs transport of NS Service Data Units (SDU) between the SGSN and BSS.g. 138 A30808-X3247-L24-5-7618 .16. irrespective of activity. The protocol stack of the “Gb” interface is illustrated in the Fig.

PCM30. however error correction is not supported. The transport of both data and signalling is supported. IP or X. e. 2. User data is transported from a network layer protocol.1 Physical Layer Four types of configurations are possible to connect the BSC to the SGSN: 1.g.2. A30808-X3247-L24-5-7618 139 . Frames of different sizes may be transmitted. NUC through MSC. The NS layer of the Gb interface is split into a Network Service Control part and a Sub Network Service part. 4. 3. whereas the Sub-Network Service entity is the Frame Relay protocol. The different configurations are illustrated in Fig.. PCM24) between the two entities (static and permanent physical point to point connections).. BSSGP: the primary functions of the Base Station Subsystem GPRS protocol (BSSGP) are: – providing connection-less links between the SGSN and the BSS (layer 2 level). a direct line (e. SNDCP (SubNetwork Dependent Convergence Protocol): supports a direct peer to peer (i. Nailed Up Connection (NUC) through the MSC via a frame relay network.Information System GPRS/EGPRS Global Description • • • FR supports high data rate transmission with low delay.. 7. FR performs congestion control and error detection. 7. point-to-point) communication between a MS and a SGSN. an intermediate frame relay network. LLC (Logical Link Control layer): provides logical links between a MS and the corresponding SGSN.25. – providing tools for bi-directional control of data flow.e. without using an intermediate frame relay network. The Service Control part is independent from the physical realization of the network.g. – handling paging requests from the SGSN to the BSS.

32 PCMG lines are necessary: so this is the number of PCMG that is possible to configure at most when the new BSC rack is used. 24 lines are enough. but to the whole BSC. in order to completely exploit the bandwidth that 12 PPXUs offer toward the Gb interface (in total 756 time slots at 64 kbit/s). The following attributes are involved in PCMG configuration: 140 A30808-X3247-L24-5-7618 . also providing the possibility to have fault redundancy.3). Functional object PCMG Meaning Represents the direct physical connection between BSC and SGSN. up to two PCMG lines can be configured: – PCMG:0. the PCM line is not statically assigned to one PCU. The LICD circuit using QTLP V2 can be programmed in transparent mode and in this way we can connect 2 PCM lines to 1 LICD circuit. PCM lines are called PCMG. When the high capacity BSC with the old rack is used (see 6. can be handled (slot 0 is always use for synchronization purposes). 31 physical channels. without passing through the MSC. • in cases of connections through the MSC (and TRAU). The Gb interface is realized by PCM lines: • in cases of direct connections between the BSC and the SGSN. 7.1). The PCMG object represents the PCM line used to connect the BSC and the SGSN. PCMG Object Tab. 16 PCMG lines are necessary: so this is the number of PCMG that is possible to configure at most with this kind of BSC. while for the T1 lines (PCM24 mode).1. – PCMG:1.1 On the PCMG line. in order to completely exploit the bandwidth that the 6 PPXUs offer toward the Gb interface (in total 378 time slots at 64 kbit/s). In case of standard BSC (see 6. This line can be connected in one circuit of LICD without any restrictions. In fact in this case two PCMG lines are enough to handle the 32 X 64 kbit/s channels (16 channels for each PCU) that can be equipped toward the Gb interface.2 Different Connection Types between the BSC and the SGSN.2). an increase of the PCMG number is necessary.1.GPRS/EGPRS Global Description Information System Fig. each PCU can use all the PCMG lines configured for the BSC. an increase of the PCMG number is necessary. while for the T1 lines (PCM24 mode). When the high capacity BSC with the new rack is used (see 6. 12 lines are enough. of 64 kbit/s each one. As it has been described in "6 Hardware and Software Architecture". PCMA lines are used. each PCU manages the packet switched data traffic of a specific number of cells. For E1 lines (31 time slots). to transmit packet data (or signalling) related to these cells.1. In other words. For E1 lines (31 time slots). 7.

the line must be put in Disabled state.14. BER (Bit Error Rate): this attribute indicates the threshold that. 7. more than one physical channel can be created over a single line (see Fig. BAF: this attribute defines frame alignment bits that can be set by the operator. i • • • • • • • The range 0. the FR links are created over PCMA lines. the CIRCUIT number (range 0 to 5) and the TRUNK (A or B) to which the PCM line is connected. created over a PCM line. The Frame Relay Link is a n X 64 kbit/s physical channel. LOWBER (Lower Bit Error Rate): this attribute is relevant only for PCM24 lines. A30808-X3247-L24-5-7618 141 . The Gb interface physical layer is specified in GSM 08.5 of the CIRCUIT number is valid when STLP boards are used in the BSC (i.. otherwise that admitted range is 0.Information System GPRS/EGPRS Global Description • PCML: this attribute identifies the LICD number (range 0 to 9). when the new BSC rack is used). if exceeded..3. The FRL object represents the physical channel over the Gb interface between the BSC and the SGSN. whereas in case of connections through the MSC.e. 7. CRC: this attribute indicates if CRC-4 signal handling for PCM 30 line or CRC-6 signal handling for PCM 24 line is Enabled on PCMG line. REMAL (Remote AlarmType): this attribute is relevant only for PCM24 lines.3 Example of Frame Relay Links FRL_3 (Fractional FRL) 31 In case of direct connections between the BSC and the SGSN. it is called Frame Relay Link (FRL).. NUA: this attribute enables or disables handling of not urgent alarms on PCMG line. frame relay links are created over PCMG lines. These physical channels can be created grouping either neighboring or spaced time slots of the PCM line.. FRL_1 (Channelized FRL)) PCM line 0 31 PCM line 0 FRL_2 (Fractional FRL) Fig. CODE: this attribute selects the line transmission code to be provided on the line.3).

When the high capacity BSC with the old rack is used (see 6. with multislot links. only single timeslot frame relay links can be configured. In case of A interface connections.1. The operator indicates: 1.2). using the GLK attribute. This attribute indicates the pathname of the PCU managing the FRL. the number of slots that constitutes the FRL.3).GPRS/EGPRS Global Description Information System Functional object FRL Meaning Represents the physical link connection on Gb interface. and the capacity in terms of bit/rate. This flow corresponds to a flow obtained by 63 slots (64 kbit/s each one) on a PCM line. 142 A30808-X3247-L24-5-7618 .1. 2. using the PCUID attribute. in fact for each PCU: – up to 16 FRLs of 64 kbit/s can be configured.2 FRL Object In case of A interface connections. Tab. This factor determines the maximum number of Frame Relay links that can be configured for each PCU. This factor determines the maximum number of Frame Relay links that can be configured for each PCU. up to 378 frame relay links can be created for each BSC (with range 0 to 377).e. it is advantageous to use A interface connections). For example: – setting GTS= 3. As described in "6 Hardware and Software Architecture". 7. As described in "6 Hardware and Software Architecture". each PCU is able to handle 1 Mbit/s data flow towards the Gb interface.. – or only a single FRL with 1Mbit/s can be configured. 7. allows configuration of a 64 kbit/s Frame Relay link on the slot number 3 of the PCM line which is specified by the GLK attribute (see Fig. This flow corresponds to a flow obtained by 16 slots (64 kbit/s each one) on a PCM line. The choice between direct connections or A interface connections can be done in base of the bandwidth required on Gb interface (in case of a small number of FRL links. the PCM line on which the link is created.1. the 64 kbit/s time slots are reserved on PCMS (and PCMA) lines and handled in TRAU as transparent channel. When the high capacity BSC with the new rack is used (see 6. up to 756 frame relay links can be created for each BSC (with range 0 to 755). each PCU is able to handle a 4 Mbit/s data flow towards the Gb interface. In case of direct Gb interface connections (i. PCMG lines are dedicated to SGSN connection. When a standard BSC is used (see 6. This flow corresponds to a flow obtained by 63 slots (64 kbit/s each one) on a PCM line. and the capacity in terms of bit/rate. As described in "6 Hardware and Software Architecture". connections built without passing through the MSC). and the capacity in terms of bit/rate. the customer must guarantee that the MSC is able to ensure the sequence. This factor determines the maximum number of Frame Relay links that can be configured for each PCU. up to 32 frame relay links can be created for each BSC (with range 0 to 31). and the FRL occupies one or more 64 kbit/s timeslots. using the GTS attribute. in fact for each PCU at most 63 FRLs of 64 kbit/s can be configured.1). When creating a Frame Relay Link the operator specifies which PCU it belongs to. each PCU is able to handle a 4 Mbit/s data flow towards the Gb interface.4). in fact for each PCU at most 63 FRLs of 64 kbit/s can be configured. If the MSC is not able to guarantee this feature.

the other one allows the connection between the BSC and the SGSN to be maintained). allows configuration of a 256 kbit/s Frame Relay link on slots number 3. since the redundancy of the links is provided. 0 64 kbit/s Frame Relay Link Fig. 7. can also optionally indicate the frame relay standard to be used (regarding the frame relay structure. 4. 7. setting GTS= 3&4&7&8. see 7. 7.: – it is possible to put the two links on the same PCMG line. by setting the GTS attribute.6 Example of Frame Relay Link (GTS=3&4&7&8).5 Example of Frame Relay Link (GTS=3&4&5&6). 7 and 8 of the PCM line which is specified by the GLK attribute (see Fig.4 Example of Frame Relay Link (GTS=3). 5 and 6 of the PCM line which is specified by the GLK attribute (see Fig. 31 0 256 kbit/s Frame Relay Link Fig. Supposing to configure. – it is possible to distribute them on two different PCMG lines (this situation is obviously better than the previous one. for each PCU. 31 The operator.6). – it is possible to put both of the links over PCMA lines. e. by the FRSTD attribute. and the remaining one on one PCMA line. these links can be distributed on the Gb interface in different manners.g. in fact in case of fault of one PCMG line.2. allows configuration of a 256 kbit/s Frame Relay link on slots number 3.2). 4. 7. – it is possible to put one of them on one PCMG line. A30808-X3247-L24-5-7618 143 .5). 7. 31 0 256 kbit/s Frame Relay Link Fig. 2 FRLs.Information System GPRS/EGPRS Global Description – – setting GTS= 3&4&5&6.1.

7. the Sub-Network Service (i. i. the Frame Relay protocol).e.2 Network Service Layer The Network Service layer provides a reliable connection between the BSC and the SGSN. while error recovery is left to upper layers.. 2. 7.GPRS/EGPRS Global Description Information System When the links are created over different PCMA lines. This last solution is obviously better than the previous one. Error detection is performed. since it provides the redundancy of FRLs. whereas each Frame Relay Link is associated to a specific PCU according to the PCUID value.e.7): 1. irrespective of the exact configuration of the Gb interface. when such network exists between the two entities.e..1 Sub-Network Service: Frame Relay on Gb Interface On the Gb interface.7 Network Service Layer 7. These PVCs are created inside the FR physical links. 7. only Permanent Virtual Circuits are implemented. A Permanent Virtual Circuit (PVC) is an end-to-end logical communication link between the BSS/PCU and the SGSN. a control entity independent from that network. and these lines belong to the same TRAU module (i. the FR links must have different timeslot values for the GTS attribute. if the lines belong to different TRAU modules this problem does not exist. in cases of point-to-point connections. the lines correspond to the same PCMS line). For PVCs there is no call set-up or clearing: a connection to the frame relaying node must be in place from the configuration point of view. this reliable connection is realized: a) within the FR network.2.. b) with a direct link. Fig. which is an entity dependent on the intermediate Gb interface network. The Network Service entity is composed of (see Fig. and each FRL can contain more than one PVC. and specifically inside each Frame Relay physical link. i Remember that the PCMG/PCMA lines are shared between the configured PCUs. the Network Service Control. Instead. 144 A30808-X3247-L24-5-7618 .

for each Frame Relay physical link) more than one NSVC can be created.e it is the link at the User Network Interface (UNI).3 Each NSVC is identified by the Network Service Virtual Connection Identifier (NSVCI). Functional object NSVC Meaning Represents the end-to-end communication between BSS and SGSN.8 Gb Interface with a Frame Relay Network A30808-X3247-L24-5-7618 145 .Information System GPRS/EGPRS Global Description The NSVC (Network Service Virtual Connection) object represents the end-to-end permanent virtual connection between the BSC and the SGSN. 7. Referring to Fig. Up to 65536 NSVCIs can be created between a BSC and the SGSN. 7. • the FR PVC (NSVC) provides an end-to-end connection through the FR network. NSVC Object Tab. • the NSVC is the FR PVC.e. • the Data Link Connection (DLC) defines the entry point to the FR network. i. A physical link supports one or more NSVLs. For each FRL (i.. 7.8 there is a set of principles that apply to the Gb FR network: • the physical link is the Frame Relay bearer channel (allocated timeslots in a PCMG or a PCMA line). A DLC is identified by a DLC Identifier (DLCI). each one is identified by a NSVLI. • the Network Service Virtual Link Identifier (NSVLI) is the DLCI together with the bearer channel identifier (FRL). The Network Service Virtual Link (NSVL) is the local link in one end of the FR PVC. Frame Relay physical link Fig.

If a direct end-to-end PCMG line connection is used between the BSC and the SGSN (i. to specify this value he uses the NSVCI parameter. The NSEI is the logical entity of the SGSN that manages a single PCU.e.. The NSEI value. . i.1. all the NSVCs configured for the Packet Control Unit. see "7. besides the PCU. the user must specify the following: 1. for each FRL. The mapping of the DLCI parameter is as follows: DLCI value 0 1-15 16-511 512-991 Mapping In band signalling Reserved Available for user information Available for user information i Since Frame Relay Physical links are statically associated to a single PCU. i.NSVCs belonging to different FRLs are distinguished by the FRLN attribute. the Network Service Virtual Link Identifier (NSVLI) to identify the NSVC on the local (BSS) side.a set of NSVCs. The PCU will then share its traffic among all its NSVCs. that identifies the PCU and its NSVCs is configured by the NSEI parameter. 2.e.. All the NSVCs configured for a PCU constitute the so called NSVC group. i. as a consequence it identifies. even the NSVCs created inside this FRL are handled by a single PCU. the two values related to one NSVC are the same. of the same NSVC. can have a different value at the SGSN side and at the BSS side. when creating a new instance of the NSVC object. this identifier (that is the address of Frame Relay packets. – the second one (DLCIN) indicates the DLCI number. i i 146 A30808-X3247-L24-5-7618 . if a Frame Relay Network is not used). each PCU can manage: . this parameter is composed of two fields: – the first one (FRLN) indicates the Frame Relay physical link on which the permanent virtual circuit is created.2.e. the common and absolute identification of the virtual connection between the SGSN and the BSS.2 Frame Relay Structure") allows a distinction between different NSVCs that belong to the same physical Frame Relay link.GPRS/EGPRS Global Description Information System When creating a new PVC. the NSVLI value at the BSS side is equal to the NSVLI value at the SGSN side. . When an intermediate FR network is used in connecting the BSS and the SGSN.a set of frame relay physical links (FRLs). the NSVLI values. To specify this value he uses the NSVLI parameter. So.NSVCs belonging to the same FRL are distinguished by the DLCIN attribute.e.. . the Network Service Virtual Connection Identifier (NSVCI) of the NSVC.. this group is identified by the Network Service Entity Identifier (NSEI).

Internal identifier of the FR network connecting each side of the network. A30808-X3247-L24-5-7618 147 .10). the concept of Network Service Virtual Connection (NSVC) is used.9 Creation of a NSVC To well understand previous concepts. Parameters for NSVC-3: NSVCI=5 NSVLI=0-111 Fig. Two frame relay links of 64 kbit/s each have been created for a BSC configured with a single PCU.1 Examples of Addressing In order to provide end-to-end communication between the SGSN and the BSS irrespective of the exact configuration of the Gb interface. The creation of a NSVC may be as follows (see Fig. Let’s consider a BSC that is connected to the SGSN by two direct PCMG lines (PCMG0 and PCMG-1).1. some examples regarding the configuration of both Frame Relay Links and Permanent Virtual Connections (NSVCs) are described. The PCU sees a total bandwidth of 128 kbit/s (64 kbit/s + 64 kbit/s).Information System GPRS/EGPRS Global Description 7. 7. 7. At each side of the Gb interface there is a one-toone correspondence between NSVCs and NSVLs.9): Database object instance: NSVC-3 Defining the end-to-end connection between the SGSN and the BSC/PCU. EXAMPLE 1: BSC Configured with One PCU and Two Frame Relay Links of 64 kbit/s each.2. Similarly a NSVLI value must be defined at the SGSN side. The PCU has been configured with a NSEI value equal to 2354 (see Fig. 7. FRL object 0. Local connection at BSC/PCU side. DLCI 111.

31 Supposing now to create a PVC for each FRL. since the two NSVCs belong to two different FRLs.10 BSC Configured with One PCU and Two FR Links (64 kbit/s each).4 shows possible values that can be used to create the two virtual connections.4 Example of Setting of NSVC Values. 7.GPRS/EGPRS Global Description Information System FRL:0 NSEI = 2354 PCUID:PCU-0 GLK:PCMG-0 GTS:2 PCU. Two frame relay links of 128 kbit/s each have been created for a BSC configured with a single PCU. 7. DLCI values of the two created NSVCs can be equal. The PCU has been configured with a NSEI value equal to 2354 (see Fig. The PCU sees a total bandwidth of 256 kbit/s (128 kbit/s + 128 kbit/s).11). Tab. 7. NSVC belonging to FRL:0 NSVCI NSVLI FRLN DLCI 494 0 100 NSVC belonging to FRL:1 NSVC NSVLI FRLN DLCI 512 1 100 Tab.0 PCMG-0 0 31 PCMG-1 0 FRL:1 PCUID:PCU-0 GLK:PCMG-1 GTS:5 Fig. As it can be seen. 148 A30808-X3247-L24-5-7618 . 7. EXAMPLE 2: BSC Configured with One PCU and Two Frame Relay Links of 128 kbit/s each.

there isn’t any difference with respect to the previous example.4 shows possible values that can be used to create the two virtual connections. 7. the PCU sees a total bandwidth of 256 kbit/s (128 kbit/s + 128 kbit/s). even if the FRL:1 has been created using two nonadjacent timeslots. In this case.11 BSC Configured with One PCU and Two FR Links (128 kbit/s each one). while the PCU-1 is identified by the NSEI= 7564 (see Fig. Obviously the network must be enable to support one FRL created with two non-neighboring slots. 7. A30808-X3247-L24-5-7618 149 . It can be seen. For each PCU. 7. EXAMPLE 3: BSC Configured with Two PCUs and Two Frame Relay Links of 128 kbit/s each. Tab.12). two frame relay links of 128 kbit/s each have been created.0 PCMG-0 0 31 PCMG-1 0 FRL:1 PCUID:PCU-0 GLK:PCMG-1 GTS:5&8 Fig. The PCU-0 has been configured with a NSEI value equal to 2354.Information System GPRS/EGPRS Global Description FRL:0 NSEI = 2354 PCUID:PCU-0 GLK:PCMG-0 GTS:2&3 PCU. that from the NSVC configuration point of view. the BSC contains two PCUs. 31 Supposing now to create a PVC for each FRL.

Supposing now to create a PVC for each FRL. but also NSVCs used to support its traffic. not only identifies the PCU. Tab. but also NSVCs used to support the traffic of the PCU-0.5 shows possible values that can be used to create the two virtual connections for the PCU-0. in the same way the NSEI identifier of the PCU-1. 7.5 Example of Setting of NSVC Values for both PCU-0 and PCU-1 150 A30808-X3247-L24-5-7618 . 7. not only identifies the PCU-1. NSVC belonging to FRL:0 NSVCI NSVLI FRLN DLCI 480 0 163 NSVC belonging to FRL:1 NSVCI NSVLI FRLN DLCI 555 1 100 NSVC belonging to FRL:2 NSVCI NSVLI FRLN DLCI 574 2 100 Tab.1 PCMG-0 0 31 PCMG-1 0 FRL:1 NSEI = 7564 PCUID:PCU-0 GLK:PCMG-1 GTS:5&7 FRL:3 PCUID:PCU-1 GLK:PCMG-1 GTS:10&11 31 Fig.12 BSC Configured with Two PCUs and Two FR Links each one. and possible values that can be used to create the two virtual connections for the PCU-1. The NSEI identifier of the PCU-0.0 PCU.GPRS/EGPRS Global Description Information System FRL:0 NSEI = 2354 PCUID:PCU-0 GLK:PCMG-0 GTS:2&3 FRL:2 PCUID:PCU-1 GLK:PCMG-0 GTS:8&9 PCU. 7.

alignment and transparency using the “Flag” field. 7. so data integrity is not sacrificed because error correction can be left to higher-layer protocols running on top of Frame Relay.Information System GPRS/EGPRS Global Description NSVC belonging to FRL:3 NSVCI NSVLI FRLN DLCI 575 3 216 Tab. Frame Relay implements two congestion-notification mechanisms: – Forward-explicit congestion notification (FECN). 7.14).. The FECN mechanism is initiated when a DTE device (e. and ”DE” fields.2. This function permits one or more core connections to exist across a single physical connection. b) Multiplexing/De-multiplexing using the “Address” field. The CRC compares two calculated values to determine whether errors occurred during the transmission from source to destination. error recovery and flow control. This function permits core entities to detect congestion. in our case the SGSN) sends Frame Relay frames into the network (see Fig. most forms of error detection. Referring to the Frame Relay frame format (see Fig. Frame Relay uses a common error-checking mechanism known as the cyclic redundancy check (CRC). to optionally notify peer entities of congestion conditions. but excludes those associated with sequencing. 7. which is used to identify less important traffic that can be dropped during periods of congestion. – Backward-explicit congestion notification (BECN) FECN and BECN features are controlled by a single bit contained in the Frame Relay frame header. the Sub Network Service functionality provides for: a) Delimiting.g. Frame Relay typically is implemented on reliable network media.2 Frame Relay Structure Core functions of the NS Sub Network Service provide necessary data link functions to permit routing and relaying. “BECN”.5 Example of Setting of NSVC Values for both PCU-0 and PCU-1 7. A30808-X3247-L24-5-7618 151 .13). Frame Relay reduces network overhead by implementing error checking rather than error correction.1. The Frame Relay frame header also contains a Discard Eligibility (DE) bit. d) Congestion control using the “FECN”. c) Error detection using the “FCS” field (no Error Recovery). and to discard data units in response to congestion.

GPRS/EGPRS Global Description Information System Fig.. This reduces the likelihood of critical data being dropped by Frame Relay DCE devices during periods of congestion. or the indication may be ignored. DCE devices set the value of the BECN bit to 1 in frames travelling in the opposite direction of frames with their FECN bit set. This timer is needed to provide a hysteresis time in order to ensure that the traffic reduction at mobile station can be effective. DCE devices will discard frames with the DE bit set. The Discard Eligibility (DE) bit is used to indicate that a frame has lower importance than other frames. Depending on the implementation. The DTE device can then relay this information to a higher-layer protocol for processing. during the time defined by TCONG.e. Two parameters are involved in the congestion control procedure: – TCONG: this parameter allows the user to configure the width of the observation window used for congestion detection. Depending on the implementation. the congestion state is notified to upper layers.13 Frame Relay Network Connecting two DTE Devices If the network is congested. flow-control may be initiated. flow-control may be initiated. it regards the frame relay frames sent by the SGSN to the BSS). The DTE device can relay this information to a higherlayer protocol for processing. – TCONOFF: after a congestion notification to upper layers. When the network becomes congested. 152 A30808-X3247-L24-5-7618 . The congestion detection regards the path from the SGSN to the BSC (i. the number of frames indicating congestion is equal or greater than the number of frames indicating no congestion. This informs the receiving DTE device that a particular path through the network is congested. no other notifications are foreseen for a length of time defined by TCONOFF. the Address field (with the FECN bit set) indicates that the frame experienced congestion in the path from source to destination. DCE devices (switches) set the value of the frames’ FECN bit to 1. 7. DTE devices can set the value of the DE bit of a frame to 1 to indicate that the frame has lower importance than other frames. before discarding those that do not. or the indication may be ignored. If. When the frames reach the destination DTE device.

Fig. The eighth bit of each byte of the Address field is used to indicate the EA.14.2. – Extended Address (EA): it is used to indicate whether the byte in which the EA value is 1 is the last addressing field. The C/R bit is not currently defined. Therefore.3 Procedures for PVCs"). which is reserved for layer 3 message transfer (STATUS and STATUS_ENQUIRY. the available DLCI values usable for user information are almost the whole DLCI range but DLCI 0. devices at opposite ends of a connection can use different DLCI values to refer to the same virtual connection. If the value is 1. see "7. 7. The DLCI values have local significance only.Information System GPRS/EGPRS Global Description All data link peer to peer communications use frames conforming to the format shown in Fig.1. The value of this field is always the same and is represented either as the hexadecimal number 7E or the binary number 01111110. 7. then the current byte is determined to be the last DLCI octet. which means that they are unique only to the physical channel on which they reside. Although current Frame Relay implementations use a two-octet DLCI. this capability allows for longer DLCIs to be used in the future. This value represents the virtual connection between the DTE device and the switch. Since there is neither D-channel nor layer 2 management functionality. – C/R: it is the bit that follows the most significant DLCI byte in the Address field.14 Frame Relay Frame Structure The basic Frame Relay fields are the following: • Flags: delimits the beginning and end of the frame. Each virtual connection that is multiplexed onto the physical channel will be represented by a unique DLCI. • Address: contains the following information: – DLCI: the 10-bit DLCI is the essence of the Frame Relay header. – Congestion Control: it consists of the three bits that control the Frame Relay A30808-X3247-L24-5-7618 153 .

7. BECN. the network answers with a STATUS message. d) link integrity verification: used in determining the in-channel signalling link DLCI-0.GPRS/EGPRS Global Description Information System • • – congestion-notification mechanisms. after N391 expirations of the T391 timer).15. This field serves to transport higher-layer protocol packets (PDUs) through a Frame Relay network. 7. the network answers with a normal STATUS message. the procedure is shown in Fig. it is used only to verify the link integrity (this message doesn’t contain the state of the configured PVCs because nothing is changed).1. an “error counter” is incremented. the PCU sends a STATUS_ENQUIRY message to the network. or if the state of configured PVCs is not changed. – if one (or more) PVC has been added to or deleted from the FRL. a periodic polling procedure is used in acquiring general status about the connection between the BSC and the SGSN. 2.3 Procedures for PVCs For each group of PVCs belonging to a FRL.: 1. Frame Check Sequence: ensures the integrity of transmitted data. every T391 seconds. Each frame in this variable-length field includes a user data or payload field that will vary in length up to 16. reporting the status of ALL the PVCs (this message is also used to verify the link integrity). This value is computed by the source device and verified by the receiver to ensure integrity of transmission. b) detection of the deletion of a PVC: used to notify users of deleted permanent virtual circuits.e. The Link Integrity verification procedure is required since DLCI-0 contains unnumbered information (UI) frames at Level 2. which are the last three bits in the Address field. These are the FECN. c) notification of the availability (active) or unavailability (inactive) state of a configured PVC: used to determine changes in status of configured PVCs. and DE bits. the PCU sends to the network a STATUS_ENQUIRY message requiring a FULL STATUS answer. every time the PCU doesn’t receive an answer from the SGSN. 3. Establishing and releasing a logical connection is accomplished by exchanging messages via DLCI-0. two types of STATUS messages can be used: – if no PVCs have been added to or deleted from the FRL. after N391 polling cycles (i. Data: contains encapsulated upper-layer data. or if the state of any configured PVCs is changed. Every T391 seconds the PCU sends a STATUS ENQUIRY message to the network to retrieve some information (optionally the network may initiate the polling procedure).2. 154 A30808-X3247-L24-5-7618 . The polling interval is defined by the T391 timer.. the network answers with a FULL STATUS message. The periodic polling procedure allows the PCU to retrieve the previous information.000 octets. 4. The information regards: a) notification of the addition of a PVC: used to notify users of newly added permanent virtual circuits.

Network Service Control The Network Service Control entity is responsible for the following functions: • NS SDU transmission: the NS SDUs are transmitted on the configured NSVCs.15 Periodic Polling Procedure i 7. unblocked) NSVCs. The NS SDUs are encapsulated into Network Service Control PDUs which in turn are encapsulated into Sub. • NSVC management: – a blocking procedure is used by a NS entity to inform an NS peer entity when an NSVC becomes unavailable for NS user traffic. • Load sharing: the load sharing function distributes the NS SDU traffic among the available (i. 6. – an unblocking procedure is used for the reverse operation. if the “error counter” reaches the N392 value during the error observation window defined by: N393 * T391 the Frame Relay link is put into Disable state. PCU Expiration of T391 STATUS_ENQUIRY SGSN STATUS Reset and restart T392 Expiration of T391 STATUS_ENQUIRY STATUS Expiration of T391 N391 polling cycles reached STATUS_ENQUIRY Reset and restart T392 FULL_STATUS Fig. if the N392 threshold is not reached during the error observation window.2. data is transferred in order.Network Service PDUs.. A30808-X3247-L24-5-7618 155 .2 The value of the T391 timer set on the BSC side must be lower than the value of the T392 timer set on the SGSN side. as a consequence.Information System GPRS/EGPRS Global Description 5.e. On each NSVC. 7. and all the contained PVCs are. the “error counter” is restarted. put in Disable state.

the load sharing function chooses the NSVC over which the current NS SDU must be transmitted. • thus. – a test procedure is used to check that an NSVC is properly operating between peer NS entities. Therefore. The reception of the NS_BLOCK_ACK primitive from the SGSN closes the procedure at the BSS side.g. 7. see "7. – equipment or link failure at the BSS or at the SGSN side.1 Load Sharing All NS SDUs to be transmitted over the Gb interface are passed to the load sharing function. while the remote peer is notified via NS_BLOCK_PDU. The Block Procedure inhibits an NSVC from carrying traffic.GPRS/EGPRS Global Description Information System – a reset procedure is used between peer NS entities in order to set an NSVC to a determined state. uplink and downlink NS SDUs for a subscriber may be transferred over different NSVCs. the NS entity is informed via NS_STATUS_INDICATION primitive for each affected BVC.2. it waits TNSVCBLK seconds for acknowledgement from the SGSN.2 Control Procedures The procedures concerning the management of NSVCs are: • block/unblock of NSVCs by the operator • reset and test the status of NSVCs. the order of all NS SDUs is preserved. such as NSVC management PDUs (e.. making the NSVC unavailable for NS user traffic. after events resulting in possibly inconsistent states of the NSVC at both sides of the Gb interface.2.3 BSSGP Protocol"). for each cell). i Load sharing applies only to NS SDUs. When the PCU has sent an NS_BLOCK_PDU.e. among unblocked NSVCs of the addressed BVC.2.. The load sharing function is used by NS entities to select. for each BVC.2 Control Procedures").2. the load sharing function guarantees that. The NNSVCBLKR parameter specifies the 156 A30808-X3247-L24-5-7618 . the corresponding traffic is discarded by the NS at the sending side..e. – failure in the transit network. The Load Sharing function is then informed and the result is the redistribution of NS SDU to other unblocked NSVCs. The mapping between NS SDUs and NSVCs is based on an implementation dependent function that meets the following requirements: • for each BVC (i. • load sharing functions at the BSS and the SGSN are independent. NS_BLOCK_PDU used in the NSVC block/unblock procedures. not to NS signalling. where to send NS SDUs. when there are no unblocked NSVCs between a BSS and a SGSN. • a change in the number of available NSVCs for NS user traffic (i.2. one or more NSVCs become blocked or unblocked) results in a reorganization of the NS SDU traffic among the unblocked NSVCs. i Each BVC represents a GPRS/EGPRS cell in the PCU (see "7. the load sharing function allows transmission of the NS SDUs related to a cell among the available NSVCs. For instance. • for a BVC. 7.2. the BSC may block a NSVC because of: – Operation and Maintenance intervention at the Gb interface.

Both GPRS/EGPRS signalling and user data may be sent on the same physical resource. the procedure is retried.e. if the SGSN does not respond to the unblock procedure. The Reset Procedure is used: – when a new NSVC is set up between a BSS and the SGSN. The primary functions of the BSSGP protocol include: A30808-X3247-L24-5-7618 157 . the NSVC is marked as dead and blocked and the O&M system and the load sharing function are informed.Information System GPRS/EGPRS Global Description maximum number of performed retries by the PCU in the NSVC block procedure.. After unsuccessful attempts. 7. – after NNSVCTSTR repetitions. without any answer. The test procedure is executed according to the following features: – the periodicity of the procedure is given by the TNSVCTST timer. when an NSVC is available.. i. The Unblock Procedure allows the return of a previously blocked NSVC back to service. – when the state of an NSVC is undetermined between remote NS entities. if any. the procedure is retried infinitely times. if the SGSN does not answer the block procedure. i. Both sides of the Gb interface must initiate this procedure independently from each other.. The Test Procedure is performed via NS_ALIVE_ACK_PDU and it is used when a BSS (or SGSN) wishes to check that end-to-end communication with its peer entity exists on an NSVC. Upon completion of the reset procedure. if the SGSN does not respond to the reset procedure.e.e. i. When the PCU has sent the NS_UNBLOCK_PDU.. the procedure is stopped. After the PCU sends the NS_RESET_PDU. i. the test message is sent to the SGSN every TNSVCTST seconds. the link is declared not available. The procedure is analogue to the BLOCK one.3 BSSGP Protocol The Gb interface allows many users to be multiplexed over a common physical resource. A blocking procedure is initiated using an alive NSVC. the PCU retries the procedure at most NNSVCBLKR times. it waits TNSVCBLK seconds for acknowledgement from the SGSN. The BSS (or the SGSN) sends the NS_RESET_PDU to its peer entity indicating the NSVCI. – after failure recovery or any local event restoring an existing NSVC which was in dead state. before generating any alarm. – if after TNSVCPTST seconds no answer to the test is received from the SGSN.e. This procedure is initiated upon successful completion of the reset procedure (as specified in sub-clause "Reset procedure") and will then be periodically repeated. the procedure is retried NNSVCUBLR times. The NNSVCRR parameter specifies the maximum number of performed retries in the NSVC reset procedure. The NNSVCUBLR parameter specifies the maximum number of performed retries in the NSVC unblock procedure. it waits TNSVCR seconds for acknowledgement. The NS_RESET_PDU is sent on the NSVC being reset. the successfully reset NSVC is marked as blocked and alive at both sides of the Gb interface. – after processor restart. but after NNSVCRR times an O&M alarm is generated.

is handled by the system that puts the PTPPKF object into the disabled state when the associated BVCI is no longer accessible. Note following concepts: • each BVC is identified by a BVCI (Virtual Connection Identifier). Each BVC is used in transporting BSSGP PDUs between PTP (point to point) functional entities.GPRS/EGPRS Global Description Information System • • • transmit LLC frames from the SGSN to the BSS.3.3.1). the NSEI identifies the NSVC group.g. transmit LLC frames from the BSS to the SGSN. In GSM 08. The PCU restart or the BSS initialization are handled generating a reset procedure with the SGSN.1. and the relation is: 158 A30808-X3247-L24-5-7618 . in fact. In Siemens implementation. so there is a one to one relationship between a cell and a BVCI. 7.18 – for point-to-point packet transfer – it’s specified that a cell is identified by a BVCI. a PTP functional entity is constituted by a cell. • each PCU is identified by the Network Service Entity Identifier (NSEI) in the SGSN. • the couple BVCI and NSEI identifies univocally a GPRS/EGPRS cell in the SGSN. Needed timers for handling Block/Unblock and Reset procedures are defined in the PCU object (see "7. – state changes on subordinated NSVC objects. The NSVC-BVCI hierarchy is not one to one but one PTPPKF can be reached from different NSVCs. • each BVCI identifies univocally a GPRS/EGPRS cell in the PCU. The PTPPKF state can be affected by: – BTS state changes. The dependency from the BTS object is one to one.. i. with radio related information (such as Quality of Service and routing information) which is used by the RLC/MAC function. All state transitions for PTPPKF objects are notified to the remote end via the BVCI Block/Unblock procedure (see 7. due to NSVC state change. then all state changes on BTS objects are reflected on PTPPKF objects.1 BVC Procedures")..3. SGSN-BSS flow control). with radio related information (such as Quality of Service and routing information) which is derived from the RLC/MAC function. the group of all the NSVCs that provide service for a PCU: to one PCU corresponds only one NSVC group and vice versa. the PTPPKF object represents the presence of packet switched data services in a specific cell and the state of this object allows or disallows the service in the cell.1 BSSGP Addressing: BSSGP Virtual Connections (BVCs) The BSSGP protocol establishes the connection between the SGSN and the PCU in terms of BSSGP virtual connections (BVCs). – specific commands executed on the object. provide functionalities to enable both the SGSN and the BSS to perform management control functions (e.1.e. which are connected to the same PCU. The PTPPKF state transition. The PTPPKF object is always created with the instance equal to 0 since it is subordinate to the BTSM and BTS object following this path: BTSM:m/BTS:n/PTPPKF:0 The BVCI number associated to a PTPPKF object instance is fixed.

according to the load balancing schema that is used for the PCUs (see "6. NSVC:1 and NSVC:2 connections (related to PCU:0 of BSC:1). c) each cell is identified in the PCU by the BVCI value. – the NSEI_B value identifies NSVC:3 and NSVC:4 connections (related to PCU:1 of BSC:1). – the PCU:0 of the BSC:2 is identified by the NSEI_D value. i When an upgrade from the Release BR5.. e) the traffic of all the cells (BVCIs) configured for a PCU is distributed among all the NSVCs configured for the PCU. To summarize the previous concepts. – the PCU:2 of the BSC:1 is identified by the NSEI_C value. Reflected in Fig. This is due to the fact that. • PCU:0 configured on BSC:2. A30808-X3247-L24-5-7618 159 . the NSVCI values. – the NSEI_D value identifies NSVC:0.5 to BR7. i Obviously. let us consider a SGSN that manages four PCUs: • PCU:0. the PTPPKFs (i. – the PCU:1 of the BSC:1 is identified by the NSEI_B value. so in the SGSN.Information System GPRS/EGPRS Global Description BVCI number = (number of creation of the PTPPKF in the database) + 2 The 0 and 1 values are reserved respectively for signalling and PTM links. related to the different NSVCs created for the four PCUs must be different from each other. 7. to a single PCU) but they can be moved from one PCU to another one following the PTPPKF distribution algorithm (see "8 Load Control for Packet Switched Services"). PCU:1 and PCU:2 configured on BSC:1.1 Supported BSC Types"). NSVC:6 and NSVC:7 connections (related to PCU:2 of BSC:1). NSVC:1 and NSVC:2 connections (related to PCU:0 of BSC:2). b) the NSEI attribute also identifies all the configured NSVCs for each PCU: – the NSEI_A value identifies NSVC:0. some changes in the SGSN database must be executed. d) each cell is identified in the SGSN by the couple BVCI and NSEI.e.0 is executed. it can be seen that: a) each PCU is identified in the SGSN by the NSEI attribute: – the PCU:0 of the BSC:1 is identified by the NSEI_A value. the BVCIs of one BSC have to be configured on all the NSEIs (PCUs) related to the BSC.e. – the NSEI_C value identifies NSVC:5..16. the BVCIs) are no longer statically assigned to a single NSEI (i.

GPRS/EGPRS Global Description Information System NSVC group identified by NSEI_A GPRS Cell BVCI= 2 NSVC:0 GPRS Cell BVCI= 6 BSC:1\PCU:0 NSEI_A NSVC:1 NSVC:2 BVCI=2 BVCI=6 NSEI_A FRL:0 FRL:1 NSVC group identified by NSEI_B FRL:2 BSC:1\PCU:1 NSEI_B GPRS Cell BVCI= 4 FRL:3 NSVC:3 NSVC:4 BVCI=4 BVCI=5 NSEI_B GPRS Cell BVCI= 5 NSVC group identified by NSEI_C GPRS Cell BVCI= 3 BSC:1\PCU:2 GPRS Cell BVCI= 7 NSEI_C NSVC:5 NSVC:6 FRL:4 SGSN BVCI=3 BVCI=7 NSEI_C NSVC:7 FRL:5 NSVC group identified by NSEI_D FRL:0 NSVC:0 GPRS Cell BVCI= 3 BVCI=2 BVCI=3 BVCI=4 FRL:1 NSEI_D GPRS Cell BVCI= 2 GPRS Cell BVCI= 4 BSC:2\PCU:0 NSEI_D NSVC:1 NSVC:2 Fig.16 Distribution of Packet Switched Data Traffic among Different Cells 160 A30808-X3247-L24-5-7618 . 7.

the BSSGP protocol provides the means to transfer the full QoS profile together with each downlink LLC PDU. it retries the procedure. the PCU doesn’t receive a response from the SGSN. is sent in the BCCH or the PBCCH. For a downlink data transfer. If. All PDTCHs of the cell are released and system information. etc. it retries the procedure. decides if and how the requested QoS may be satisfied.3. the PCU doesn’t receive a response from the SGSN. an O&M alarm is sent. the PCU waits T2 seconds for acknowledgement. If. reporting GPRS/EGPRS service allowed in the cell. – peak throughput. an O&M alarm is sent. The waiting time for the unblock procedure is defined by the TF1 parameter: after sending a BVCI unblock message. or after each event (processor restart. The waiting time for the reset procedure is defined by the T2 parameter: after sending a BVCI reset message.1. The RESET Procedure is used when a new BVCI is set up between the SGSN and the BSS. The waiting time for the block procedure is defined by the T1 parameter: after sending a BVCI block message.Information System GPRS/EGPRS Global Description 7. taking into account the available radio resources and the multislot capabilities of the MS. the PCU waits T1 seconds for acknowledgement. The UNBLOCK Procedure allows the traffic back on the previous blocked BVCI.) that needs to clear and to synchronize BVCI status on both sides. without any answer from the SGSN. the following procedures with remote end are implemented: • BLOCK.3. The PTPPKF is put in enabled state. an O&M alarm is sent. The BLOCK Procedure inhibits a BVCI from carrying traffic. the PCU doesn’t receive a response from the SGSN. after an Unblock Procedure attempt. reporting GPRS/EGPRS service not allowed in the cell. It’s performed when the PTPPKF object is locked by the operator or when it reaches a disable-dependency state. the QoS profile is communicated by the MS as a priority information in the PACKET_CHANNEL_REQUEST message. This means that the core algorithm of the PCU would try to satisfy the requested QoS by acting on many factors. after a Reset Procedure attempt. failure recovery. the PCU waits T1 seconds for acknowledgement. – LLC-PDU lifetime. without any answer from the SGSN. without any answer from the SGSN. the following QoS parameters are included in each LLC-PDU transferred to the BSS: – precedence class. In the latter case.2 Quality of Service (QoS) For an uplink data transfer. After NBVCBR consecutive repetitions. If. A30808-X3247-L24-5-7618 161 . Both sides must initiate the procedure independently. • UNBLOCK. The PCU. is sent in the BCCH or the PBCCH. After NBVCUR consecutive repetitions. it retries the procedure. after a Block Procedure attempt. • RESET.1 BVC Procedures For BVCs associated to PTPPKF objects. After NBVCRR consecutive repetitions. 7. System information.

the BSSGP protocol uses an address which is composed of three parts: • cell Identity (BVCI).3 SGSN-BSS Flow Control Packet switched data traffic exhibits large statistical fluctuations both for the flow-in into the PCU as well as for the flow-out over the air interface. who is engaged in data transfer. Strongly varying C/I leads to variations of the RLC blocks re-transmission rates.3. the resource allocation algorithm allows the consideration of the required peak throughput class. as described in "5. Thus.3 SGSN-BSS Flow Control") is now implemented. The former depends on the volatility of Internet traffic. The BSS controls the flow of packet data units (PDUs) to its BVC buffer for an individual MS. c) signalling has its own queue. flow control should minimise the probability of BVC buffer over flow. For these reasons two different types of flow control are implemented in the BSS: – BVC Flow Control: the variance both of the inter-arrival times of arriving frames and deleted RLC blocks causes waiting time in the BVC buffer. as a consequence rate control schemes are used to smooth traffic and thus reduce variance. queues per cell (BVC) and per MS (TLLI) are provided at the BSSGP level.3 Management of Packet Data Channels". and the mean BVC flow rate R might slow down. No QoS related to BSSGP flow control ("7. the latter is caused by the speciality of the air interface. Because these mobiles cannot get their data out of the common BVC buffer fast enough. GSM voice calls have pre-emptive priority and may thus steel time slots allocated to PS services (but not the GPRS/EGPRS reserved timeslots). i The Temporary Logical Link Identity (TLLI) identifies univocally a GPRS/EGPRS user. the SGSN might narrow the throttle for all other mobiles. inside a cell (see also "9.3. too.GPRS/EGPRS Global Description Information System Regarding the QoS. 162 A30808-X3247-L24-5-7618 . Additionally. The SGSN sends PDUs to the LLC layer as a function of the requested service type and the Mobility Management state (see "9.5 Contention Resolution").2. TLLI). The BSS controls the flow of packet data units to its BVC buffers by indicating to the SGSN the maximum allowed throughput for each BVC. • MS identification (e. b) in the BSS. – MS Flow Control: without mobile specific flow control. queues are provided per MS. 7.1 Mobility Management States"). • QoS profile. The principle of flow control is based on the following: a) in the SGSN. by indicating to the SGSN the maximum allowed throughput for a certain TLLI. This reduces transmission delays for the user.8. The flow control mechanism is then based on these queues and contexts. the buffer filling might increase above a threshold. These three parts are then used to dynamically queues and contexts in both the SGSN and the BSS. multiplexed with other TBFs onto the same timeslot.3. mobiles with low individual flow rate (caused for example by being capable of only one timeslot.g. For packet transfer from the SGSN to the BSS. and large retransmission rates) might slow down all other mobiles within the same cell.

18): there is a queue of LLC frames without a permit for transmission to the PCU. if at least L(p) tokens are available in the bucket. a token should be thought as the permission to transmit one byte.Information System GPRS/EGPRS Global Description The amount of buffered packet data units for a given TLLI or BVC has to be optimized to efficiently use the available radio resources. Fig. A LLC PDU must first have obtained the permission of the mobile flow control before it is submitted the cell (BVC) specific flow control. and the token is deleted. The packet data units have to be transferred across the Um interface before the PDU lifetime expires. the PDU is deleted from the BSS and the deletion is signalled to the SGSN by the LLCDISCARDED PDU message.17) for the downlink transmission of LLC frames from the SGSN to the PCU (in uplink transmission the problem does not exist since it is the BSS itself which schedules the MS accesses.17 Cascaded Flow Control The Token Bucket Algorithm used in the Flow Control procedure works in the following way (see Fig. according to its own radio capacity). 7. 7. It is foreseen a cascaded mobile (MS) and cell (BVC) oriented “flow control scheme” (see Fig. A frame p of size L(p) will obtain the permit for transmission. 7. The LLC frame at the head of the frame queue obtains a permit if at least one token is available in the permit bucket. In this case. A30808-X3247-L24-5-7618 163 . When frames have different sizes. in this case. it joins the buffer of LLC frames with permits waiting to be transmitted. Permits are generated at the rate R as long as the number in the permit bucket does not exceed a certain threshold Bmax. and a bucket of permits (“tokens”).

In other words. there is for each BVC or MS a buffer which is filled by the segmentation of the arriving LLC PDUs and empties when these blocks are transmitted over the air interface. PCU calculates the control variables R and Bmax and transmits them with flow control commands to the SGSN at every expiration of the TF1 timer. The principle is that periocally BSC can send new parameters and SGSN updates the internal values related.GPRS/EGPRS Global Description Information System Fig. 164 A30808-X3247-L24-5-7618 . SGSN uses parameters sent by BSC in order to decide if it can send data or not. 7. Thus a closedloop control is realised (see Fig.19).18 Token Leaky Bucket (in SGSN) On the PCU side. In the PCU the real rate Rpcu (towards the Abis interface) can be different from the value R sent to SGSN. 7.

The BSS has to trigger the Flow Control message in a way that the BSS can guarantee a continuous data flow to the MSs. for this reason it is better to have a little Bucket in order to have a minimum permanence in the BSC Bucket. is the maximum size of the buffer in PCU for the MS Flow Control. A30808-X3247-L24-5-7618 165 .19 Closed Loop Control Every TF1 timer expiration. – BmaxBVC is the maximum size of the buffer in SGSN for the BVC Flow Control. The Bucket Leak Rate (R) is the rate at which the permits for transmission are generated. the following parameters are defined: – BmaxPCUBVC is the maximum size of the buffer in PCU for the BVC Flow Control. – BmaxPCUMS. 7. – Bucket Leak Rate (R). – Bucket FullRatio.Information System GPRS/EGPRS Global Description Fig. The Bucket full ratio represents the percentage of the Current Bucket Level (BucketLevelPcu) compared to Bmax. the BSC can send a new BVC or MS Flow Control with following parameters updated: – Bucket Size (Bmax). As a consequence. – BmaxMS is the maximum size of the buffer in SGSN for the MS Flow Control. – Bmax has to be low enough due to PDU-lifetime. PCU and SGSN are provided with two different types of buffer. – Bmax has to be high enough in order to guarantee that BSC has always “something to send”. one for the BVC Flow Control and another one for the MS Flow Control. Following things have to be taken into account: – a too low Leak rate respect to the maximum rate possible prevents SGSN from sending data to BSC.

otherwise. It will not be guaranteed that the BSC works with all combination and it is suggested to mantain default value. MS Flow Control Message During active Downlink TBF.GPRS/EGPRS Global Description Information System – the discarding of packets because of lifetime expiration will be an exceptional case.K represents the Number of timeslots assigned to the MS. • RmaxMS is the teorical MS Maximum Rate according to resources assigned to MS and to used coding scheme (CS/MCS). . i The purpose of these parameter is for testing purposes and for special application. i 7.1 The current Bucket Level procedure is used only if SISGSNREL99 parameter (PCU object) is set to the TRUE value. For example TSPercentage=30% means that 30/100 * RTS is the rate for the MS in that timeslot. when it shares the timeslot with other MSs. 7. In order to allow more flexibility in flow control management. it is defined as: K RmaxMS = ∑ TSPercentageR k=1 TSk where: .3.TSPercentage is a percentage that indicates how the timeslot is exploited (in percentage) by the MS. One of these parameters is MSBMAPER (MsBucketMaxPercentage). the BSC sends a MS-FLOW-CONTROL (see Fig. the BSC computes BmaxBasicMS value according to the following formula: BmaxBasicMS = f *(1s +TF1) * RmaxMS where: f=1 f =1/ ((nGPRS_TS +1) * TF1 * i) if no large amount of LLC lifetime expiration occurs. Besides: • the value i represents the consecutive number of times that the LLC PDU lifetime expiration threshold is found to be present.3. LLC PDU lifetime expiration threshold is reached when in the previous interval the number of bytes related to expired LLC is more than 30% of LLC bytes sent for that MS. • nGPRS_TS is the number of timeslots assigned for GPRS/EGPRS services at timer expiration at this MS. .19) message in order to inform SGSN about the quantity of memory reserved for that TBF and the rate at which bytes are sent. some parameters are introduced.RTSK is the rate in case the entire timeslot is assigned to that MS. defined as: 166 A30808-X3247-L24-5-7618 . At each TF1 timer expiration.

If the state is “congested”. The exact definition is: BmaxPCUMS = MSBSPPER *BmaxMS As can be seen in Fig. BmaxPCUMS must be higher than BmaxMS. Bucket_Full Ratio is not implemented in SGSN The Flow Rate out of the buffer in the SGSN (RMS) can be expressed in the following way: MS Bucket Leak rate = RMS*8/100 (8 is due to the fact that Bucket Leak rate is in 100 bits/s unit. Bucket Full Ratio = 40. the state is set to “congested”.19. Another parameter is called MSBSPPER (MsBucketSizePcuPercentage) and represents a relationship between BmaxPCUMS and BmaxMS . The states “congested” and “non-congested” are determined using two thresholds: BhighMS and BlowMS. They are defined through the following formula: BhighMS = MSBHIPER * BmaxPCUMS BlowMS = MSBLPER *BmaxPCUMS If the state is “non-congested”. according to these two situations: – Bucket_Full Ratio is not implemented in SGSN. If BucketLevelPCU is 150% of Bmax. Starting from BmaxPCUMS the operator can define these two thresholds through the parameters: MSBHIPER (MsBucketHighPercentage) and MSBLPER (MsBucketLowPercentage). For what concerns the MS Bucket Leak Rate. 7. Bucket size is 100 octet increments). different behaviours are foreseen. For example if BucketLevelPCU is 40% of Bmax. so MSBSPPER is greater than 100. Bucket Full Ratio = 150.Information System GPRS/EGPRS Global Description BmaxMS = MSBMAPER * BmaxBasicMS Through this parameter the operator can reduce the value of BmaxBasicMS automatically computed by BSC. – Bucket_Full Ratio is implemented in SGSN. In the normal case the BSC sends to SGSN the following value for RMS: RMS= RmaxMS Otherwise the BSC sends the following value: A30808-X3247-L24-5-7618 167 . and BucketLevelPCUMS (the current Bucket Level in PCU) crosses BhighMS from below. The value of Bucket Full Ratio is the percentage of BucketLevelPCU compared to Bmax. the state is set to “non-congested”. and BucketLevelPCUMS crosses BlowMS from above.

7 * Leak Rate if 40 % < Retransm_rate < 50 % then Leak rate = 0. 7.GPRS/EGPRS Global Description Information System RMS=f* RmaxMS where the coefficient f is chosen according to the following situations: 1.8 * Leak Rate if 30 % < Retransm_rate < 40 % then Leak rate = 0.6 * Leak Rate if 50 % < Retransm_rate < 60 % then Leak rate = 0.3. – nGPRS_TS is the number of TS assigned for GPRS/EGPRSD services at timer expiration for this MS.4 * Leak Rate if 70 % < Retransm_rate < 80 % then Leak rate = 0.3. The same criteria and parameters will be applied as in BmaxMS case. but a value to be communicate to SGSN that it can send downlink LLCs.3 * Leak Rate if 80 % < Retransm_rate < 90 % then Leak rate = 0. More specifically. If MS buffer is congested: f = 1/((nGPRS_TS +1) * TF1 * i) where: – i is the consecutive number of times that the LLC PDU lifetime expiration threshold is found to be present. MS Bucket Leak Rate = RmaxMS 7.2 * Leak Rate if 90 % < Retransm_rate < 100 % then Leak rate = 0.19 ) is a value not corresponding to real BVC memory capacity on PCU.2 BVC Flow Control Message BmaxBVC (see Fig. if 10 % < Retransm_rate < 20 % then Leak rate = 0.9 * Leak Rate if 20 % < Retransm_rate < 30 % then Leak rate = 0.5 * Leak Rate if 60 % < Retransm_rate < 70 % then Leak rate = 0. is sent always without correction factor. then the leak rate is reduced as following: Retrasm_rate = Bytes retransmitted/ Byte transmitted if Retrasm_rate < 10 % no correction.1 * Leak Rate 2. BSC calculates the BmaxBasicBVC according to the following formula: BmaxBasicBVC= f*(1s + TF1) * RmaxBVC where: 168 A30808-X3247-L24-5-7618 . the value MS Bucket Leak rate. if Leak Rate has not been already reduced for Bucket Congestion. Bucket_Full Ratio is implemented in SGSN In this case.

maximum number of channels (configured. maximum number of channels (configured. In this number timeslots belonging to EDGE capable TRXs are not considered (they are counted in the KEDGE value).3) or in case Link Adaptation is enable on the maximum CS or MCS. it is defined as: Rmax B V C = ∑R k=1 K N PCCH TSk = ∑ KEDGE RTSk + ∑ KGPRS RTSk + ∑ RTSk k=1 k=1 k=1 where: K = NPCCH + KEDGE + KGPRS NPCCH: KEDGE: is the number of configured packet control channels. otherwise. unlocked and enabled) can be assigned to GPRS (but not to EGPRS) after applying GPDPDTCHA parameter. NdinamicEDGE: NdinamicGPRS: A30808-X3247-L24-5-7618 169 . maximum number of channels (configured. unlocked and enabled) can be theoretically used for EGPRS service on EDGE capable TRXs. • nGPRS_TS is the number of timeslots assigned for GPRS/EGPRS services at timer expiration. The number refers to timeslots without applying GPDPDTCHA parameter. KGPRS: Besides. the following definitions are necessary: Ndinamic: maximum number of channels (configured. • RmaxBVC depends on the number of timeslots that can be assigned to GPRS/EGPRS. maximum number of channels (configured. The number refers to timeslots without applying GPDPDTCHA parameter. unlocked and enabled) can be theoretically used for GPRS service on GPRS capable TRXs.Information System GPRS/EGPRS Global Description f=1 f =1/ ((nGPRS_TS +1) * TF1 * i) if no large amount of LLC lifetime expiration occurs. LLC PDU lifetime expiration threshold is reached when in the previous interval the number of bytes related to expired LLC is more than 10% of LLC bytes sent for all BVC. Besides: • the value i represents the consecutive number of times that the LLC PDU lifetime expiration threshold is found to be present. basing on initial CS or initial MCS (see 10. and on the data rate on these timeslots.5. unlocked and enabled) can be assigned to EDGE after applying GPDPDTCHA parameter. unlocked and enabled) can be theoretically used to either PS services or CS services in the cell.

The number refers to timeslots after applying GPDPDTCHA parameter. 7.NdinamicEDGE KEDGE = K_EG + Nreserved . maximum number of channels (configured.KGPRS otherwise KGPRS = 0 KEDGE = K_EG + Nreserved Example 1 170 A30808-X3247-L24-5-7618 . unlocked and enabled) can be dynamically assigned to GPRS/EGPRS services.Nreserved). then K_EG is equal to zero.GPRS/EGPRS Global Description Information System Nreserved : GPDPDTCHA : K_EG: number of PDCH reserved for GPRS/EDGE services. – K = NPCCH + K_EG + Nreserved – If K_EG + Nreserved is greater than NdinamicEDGE. TDMA frame TRX 0 BCCH SDCCH PBCCH GPRS Capable 7 0 TDMA frame TRX 1 SDCCH EGPRS Capable 7 0 TDMA frame TRX 2 SDCCH EGPRS Capable 7 0 GMAPERTCHRES=4 GPDPDTCHA=50% Configured Packet Control Channels=1 Fig. otherwise if Ndinamic is lower or equal to Nreserved. percentage of channel available can be assigned to GPRS or EDGE (if possible).20. To understand previous definitions let us suppose that a cell (BVC) has the configuration shown in Fig.20 Example Cell Configuration In this case we have the following values: – NPCCH = 1 – Ndinamic =19 – NdinamicEDGE =7 – NdinamicGPRS =12 For the RmaxBVC computation. then: KGPRS = K_EG + Nreserved . the parameter K_EG is equal to GPDPDTCHA*(Ndinamic . the following information must be taken into consideration: – If Ndinamic is greater than Nreserved. It corresponds to GMANPRES parameter. 7.

7 = 1 KEDGE = K_EG + Nreserved .5 *(12-4)=0.20.5*(8)=4 KGPRS = K_EG + Nreserved .NdinamicEDGE = 4 + 4 . The states “congested” and “non-congested” are determined using the two thresholds BhighBVC and BlowBVC of the BmaxPCUBVC. if all channels are enabled/unlocked (GPDPDTCHA=50%). two new parameters have been introduced BVCBMAPER (BvcBucketMaxPercentage) and BVCBSPPER (BvcBucketSizePcuPercentage).7 = 5 KEDGE = K_EG + Nreserved .5 = 7 K = 1 + 8 + 4 = 13 Example 2 The TRX1 becomes disabled (GPDPDTCHA=50%). Two parameters allow the operator to express them as a function of BmaxPCUBVC: BVCBHIPER (BvcBucketHighPercentage) and BVCBLPER (BvcBucketLowPercentage). These new parameters are contained in the following formulas: A30808-X3247-L24-5-7618 171 .KGPRS = 4 + 4 . The new parameters are defined in the following way: BmaxBVC = BVCBMAPER * [(1+TF1) * RmaxBVC ] BmaxPCUBVC = BVCBSPPER *BmaxBVC. Through them the operator can modify the values automatically computed by the BSC.5*(15)=8 KGPRS = K_EG + Nreserved . NPCCH = 1 Ndinamic =19 NdinamicEDGE =7 NdinamicGPRS =12 Nreserved =4 K_EG = 0.Information System GPRS/EGPRS Global Description Configuration as in Fig.5 *(19-4)=0.NdinamicEDGE = 8 + 4 .KGPRS = 8 + 4 .1 = 7 K=1+4+4=9 Also in case of BVC flow control. 7. NPCCH = 1 Ndinamic =12 NdinamicEDGE =7 NdinamicGPRS = 5 Nreserved =4 K_EG = 0.

every time that BucketLevelPCU is less than 5% of Bmax. the state is set to “congested”.3.3. 172 A30808-X3247-L24-5-7618 . In order to reduce the number of FLOW-CONTROL messages sent.e. . i. the state is set to “non-congested”. BSC stops sending FLOW_CONTROL messages for that TBF. the PTPPKF object is put disable and BVC RESET procedure starts. – If Bucket Ratio is implemented: . the same criteria as in section 7..3 Flow Control sending criteria (for both BVC and MS) A BVC Flow Control/MS Flow Control can be sent at each TF1 timer expiration.GPRS/EGPRS Global Description Information System BhighBVC = BVCBHIPER * BmaxPCUBVC BlowBVC = BVCBLPER * BmaxPCUBVC If the state is “non-congested”. If SGSN does not answer to MS Flow Control.1 are applied. For what concerns the BVC Bucket Full Ratio. 7. in case of too many RLC retransmission or BucketLevelPCU exceeds Bhigh or goes below Blow threshold.21 and Fig. This behaviour is assumed in order to prevent possible misalignment between Bucket at SGSN side and at BSC side.3. it is possible that bucket in BSC is more or less zero and completely full at SGSN side due to SW error whatever. and BucketLevelPCUBVC (the current bucket level in PCU) crosses BhighBVC from below.22 show the message flow related to MS-Control Flow for two different cases: the normal case and the case in which the SGSN does not answer. they will be sent only when: – Bmax or R is changed compared to the previous parameter sent. – If Bucket Ratio is not implemented. in case of too many PDU lifetime expiration or resource increased/decreased. Fig. and BucketLevelPCUBVC crosses BlowBVC from above. If the state is “congested”.3. 7.every time that BucketLevelPCU is more than 70% of Bmax (this means congestion at BSS side). If SGSN does not answer to BVC FLOW control. 7.

21 MS-FLOW-CONTROL Fig.Information System GPRS/EGPRS Global Description Fig. 7.22 SGSN does not answer with MS-FLOW-CONTROL-ACK message A30808-X3247-L24-5-7618 173 . 7.

– TF1.3 Procedures for PVCs"): if NS-ALIVE-ACK is not received because of link problems. The rule is therefore fulfilled with the database default values for the following parameters: – TNSVCTST. 174 A30808-X3247-L24-5-7618 . the following rule must be obeyed to avoid unnecessary GPRS/EGPRS blocking for certain cells (see "7.GPRS/EGPRS Global Description Information System It must be noted that in case redundant NSVC links are created on the Gb-interface.1. To avoid this situation.2. the following rule has to be followed: Time_2 > Time_1 The default value of "Number of Flow Control Retries" is fixed to the value 15. – NNSVCTSTR. the respective NSVC is put into disabled state after a maximum time defined by: Time_1= TNSVCTST+ TNSVCPTST * NNSVCTSTR The PTPPKF object is put into disabled state if FLOW-CONTROL-ACK is not received during the time defined by: Time_2 = TF1* Number of Flow Control Retries In case of link problems it could therefore happen that the PTPPKF object is disabled while the NSVC is still enabled. – TNSVCPTST.

that means that the last NSVC connection from the PCU to the SGSN is no longer available. this situation could happen when: – the PCMG line containing the last available FRL (if the last available FRL is created on it) is locked or goes down (as a consequence. Dynamic PTPPKF Reconfiguration The PTPPKFs distribution/redistribution algorithm is performed by the GPRS/EGPRS load control process implemented on TDPC board.Information System GPRS/EGPRS Global Description 8 Load Control for Packet Switched Services As described in "6.e. When one PCU fails (e. but it is the system that dynamically assigns the cell to one of the PCUs.1 In order to enable the movement of one PTPPKF from one PCU to another. Besides. i.g. there is a load control system that manages the PTPPKFs distribution among the PCUs available in the system. This kind of calculation is established taking into account the number of created and available PCUs.. the PTPPKF distribution process implements a mechanism based on a Guard timer. this situation could happen when: – a PPXU board fails. a new computation is started in order to distribute PTPPKFs configured in the system on all PCUs. The PTPPKFs reconfiguration is performed in the following cases: • when the boards related to the PCU become unavailable. when the user configures a GPRS/EGPRS cell. the last NSVC becomes unavailable). If one PCU becomes available the first time (i. he does not have to assign the cell to a specific PCU. and the number of PTPPKF already associated to each PCU. – the PCMA line containing the last available FRL (if the last available FRL is created on it) is locked or goes down (as a consequence. A30808-X3247-L24-5-7618 175 . – a couple of PPCU boards fail (the couple PPCU:0/1 or the PPCU2/3). or when a couple of PPCUs fail in cases of standard BSCs). the algorithm evaluates new PTPPKFs distribution considering the number of PTPPKF already present on each PCU and the number of resources reserved to packet switched services for each PTPPKF (see "8. • the connection of the PCU towards the SGSN goes down. all PCUs must contain the same database as far as the PTPPKF configuration is concerned.1 Dynamic PTPPKF Reconfiguration")..1. all PTPPKFs belonging to that PCU are moved to other PCUs. In the BSC.4 PPCU and PPXU Redundancy and Configuration Rules". in cases of high capacity BSCs. in order to avoid oscillation in case of fast PCU state changes (see "8. In case one PCU becomes unavailable for any reason. i 8. when a PPXU fails in cases of high capacity BSCs. when the user creates a PTPPKF object instance. in cases of standard BSC.e. the last NSVC becomes unavailable)..5 Time Needed to Execute PTPPKF Reconfiguration"). – the PPXU or the couple of PPCUs is locked. the system redistributes the PS traffic among the remaining PCUs. This is a direct consequence of the load balancing redundancy.1. after its creation).

To handle the distribution/redistribution algorithm. the PTPPKF creation is not included as a trigger for PTPPKFs reconfiguration (when a PTPPKF is created. – the last NSVC is locked or goes down. since. but only if this operation causes an unbalanced distribution of PTPPKFs among the PCUs. it is assigned to the less loaded PCU). It must be noted that: 1. – the PCU is locked. when the connection on the Gb interface is available). – total number of radio channels configured for PS services for each PTPPKF (packet control channels + reserved packet channels + dynamic packet channels). so: 176 A30808-X3247-L24-5-7618 . – total number of timeslots configured for each PCU on the Gb interface (see "7 Gb Interface"). • a PTPPKF is deleted. 2. the PCU overload (see "8. the PTPPKF allocated to that PCU should be moved to another PCU that can <<see>> the SGSN“. the last NSVC is disabled. in this case.2 PCU Overload Management") does not trigger the PTPPKF reconfiguration. and as a consequence. If we define: PCU_TS_Gb PTPPKF_load(i) Number of timeslots of 64 kbit/s related to the FR links associated to a specific PCU Number of GPRS/EGPRS channels (static and dynamic) configured for a specific PTPPKF(i) Then the load of a single PCU can be considered as the sum of the PTPPKF_load of all the PTPPKF associated to the PCU divided by the PCU_TS_Gb of the PCU (that is how the FR links associated to the PCU can manage all the radio channels associated to the PCU). the system uses the following information: • dynamic information: – state of PCUs configured in the BSC. the reallocation is triggered” or “when a PCU <<can not see>> the SGSN. the connection of the PCU towards the SGSN comes back. So the previous causes can be summarized with these sentences: “any time the Gb interface related to any PCU is no longer available. i In general. no PCU/Gb down-restart is executed. • static information: – number of PCUs and PTPPKFs configured in the BSC. the PCU creation itself does not trigger the PTPPKFs reconfiguration.e. 3. – state of PTPPKFs configured in the BSC. the PTPPKFs reconfiguration is triggered from all the operations that generate a PCU/Gb down-restart. but the reconfiguration starts when the first NSVC is created and enabled for this PCU (i.GPRS/EGPRS Global Description Information System • – the last FRL is locked or goes down. – Routing Area of the PTPPKF (only at init time). that means that the last NSVC connection from the PCU to the SGSN is now available.

3). this set is first analyzed for a possible moving of PTPPKFs. – PCU crash (see 8. To avoid. that are considered for possible moving.4).1) distributes the configured PTPPKFs among the configured and available PCUs.1. using the BVC RESET procedure (see "7. see "9. In this case. • PTPPKF_KO: it includes PTPPKFs that are not carrying traffic because they are disabled or have been locked. (if the SGSN is intuitive enough) the algorithm tries.1 BVC Procedures").1 System Initialization When the system is initialized. 8. if possible. The following examples are shown: – System initialization (Bring-Up and Full Init). or new PPCU couple of boards).1.1.1. to reduce the paging load. BVCI synchronization is performed. this set is the second analyzed for possible moving of PTPPKFs.n]) / PCU_TS_Gb where n is the number of PTPPKFs associated to the PCU Then the algorithm tries to distribute the packet switched traffic among the configured and available PCUs. besides the PCU loads.Information System GPRS/EGPRS Global Description PCU_load = (Sum PTPPKF_load(i) [i=1.2. These constraints could collide with the balancing of the PCU loads. when a new PCU goes into service.3. the Routing Area of the PTPPKFs (regarding routing areas. this situation. see 8.. the set of PTPPKF is divided in 3 sub sets (the three sets are considered by the general algorithm that calculates and moves PTPPKFs from one PCU to another one): • PTPPKF_DIED: this set contains PTPPKFs belonging to PCUs without the Gb in service that have to be moved to PCUs in service. 8. According to different situations. • PTPPKF_ENABLE: it includes all the other PTPPKFs. as much as possible. between the BSC and the SGSN. – Creation of a new PCU object (new PPXU board.e. so that all the PCUs have the same PCU_load. the constraint related to the loads of the PCUs has an higher priority.1. Then the distribution algorithm (see Fig. – PCU comes back in service (see 8. A30808-X3247-L24-5-7618 177 . different handling is provided even if the general rule is always to redistribute the traffic in the better way. PTPPKF_KO) has become void. i The algorithm considers the Routing Areas only at init time. In fact. Moving one PTPPKF from one PCU to another one causes a release of all the TBFs associated with that PTPPKF.2 Network Structure"). the algorithm takes into account. this set is taken into account as soon as the algorithm runs after the PCU/Gb fault. to associate a Routing area to just one PCU. when a new PCU goes into service.1. see 8.1. The set is considered after the previous set (i.

taking into account the new one. 8. 8. 178 A30808-X3247-L24-5-7618 .1. the algorithm redistributes the already configured PTPPKFs among the available PCUs. Then. 8.2). before moving them (see Fig.1) are performed for the same cells (see Fig.1) is performed on the PTPPKFs to be moved.3).2 Creation of a PCU Object and Enabling a NSVC for It When a new PCU is created and the first NSVC is created and enabled. neither the Cell Identifier nor the BVCI of the moved cells change. the BVC RESET and UNBLOCK procedures (see 7.1 Example of PTPPKF Distribution During System Initialization 8. In the Siemens-BSS implementation.3.3. when the cells are shifted to the new PCU.1.GPRS/EGPRS Global Description Information System PCU:0 NSEI:0 PCU_load=9/3=3 PTPPKF RA=2 1 PDCH BVC=4 PTPPKF RA=1 3 PDCH BVC=23 PCU_TS_Gb= 3 PTPPKF RA=2 1 PDCH BVC=24 PTPPKF RA=2 1 PDCH BVC=33 PTPPKF RA=1 3 PDCH BVC=34 SGSN PCU:4 NSEI:4 PCU_load=3/1=3 PTPPKF RA=3 1 PDCH BVC=77 PTPPKF RA=5 2 PDCH BVC=35 PCU_TS_Gb= 1 Fig. the BVC BLOCK procedure (see 7. On the Gb interface.1.

8.Information System GPRS/EGPRS Global Description PCU:0 NSEI:0 old_PCU_load=9/3=3 new_PCU_load=6/3=2 PTPPKF RA=2 1 PDCH BVC=4 BSSGP:BVC_BLOCK_34 PTPPKF RA=1 3 PDCH BVC=23 BSSGP:BVC_BLOCK_ACK_34 PCU_TS_Gb= 3 PTPPKF RA=2 1 PDCH BVC=24 PTPPKF RA=2 1 PDCH BVC=33 PTPPKF RA=1 3 PDCH BVC=34 PCU:2 NSEI:2 PCU_load=4/2=2 PCU_TS_Gb= 2 SGSN New PCU is created PCU:4 NSEI:4 old_PCU_load=3/1=3 new_PCU_load=2/1=2 PTPPKF RA=3 1 PDCH BVC=77 PTPPKF RA=5 2 PDCH BVC=35 BSSGP:BVC_BLOCK_77 BSSGP:BVC_BLOCK_ACK_77 PCU_TS_Gb= 1 Fig.Step 1 A30808-X3247-L24-5-7618 179 .2 Example of PTPPKF Distribution when a New PCU is Created .

Step 2 180 A30808-X3247-L24-5-7618 .GPRS/EGPRS Global Description Information System PCU:0 NSEI:0 PCU_load=6/3=2 PTPPKF RA=2 1 PDCH BVC=4 PTPPKF RA=1 3 PDCH BVC=23 PCU_TS_Gb= 3 PTPPKF RA=2 1 PDCH BVC=24 PTPPKF RA=2 1 PDCH BVC=33 PCU:2 NSEI:2 PCU_load=4/2=2 BSSGP:BVC_RESET_34:Cell Identifier PTPPKF RA=1 3 PDCH BVC=34 BSSGP:BVC_RESET_ACK_34 BSSGP:BVC_UNBLOCK_34 BSSGP:BVC_UNBLOCK_ACK_34 SGSN PCU_TS_Gb= 2 BSSGP:BVC_RESET_77:Cell Identifier BSSGP:BVC_RESET_ACK_77 BSSGP:BVC_UNBLOCK_77 BSSGP:BVC_UNBLOCK_ACK_77 PTPPKF RA=3 1 PDCH BVC=77 PCU:4 NSEI:4 PCU_load=2/1=2 PCU_TS_Gb= 1 PTPPKF RA=5 2 PDCH BVC=35 Fig. 8.3 Example of PTPPKF Distribution when a New PCU is Created .

PCU:0 NSEI:0 old_PCU_load=6/3=2 new_PCU_load=9/3=3 PTPPKF RA=2 1 PDCH BVC=4 PTPPKF RA=1 3 PDCH BVC=23 BSSGP:BVC_RESET_34:Cell Identifier BSSGP:BVC_RESET_ACK_34 PCU_TS_Gb= 3 BSSGP:BVC_UNBLOCK_34 BSSGP:BVC_UNBLOCK_ACK_34 PTPPKF RA=2 1 PDCH BVC=24 PTPPKF RA=2 1 PDCH BVC=33 PTPPKF RA=1 3 PDCH BVC=34 PCU:2 NSEI:2 FAILED PTPPKF RA=1 3 PDCH BVC=34 PTPPKF RA=3 1 PDCH BVC=77 NO block procedures on Gb interface. The PTPPKFs are moved onto healthy PCUs. it is not possible to perform the BVC BLOCK procedure on the damaged PCU (in any case the SGSN can detect this anomaly because the L2 layer is nolonger working).Information System GPRS/EGPRS Global Description 8. Since the PCU is crashed. 8. and then a BVC RESET procedure is started for each shifted PTPPKF object (see Fig.4 Example of PTPPKF Distribution in Case of PCU Crash A30808-X3247-L24-5-7618 181 .3 PCU Crash When a PCU crashes. The PCU fails suddenly PCU_TS_Gb= 2 SGSN PCU:4 NSEI:4 old_PCU_load=2/1=2 new_PCU_load=3/1=3 BSSGP:BVC_RESET_77:Cell Identifier PTPPKF RA=3 1 PDCH BVC=77 PTPPKF RA=5 2 PDCH BVC=35 BSSGP:BVC_RESET_ACK_77 PCU_TS_Gb= 1 BSSGP:BVC_UNBLOCK_77 BSSGP:BVC_UNBLOCK_ACK_77 Fig. to save the time of the elaboration.4).1. 8. the algorithm redistributes the configured PTPPKFs among the remaining PCUs. The routing area information is not considered by the algorithm.

are put back on it (see Fig.1. In the first case. the PTPPKFs that belonged to the other faulty PCUs are involved in this reallocation procedure. This process is not considered as a PTPPKF reconfiguration. if some modifications regarding the FRLs allocation of the PCU has been done during the period of time the PCU/Gb was down. then the algorithm performs a total reconfiguration. the PTPPKFs related to this PCU. a PCM line (containing the last FRL of a PCU) is not stable. in fact in order to minimize the TBFs release. then the algorithm performs a total reconfiguration. if a PCU comes back in service. There are two exceptions for this case: 1. it was created). 2. for example.e.4 PCU Comes Back in Service When the PCU comes back in service. Eventually.5). the reason for not doing so is that in this case a new recalculation is simply due to the need of managing short downs of Gb or PCU: it makes no sense to redistribute everything again and again simply because. 182 A30808-X3247-L24-5-7618 . but the PTPPKFs belonging to this PCU will be put back on it. before the fault. the reallocation algorithm is not performed when a PCU comes back in service after a fault.GPRS/EGPRS Global Description Information System 8. In fact there is a difference between putting back PTPPKFs to the PCU they belonged before and a total redistribution itself. but before another PCU has come in service for the first time (i. the previously moved cells are returned back without a new load calculation. 8.

8.5 Example of PTPPKF Distribution when a PCU Comes Back in Service A30808-X3247-L24-5-7618 183 .Information System GPRS/EGPRS Global Description PCU:0 NSEI:0 old_PCU_load=9/3=3 new_PCU_load=6/3=2 PTPPKF RA=2 1 PDCH BVC=4 BSSGP:BVC_BLOCK_34 PTPPKF RA=1 3 PDCH BVC=23 BSSGP:BVC_BLOCK_ACK_34 PCU_TS_Gb= 3 PTPPKF RA=2 1 PDCH BVC=24 PTPPKF RA=2 1 PDCH BVC=33 PTPPKF RA=1 3 PDCH BVC=34 PCU:2 NSEI:2 IN-SERVICE BSSGP:BVC_RESET_34:Cell Identifier PTPPKF RA=1 3 PDCH BVC=34 BSSGP:BVC_RESET_ACK_34 BSSGP:BVC_UNBLOCK_34 BSSGP:BVC_UNBLOCK_ACK_34 SGSN PCU_TS_Gb= 2 BSSGP:BVC_RESET_77:Cell Identifier BSSGP:BVC_RESET_ACK_77 BSSGP:BVC_UNBLOCK_77 BSSGP:BVC_UNBLOCK_ACK_77 PTPPKF RA=3 1 PDCH BVC=77 PCU:4 NSEI:4 old_PCU_load=3/1=3 new_PCU_load=2/1=2 PTPPKF RA=3 1 PDCH BVC=77 BSSGP:BVC_BLOCK_77 BSSGP:BVC_BLOCK_ACK_77 PTPPKF RA=5 2 PDCH BVC=35 Fig.

threshold. some seconds. Thus they are done only at init phase (see "8. non-configurable. The worst case concerns the moving of a PTPPKF from one PCU to another one: the PTPPKF needs to be blocked and internally deleted on the old PCU. The PCU overload management alarm is started when PCU processor real time exceeds a threshold. The redistribution procedure takes. if this is true. this timer does not regard newly created PTPPKFs. When the timer runs no calculations are executed to redistribute GPRS/EGPRS cells (even if there are some changes in Gb/PCU status). in general. an alarm is emitted towards the LMT/RC.1. The overload prevention mechanism is based on the real time of the card. a mechanism based on a Guard Timer is provided. is based upon the sending of System Information indicating that GPRS/EGPRS services are not present in the cell. The protection action. Calculations taking into account routing area considerations lasts some tens of milliseconds.5 Time Needed to Execute PTPPKF Reconfiguration For what concerns the PTPPKFs distribution/redistribution algorithm. the cyclic task sends a message indicating that the machine is overloaded to the GPRS/EGPRS overload handler process. A PCU cyclic task checks whether the percentage of the real time is greater than an upper. used by the GPRS/EGPRS overload handler to reduce the PS service traffic. The overload process is controlled by BSCT17 and BSCT18 timers and it is based upon the progressive application of protection actions.2 PCU Overload Management For what concerns the PTPPKFs distribution/redistribution algorithm. since as it has been described in 8. the calculation algorithm is always executed in a few milliseconds. apart fromsome calculations taking into account routing area considerations. makes a total of 12 seconds that are needed to redistributes PTPPKFs to a PCU going into service. but the created PTPPKF is simply put on the less loaded PCU available in that moment. This is done for a progressively 184 A30808-X3247-L24-5-7618 . threshold.1. added to the 5 seconds of the guard timer. The cyclic task stops the overload message sending to the GPRS/EGPRS overload handler when the percentage of the real time is smaller than a lower. The operating system measures the PCU processor real time. no reconfiguration is foreseen due to Overload reasons. If the overload situation disappears these protection actions are progressively removed. then created and unblocked on the new one. There are no significant differences between the handling of PPCU and PPXU boards. because in this case there is not a balancing procedure.1. This time. the only triggers are Down/Restart of PCU/Gb. The GPRS/EGPRS overload handler acts structurally as the already existing BSC and BTS overload handlers. if the overload situation persists.GPRS/EGPRS Global Description Information System 8. Obviously. to avoid oscillation in cases of fast PCU changes. This time is more or less independent from the number of involved PTPPKFs being done in burst parallel on the various PTPPKFs.1 System Initialization"). This timer lasts 5 seconds and it starts each time there is a modification in Gb/PCU status. This process takes about 7 seconds in total. non-configurable. At the very first signal of PCU Overload. In any case. so they cannot be done during normal TDPC working. 8.

Information System GPRS/EGPRS Global Description increasing number of cells (at steps of 10 cells) allocated on the involved PCU. this is done in steps of 5 cells that were formerly "GPRS/EGPRS barred". When all cells are in the original situation. On the contrary. A30808-X3247-L24-5-7618 185 . the PCU overload alarm is ceased. System Information indicating that GPRS/EGPRS service is present again are sent. if the overload situation persists. if the overload finishes.

supports the 8PSK modulation in downlink direction and the GMSK modulation in uplink direction.e. to identify a Routing Area two parameters have been introduced: • the Routing Area Code (RACODE): it identifies univocally the routing area inside the location area. a MS that is capable of monitoring only one paging channel at a time cannot operate in class B mode of operation. The mode of operation depends on: – the services that the MS is attached to. In this case. Two mobile classes are foreseen: – the first class of mobiles. 9.1 Mobile Stations for Packet Switched Services A GPRS/EGPRS MS can operate in one of three modes of operation. • Class-B mode of operation: the MS is attached to both GPRS/EGPRS and other GSM services.1 shows an example of network structure. For what concerns EGPRS mobiles only. The three modes of operation are: • Class-A mode of operation: the MS is attached to both GPRS/EGPRS and other GSM services. • the Routing Area Color (RACOL): it allows the Mobile Station to distinguish between two routing areas that have the same Routing Area Code. – the MS capabilities to operate GPRS/EGPRS and other GSM services simultaneously. This identifier is named Routing Area (RA) and it is a sub entity of the Location Area. The Routing Area is a more precise description of the current position of the GPRS/EGPRS mobile station. 9. – the second class of mobiles has a more advanced capability. In network operation mode III (see "9. but belong to two different Location Areas. which allows a cost efficient and fast implementation.GPRS/EGPRS Global Description Information System 9 GPRS/EGPRS Procedures 9. but the MS can only operate one set of services at a time. only PS services or both PS and CS services. but it is unique in the Location Area domain.1 Network Operation Modes for Paging"). supporting the 8PSK modulation in both uplink and downlink directions. and the MS supports simultaneous operation of GPRS/EGPRS and other GSM services.8. such a MS reverts to class-C mode of operation. Fig.2 Network Structure On the air interface. a supplementary distinction exists. the network organization structure remains the same as in the GSM implementation.. 186 A30808-X3247-L24-5-7618 . one LA can include up to 256 RAs. Routing Area numbering is not unique in the network. • Class-C mode of operation: the MS is exclusively attached to GPRS/EGPRS services.3. i. An additional identifier is introduced to group cells that support packet switched services in the Location Area (LA).

The information. which is held on both MS and SGSN sides. 9. Each state describes a certain level of functionality and allocated information. is denoted MM context. A30808-X3247-L24-5-7618 187 .Information System GPRS/EGPRS Global Description Location Area Routing Area Fig.1 Network Structure: Example 9.3 9.2).3.1 Mobility Management Functionalities Mobility Management States The Mobility Management (MM) activities related to a GPRS/EGPRS subscriber are characterized by one of three different MM states (see Fig. 9.

3. 9. It is also possible to receive pages for CS services via the SGSN (only if the Gs interface between the MSC and the SGSN is implemented). The MS and the SGSN have established MM contexts for the subscriber.3. When the GPRS attach procedure has been executed. the MM state moves from IDLE to READY: the MS requests access and a logical link to an SGSN is established.1. The MS performs Routing Area updates and GPRS/EGPRS cell selection and re-selection locally. 9. the MS will perform the GPRS Attach procedure (see "9.1 Attach Function").1. The MS does not inform the SGSN on a change of cell 188 A30808-X3247-L24-5-7618 . In order to establish MM contexts in the MS and in the SGSN.1) are performed by the MS.3.2.2 STAND-BY State In STANDBY state the subscriber is attached to GPRS/EGPRS mobility management. Both the MS and the SGSN contexts hold no valid location or routing information for the subscriber. Pages for PTP data transfers or signaling information transfers may be received.GPRS/EGPRS Global Description Information System Fig.1 IDLE State In GPRS IDLE state the subscriber is not attached to the GPRS/EGPRS mobility management. PLMN selection and GPRS/EGPRS cell selection and re-selection processes (see 10. PTP data reception and transmission are not possible in stand-by state. The MS executes mobility management procedures to inform the SGSN when it has entered a new RA.2 Mobility Management States 9. The subscriber-related mobility management procedures are not performed.

Therefore. The MM and PDP contexts may then be deleted. the location information in the SGSN MM context contains only the routing area identity (RAI). – Cancel Location: the SGSN receives a Cancel Location message from the HLR. the SGSN may perform an implicit detach in order to return the MM contexts in the SGSN to IDLE state. The READY state is supervised by a timer.3 Network Controlled Cell Reselection and Traffic Control Management"). the following procedures cause the transition from the standby state to the other MM states: • moving from STANDBY to IDLE: – Implicit Detach: the MM and PDP contexts in the SGSN return to IDLE and INACTIVE state.MCC = mobile country code . pages for other services may be done via the SGSN. The MM state in the MS changes to READY when the MS responds to the page. The MS performs mobility management procedures to provide the network with the actual selected cell. The MS may activate or deactivate PDP contexts while in READY state. The MS may send and receive PDP PDUs in this state. GPRS/EGPRS cell selection and re-selection is done locally by the MS. • moving from STANDBY to READY: – PDU transmission: the MS sends a LLC PDU to the SGSN.3 READY State In READY state the MM context corresponds to the STANDBY MM context extended by location information for the subscriber on the cell level. possibly in response to a page. The MS or the network may initiate the GPRS Detach procedure to move to the IDLE state. and in the SGSN when the response to paging is received. The MM state in the MS also changes to READY when data or signaling information is sent from the MS and the MM state in the SGSN changes to READY when data or signalling information is received from the MS.Information System GPRS/EGPRS Global Description in the same RA. A PDP context must be activated before data can be transmitted or received for this PDP context. A30808-X3247-L24-5-7618 189 . In particular. The network does not initiate PS pages for a MS in READY state. – PDU reception: the SGSN receives a LLC PDU from the MS. A MM context moves from READY state to STANDBY state when the READY timer expires. and removes the MM and PDP contexts. 9.1.3. i The Routing Area Identity is defined as: RAI = MCC + MNC + LAC + RAC where: .MNC = mobile network code . or optionally may be controlled by the network (see "10. The SGSN may have to send data or signalling information to a MS in STANDBY state. for MSs in STANDBY state.LAC = location area code . in this case the SGSN sends a Paging Request in the routing area where the MS is located.RAC = routing area code The MS may initiate activation or deactivation of PDP contexts while it is in STANDBY state. After expiry of the mobile reachable timer.

9. and routing area update procedures may be lost and therefore may have to be retransmitted. – Cancel Location: the SGSN receives a Cancel Location message from the HLR and removes the MM and PDP contexts. both the MS and SGSN MM contexts return to STANDBY state. User data transmitted during attach.GPRS/EGPRS Global Description Information System In order to move from READY state to IDLE state. When the READY timer expires. In order to minimize the need for retransmission.2 Mobility Management Procedures MM procedures use the LLC and RLC/MAC protocols for message transmission across the Um interface. • moving from READY to IDLE: – GPRS Detach: the MS or the network request that the MM contexts return to IDLE state and that the PDP contexts return to INACTIVE state. the MS is immediately forced into STANDBY state. authentication.3. the MS provides its identity and an indication of which type of attach it wants to execute. In the MS the READY timer is reset and begins running when a LLC PDU is transmitted. User data can be transmitted during MM signalling procedures. – abnormal RLC condition: the SGSN MM context returns to STANDBY state in case of delivery problems on the radio interface. The SGSN may delete the MM and PDP contexts.3. The length of the READY timer is the same in the MS and in the SGSN. The following procedures cause the transition from the ready state to the other MM states: • moving from READY to STANDBY: – READY timer expiry (see " READY TIMER"): the MS and the SGSN MM contexts return to STANDBY state. 9. 190 A30808-X3247-L24-5-7618 . The combined attach allows the MS to register itself both in the SGSN and in the MSC. The MM procedures provide information to the underlying layers to enable reliable transmission of MM messages on the Um interface. the MS and the SGSN do not transmit user data during the attach.2. but this procedure can be executed only when the network works in a co-ordinated way.1 Attach Function The GPRS/EGPRS attach procedure is executed by the MS. – the combined GPRS/IMSI attach. authentication. The PDP contexts in the GGSN are deleted. in the SGSN the timer begins running when a LLC PDU is correctly received. If the READY timer length is set to zero. – Force to STANDBY: the SGSN indicates an immediate return to STANDBY state before the READY timer expires. the MS initiates the GPRS Detach procedure. and routing area update procedures. Two different types of attach are foreseen (both of them executed towards the SGSN): – the GPRS attach. In the attach procedure. READY TIMER The READY timer controls the time that a MS remains in READY state before going to the STANDY state.

The MS may then activate PDP contexts as described in "9.8.. The steps of the Attach procedure are illustrated below: 1.1 Network Operation Modes for Paging").e. After having executed the GPRS attach procedure. An IMSI-attached MS that can only operate in class-C mode of operation follows the normal IMSI detach procedure before making a GPRS attach. – Attach Type: it indicates which type of attach that must be performed. 3.8.1 Network Operation Modes for Paging"). In both the Attach and Routing Area Update procedures. then a GPRS/EGPRS-attached MS..3.Information System GPRS/EGPRS Global Description i.8. that has the capability to be simultaneously GPRS/EGPRS attached and IMSI-attached. If the P-TMSI signature has been sent by the SGSN to the MS because a new P-TMSI has been allocated by the SGSN.2 Discontinuous Reception").3.3.e. If the network operates in Mode II or III. the MS acknowledges the received P-TMSI by the Attach Complete message. P-TMSI is similar the GSM T-IMSI (temporary IMSI).7 Activation and Deactivation of a PDP Context". GPRS/EGPRS Attach while already IMSI attached. A GPRS-attached MS in class-C mode of operation will always perform a GPRS detach before making an IMSI attach. If P-TMSI has been changed. GPRS/EGPRS attach only. The SGSN sends the Attach Accept message to the MS. The MS initiates the attach procedure by the transmission of the Attach Request message to the SGSN. the MS is in READY state and MM contexts are established in both the MS and the SGSN. the SGSN should use the security functions to authenticate the MS. 2. P-TMSI is included if the SGSN allocates a new P-TMSI. i If the network operates in Mode I (see "9. the SGSN compares the P-TMSI signature sent by the MS with the signature stored in the SGSN. i P-TMSI (Packet Temporary Mobile Subscriber Identity) is optionally sent by the SGSN to the MS in Attach Accept and Routing Area Update Accept messages. The message contains the following information: – IMSI or P-TMSI: IMSI is included if the MS does not have a valid P-TMSI. and accesses the CCCH channel for CS operation. If the MS has a valid P-TMSI. performs the (not-combined) Routing Area Update procedure. then the MS includes the received P-TMSI signature in the next Routing Area Update Request or in the next Attach Request for identification checking purposes. If the values do not match. The P-TMSI signature parameter has only local significance in the SGSN that allocated the signature. then a MS that is both GPRS/EGPRS-attached and IMSI-attached performs the combined RA/LA update procedure. – Classmark: it contains the MS's multislot capabilities and supported ciphering algorithms for PS services. only when the Gs interface between the MSC and the SGSN is configured (see also "9. – DRX Parameters: indicate when the MS is in a non-sleep mode and when it is able to receive paging requests and channel assignments (see "9. or combined (E)GPRS/IMSI attach. A30808-X3247-L24-5-7618 191 . then P-TMSI and the old RAI associated with P-TMSI are included. i.

GPRS/EGPRS Global Description Information System If the Attach Request cannot be accepted. 9.4. the mobile station listens to the BCCH and to the relevant paging sub-channels. If the PCCCH is not present in the cell.Mobile originated call . Upper layers can require the transfer of LLC PDUs which.3. A GPRS/EGPRS-attached MS sends a Detach Request message to the SGSN.4 Radio Resource Management Radio Resource (RR) management procedures are characterized by two different RR operating modes (see Fig. the SGSN returns the Attach Reject message to the MS. the MS makes IMSI attach as defined in GSM. The Detach Request message contains an indication to determine if the detach is due to switch off or not. Packet Idle State .3). and allows the network to inform a MS that it has been GPRS/EGPRS-detached or IMSI-detached by the network.1 Packet Idle State In packet idle mode no Temporary Block Flows exist (see "4. In network operation modes II and III.No RLC context in MS & SGSN .RLC context in MS & SGSN .Answer to paging . In packet idle mode the MS listens to the PBCCH and to the paging sub-channel for the paging group to which the MS belongs. 9. 9. 192 A30808-X3247-L24-5-7618 .3 Temporary Block Flow"). indicating a GPRS/EGPRS detach.Deactivation of RLC context Packet Transfer State .2.3).3 Radio Resource States 9. Each mode describes a certain amount of functionalities and information allocated.Routing context between MS & SGSN Fig. 9. may trigger the establishment of a TBF and the transition to packet transfer mode (see Fig. 9.2 Detach Function The Detach function allows a MS to inform the network that it wants to make a GPRS/EGPRS and/or IMSI detach. A GPRS/EGPRS-attached MS makes IMSI attach via the SGSN with the combined RA/LA update procedure if the network operation mode is I. The indication is needed to determine whether or not a Detach Accept message will be returned. implicitly. The message contains the cause that has generated the rejection. or if the MS is not GPRS/EGPRS-attached.

A30808-X3247-L24-5-7618 193 . 9. All PDP contexts of a subscriber are associated with the same MM context for the IMSI of that subscriber.7. Transfer of LLC PDUs in either RLC acknowledged or RLC unacknowledged mode is provided.Information System GPRS/EGPRS Global Description 9. 3. 9. 2.4.1 Correspondence between MM States and RR States 9. 9.2 Packet Transfer State In packet transfer mode. Continuous transfer of one or more LLC PDUs is possible.1 provides the correspondence between Radio Resource states and Mobility Management states. MM States RR States Packet Transfer state READY Packet Idle state STAND-BY Packet Idle state Tab. in the SGSN. A mobile station belonging to GPRS/EGPRS class B leaves the packet transfer modes before entering the CS dedicated mode. leaves the packet transfer mode enters the packet idle mode switches to the new cell reads the system information of the new cell resumes the packet transfer mode in the new cell.6 Packet Data Protocol Functionalities The subscription of a point to point PS service contains one or more PDP addresses. Each PDP address is described by an individual PDP context in the MS. The PDP state indicates whether or not the PDP address is activated for data transfer. a mobile station: 1. and in the GGSN. 5. While operating in packet transfer mode. the mobile station uses the allocated radio resources to transmit radio blocks. When selecting a new cell.5 Correspondence between RR States and MM States Tab. Activation and deactivation procedures are described in section 9. Every PDP context exists independently in one of two PDP states. a mobile station belonging to GPRS/EGPRS class A may simultaneously enter the CS dedicated (connected) mode. 4. Concurrent TBFs may be established in opposite directions.

mobile-terminated PTP packets received in INACTIVE state invoke error procedures in the GGSN (for instance an IP packet is discarded).6.7. mobile-terminated PTP packets. The MS initiates the transition from the INACTIVE state to the ACTIVE state by initiating the PDP Context Activation procedure (see "9.1 PDP Context Activation"). 9. Otherwise. but this is outside of the scope of the current document. The ACTIVE PDP state is permitted only when the mobility management state of the subscriber is STANDBY or READY.6. No data can be transferred. 9. the PDP context for a specific PDP address is activated in the MS. The PDP context contains mapping and routing information for transferring PDUs (for that particular PDP address) between the MS and the GGSN. If the GGSN is allowed to initiate the activation of the PDP context for that PDP address. The PDP context contains no routing or mapping information to process PDUs related to that PDP address. may initiate the Network-Requested PDP Context Activation procedure. received in INACTIVE state by the GGSN.4 Packet Data Protocol States 9. 194 A30808-X3247-L24-5-7618 .GPRS/EGPRS Global Description Information System Fig. A changing location of a subscriber causes no update for the PDP context in INACTIVE state even if the subscriber is attached to the PS MM.1 INACTIVE State The INACTIVE state characterizes the data service for a certain PDP address of the subscriber as not activated. Other error procedures may be introduced on the application level. in the SGSN and in the GGSN.2 ACTIVE State In ACTIVE state.

the mobile station sends a CHANNEL REQUEST message to the network.7 Activation and Deactivation of a PDP Context These functions are only meaningful at the NSS level and in the MS. the SGSN initiates procedures to set up PDP contexts. Security functions are executed by the SGSN. 9. the PDP Context Activation procedure is described: 1. Currently the network foresees only the ‘best effort’ quality of service. A MS in STANDBY or READY state can initiate these functions at any time to activate or deactivate a PDP context in the MS. All active PDP contexts for a MS are moved to the INACTIVE state when the MM state changes to IDLE. Upon receiving a Deactivate PDP Context Request message. A30808-X3247-L24-5-7618 195 . PDP Address. 7. 6. 4. The MS sends the ACTIVATE PDP CONTEXT REQUEST message to the SGSN. The GGSN uses the Access Point Name to find an external network. The network. Negotiated QoS) message to the affected GGSN. PDP Address. – Access Point Name: it is a logical name referring to the external packet data network to which the subscriber wishes to connect. 9. The following information is contained in the message: – PDP Address: used by the MS to indicate whether it requires the use of a static PDP address or whether it requires the use of a dynamic PDP address. without taking into account any mobile request. 5. and Access Point Name provided by the MS and the PDP context subscription records. Access Point Name. the SGSN initiates procedures to deactivate PDP contexts. 3.7. Upon receiving an Activate PDP Context Request message. and do not directly involve the BSS. The new entry allows the GGSN to route PDP PDUs between the SGSN and the external PDP network. giving the available resources to the MS. PDP Address is included if the GGSN has allocated a PDP address. In order to activate a PDP context. sends an IMMEDIATE ASSIGNMENT message carrying the PACKET UPLINK ASSIGNMENT information element. This message reserves an uplink resource (a time slot. In the following. in the SGSN. the MS will leave the PDP Address empty to request a dynamic PDP address. – QoS: indicates the desired QoS profile. 2. and to negotiate service parameters such as delay class (average and peak) and throughput (average and peak). The SGSN sends a CREATE PDP CONTEXT REQUEST (PDP Type. and to start charging. The GGSN creates a new entry in its PDP context table and generates a Charging ID. after having reserved a channel on the BTS. The GGSN then returns a CREATE PDP CONTEXT RESPONSE message to the SGSN. The SGSN validates the ACTIVATE PDP CONTEXT REQUEST using PDP Type.1 PDP Context Activation The PDP context activation procedure is used by the mobile station to obtain an IP address from the network. and in the GGSN. with TFI and USF) to the mobile station.Information System GPRS/EGPRS Global Description An active PDP context for a MS is moved to the INACTIVE state when the deactivation procedure is initiated. allowing it to transmit the ACTIVATE PDP CONTEXT REQUEST.

196 A30808-X3247-L24-5-7618 .8. 9. A unique TFI is allocated and is thereafter included in each RLC Data and Control Block related to that TBF..60.1: Radio Priority 2 .. The MS sends a DEACTIVATE PDP CONTEXT REQUEST message to the SGSN. The SGSN sends a DELETE PDP CONTEXT REQUEST message to the GGSN. and returns the ACTIVATE PDP CONTEXT ACCEPT message to the MS. used also for signalling) . Access to the Network (Establishment of a TBF) The establishment of a Temporary Block Flow (TBF) is initiated to transfer LLC PDUs between the network and the MS. access priority) and the service precedence (i.GPRS/EGPRS Global Description Information System 8..0: Radio Priority 1 (Highest priority.2 PDP Context Deactivation The PDP Context Deactivation procedure is executed with the following steps: 1. Security functions are executed by the SGSN.3).1 Medium Access Modes Two types of access modes exist: a) Dynamic Allocation: the assignment message includes the list of PDCHs and the corresponding USF value for each assigned PDCH.7. a network initiated packet transfer (see 9.e. i 9.8. i. the MS can indicate one of the four priority levels. 4.. all PDP contexts for the MS are implicitly deactivated. The SGSN returns a DEACTIVATE PDP CONTEXT ACCEPT message to the MS. The SGSN selects the Radio Priority based on the Negotiated QoS. If the MS used a dynamic PDP address.e. Dynamic allocation is characterized by the MS that monitors the USF values on the allocated PDCHs and transmits Radio blocks on those that currently bear the USF value reserved for the usage of the MS.8 At GPRS/EGPRS detach. 2. Upon uplink access. a higher Quality of Service corresponds to a higher Radio Priority.2: Radio Priority 3 . The Radio Priority is coded as follows: .3: Radio Priority 4 (Lower priority) 9. The request to establish a TBF can be done: • on CCCH if the PBCCH/PCCCH is not configured in the cell • on PCCCH if the PBCCH/PCCCH is allocated in the cell Two types of establishment exists: – TBF establishment initiated by the MS.e. i. i The RLC/MAC layer supports four Radio Priority levels and an additional level for signalling messages as defined in GSM 04. The GGSN removes the PDP context and returns a DELETE PDP CONTEXT RESPONSE message to the SGSN.8. a MS initiated packet transfer (see 9. then the GGSN releases this PDP address and makes it available for subsequent activations by other MSs.e. and whether the cause for the uplink access is user data or signalling message transmission. transfer priority under congested situation). This information is used by the BSS to determine the radio access precedence (i. i.e. 3. The Radio Priority concept is related to the QoS one..2) – TBF establishment initiated by the network.

messages that are exchanged either on the CCCH or PCCCH channel are shown using the following method: messages exchanged on CCCH are normally used. i In the following. In addition. according to its priority class. see "9. Packet access is done on the PCCCH if it exists. the EGPRS uplink assignment contains the following information: – the EGPRS modulation and coding scheme. The packet access procedure is initiated by the mobile station when a request to transfer LLC PDUs comes from upper layers. the continuous update timing advance mechanism will not be used. if the timing advance index (TAI) is included in the uplink assignment construction. When a MS tries to access to the network. • two phase access: the network responds reserving resources for transmitting a PACKET RESOURCE REQUEST message. – the EGPRS window size. the access is performed sending a traditional 8 bit Access Burst type. – MAC access mode (always set to dynamic in BR7.Information System GPRS/EGPRS Global Description b) Fixed Allocation: it is characterized by fixed allocation of radio blocks and PDCHs in the assignment message. the mobile station will use the continuous update timing advance mechanism. In Release BR7. If a timing advance index (TAI) field is not included. 9. In both cases. – information on whether or not retransmitted uplink data blocks must be resegmented.8.8.1 Medium Access Modes").6). without assigning USF values. the Timing Advance parameters (TAI and Timeslot number). the GPATH parameter indicates if the MS. 9. the following parameters and radio resources are allocated to the MS (with the assignment message): – USF – TFI – Time Slot numbers – Channel Coding Scheme – ARFCN – optionally.0 Fixed Allocation is not supported.8. a slotted-aloha protocol is used. when the uplink TBF is set up.0.2.1 8 Bit or 11 Bit Uplink Access To access the GSM network.2 TBF Establishment Initiated by the MS on CCCH/PCCCH The purpose of the packet access procedure is to establish a TBF to support the transfer of LLC PDUs in the direction from the mobile station to the network. otherwise packet access is done on the CCCH. Two different access types exist: • one phase access: the network responds reserving resources on the PDCH(s) to allow uplink packet transfer of a number of Radio Blocks. using PTCCH in the same timeslot as the assigned PDCH (see 4. A30808-X3247-L24-5-7618 197 . is authorized to perform a random access to request packet switched services. whereas the corresponding PCCCH messages are inserted in brackets. this message is used by the MS to better define the needed radio resources.

5 shows the coding process of the 11 bit access burst. • the PACKET CHANNEL REQUEST sent on PRACH can be formatted either with 8 or 11 bit.5 Coding of the 11 Bit Access Burst Tail Guard period 198 A30808-X3247-L24-5-7618 . in particular: • the CHANNEL REQUEST message sent on RACH is always formatted with 8 bit of information. The advantages of the 11 bit uplink access are the following: – it more often allows a one phase access instead of a two phases access.GPRS/EGPRS Global Description Information System According to ETSI specifications. – in the PTCCH channel. e.6). see "9.g. The 8 bit access on PRACH or RACH is used in case of PAGING RESPONSE.2. 9. an access burst using 11 information bit is defined. the 11 bit access burst is the only one supporting the EGPRS PACKET CHANNEL REQUEST message. In fact. The 11 bit access on PRACH is used in all cases described for 8 bit access. The possibility of using one message type or the other one for the PACKET CHANNEL REQUEST depends on network settings: the capability of the network to receive 8 or 11 bit length message is broadcast by the System Information parameter ABUTYP. Fig. The ABUTYP parameter setting also indicates which type of access burst (8 or 11 bit) must be sent: – for PACKET CONTROL ACKNOWLEDGMENT messages. a GPRS/EGPRS mobile station can access the network by using an 8 bit or an 11 bit access burst. – it speeds up the call set-up and decreases the signalling load. To overcome this bottleneck. MM PROCEDUREs and in all cases that the MS requires sending no more information than the MS class and priority. 9. that can be used from EDGE mobile stations to access a cell.4 TBF Establishment for EDGE Mobile Stations".8. an enhanced random reference number leading to less probability of MS collision when trying to establish an uplink TBF. a new enhanced Access Burst type with 11 information bit can be sent by the mobile station to try to access the network. CELL UPDATE. that are formatted as four access burst. Therefore.. that indicates the allowed type of access. 11 information bit + 6 parity bit + 4 tail bit 1/2 Convolutional coder 6 bit puncturing 36 encrypted bit Access Burst Tail Synchronization Sequence Information bit 36 bit Fig. for the continuous timing advance estimation (see 4. i Besides. 8 bit of information does not allow to widely specify the needed resources. but with additional information to be carried in the access phase.

if it receives a paging message indicating the establishment of circuit switched connections. according to its class: – a mobile station in class A or class B mode of operation will respond to a paging message indicating a circuit switched connection establishment.8. it may assign radio resources on one or more PDCHs. the following behaviors will occur.8.8. CHANNEL REQUEST (PACKET CHANNEL REQUEST) messages are sent on the RACH (PRACH) and contain.2. – a mobile station in class B mode of operation may abort the packet access procedure. the PACKET CHANNEL REQUEST may contain more adequate information about the requested resources and. the required parameters to indicate the demand of radio resources from the MS.6 Uplink Access on PRACH (Access Persistence Control)"). beside the indication of the type of access. 9. the mobile station monitors the full CCCH (PCCCH) corresponding to its RACH (PRACH) to wait for the network answer. A30808-X3247-L24-5-7618 199 . When the MS has sent the CHANNEL REQUEST (PACKET CHANNEL REQUEST) message. consequently. i If the PCCCH is configured and the mobile station receives the PERSISTENCE_LEVEL parameter from the network.6 shows a one phase access procedure on PCCCH.2 Establishment using a One Phase Access A mobile station initiates the packet access procedure by scheduling the sending of CHANNEL REQUEST (PACKET CHANNEL REQUEST) messages on the RACH (PRACH). the value of the PERSISTENCE_LEVEL parameter is taken into account at the next PACKET CHANNEL REQUEST attempt (see "9. i The topics described in this chapter are valid for GPRS MSs and also for EDGE MSs when the EGPRS PACKET CHANNEL REQUEST is not supported in the cell (see "9. and simultaneously leaving the packet idle mode. In the one phase access.4 TBF Establishment for EDGE Mobile Stations") or to request a two phase access.2.2. When the network receives the CHANNEL REQUEST (PACKET CHANNEL REQUEST) message. sent on any AGCH (PAGCH) block on the same CCCH (PCCCH) on which the network has received the CHANNEL REQUEST (PACKET CHANNEL REQUEST) message. uplink resources on one or several PDCHs can be assigned by using the PACKET UPLINK ASSIGNMENT message. using the CHANNEL REQUEST message. On the PRACH. these values can be used to request limited resources in the one phase access (EGPRS TBFs cannot be opened using a one phase access on RACH.Information System GPRS/EGPRS Global Description 9. see "9.2. to be used by the mobile station for the TBF. Then. – mobile stations in class C mode of operation will not respond to any type of paging messages during the packet access procedure. there are only 8 bit of information.8.4 TBF Establishment for EDGE Mobile Stations"). the reservation is done according to the information about the requested resources. in the CHANNEL REQUEST message. so there are only two available values for denoting PS calls. comprised in the channel request. The allocated PDTCH(s) and PACCH resources are assigned to the mobile station in the IMMEDIATE ASSIGNMENT (PACKET UPLINK ASSIGNMENT) message. On the RACH. Fig.

8. – by a mobile station. where the mobile station transmits a PACKET RESOURCE REQUEST message. if access is granted. The order is sent implicitly to the mobile station in the PACKET UPLINK ASSIGNMENT message by including the Single Block Allocation Structure. the network will order the mobile station to send a PACKET RESOURCE REQUEST message.2. the network reserves a limited resource (single radio block) on one PDCH to the mobile station. by requiring a two phase access in the PACKET CHANNEL REQUEST message. In this message.GPRS/EGPRS Global Description Information System Fig. 9.6 One Phase Access on PCCCH 9. 200 A30808-X3247-L24-5-7618 . The order is sent implicitly to the mobile station in the PACKET UPLINK ASSIGNMENT message by including the Single Block Allocation structure. until the network sends the IMMEDIATE ASSIGNMENT (PACKET UPLINK ASSIGNMENT) message. This message denotes a single block allocation. the same procedure as for one phase access is used.3 TBF Establishment using a Two Phases Access In the first phase of a two phase access. In this case. which indicates to the MS the two phases access. The two phase access can be initiated either by the MS or the network. a two phase access can be initiated: – by the network by ordering the mobile station to send a PACKET RESOURCE REQUEST message. following these rules: • if PCCCH is provided in the cell.

9. For this reason a reduction and optimization of the overall delay for all the types of PRR/TBF start has been applied for both idle channels and active channels. When the network receives the PACKET RESOURCE REQUEST message. A30808-X3247-L24-5-7618 201 . it responds by sending either a PACKET UPLINK ASSIGNMENT message (radio resources assignment on one or more PDCHs to be used by the mobile station for the TBF) or a PACKET ACCESS REJECT message to the MS. 9. A gap of about 350. 450 ms has been detected between the IACMD and the PRR in case of two phase access.Information System GPRS/EGPRS Global Description • if no PCCCH is provided in the cell. by requiring this type of access within the CHANNEL REQUEST message. In case of active channels it is not necessary the syncronization of the PDTs.7 Two Phases Access on CCCH n the current release an improvement of the GAP between the Assignment and Packet Resource Request (PRR) and/or the TBF start has been implemented. The improvement has been achieved with the optimization of the commanded TBF starting time. Considering that the channel synchronization has a final cycle without any TA and FN changes and an additional virtual cycle should be taken into account as reserve (60-100ms) the PRR delay or the TBF start could be improved by about 200ms. In case of idle channels the Immediate Assignment (IACMD) is submitted by the PCU parallel to the ongoing channel synchronization roughly before the ending of the channel synchronization itself.7 shows a two phases access procedure on CCCH. Fig. a two phase access can be only initiated by a mobile station. Fig. As a consequence the PRR/TBF start can be commanded without risk accordingly to the internal RNLC timing.

an EGPRS mobile station sends the 11 bit EGPRS PACKET CHANNEL REQUEST message. The EGPRS_PACKET_CHANNEL_REQUEST support indication field. a GPRS mobile station will use a “traditional” access burst with the training sequence already used for GSM (TS GSM). will use the following to access a cell: – the EGPRS PACKET CHANNEL REQUEST message for EGPRS uplink TBF establishment on the PRACH when there is a PBCCH in the cell. In the following. In fact. therefore: – when the mobile station is an EGPRS one. its uplink capability. the access procedures are described in more detail. • In the second case.4 TBF Establishment for EDGE Mobile Stations As described in "4. It is important to note that only EDGE CUs are able to manage access bursts containing TS1 and TS2 (and as a consequence the EGPRS PACKET CHANNEL REQUEST message). – a two phase access with CHANNEL REQUEST message on the RACH when there is no PBCCH in the cell. and it is supported only by the EDGE Access Burst. to allow a mobile station to signal to the network. The EGPRS PACKET CHANNEL REQUEST message is formatted as 11 bit of information. with GMSK modulation capability in uplink direction. so the EGPRS PACKET CHANNEL REQUEST message will be used to access a cell only if the BCCH carrier supports EDGE.1 Mobile Stations for Packet Switched Services" two mobile classes are foreseen for what concerns EGPRS mobile stations. an EGPRS capable MS.e. as described in "9. an EGPRS capable MS. Instead. • In the first case. during the access phase. it uses the EDGE access burst with TS1 training sequence. is represented by one bit. will use the following to access a cell: – a two phase access with PACKET CHANNEL REQUEST message on the PRACH for uplink TBF establishment when there is a PBCCH in the cell. the EGPRS mobile station will use the CHANNEL REQUEST message on RACH (or PACKET CHANNEL REQUEST message on PRACH) message and initiates a two phases access request. with 8PSK modulation capability in uplink direction. 202 A30808-X3247-L24-5-7618 . Therefore. the ABUTYP parameter that indicates the format of the information field of access bursts must be set to ACBU11BIT. – the EGPRS PACKET CHANNEL REQUEST message for EGPRS uplink TBF establishment on the RACH when there is no PBCCH in the cell. i.4. reading the GPRS Cell Option IE in SI13 or in PSI1 and finding the EGPRS_PACKET_CHANNEL_REQUEST support indication field.2 Enabling EGPRS Service in the Cell"): a) at least one EDGE CU is configured in the BTS equipment handling the cell b) the TRXMD parameter of the BCCH carrier is set to EDGE c) the TrxCapability of the BCCH carrier is set to EDGE Besides.8. – when the mobile station is an EGPRS one. (see "5.1. the MS knows that EGPRS is available in the cell.1 Packet Broadcast Control Channel (PBCCH)". The EDGE Access Burst uses two different training sequences. and EGPRS PACKET CHANNEL REQUEST on RACH (PRACH) is supported in the cell.2. and can assume the values 0 or 1. TS1 and TS2.GPRS/EGPRS Global Description Information System 9.. if the SI13 (or the PSI1) indicates that the cell is EGPRS capable. If the SI 13 (or the PSI1) indicates that the cell is EGPRS capable and EGPRS PACKET CHANNEL REQUEST on RACH /PRACH) is not supported in the cell. it uses the EDGE access burst with TS2 training sequence.

2. the MS sends an EGPRS PACKET CHANNEL REQUEST message on PRACH channel.5 Contention Resolution Contention resolution is an important part of RLC/MAC protocol operations.Information System GPRS/EGPRS Global Description EGPRS Uplink TBF Establishment using a One Phase Access Regarding this kind of Uplink TBF establishment.2 Establishment using a One Phase Access".8.8. The procedure is similar to those described in "9.3 TBF Establishment using a Two Phases Access".2. b) EGPRS PACKET CHANNEL REQUEST is NOT supported: – if the PBCCH channel is not supported. – if the PBCCH is supported.2. a GPRS TBF will be allocated following the procedure described in "9. – if the PBCCH channel is supported.2. The procedure is similar to those described in "9.3 TBF Establishment using a Two Phases Access".8. the MS sends a Channel Request (with two phase indication) on RACH channel.8. the MS sends an EGPRS PACKET CHANNEL REQUEST message on the RACH channel.8. b) EGPRS PACKET CHANNEL REQUEST is NOT supported: in this case. The BSC answers with IMMEDIATE ASSIGNMENT message. – if the PBCCH channel is supported. The BSC answers with PACKET UPLINK ASSIGNMENT (single block). then the MS sends a Packet Resource Request message following the procedure described in "9. The BSC answers with a Packet Uplink Assignment message.2. the MS sends a Packet Channel Request (with two phase indication) on PRACH channel.2 Establishment using a One Phase Access": the BSC answers with a Packet Uplink Assignment for Uplink EGPRS TBF. especially because one channel allocation can be used to transfer a number of LLC frames.2 Establishment using a One Phase Access": the BSC answers with the IMMEDIATE ASSIGNMENT message for Uplink EGPRS TBF.3 TBF Establishment using a Two Phases Access". then the MS sends a Packet Resource Request message following the procedure described in "9.2. then the MS sends a Packet Resource Request message following the procedure described in "9.2. A30808-X3247-L24-5-7618 203 . 9. and then it sends a Packet Uplink Assignment for Uplink EGPRS TBF if the TBF is multislot.3 TBF Establishment using a Two Phases Access". the MS sends an EGPRS PACKET CHANNEL REQUEST message on the PRACH channel.8. As defined in the previous chapters. The BSC answers with IMMEDIATE ASSIGNMENT (single block). the one phase and the two phase access.8. the one phase access does not allow establishing an EGPRS TBF.2. then the MS sends a Packet Resource Request message following the procedure described in "9. there are two basic access possibilities. EGPRS Uplink TBF Establishment using a Two Phase Access The following different cases exist regarding this kind of Uplink TBF establishment: a) EGPRS PACKET CHANNEL REQUEST is supported: – if the PBCCH channel is not supported.8. the MS sends an EGPRS PACKET CHANNEL REQUEST message on RACH channel. different cases exist: a) EGPRS PACKET CHANNEL REQUEST is supported: – if the PBCCH channel is not supported.

The P-TMSI identifies the MS for location purposes. In order to uniquely identify the MS when sending on uplink. The one phase access is somewhat insecure.. The user can set the four PERSISTENCE_LEVEL values (one for each priority) by the following parameters: PERSTLVPRI1.2. 16} group. The first part of the solution is the identification of the MS. The same TLLI is included in the Packet Uplink Assignment/Packet Downlink Assignment and no mistakes are possible. i. The second part of the solution is the notification from the network side about who owns the allocation. or it is built by the MS. If the PRACH Control Parameters IE does not contain the PERSISTENCE_LEVEL parameter.e. where P(i) is a value taken inside the {0.2. the mobile station listens to the full PCCCH that corresponds to the PRACH (i.e. PERSTLVPRI2. may be initiated at the first possible TDMA frame containing PRACH. The Control Parameters Information Element of PRACH contains the access persistence control parameters. By doing so. 1. it defines (for each radio priority) the maximum number of re-transmissions of the PACKET CHANNEL REQUEST message. uniquely identifies the MS by its TLLI. the RLC Header for all of the RLC Data Blocks on the uplink is extended to include the TLLI. the contention is resolved after the first occurrence of Packet Ack/Nack. Additionally. The relationship between TLLI and IMSI is known only in the MS and in the SGSN..4). but also to be able to establish the RLC protocol entity for that Temporary Block Flow on the network side. the second access phase. That is solved by the inclusion of the TLLI in the PACKET UPLINK ACK/NACK and PACKET DOWNLINK ACK/NACK messages. on the PDCH matching the mobile station’s PCCCH_GROUP. The identification of transmitting MS on the RLC/MAC level is necessary not only for contention resolution. After sending each PACKET CHANNEL REQUEST message. i The Temporary Logical Link Identity (TLLI) identifies a GPRS/EGPRS user inside the cell. which consists of the PERSISTENCE_LEVEL P(i) for each radio priority i (i = 1. carried by the same PDCH). and an efficient contention resolution mechanism must be introduced. TLLI is derived from the P-TMSI allocated by the SGSN.3. the Packet Resource Request. it corresponds to the GMANRETS database parameter – PERSISTENCE_LEVEL. TLLI is necessary to be able to match simultaneous uplink and downlink packet transfers by taking into consideration multislot capability of that MS. this will be interpreted as if P(i)=0 for all radio priorities.6 Uplink Access on PRACH (Access Persistence Control) The mobile station makes at most MAX_RETRANS + 1 attempts to send a PACKET CHANNEL REQUEST message. PERSTLVPRI3 and PERSTLVPRI4 – S: corresponds to the GS database parameter – TX_INT: corresponds to the GTXINT database parameter The first attempt to send a PACKET CHANNEL REQUEST message. for each Radio Priority i (i=1. until the contention resolution is completed on the MS side. 4). 2. 9. …14. The parameters included in the PRACH Control Parameters IE are: – MAX_RETRANS. 3. and it is broadcast on PBCCH and PCCCH. whereas TLLI identifies the MS from the packet data transfer point of view. Namely.8.GPRS/EGPRS Global Description Information System The two phase access is inherently immune from the possibility that two MSs can perceive the same channel allocation as their own. 204 A30808-X3247-L24-5-7618 .

a packet access failure is indicated to upper layers and the mobile station returns to packet idle mode. 9. corresponding to one of the 3 last PACKET CHANNEL REQUESTs sent by the MS.1}. the mobile station listens to paging subchannels on CCCH. is a random value drawn. with a uniform probability distribution in the set {S. When the MS initiates a packet access procedure and receives from the network a Packet Access Reject message from the network. the packet access procedure is aborted.. it cannot send any other PACKET CHANNEL REQUEST messages).2 Discontinuous Reception"). The MS responds to one PACKET PAGING REQUEST message by initiating a mobile originated packet transfer. monitored according to the paging groups defined for the mobile station and its current DRX mode (see "9.Information System GPRS/EGPRS Global Description After each attempt. the mobile station listens to the paging sub-channels on PCCCH. in any case.3. excluding the TDMA frames potentially containing the messages themselves. S + 1. Paging for GPRS/EGPRS is performed on Routing Areas. S + TX_INT . If PCCCH is not present in the considered cell. the MS is not allowed to access to the cell (i. The number of TDMA frames between two successive attempts to send a PACKET CHANNEL REQUEST message.8 Packet Access Reject Procedure 9. 9. as described in "9.8.3 TBF Establishment Initiated by the Network on CCCH/PCCCH When the GPRS/EGPRS MS is in standby state and the PCCCH channel is configured in the serving cell.2 TBF Establishment Initiated by the MS on CCCH/PCCCH".8): – if the MS receives the Packet Uplink Assignment message. the SGSN only knows the Routing Area on which the MS is camped on. the MS can start new transmissions of packet channel requests t Start T3172 Stop T3172 T3172 Expired (Reception of a Packet (Reception of a Packet Access in the cell is Access Reject message) Uplink Assignment message) no longer prohibited Fig. If the MS is in Standby state. A30808-X3247-L24-5-7618 205 . i Paging sub-channels are. The packet paging response is one or more RLC/MAC data blocks containing an arbitrary LLC frame. it stops the T3172 timer – it the T3172 timer expires. S and TX_INT parameters are used to determine the next TDMA frame in which the MS is allowed to make a successive attempt. …. while the timer is running.8. When the MS has made MAX_RETRANS + 1 attempts to send a PACKET CHANNEL REQUEST message. Then one of the following situations can occur (see Fig. In order to initiate a downlink packet transfer.8. it starts the T3172 timer. for each transmission. the SGSN sends to the MS one or more PACKET PAGING REQUEST messages on the downlink PCH (PPCH).e. This mobile originated packet transfer allows the MS to send a PACKET PAGING RESPONSE to the network.

the SGSN knows the exact cell where the MS is camped on. 9.GPRS/EGPRS Global Description Information System When the packet paging response has been sent by the MS and received by the network. without sending the PACKET PAGING REQUEST message. If the mobile station applies DRX. the mobility management state of the MS changes from standby to ready. the following parameters and radio resources are allocated to the MS: – TFI – Time Slot numbers – ARFCN – optionally Timing Advance parameters (TAI and Timeslot number) – MAC access mode (always set to dynamic. When the downlink TBF is set up. The downlink assignment message includes the list of PDCH(s) that will be used for downlink transfer. for EGPRS MSs. there is no further restriction on what part of the downlink CCCH (PCCCH) timeslot an IMMEDIATE ASSIGNMENT (PACKET DOWNLINK ASSIGNMENT) message can be sent. i If the MS is already in READY state. the message will be sent in a CCCH (PCCCH) block corresponding to a paging group determined for the mobile station in packet idle mode. then the SGSN sends the assignment message on PCH (PPCH) or AGCH (PAGCH).1 Medium Access Modes") – optionally.8. 206 A30808-X3247-L24-5-7618 . The network initiates the packet downlink assignment procedure by sending the IMMEDIATE ASSIGNMENT (PACKET DOWNLINK ASSIGNMENT) message on the CCCH (PCCCH) timeslot corresponding to CCCH (PCCCH) group to which the mobile station belongs. If an uplink packet transfer is in progress. the EGPRS window size The TBF establishment initiated by the network is shown in Fig. The transmission of RLC/MAC blocks to a MS in the ready state is initiated by the network using the packet downlink assignment procedure.9 in case of PCCCH. If the mobile station does not apply DRX. the PACKET DOWNLINK ASSIGNMENT message is transmitted on PACCH. see "9.

e. the network works in a coordinated way. 9. – on the PPCH paging channel. or on a PDCH traffic channel. the PCCCH if it is configured.2): • Network operation mode I: the network sends CS paging messages for a GPRS/EGPRS-attached MS.8.e. but that CS paging continues on this paging channel even if the MS has been assigned a packet data channel. i. if the MS is in packet idle mode – on the PDCH if the MS is in packet transfer mode Then the MS must only monitor one channel at any time.9 TBF Establishment Initiated by the Network on PCCCH 9..Information System GPRS/EGPRS Global Description Fig.3. • Network operation mode III: the network sends CS paging messages for a GPRS/EGPRS-attached MS on the CCCH paging channel. • Network operation mode II: the network sends CS paging messages for a GPRS/EGPRS-attached MS on the CCCH paging channel. otherwise the CCCH). and that it receives CS paging messages on the packet data channel when it has been assigned a packet data channel. When the network operation mode I is used. Paging coordination means that the network sends paging messages for circuit switched services on the same channel as used for packet switched services. Three network operation modes are defined (see Tab. 9. This means that the MS must monitor the CCCH paging channel. and sends PS paging A30808-X3247-L24-5-7618 207 . This means that the MS must monitor one paging channel.. and this channel is also used for PS paging. either on the same channel as the PS paging channel (i.1 Network Operation Modes for Paging The network may provide co-ordination of paging for circuit-switched and packetswitched services.

A GPRS/EGPRS MS may be able to choose whether or not it wants to use discontinuous reception (DRX). and it is provided independently of whether the MS is in STANDBY or READY state. If the MS uses DRX mode. according to its capabilities. it is also possible to organize paging channels in combination with discontinuous reception (DRX).3. II. the MS must also specify other DRX parameters that indicate the delay for the network to send page requests or channel assignments to the MS. whether it can attach to PS services. Paging co-ordination is made by the SGSN based on the IMSI. meaning that the packet common control channel is not allocated in the cell. or III) are indicated as system information to the MSs. to non-PS services. Then the network will either: – operate in mode II. 9. DRX allows MSs to reduce power consumption. as for the CS service. and co-ordination of paging cannot be performed. 208 A30808-X3247-L24-5-7618 . ready state or standby state).e. thus allowing network co-ordination of paging. i.. Mode Mode I CS services paging channel PPCH paging channel CCCH paging channel Packet data channel Mode II Mode III CCCH paging channel CCCH paging channel CCCH paging channel Tab. Based on the mode of operation provided by the network. – operate in mode III.2 Network Operation Modes PS paging channel PPCH paging channel CCCH paging channel Not Applicable CCCH paging channel PCCCH paging channel CCCH paging channel NO NO Paging co-ordination YES When the Gs interface exists.GPRS/EGPRS Global Description Information System messages either on PCCCH (if it is allocated in the cell) or on the CCCH paging channel. No paging co-ordination is performed by the network. the mode of operation should be the same in each cell of a routing area. meaning that the packet common control channel is used for PS paging when the packet paging channel is allocated in the cell. or to both of them. For PS services. When the Gs interface does not exist.8. all MSC-originated pages of GPRS/EGPRSattached MSs goes via the A interface. The user sets this value with the NMO parameter. all MSC-originated pages of GPRS/EGPRS-attached MSs go via the SGSN. For proper operation. so a mobile station in packet idle mode listens to radio blocks on CCCH or PCCCH. Therefore a MS that wants to receive pages for both circuit-switched and packet-switched services will monitor both paging channels if the packet paging channel is allocated in the cell.2 Discontinuous Reception Paging is used to send paging information to mobile stations in packet idle mode (apart from the current MM state. 9. The network operates in mode I. the MS can then choose. The network operation modes (mode I.

Information System

GPRS/EGPRS Global Description

DRX parameters are indicated by the MS in the Attach procedure (see 9.3.2.1). Then the then in each page request sends these parameters to the BSS, that uses both this information and the IMSI of the MS to calculate the correct paging group. In the GPRS attach procedure the following parameters are established: • DRX/non-DRX indicator: indicates whether or not the MS uses DRX. • DRX period: indicates the period of time between two consecutive paging blocks (within a timeslot used as CCCH or PCCCH) where a MS, which is using DRX mode, can receive its paging messages. When PCCCH is used, the DRX period is defined by the SPLIT_PG_CYCLE parameter. The mobile station requests values for the SPLIT_PG_CYCLE parameter to be applied on PCCCH. The SPLIT_PG_CYCLE parameter handles the occurrence of paging blocks on PCCCH monitored by the mobile station in DRX mode.

i

The support of the SPLIT_PG_CYCLE parameter on CCCH is optional. The SPGC_CCCH_SUP parameter (not configurable in the database) indicates the support of the SPLIT_PG_CYCLE on CCCH from the network side. If SPLIT_PG_CYCLE is not supported on CCCH, the period of monitoring paging blocks on CCCHs is defined by the GSM NFRAMEPG parameter. The NFRAMEPG parameter determines the number of 51 TDMA multiframes between two consecutive transmissions of the same paging message in the same paging group. The parameters used to define the paging groups for GPRS/EGPRS are shown in Tab. 9.3, with the corresponding GSM parameters. • Non-DRX timer: is used to determine the duration of the non-DRX mode period to be applied by the mobile station when it has left the packet transfer mode and enters the packet idle mode. A MS in non-DRX mode is required to monitor all of the radio blocks of the PCCCH or CCCH channel; therefore the required time to execute the paging procedure is reduced. As long as the timer is running (hence the MS is in non-DRX mode), the BSC sends downlink assignments on the AGCH or PAGCH (and not in paging blocks that the MS monitors when DRX mode is active, and that occur with a low frequency) reducing the time to allocate resources. So, when the MS changes from packet transfer mode to packet idle mode, the BSC starts a timer; the duration of this timer is determined by the following:

timer = min (DRX_TIMER_MAX, NON_DRX_TIMER)

where: – DRX_TIMER_MAX represents the DRXTMA parameter, and it is broadcast in the cell – NON_DRX_TIMER is a parameter requested by the MS in the PS attach procedure During this period, the MS is in non-DRX mode; when the timer expires, the MS resumes discontinuous reception.

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Information System

i

In applications such as WAP, the time needed to get a reply is a key factor for end user acceptance. Because of highly interactive behavior of WAP with few seconds between answers from network and subsequent user actions (for example navigating through menus), response times are drastically reduced by sending the immediate assignment/packet downlink assignment messages (polling requests) on the AGCH/PAGCH instead of PCH/PPCH. So, when the DRX mode is temporarily disabled, the time that occurs to receive at the MS side a data block that has been sent from the Gb interface, is in average reduced by 50%. When the mobile station receives a new value of the DRXTMA parameter, the mobile station is not required to consider the new value until the next time it enters packet idle mode.

i

There is another case when the MS enters the non-DRX mode: when initiating the MM procedures for PS attach and routing area update, the mobile station enters the MM non-DRX mode period. This period ends when the corresponding MM procedures terminate.

Subjects PCCCH DRX period Blocks not available for paging per multiframe SPLIT_PG_CYCLE

GPRS/EGPRS CCCH NFRAMEPG (*) SPLIT_PG_CYCLE (**) NBLKACGR

Corresponding GSM parameters CCCH NFRAMEPG NBLKACGR (***)

BSPBBLK + BPAGCHR

Number of timeslots (phys- Depending on the number ical channels) containing of slots reserved for paging PCCCH by means of the GDCH parameter.

Depending on the number Depending on the of slots reserved for number of slots reserved CCCH. for CCCH.

(*) only when DRX period split is not supported. (**) only when DRX period split is supported. (***) NBLKACGR is a GSM parameter the indicates the number of CCCH blocks reserved for the access grant signalling during a period of a 51 TDMA frames (that means during a period of a 51 TDMA multiframe). Its value has to be always > 0, to support mobile stations which do not handle SI2quater correctly. Tab. 9.3 Parameters for DRX Operation GPRS/EGPRS Paging using CCCH A mobile station using DRX is only required to monitor the PCH blocks belonging to its paging group. The network sends the paging subchannel for a given MS every NFRAMEPG multiframes, or every 64/SPLIT_PG_CYCLE multiframes if SPLIT_PG_CYCLE is supported. A mobile station not using DRX is required to monitor every PCH block on the same CCCH as for DRX. The network internal message flow is as follows:

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GPRS/EGPRS Global Description

1. the SGSN, which has the information about the usage of DRX, sends a paging message to all PCUs that are supporting the right Routing Area. This message includes the information on whether or not DRX is used, and additionally, if the enhanced DRX mechanism is used, the SPLIT_PG_CYCLE parameter that indicates that the existing DRX mechanism is supported by the network; 2. the PCU forwards the Packet Paging Request message combined with the requested paging parameters over the internal interface to the TDPC; 3. the TDPC calculates the right paging group and forwards per LAPD connection the Packet Paging Request message to the paging queues inside the BTS. Additionally the BSC evaluates all needed DRX parameters that must be broadcast on the BCCH; 4. the BTS queues all Packet Paging Request messages and sends them in first-in first-out order on the PCHs in the CCCH multiframe. GPRS/EGPRS Paging using PCCCH A MS using DRX is required to monitor the PPCH. The network sends the paging subchannel for a given MS every 64/SPLIT_PG_CYCLE multiframes. A mobile station not using DRX is required to monitor every PPCH block on the same PCCCH as for DRX. The network internal message flow as follows: 1. The SGSN, which has the information about the usage of DRX, sends a paging message to all PCUs located in the right Routing Area. This message includes the information about whether or not DRX is used and additionally (if the enhanced DRX mechanism is used) the SPLIT_PG_CYCLE parameter; 2. The PCU calculates the right paging group and adds all Packet Paging Request messages on its paging group queues. Additionally, the PCU evaluates all needed DRX parameters that must be broadcast on PBCCH; 3. The PCU includes the Packet Paging Request messages into RLC/MAC blocks and schedules the messages into the PDCH multiframes, which contain PCCCH. The RLC/MAC blocks are transferred via PCU frames to the BTS, which immediatly transmits the Packet Request message.

9.8.4

Relative Reserved Block Period Field (RRBP)
The RRBP field is contained in the MAC header of every RLC/MAC block sent in downlink direction. Its value specifies a single uplink block in which the mobile station will transmit either a PACKET CONTROL ACKNOWLEDGEMENT message (to acknowledge a downlink control block) or another PACCH block to the network. If the RRBP field is received as part of a RLC/MAC control block containing any message except Packet Paging Request, Packet Access Reject, and Packet Queueing Notification, the mobile station will transmit a PACKET CONTROL ACKNOWLEDGEMENT message in the specified uplink radio block. If the RRBP field is received as part of a RLC/MAC control block containing a Packet Paging Request, Packet Access Reject, or Packet Queueing Notification message, the mobile station ignores this RRBP field. If the RRBP field is received as part of a RLC/MAC data block, the mobile station will transmit a PACCH block (e.g., a PACKET UPLINK ACK/NACK message to acknowledge the downlink data block) in the specified uplink radio block.

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The mobile station will always transmit the uplink radio block on the same timeslot as the block where the RRBP has been received. To indicate to the MS whether or not the received RRBP field is valid, a bit of the MAC header is used; according to the value of this bit, the MS knows if, in the received block, the RRBP field is meaningful.

i

The multislot class of the MS limits allowed combinations and configurations when the MS supports multislot communications. When an MS has established a downlink TBF, it cannot transmit in uplink direction (after a polling by the network) on any timeslot; in fact for each mobile station, according to its multislot class, downlink and uplink timeslots usage is specified (see "4.7.1 Mobile Station Classes for Multislot Capabilities"). Therefore, to poll the MS, the network must send the downlink block with a valid RRBP field on a timeslot where the polled MS is able to answer.

9.8.5

Polling Procedures
As described in "4.6 Packet Timing Advance Estimation", the initial timing advance estimation is based on the single access burst carrying the Packet Channel Request. The Packet Uplink Assignment or Packet Downlink Assignment (or the Immediate Assignment if the PCCCH is not configured) carries the estimated timing advance value to the MS. But, when Packet Downlink Assignment must be sent without prior paging (i.e., in the Ready state), no valid timing advance value may be available. Then the network has two options: 1. The RRBP field of the Packet Downlink Assignment message can be set to trigger the transmission of the PACKET CONTROL ACKNOWLEDGEMENT message (see "9.8.4 Relative Reserved Block Period Field (RRBP)"). This can be used only if the System information indicates that acknowledgement is access bursts, i.e., it can be used only if CACKTYP is set to 0;

i

The CACKTYP parameter is hard-coded to the value 0.

2. Packet Downlink Assignments can be sent without timing advance information. In that case, it is indicated to the MS that it can only start the uplink transmission after the timing advance value has been obtained by the continuous timing advance update procedure. The continuous timing advance update procedure can create some delays between the packet downlink assignment message and the beginning of data transfer in downlink direction (this delay is due to the time needed to exchange timing advance information between the network and the MS). In order to reduce the time between a packet downlink assignment message and the effective beginning of downlink data transmission, a polling procedure is executed by the network to order the MS to send a Packet Control Acknowledgment message, formatted as four Access Bursts. This procedure foresees polling the MS by means of the RRBP field of the assignment message; as a consequence, the CACKTYP parameter must be set to 0, to force the MS to respond with four Access Burst. Different procedures are executed according to whether or not the PBCCH is configured.

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Procedure when PBCCH is configured If PBCCH is configured, the following steps are executed: – the BSC sends the PACKET DOWNLINK ASSIGNMENT message (on the PPCH/PAGCH) setting the RRPB field to poll the MS; – upon reception of the PACKET CONTROL ACKNOWLEDGEMENT message from the MS, the BSC can immediately start downlink transmission of data blocks; – as soon as possible (also before the transmission of the first downlink data block) the BSC must send the PACKET POWER CONTROL/TIMING ADVANCE message to the MS, including the estimated timing advance value. Procedure when PBCCH is not configured If PBCCH is not configured, the following steps are executed: – the BSC sends the IMMEDIATE ASSIGNMENT message for downlink TBF on PCH/AGCH; – then the BSC sends on the assigned PDCH(s) a PACKET DOWNLINK ASSIGNMENT message setting the RRPB field to poll the MS; – upon reception of the PACKET CONTROL ACKNOWLEDGEMENT message from the MS, the BSC can immediately start downlink transmission of data blocks; – as soon as possible (also before the transmission of the first downlink data block) the BSC must send the PACKET POWER CONTROL/TIMING ADVANCE message, including the estimated timing advance value, to the MS.

9.9

RLC Data Block Transfer
The RLC functions support two modes of operation: • RLC acknowledged mode: this mode is used for data applications where the payload content must be preserved. It is the typical mode for Background class (background delivery of e-mails, SMS, download of databases) and Interactive class applications (web browsing). • RLC unacknowledged mode: this mode is used for delay-sensitive services, such as Conversational class (voice, video conference) and Streaming class applications (one-way real time audio and video). A TBF may operate in either RLC acknowledged mode or RLC unacknowledged mode.

9.9.1

Acknowledged Mode for RLC/MAC Operation
There are some differences regarding GPRS and EGPRS acknowledged modes; these differences are described below.

9.9.1.1

GPRS Acknowledged Mode
GPRS acknowledged operation mode uses retransmission of RLC data blocks to achieve high reliability. The transfer of RLC Data Blocks in the RLC/MAC acknowledged mode is controlled by a selective ARQ mechanism (type I ARQ) coupled with the numbering of the RLC Data Blocks within one Temporary Block Flow. The sending side (the MS or the network) transmits blocks within a window (the length of the window is fixed to 64 blocks) and the receiving side sends a Packet Uplink Ack/Nack or a Packet Downlink Ack/Nack message when needed. The transmitting side numbers the RLC data blocks via the block sequence number (BSN), which is used for retransmission and reassembly. Every such message acknowledges all correctly received RLC Data Blocks

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up to an indicated block sequence number (BSN), thus “moving” the beginning of the sending window on the sending side. Additionally, the bitmap that starts at the same RLC Data Block is used to selectively request erroneously received RLC Data Blocks for retransmission. The sending side then retransmits the erroneous RLC Data Blocks, eventually resulting in further sliding of the sending window. A missing Packet Ack/Nack is not critical and a new one can be issued whenever.

9.9.1.2

EGPRS Acknowledged Mode
The transfer of RLC Data Blocks in the EGPRS acknowledged RLC/MAC mode can be controlled by the following: a) a selective type I ARQ mechanism, where coding of a RLC Data Block is solely based on the prevailing transmission (i.e., erroneous blocks are not stored); b) a type II hybrid ARQ mechanism (called Incremental Redundancy - IR) where erroneous blocks are stored by the receiver and a joint decoding with new transmissions is done. Both methods are coupled with the numbering of the RLC Data Blocks within one Temporary Block Flow.

i

In Release BR7.0 , the Incremental Redundancy mechanism for EGPRS is only used in the downlink direction; in the uplink direction, only the selective type I ARQ mechanism is used. The sending side (the MS or the network) transmits blocks within a window and the receiving side sends Packet Uplink Ack/Nack or Packet Downlink Ack/Nack message when needed. For EGPRS, the window size (WS) will be set by the operator according to the number of timeslots allocated in the direction of the TBF (uplink or downlink). The operator can set the window sizes with the following parameters: – EGWSONETS, in case one timeslot is assigned – EGWSTWOTS, in case two timeslots are assigned – EGWSTHREETS, in case three timeslots are assigned – EGWSFOURTS, in case four timeslots are assigned – EGWSFIVETS, in case five timeslots are assigned – EGWSSIXTS, in case six timeslots are assigned – EGWSSEVENTS, in case seven timeslots are assigned – EGWSEIGHTTS, in case eight timeslots are assigned According to the link quality, an initial MCS is selected for an RLC block. For retransmission, the same or another MCS from the same family of MCSs can be selected (see "10.5 Link Adaptation"). For example if MCS-7 is selected for the first transmission of an RLC block, any MCS of the family B can be used for retransmissions. RLC data blocks initially transmitted with MCS4/MCS5 or MCS6/MCS7/MCS8 or MCS9, can optionally be retransmitted with MCS1, MCS2, and MCS3 respectively, using two radio blocks. In this case, the split block field in the header is set to indicate that the RLC data block is split, and the order of the two parts. For blocks initially transmitted with MCS8 that are retransmitted using MCS6 or MCS3, padding of the first six octets in the data field will be applied, and the CPS field will be set to indicate that this has been done. Incremental redundancy is used only in the downlink direction. The split block field is used to indicate to the MS whether or not the block has been segmented. In fact, the following must be noted:

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will be sent with the puncturing scheme indicated in Tab.. the information is first sent with one of the initial code rates (i.e. for retransmissions. at the first transmission after the MCS switch.4 Puncturing Schemes to be used after a Coding Scheme Switch In the EGPRS type I ARQ. the MSwill indicate this by setting the LA/IR bit in the EGPRS PACKET DOWNLINK ACK/NACK message. 9. b) when ARQ mode type II is used. RLC data blocks. the operation is similar to one of the EGPRS type II hybrid ARQ.. MCS switched from MCS9 MCS switched to PS of last transmission before MCS switch PS1 or PS3 PS2 MCS6 MCS9 PS1 PS2 MCS7 MCS5 MCS5 MCS97 any any any PS of first transmission after MCS switch PS1 PS2 PS3 PS2 PS1 PS2 PS1 MCS6 all other combinations Tab. according to the current situation . If IR is considered as "not-working-properly"at the MS (IR_statusk<0. that are retransmitted using a new MCS.. If all of the code-words (different punctured versions of the encoded data block) have been sent. the output of the rate 1/3 encoded data that is punctured with PS 2 of the prevailing MCS) are sent and decoded with the previously received code-words until decoding succeeds.e. and the first code-word (which is punctured with PS 1) will be sent followed by PS 2 etc. the retransmission is executed with a coding scheme of the same family of the block received with errors (but with another puncturing scheme) and block splitting is not allowed. the procedure will start over. Furthermore.5) at the MS. the rate 1/3 encoded data is punctured with the puncturing scheme (PS) 1 of the selected MCS). see "10. the retransmission is executed with a coding scheme of the same family of the block received with errors.Information System GPRS/EGPRS Global Description a) when ARQ mode type I is used.5 Link Adaptation"). additional coded bit (i. Therefore. Therefore. it is mandatory for an EGPRS MS receiver to be able to perform joint decoding among blocks with different MCSs if the combination of MCSs is one of the following: A30808-X3247-L24-5-7618 215 . except that the decoding of an RLC Data Block is solely based on the prevailing transmission (i.4. In the EGPRS type II Hybrid ARQ mode. erroneous blocks are not stored). 9. the MS can use either the type I ARQ or the type II ARQ mode. and block splitting is possible. If the memory for IR operation run out in the MS. retransmissions may be realized with an MCS within the same family as the initial transmission without splitting the payload. If the RLC Data Block is received in error. an MCS within the same family as the initial transmission may be used and the payload may be split. On the contrary.5.e. then the PCU may decide to re-segment the not acknowledged blocks. if IR is considered as "properly working" (IR_statusk>0.

GPRS/EGPRS Global Description

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– –

MCS5 and MCS7 MCS6 and MCS9

9.9.2

Unacknowledged Mode for RLC/MAC Operation
RLC unacknowledged operation mode does not include any retransmission. The transfer of RLC Data Blocks in the RLC/MAC unacknowledged mode is controlled by the numbering of the RLC Data Blocks within one Temporary Block Flow. The block sequence number (BSN) in the RLC data block header is used to number the RLC data blocks for reassembly. The receiving side extracts user data from the received RLC Data Blocks and attempts to preserve the user information length by replacing missing RLC Data Blocks by dummy information bit. To convey the necessary control signalling (e.g., monitoring of channel quality for downlink channel or timing advance correction for uplink transfers) temporary acknowledgement messages are transmitted, with the same mechanisms and the same message format used by the RLC/MAC acknowledged mode. The fields for denoting the erroneous RLC blocks may be used as an additional measure for channel quality (i.e., parameter for link adaptation). The sending side (the MS or the network) transmits a number of radio blocks and then polls the receiving side to send an acknowledgement message. A missing acknowledgement message is not critical and a new one can be obtained whenever. When working in RLC unacknowledged mode, badly received blocks are not retransmitted (ARQ functions are not used). BLER information could be derived and the link adaptation algorithm could work in a similar way to the acknowledged mode case. However the unacknowledged mode is typically used to support real time applications and in this case minimizing the data unit error ratio, i.e., the fraction of data unit lost or detected as erroneous, is much more important than maximizing throughput.

9.9.3 9.9.3.1

Operations on Uplink TBF Uplink TBF Using the Acknowledged Mode
The mobile station transmits RLC/MAC blocks in each assigned uplink data block. RLC/MAC control blocks take precedence over RLC data blocks, i.e., temporarily replacing the PDTCH with PACCH. The network sends PACKET UPLINK ACK/NACK messages when needed. In case of GPRS service, where the window size is fixed to 64 blocks (see "9.9.1.1 GPRS Acknowledged Mode"), to indicate to the network when it must send a PACKET UPLINK ACK/NACK, the NRLCMAX parameter is defined: by this parameter, the user can configure how many blocks must be transmitted by the MS, before receiving a PACKET UPLINK ACK/NACK message. The NRLCMAX value is chosen as a compromise between two necessities: – it will avoid reaching the stall condition of the transmitting window (see below); from this point of view the value should be quite low; – it will avoid a frequent number of PACKET UPLINK ACK/NACK messages; from this point of view, the value should be quite high. In case of EGPRS service, where, according to the number of timeslots assigned to the MSs, a specific window size is used (see "9.9.1.2 EGPRS Acknowledged Mode"), to indicate to the network when it must send a PACKET UPLINK ACK/NACK, different parameters are provided:

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– – – – – – – –

EGPLGPONETS, in case one timeslot is assigned; EGPLGPTWOTS, in case two timeslots are assigned; EGPLGPTHREETS, in case three timeslots are assigned; EGPLGPFOURTS, in case four timeslots are assigned; EGPLGPFIVETS, in case five timeslots are assigned; EGPLGPSIXTS, in case six timeslots are assigned; EGPLGPSEVENTS, in case seven timeslots are assigned; EGPLGPEIGHTTS, in case eight timeslots are assigned.

By these parameter the user can configure how many blocks must be transmitted by the MS, before receiving a PACKET UPLINK ACK/NACK message, according to the number of assigned PDCHs. The value of these parameters is chosen as a compromise between two necessities: – avoid reaching the stall condition of the transmitting window; – avoid a frequent number of PACKET UPLINK ACK/NACK messages. If the mobile station does not receive PACKET UPLINK ACK/NACK messages that allows it to advance the transmitting window, the transmitting window stall condition is reached: upon detecting this condition, the mobile station sets the Stall indicator (SI) bit in all subsequent uplink RLC data block, until the stall condition ceases to exist (i.e., when a valid PACKET UPLINK ACK/NACK message is received). Upon detecting the stall condition, the mobile station also starts the T3182 timer. T3182 timer is stopped upon the reception of a PACKET UPLINK ACK/NACK message, that allows terminating the stall condition (see Fig. 9.10). If T3182 timer expires: – the mobile station decrements the N3102 counter by the PAN_DEC value; the PAN_DEC value is defined by the PKTNDEC parameter; – the mobile station aborts all TBFs in progress and its associated resources; – if N3102 counter has not reached the value 0, the mobile station returns to the CCCH or PCCCH and initiates the establishment of a new uplink TBF, otherwise the MS performs an abnormal release with cell reselection (see below). Whenever the mobile station receives a PACKET UPLINK ACK/NACK message that allows the advancement of the sending window, the mobile station increments the N3102 counter by the PAN_INC value, however N3102 will never exceed the PAN_MAX value. The user can configure PAN_INC and PAN_MAX values by PKTNINC and PKTNMA parameters respectively. Upon cell reselection, the mobile station sets the N3102 counter to the PAN_MAX value. When N3102 = 0 is reached, the mobile station performs an abnormal release with cell re-selection (see Abnormal Cell Re-selection).

i

If PAN_DEC, PAN_INC, or PAN_MAX are set to the value 0, counter N3102 is disabled.

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N3102 = N3102 + PAN_INC

N3102 = N3102 - PAN_DEC

t Cell reselection N3102 = PAN_MAX Start T3182 Stall condition Stop T3182 (Reception of a Packet Uplink Acknowledge) T3182 Expired Abort all TBFs

Fig. 9.10

Behavior of T3182 Timer and N3102 Counter

9.9.3.2

Uplink TBF Using the Unacknowledged Mode
When the unacknowledged mode is used, the network sends PACKET UPLINK ACK/NACK messages when needed, while the mobile station sets the Stall indicator bit to ‘0’ in all RLC data blocks. In unacknowledged mode, the number of blocks to be transmitted by the MS, before receiving a control message from the network, is fixed to 64 (i.e., the value of the transmitting window used in acknowledged mode). If the mobile station transmits a number of data blocks equal to the window size, without receiving a PACKET UPLINK ACK/NACK message, the mobile station starts T3182 timer. T3182 will be stopped upon reception of a PACKET UPLINK ACK/NACK message. If timer T3182 expires, the mobile station decrements the N3102 counter by the PAN_DEC (PKTNDEC) value, aborts all TBFs in progress and its associated resources, returns to CCCH or PCCCH and initiates the establishment of a new uplink TBF. Whenever the mobile station receives a PACKET UPLINK ACK/NACK message, the mobile station will increment N3102 by PAN_INC (PKTNINC), however N3102 will never exceed the value PAN_MAX (PKTNMA). Upon cell reselection, the mobile station will set counter N3102 to the PAN_MAX value. When N3102 = 0 is reached, the mobile station performs an abnormal release with cell re-selection.

i
9.9.3.3

If PAN_DEC, PAN_INC, or PAN_MAX are set to the value 0, the N3102 counter is disabled.

Anomalies During an Uplink TBF
Mobile Station Side When the mobile station transmits an RLC/MAC block to the network, it starts timer T3180. When the mobile station detects an assigned USF value on an assigned PDCH, the mobile station reset the T3180 timer. If the T3180 timer expires, the mobile station aborts all TBFs in progress and its associated resources, returns to the CCCH or PCCCH, and initiates the establishment of a new uplink TBF.

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Network Side Whenever the network receives a valid RLC/MAC block from the mobile station, it resets the N3101 counter. The network increments the N3101 counter for each allocated radio block to that mobile station, for which no data is received. If N3101 reaches the N3101 maximum value, the network stops the scheduling of RLC/MAC blocks from the mobile station and starts the T3169 timer. When T3169 expires, the network may reuse the USF and TFI values (the procedure is shown in Fig. 9.11). The user can also define the N3101 maximum value by the N3101 parameter.

N3101 = 0

N3101 = N3101 + 1

N3101 = N3101+1= N3101max

time NW sends Data is USF received from the MS. NW sends Data is not USF received from the MS. NW sends USF Data is not received from the MS. Start T3169 communication with MS is broken. T3169 Expired Reuse of TFI and USF

Fig. 9.11

Detection of Anomalies during an Uplink TBF on the Network Side

9.9.3.4

Release of an Uplink TBF
The release of resources is normally initiated from the MS by counting down the last blocks. For the normal release of resources of a RLC connection, carrying a mobile originated packet transfer, the mechanism based on the acknowledgment of the final Packet Uplink Ack/Nack message (combined with timers) is used (see Fig. 9.12). The MS initiates the release of the uplink TBF by beginning the countdown process. The MS sends the Countdown Value (CV) in each uplink RLC data block to indicate to the network the absolute BSN (Block Sequence Number) of the last RLC data block, that will be sent in the uplink TBF. The CV value is calculated as follows:

TBC – BSN′ – 1 x = round  --------------------------------------- -  NTS
then

x CV =   15

if

x ≤ BSCVMAX otherwise

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where: - TBC = total number of RLC data blocks that will be transmitted in the TBF; - BSN’ = absolute block sequence number of the RLC data block, with range from 0 to (TBC - 1); - NTS = number of timeslots assigned to the uplink TBF, with range 1 to 8; - BSCVMAX is the BSCDVMA parameter, broadcasted in the system information; - the round() function rounds upwards to the nearest integer; the division operation is non-integer and the result is 0 only for (TBC - BSN’ - 1) = 0. The final RLC data block transmitted in the TBF (i.e., the RLC data block with BSN’ = TBC - 1) will have CV set to the value ‘0’. Once the mobile station transmits a value of CV other than 15, the MS will not queue any new RLC data blocks, and any data that arrives after the commencement of the countdown process will be sent within a future TBF. After the MS has sent its last RLC Data Block (indicated by the countdown field), the acknowledgement is expected from the network side. By sending the last block, the MS may no longer use the same assignment, unless a negative acknowledgement arrives. It also means that the network side may reallocate the same USF(s) to another user as soon as all of the RLC Data Blocks belonging to that Temporary Block Flow are correctly received. When sending the last RLC data block, the MS starts also the T3182 timer. Then the network, if all RLC Data Blocks have been correctly received, sends the Packet Uplink Ack/Nack message to the MS that must be immediately acknowledged by the MS in the reserved uplink block period (the network also resets the N3103 counter). If T3182 timer expires, before the MS receives the Packet Uplink Ack/Nack message, then the mobile station aborts all TBFs in progress and its associated resources, returns to the CCCH/PCCCH and initiates the establishment of a new uplink TBF. When the MS receives the Packet Uplink Ack/Nack message, it responds to the network by the Packet Control Acknowledgment message in the reserved uplink block period. Upon reception of the acknowledgement, the network can reuse the TFI and USF values.

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Fig. 9.12

Release of an Uplink TBF If the network does not receive the PACKET CONTROL ACKNOWLEDGEMENT message in the radio block indicated by the RRBP field (see "9.8.4 Relative Reserved Block Period Field (RRBP)"), it increments the N3103 counter and retransmits the PACKET UPLINK ACK/NACK message. If counter N3103 exceeds its limit, which the user can define with the N3103 parameter, the network starts the T3169 timer. When the T3169 timer expires, the network may reuse the TFI and USF resources (see Fig. 9.13).

N3103 = N3103 + 1

N3103 = N3103+1= N3103max

t NW waits for NW has not received any acknowledgment ackn. from the MS. NW has not received any ackn. from the MS. Start T3169 communication with MS is broken. T3169 Expired Reuse of TFI and USF

Fig. 9.13

Release of Resources on the Network Side during an Uplink TBF (in case of T3169 timer expiration)

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Improving overall performances in the interaction between TCP/IP based applications and the GPRS/EGPRS network (uplink direction) In the PS network, the continuous interruptions of data flow due to frequent establishments and releases of TBFs, reduce the performances of many TCP/IP based applications, such as Web Browsing applications. To reduce these disadvantages during uplink data transfer, a delay into the uplink TBF release procedure is introduced (see Fig. 9.12). The BSC delays sending the final PACKET UPLINK ACK/NACK message. This behavior is introduced to save time when a downlink LLC PDU arrives from SGSN just after the reception of the RLC Block with CV = 0. In this case, the BSC can open the downlink TBF as a concurrent case, that is faster than the normal procedure (where normal means assignment messages sent on control channel, after the PACKET CONTROL ACKNOWLEDGEMENT message that has closed the uplink TBF). This delay is a fixed value (400 msec.), and it is not longer because during this delay, the MS cannot require the opening of a new uplink TBF. If during the delay time a new downlink TBF is opened, final PACKET UPLINK ACK/NACK is sent without waiting for the expiration of delay timer.

9.9.4 9.9.4.1

Operations on Downlink TBF Acknowledged and Unacknowledged Modes on Downlink TBFs
The mobile station receives RLC/MAC blocks on the assigned downlink PDCHs. On each assigned PDCH, the mobile station decodes the TFI value, and decodes the RLC data blocks intended for the mobile station. In acknowledged mode, to indicate to the MS when it must send a PACKET DOWNLINK ACK/NACK message different parameters are provided according to the service type: • in case of GPRS, the NRLCMAX parameter is provided; by this parameter, the user can configure how many blocks must be transmitted by the network, before receiving a PACKET DOWNLINK ACK/NACK message; • in case of EGPRS eight parameters are provided (depending on the defined window size (see 9.9.1.2): – EGPLGPONETS, in case of one timeslot assigned; – EGPLGPTWOTS, in case of two timeslots assigned; – EGPLGPTHREETS, in case of three timeslots assigned; – EGPLGPFOURTS, in case of four timeslots assigned; – EGPLGPFIVETS, in case of five timeslots assigned; – EGPLGPSIXTS, in case of six timeslots assigned; – EGPLGPSEVENTS, in case of seven timeslots assigned; – EGPLGPEIGHTTS, in case of eight timeslots assigned; by these parameters the user can configure how many blocks have to be transmitted by the network, before receiving a PACKET DOWNLINK ACK/NACK message, according to the number of PDCHs assigned to the MS. In unacknowledged mode, the MS must send a PACKET DOWNLINK ACK/NACK message after: • it has received 64 blocks (i.e., the window size) in case of GPRS; • it has received a number of blocks equal to the configured window size, in case of EGPRS.

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In both unacknowledged cases (GPRS and EGPRS) the PACKET DOWNLINK ACK/NACK message is used to check the connection between the MS and the network (see below). For both of the operation modes, a control procedure is used by the network to verify if the MS is correctly receiving the downlink RLC/MAC blocks. The network, using the RRBP field (see "9.8.4 Relative Reserved Block Period Field (RRBP)"), reserves the uplink resource to transmit control messages. The N3105 parameter implements the threshold for unreceived control messages from the MS, after sending the RRPB field in downlink direction. If the threshold is reached, the communication with the associated MS is broken. Every time the network does not receive the control message from the MS, the N3105 counter is increased; every time the network receives the control message from the MS, the N3105 counter is reset. When the N3105 counter reaches its maximum value (N3105max), the communication with the MS is broken (see Fig. 9.14). The user can configure the N3105max threshold with the N3105 parameter.

N3105 = N3105 + 1

Reset N3105

N3105 = N3105 +1= N3105max

t NW sets RRPB NW has not received any in DL data block control message from the MS. NW has received a control message from the MS. NW has not received any control message from the MS. Communication with MS is broken.

Fig. 9.14

Control Procedure Executed by the Network during a Downlink TBF

9.9.4.2

Release of a Downlink TBF
The release of resources (see Fig. 9.15) is initiated by the network by terminating the downlink transfer and polling the MS for a final Packet Downlink Ack/Nack message. The network indicates the last downlink RLC data block by setting the Final Bit Indicator bit (FBI) to 1. It is possible for the network to change the current downlink assignment by using the Packet Downlink Assignment or Packet Timeslot Reconfigure message, which then must be acknowledged by the MS in a reserved radio block on the uplink. The TFI handling is steered with timers that run on both the MS and the network sides: – after having sent the last RLC Data Block to the MS, the network starts the T3191 timer – when the MS receives the last RLC Data Block, the MS starts the T3192 timer; when it expires, the current assignment becomes invalid for the MS Therefore, upon reception of the final Packet Downlink Ack/Nack from the MS (with Final Ackn = 1), the T3193 timer is started on the network side (and the T3191 timer is

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stopped). When it expires, the current assignment becomes invalid for the network, and TFI can be reused by the network.

Fig. 9.15

Release of a Downlink TBF If the mobile station (in acknowledged mode), after having received a RLC data block with FBI=1, transmits a PACKET DOWNLINK ACK/NACK message with the Final Ack indicator not set to 1, it will continue to monitor all assigned PDCHs; in this case the network must retransmit some RLC blocks. If the network receives a PACKET DOWNLINK ACK/NACK message before the T3191 timer expires, and if retransmissions are required, then the network stops the T3191 timer and retransmits necessary RLC data blocks. Improving overall performances in the interaction between TCP/IP based applications and the GPRS/EGPRS network (downlink direction) As described in 9.9.3.4, the continuous interruptions of data flow due to frequent establishments and releases of TBFs, reduce the performances of many TCP/IP based applications. To reduce these disadvantages during downlink data transfer, a delay into the downlink TBF release procedure is introduced (see Fig. 9.15). The BSC, before sending the FBI=1, waits for the expiration of a timer. The operator can set this timer using the TIMEDTBFREL attribute.

i

Setting the TIMEDTBFREL attribute to 0 means no delay in TBF downlink releases. During this time, the BSC maintains opened the downlink TBF, by sending Dummy LLC frames included in single RLC Blocks, with the polling bit (RRBP) set to one. There are two advantages when Dummy LLC frames are used:

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Information System

GPRS/EGPRS Global Description

1. The MS may request UL resource in the PACKET DOWNLINK ACK/NACK message; with these Dummy frames, the BSC presses the MS for an answer, i.e., if the MS has data to send, it will send it quickly. The delay time is not only influenced by the network, but also by the MS, so the delay time can be different using different mobile stations; 2. If a new LLC should arrive from the SGSN, it is possible to send the relative RLC block immediately (without an explicit assignment procedure). In this manner there is an unique long single DL TBF, rather than several DL TBFs with a lot of assignment messages. In order to speed up the uplink establishment during the Delay TBF Release time, polling periods should be quite low. In current release, the delay between two subsequent pings is reduced due to the fact that the block containing the Dummy LLC is sent (polled) every 50 ms (alternating 40/60 ms) for a duration of 450 ms; in this way MS may request resources in a shorter time. After that the polling period is extended to 280 ms (1 poll every 280 ms). The reason is a compromise between speed up of procedure, battery saving and resource usage. With this strategy the MS uplink establishment is speed up during the delay downlink TBF release time; infact improvements of about 80 ms are expected on Ping Delay time measured as a sequence of 50 pings) and also on FTP throughput. The Ping Delay time is further reduced, by reducing the internal PCU queue of radio blocks, obtaining a quite immediate sending of data when available. This improvement can save approximately 20-40 msec per direction and it is implemented only on PPXUs. A further improvement for the current release is related to the First Ping. The worst condition in a cell with all the PDCHs being idle is a a value of 1.55 seconds for the First Ping. The implemented solution is general and it applies also to other GMM and SM procedures as well as to Data Transfer. The number of PDT assigned to a single block has to be set to the value “2” if concatenated PCU frames are used in the cell. In case standard PCU frames are used in the cell the number of PDT has to be set to the value “1”. Furthermore also the RLC octet count in PRR has to be taken into account for avoiding an unnecessary alignment of 2 Uplink Timeslot (for Mobile Stations that have more than 1 Timeslot in Uplink direction). With this improvement two sequential PDT/PDCH alignment are executed instead of three. The improvement of the First Ping is expected to be very near to 200 msec and it is valid for each GPRS and also for almost all EGPRS access cases.

9.9.5

Notes About Concurrent TBFs
When concurrent TBFs must be established during either the resource allocation or the resource upgrade strategy (see "5.3 Management of Packet Data Channels"), and when the multislot class of the mobile station allows a degree of freedom on how to assign resources between uplink and downlink, it is necessary to manage resources in an optimal way to balance the traffic of the two directions.

i

Mobile stations for which this problem arises are those providing a dynamic allocation of the number of resources, i.e., those belonging to the following multislot classes (see Tab. 4.6): 6, 7, 10, 11, 12. For example class 8 (4+1) is not affected, because in total 5 "timeslots" can operate; instead class 10 (4+2) is affected, because in sum only 5 timeslots can be active, however 6 are possible. So either 4+1 or 3+2 operation (or less) is possible.

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When the MS asks for uplink resources. and: – the value 0 is interpreted as a request for an open-ended TBF by the mobile station (i. The RLC_Octet_Count field indicates the number of RLC data octets that the mobile station wishes to transfer. also pure uplink traffic such FTP put would not be handled optimally. when a GPRS/EGPRS-attached MS enters the Circuit Switched dedicated mode. then a switch from downlink priority to uplink priority is executed. Within these messages there is the Channel_Request_Description information element that contains a field called RLC_Octet_Count. one in uplink and the other in downlink direction (duplex FTP).1 Mobile Stations for Packet Switched Services"). – all other values are interpreted as a request for a close ended TBF (i. its range is from 0 to 65535. since the network would change to downlink preferred allocation as soon as first downlink TBFs for TCP/IP acknowledgments arrives. then the timer is stopped and downlink priority in maintained. but it can only operate one set of services at a time (see "9.e. in this case. Regarding the uplink direction. 3+1). the mobile station does not specify the number of blocks it must transmit). If the chosen solution was always downlink biased (i. 9. which causes acknowledged traffic in the opposite direction. the mobile station might request the uplink TBF with either the Packet_Resource_Request or the Packet_Downlink_Ack/Nack message (PDAN). the number of blocks the MS must transmit is supposed to be quite big. a switch from downlink priority to the uplink one is executed.GPRS/EGPRS Global Description Information System Tests with a mobile station with multislot class 6 have shown that with two simultaneous FTP connections.e. This is due to the fact that FTP connections are based on the TCP transfer protocol. Because of the delayed acknowledgement packets (caused by the queue in MS or notebook. which is always full concerning the uplink traffic) the downlink transfer is reduced (stalled condition). such that the uplink allocation is extended. if RLC_Octet_Count=0 or if RLC_Octet_Count is more than a value defined by the THSULBAL parameter.9.. This is the case of an MS operating in Class B mode. the RLC_Octet_Count value indicates the number of blocks the MS must transmit).6 Suspend/Resume Procedures These procedures are used when the Circuit Switched dedicated mode is entered and it is temporarily needed to suspend GPRS/EGPRS service. Otherwise a timer defined by TSULBAL is activated.. If the uplink TBF is closed until the timer is running.e. the MS requests the network to suspend PS services. in case of downlink preferred configuration (3+1) the downlink throughput is worse than in uplink preferred configuration (2+2). and when the MS limitations make it unable to handle both the CS dedicated mode and the packet switched transfer mode. data transfer is always allocated with downlink priority. if the timer elapses and the uplink TBF is still opened. When a downlink data transfer is set up.. The MS is attached to both the PS and other CS services. 226 A30808-X3247-L24-5-7618 . The RLC_Octet_Count field is also used to change the priority between uplink and downlink. The current implementation to manage concurrent TBFs is as follows. In fact.

The GPRS SUSPENSION REQUEST message contains the following: – Temporary Logical Link Identity (TLLI) – Routing Area Identifier (RAI) – Suspension Cause (SC) The BSC stores the information related to the request. The BSC will suspend the GPRS/EGPRS service for the relevant MS. the procedure is considered successful. associating them with the CS call of the MS. i Each received SUSPEND-ACK message is discarded (without notification towards RC/LMT) by the BSC either if the MS related to the received TLLI/RAI is already "Suspended" or if the received TLLI/RAI does not correspond to an MS requiring the suspension. 4. when the message is sent. meaning that no traffic for the MS (TLLI/RAI) will be forwarded to the MS. The suspend procedure is explained in the following (see Fig.16): 1. after the call release. 2. namely the TLLI and the RAI. This retry step is repeated up to SUSPEND-RETRIES times (SUSPEND-RETRIES=3. a circuit switched call accepted and. 3. The MS enters the CS dedicated mode. the T3 timer is started. while the T3 timer is running. If the T3 timer expires without receiving the ACK message from the SGSN. The T3 timer is stopped and the involved TLLI is marked as "Suspended" in the BSC. If the SGSN acknowledges the SUSPEND message by returning the SUSPEND ACK one. the packet switched data transmission continued.Information System GPRS/EGPRS Global Description For instance. the BSC also receives the SRN (Suspend Reference Number) information from the SGSN. an ongoing downlink transmission can be suspended. The MS sends a GPRS SUSPENSION REQUEST message to the BSC to inform the BSC that it will suspend PS services. i A30808-X3247-L24-5-7618 227 . 9. even if the radio resources are kept allocated to be available for the following Resume.) If the T3 timer expires SUSPEND-RETRIES times or a SUSPEND NACK is received from the SGSN. When the BSC receives the GPRS SUSPENSION REQUEST message. The BSS will store TLLI and RAI in order to be able to request the SGSN to resume PS services when the MS leaves dedicated mode. it sends a SUSPEND message to the SGSN containing the TLLI and the RAI. the SUSPEND message will be sent again and the T3 timer is restarted. the suspend procedure is considered unsuccessful and an Alarm Reporting notification is sent to LMT/RC.

the MS has remained in the same cell. The BSC starts the resume procedure sending the RESUME message containing the TLLI. in both cases. b) during the suspension period. 9. the resume procedure is considered unsuccessful and an Alarm Reporting notification is sent to the LMT/RC. the MS has changed cell or routing area. in the following this procedure is explained (the procedure in case of successful resume is shown in Fig. In case the T4 timer expires RESUME-RETRIES times or a RESUME NACK is received from the SGSN. 9. If the T4 timer expires without receiving the ACK message from the SGSN. the involved TLLI is marked as "Not Suspended" in the BSC. SRN) Fig. and the SRN towards the SGSN. RAI) Stop T3 SUSPEND ACK (TLLI. In both cases. Moreover. the message includes the "GPRS Resumption" infoelement set to "resumption of PS services successfully acknowledged".16 Suspend Procedure The BSC will start the resume procedure as soon as the circuit switched dedicated mode is left. that is when the MS is disconnected from the MSC. the RESUME message will be sent again and the T4 timer is restarted. the RAI. If the SGSN acknowledges the RESUME message by returning the RESUME ACK one while the T4 timer is running. the T4 timer is also started. successful and unsuccessful. the procedure is considered successful and the T4 timer is stopped.17): 1. it closes the procedure by sending a CHANNEL-RELEASE message to the MS with the following topics: – in the successful case. RAI. the resumption request is managed with the SGSN. 2. Two cases must be distinguished: a) during the suspension period. the BSC removes the information related to the previous suspend request and.GPRS/EGPRS Global Description Information System MS BSC Dedicated Mode is entered SGSN MSC/VLR GPRS SUSPENSION REQUEST Start T3 SUSPEND (TLLI. 228 A30808-X3247-L24-5-7618 . In case a). This retry step is repeated up to RESUME-RETRIES times (RESUME-RETRIES=3). 3.

The MS leaves dedicated mode. Eventually. then the MS will resume GPRS/EGPRS services by sending a Routing Area Update Request message to the SGSN. the BSS determines that the circuit-switched radio channel will be released. If the BSS did not successfully request the SGSN to resume PS services. The BSS sends an RR Channel Release (Resume) message to the MS. RAI. or if the RR Channel Release message was not received before the MS left dedicated mode. i Each received RESUME-ACK message is discarded if either the MS related to the received TLLI/RAI is already "Resumed" or the received TLLI/RAI does not correspond to a MS for which the resumption has been required. The information element "GPRS Resumption" will not be included in the message. The BSC removes the information related to the previous suspend request and it immediately sends a CHANNEL-RELEASE message to the MS. A30808-X3247-L24-5-7618 229 . MS BSC SGSN MSC/VLR Start T4 RESUME (TLLI. 9.Successful Resume) In case b). as described in subclause "Routing Area Update Procedure". this procedure is explained (the procedure is shown in Fig. in the latter. the MS will consider the GPRS/EGPRS service resumed.e. in the following. The SGSN acknowledges the successful outcome of the resume by returning Resume Ack. 9. 6.18): 1.. whether Resume Ack was received in the BSS before the RR Channel Release message was transmitted. 5. 4. RAI) Stop T4 Channel Release Fig. it will be invited to initiate a Routing Area Update procedure. RAI) message to the SGSN. i.Information System GPRS/EGPRS Global Description – otherwise. Resume indicates whether the BSS has successfully requested the SGSN to resume GPRS/EGPRS services for the MS. the BSS will send a Resume (TLLI. SRN) RESUME ACK (TLLI. the "GPRS Resumption" will be set to "resumption of PS services not successfully acknowledged" In the former case. the resume procedure towards the SGSN is skipped. If the BSS is able to request the SGSN to resume PS services.17 Resume Procedure (the MS has remained in the same cell .

With this information the new BSC is able to resume the MS that was suspended in the old BSC.7 Notes About GPRS/EGPRS TBF Scheduling The distribution of the active TBFs over the available GPRS/EGPRS carriers.GPRS/EGPRS Global Description Information System 2. is done by the resource allocation algorithm. the scheduler is able to handle the case when EGPRS and GPRS mobiles are multiplexed on the same PDCHs: in this case. if the cell was changed but not the Routing Area. Therefore. to find the right cell.3 Management of Packet Data Channels". it is up to the scheduler to dynamically assign permissions to access the physical channels. when several TBFs are multiplexed on the same resources. a Routing Area Update procedure is initiated by the MS. this information element contains the “GPRS Suspend information” field (this field contains the SUSPEND ACK PDU message sent on the Gb interface. The SGSN is aware of the cell to which the MS currently belongs. As a result. allowing each TBF to reach the maximum required throughput. Once resources have been allocated. the old BSC transfers the “Old BSS to New BSS information” IE to the new one. but assume the following default values: .9. the MS will continue in the following way: – Ready state: a Cell Update procedure is initiated by the MS. if the Routing Area was changed. 9. depending on its state. which is described in "5. without executing any routing area update procedure.T4 = 1 s 9. MS BSC SGSN MSC/VLR Channel Release (no Resumption Result) Routing Area Update Request Fig. the GPRS/EGPRS Suspend/Resume feature is automatically enabled in the system. When the SGSN side Ready Timer expires. i In BR7. the SGSN will page the MS in the Routing Area it knows. – Standby state: the MS does nothing. the main problem is due to the fact 230 A30808-X3247-L24-5-7618 .T3 = 5 s . and the multislot allocation of a particular TBF on the timeslots of the corresponding GPRS/EGPRS carrier. and both T3 and T4 timers cannot be set by the operator.18 Resume Procedure (The MS has changed the Routing Area) If the MS performs an inter-BSC handover while suspended.0.

the task of the scheduler is to distribute permissions to access the physical resources. both in uplink and downlink directions. for example which packets are discarded in the event of problems such as limited resources or network congestion. there are three possible values. the BSC handles the following two R97/98 attributes specified in the DL-UNITDATAs coming from the Gb interface: – Peak Throughput (used in the allocation phase) – Service Precedence The Service Precedence. Regarding the scheduling of uplink TBFs. indicates the relative importance of maintaining the service commitments under abnormal conditions. Such an attribute is mapped one to one to uplink scheduling priority as follows: QoS Attribute Radio Priority = 1 Radio Priority = 2 Radio Priority = 3 Radio Priority = 4 Scheduling Priority 1 2 3 4 9. they will be served according to their own scheduling priorities.7. trying to avoid setting USFs for GPRS mobiles in 8PSK coded downlink blocks. strictly speaking.1 Supported QoS Attributes As previously mentioned. from 1 (highest priority) to 3 (lowest priority). Moreover. therefore. Regarding downlink scheduling. when different TBFs are multiplexed together.2 Scheduling Process As a general rule. handling it in the scheduling phase. Therefore. The Service Precedence is then used to assign different priorities to different connections.Information System GPRS/EGPRS Global Description that GPRS mobiles are not able to read the USF in downlink blocks transmitted with 8PSK modulation.9. Consequently. after the allocation phase performed by the resource manager. The scheduler then assures that each TBF is served according to its own priority. see next paragraphs for details. the Radio Priority attribute is used. even if this attribute should be used to handle congestion cases.7. the scheduler takes into account their different QoS requirements. 9.9. the scheduling priorities (needed to prioritize among TBFs that share the same resources) are defined as follows: QoS Attribute Service Precedence = 1 Service Precedence = 2 Service Precedence = 3 Scheduling Priority 1 2 3 When multiple TBFs are allocated on the same physical resources. these attributes are different between the uplink and downlink directions. uplink and downlink scheduling must be performed jointly. The QoS requirements to fulfil are linked to the R97/98 QoS attributes that can be handled by the BSS. the scheduling algorithm for each PDCH checks the active TBFs onto that timeslot. it seems reasonable to simplify things. then it verifies the scheduling prior- A30808-X3247-L24-5-7618 231 .

GPRS/EGPRS Global Description Information System ities of each TBF.. e. an USF (the first in the list of the USF to be transmitted) corresponding to a GMSK mobile is selected. This 232 A30808-X3247-L24-5-7618 . the algorithm selects a TBF using an approach that guarantees that each TBF(i) is selected W(i) times each sum(Wk) extractions. then an 8PSK one is selected. the scheduler manages the downlink block (containing the RRBP value) for this MS. both the downlink PCCCH blocks (PBCCH. a GMSK USF for that TBF is inserted in an High_priority list (i. where W(i) is the scheduling weight of TBF(i) and sum(Wk) is the sum of the scheduling weights of all TBFs allocated on the same timeslot. In fact. PAGCH. with a higher priority than other blocks to be sent in downlink direction. the scheduler manages the downlink block for this uplink TBF. trying to avoid setting USFs for GPRS mobiles in 8PSK-coded downlink blocks. • Constraint due to PCCCH Scheduling: if the PCCCH channel is allocated on a certain timeslot. Therefore. both in downlink and uplink directions.. on this timeslot. Besides. Besides. with a higher priority than other blocks to be sent in downlink direction. Packet Uplink Ack/Nack message) must be sent for an uplink TBF. because this choice does not cause any problem. when EGPRS and GPRS mobiles are multiplexed on the same PDCHs some additionally constraints must be taken into account.. The main problem is due to the fact that GPRS mobiles are not able to read the USF in downlink blocks transmitted with 8PSK modulation. some radio blocks in a multiframe should be reserved for PCCCH. there are several cases that require high priority handling. if there are no more 8PSK USF to be scheduled (in the list). In this case. These cases are as follows: • Polling Requests: when an MS must be polled. then: – one more 8PSK USF is selected (starting from UL TBFs with higher priority/weight) – at the same time one “GMSK USF” is cancelled from the list – after a few cancellations for a given TBF.g. • Downlink Control Blocks for uplink TBFs: when a downlink control block (i. the following approach is used: a) if the downlink block corresponds to a TBF that uses the GMSK modulation. the scheduler manages.e. a downlink block coded with 8PSK modulation must be sent and at the same time the USF should be coded with GMSK modulation allowing to a GPRS-only mobile station to read the USF value and transmit on the next uplink block. PPCH) and the uplink PCCCH blocks (PRACH) with a higher priority than other blocks to be sent in downlink/uplink direction on the same timeslot. an USF (the first in the list of the USF to be transmitted) corresponding to a 8PSK mobile is selected. the problem arises when.e. and associates the corresponding scheduling weights Wk to each priority. Therefore. To solve this incompatibility. uplink and downlink scheduling must be performed jointly. if there are no GMSK USF. a list of TBF to be served with an higher priority). b) If the downlink block corresponds to a TBF that uses the 8PSK modulation. each scheduling priority is associated with a specific scheduling weight: the association between priorities and weights can be performed by the user with the following parameters: – SCHWEIPRI1: weight associated to scheduling priority 1 – SCHWEIPRI2: weight associated to scheduling priority 2 – SCHWEIPRI3: weight associated to scheduling priority 3 – SCHWEIPRI4: weight associated to scheduling priority 4 For each direction of transmission and for each timeslot.

Information System GPRS/EGPRS Global Description guarantees that. some GMSK USFs are still transmitted. even in worst case scenarios (only 8PSK TBFs in downlink). A30808-X3247-L24-5-7618 233 .

3 Network Controlled Cell Reselection and Traffic Control Management"). 10. When the circuit switched connection is released. cell reselection is performed by the MS. If PBCCH is not configured. In GPRS standby and ready states (see "9. This list could be different from the BA(BCCH) list. that is used for GSM. If PBCCH does not exist. In other words: • if PBCCH is configured. cells to be monitored for cell re-selection are defined in the BA(GPRS) list.GPRS/EGPRS Global Description Information System 10 GPRS/EGPRS Functionalities 10.1. the MS monitors the other BCCH carriers only to take signal level measurements. The only exception regards class A mobile stations in dedicated mode of a circuit switched connection: in this case the cell is determined by the network according to the handover procedures.3.. since the handover takes precedence over GPRS/EGPRS cell re-selection. regarding both the serving cell and neighboring cells. but is only required to monitor system information on PBCCH of the serving cell. Upper layers will then recognize the inconsistency.1 GPRS/EGPRS Path Loss Criterion (C1 Criterion)").4 Management of GPRS/EGPRS Neighboring Cells"). In addition.1. where the network may control the cell selection process. PS services are supported only on BCCH. i. the GPRS/EGPRS MS retrieves all of the information.1 Cell Selection and Re-selection No Handover functionality is foreseen for PS services: the MS selects the best cell following cell re-selection criteria. new re-selection criteria (C1. from the serving PBCCH. the MS also monitors the other BCCH carriers to take signal level measurements. “old” C1 and C2 criteria are used for cell selection and re-selection purposes. the MS resumes the cell re-selection process.1.2. while the information about neighboring cells are taken from the BCCH carriers of the neighboring cells.1 Mobility Management States"). These new algorithms apply to the MSs attached to GPRS/EGPRS if the PBCCH exists in the serving cell.1 Measurements for Cell Selection and Re-selection The MS measures the received RF signal level on the following: – BCCH carrier of the serving cell – BCCH carriers of surrounding cells as indicated in the BA(GPRS) list 234 A30808-X3247-L24-5-7618 . it is possible to run a procedure. but it makes use of new parameters (see "10. If the MS is involved in data transfer. BA(GPRS) list is equal to the BA(BCCH) one (see "10. which is called Network Controlled CellReselection (see "10. packets may be lost during cell re-selection. discard the frame and ask for a retransmission. the MS is not required to monitor system information on both the serving cell and non-serving cells. If the PBCCH is configured. • if PBCCH is not configured. For GPRS/EGPRS mobile stations.e. If PBCCH exists. the GPRS/EGPRS MS retrieves all of the information regarding the serving cell from the serving BCCH. i The C1 criterion is the same criterion used in GSM cell selection and re-selection processes. which is broadcast on PBCCH. C31 and C32) can be used.

The same number of measurement samples is taken for all BCCH carriers. These frames are termed “search” frames. At least one receive signal level measurement sample on each BCCH carrier is taken for each paging block monitored by the MS according to its current DRX mode and its paging group (see "9. The list of the 6 strongest non serving carriers are updated at a rate of at least once per running average period. The MS will attempt to check the BSIC for each of the 6 strongest non serving cell BCCH carriers as often as possible. the MS will attempt to decode the BSIC. one after the another. and is maintained for each BCCH carrier. this parameter is broadcast on PBCCH. At least 5 received signal level measurement samples are required for a valid RLA_P value. The MS will take at least one measurement for each BCCH carrier for every 4 seconds. If a change of BSIC is detected then the carrier will be treated as a new carrier. if the neighbor cell list contains cells from other RATs and if indicated by the GUMTSSRHPRI parameter. In every TDMA frame. among the number of strongest BCCH carriers in each band. The MS will attempt to check the BSIC for each of the 6 strongest non serving cell BCCH carriers at least every 14 consecutive paging blocks of that MS. and at least every 10 seconds.8. The MS is not required to take more than 1 sample per second for each BCCH carrier. A multi-RAT MS is allowed to extend this period to 13 seconds. or 10 seconds. a MS continuously monitors all BCCH carriers as indicated by the BA(GPRS) list and the BCCH carrier of the serving cell. In the case of a multiband MS. as indicated by the GNMULBAC parameter (MULTIBAND_REPORTING). Only cells with allowed BSIC are considered for re-selection purposes. as indicated by the GNMULBAC parameter (MULTIBAND_REPORTING).Information System GPRS/EGPRS Global Description Then it calculates the average received level (RLA_P) for each carrier. a received signal level measurement sample is taken on at least one of the BCCH carriers. on BCCH. A30808-X3247-L24-5-7618 235 . b) Packet Transfer Mode: while in packet transfer mode. The samples allocated to each carrier will as far as possible be uniformly distributed over the evaluation period. this parameter is broadcast on PBCCH. A distinction must be done between mobile stations in packet idle mode and mobile stations in packet transfer mode: a) Packet Idle Mode: whilst in packet idle mode a MS monitors continuously all BCCH carriers as indicated by the BA(GPRS) list and the BCCH carrier of the serving cell. if any BCCH carrier with unknown BSIC is detected. on BCCH. At least 5 received signal level measurement samples are required for a valid RLA_P value. or if PBCCH does not exist. and the samples allocated to each carrier will as far as possible be uniformly distributed over the evaluation period. The MS will use the two Idle frames of the PDCH multiframe for this purpose.2 Discontinuous Reception").3. or if PBCCH does not exist. the MS will attempt to decode the BSIC. RLA_P is an average level determined using samples collected over a period of 5 s. In the case of a multiband MS. whichever is greater. In addition the MS verifies the BSIC of the BCCH carriers. and is maintained for each BCCH carrier. RLA_P is an average value determined using samples collected over a period of 5 s. if any BCCH carrier with unknown BSIC is detected among the number of strongest BCCH carriers in each band.

+ GPRS_RXLEV5) The path loss criterion C1.2 10.GPRS/EGPRS Global Description Information System 10.1. is defined by the following: C1 = RLA_P – GPRS_RXLEV_ACCESS_MIN – Max (0. where: – RLA_P(s) is the averaged level for the serving cell – RLA_P(n) are the averaged levels for neighboring cells Cells to be monitored for cell reselection are defined by the BA(GPRS) list.2. In case the PBCCH does not exist the Mobile Station uses the MSTXPMAXCH attribute to evaluate the path loss criterion parameter “C1” whereas the BSC uses the GMSTXPMAC attribute for the evaluation of the same parameter..1 Cell selection and Re-selection Criteria GPRS/EGPRS Path Loss Criterion (C1 Criterion) The MS measures the received signal level on the PBCCH carriers of the serving cell and the surrounding cells and calculates the mean received level (RLA_P) for each carrier. GPRS_MS_TXPWR_MAX_CCH–P) Where: . the minimum signal level criterion for GPRS/EGPRS cell selection and cell re-selection. At least 5 received signal level measurement samples are required for a valid RLA_P: RLA_P = 1/5 * (GPRS_RXLEV1 + GPRS_RXLEV2 + . For the serving and neighbour cells the GMSTXPMAC value is sent in broadcast on the PBCCH of the serving cell. the user can define this value with the GRXLAMI parameter . the C1 criteria works as follows: If P < GPRS_MS_TXPWR_MAX_CCH C1 = RLA_P – GPRS_RXLEV_ACCESS_MIN – (GPRS_MS_TXPWR_MAX_CCH– P) 236 A30808-X3247-L24-5-7618 . This attribute specifies the maximum TX power level that a Mobile Station may use when accessing the system in presence of the PBCCH.. i. This means that the minimum allowed received downlink level to access the network must be above a threshold defined by GRXLAMI value. To ensure a sufficient uplink received level even for MS of low transmit power level P.P is the Power Class of the MS .GPRS_MS_TXPWR_MAX_CCH is the maximum power that the Mobile Station can use to access the cell.GPRS_RXLEV_ACCESS_MIN is the minimum allowed received level to access a cell. the user can define this value when configuring the GMSTXPMAC parameter related to the Managed Object PTPPKF. which is broadcast on PBCCH..1. The path loss criterion is satisfied if C1>0.e.

If PBCCH is used..2.e.2 C31 Criterion The C31 signal level threshold criterion for hierarchical cell structures (HSCs) is used to determine whether prioritized hierarchical GPRS/EGPRS cell re-selection is applied. it is possible for the network operator to configure. GRXLAMI and GMSTXPMAC). the cell selection and reselection procedures. 2. the C1 criterion is calculated by means of the same formula and parameters (i.e. i C1 criterion is an assessment about the field strengths (on both uplink and downlink directions). Beside the C1 radio criterion. the received level must only be higher than the access threshold (GPRS_RXLEV_ACCESS_MIN). With this separate parameter set.4). in this case.1. but with a separate parameter set (i. the C1 criterion is calculated by the same formula used in GSM. given by the difference between the maximum power that can be transmitted in the cell (GPRS_MS_TXPWR_MAX_CCH) and the nominal power of the MS (P).. RXLEVAMI and MSTXPMAXCH) used for GSM cell selection and re-selection. 4.Information System GPRS/EGPRS Global Description i.1. 3. which is transmitted on the PBCCH. Please remember that on PBCCH the network has the chance to indicate in the BA(GPRS) list a different set of neighboring cells with respect to the BA list transmitted on BCCH (see 10.. there are some other criteria for a cell to be suitable for GPRS/EGPRS cell selection purpose: a cell is considered suitable for GPRS/EGPRS cell selection if: 1.e. the nominal power of the MS is higher than GPRS_MS_TXPWR_MAX_CCH. If P > GPRS_MS_TXPWR_MAX_CCH C1 = RLA_P – GPRS_RXLEV_ACCESS_MIN i. It is defined by: Serving Cell C31(s) = RLA_P(s) – HCS_THR(s) Neighboring Cell PRIORITY_CLASS(n) = PRIORITY_CLASS (s) C31(n) = RLA_P(n) – HCS_THR(n) A30808-X3247-L24-5-7618 237 . If PBCCH is not configured. for GPRS/EGPRS and not-GPRS/EGPRS subscribers. C1 is greater than 0 the cell belongs the selected PLMN the cell supports PS services the cell is not barred 10. the received level must be higher than the access threshold (GPRS_RXLEV_ACCESS_MIN) plus another term..e. in a different way.

To understand how this feature is implemented. – HCS_THR(n) represents the thresholds of neighboring cells.e. – PRIORITY_CLASS(n) represents the priority of neighboring cells. refer to "10.1. The user can define this priority by the GHCSPC parameter (a higher value means a higher priority). The user defines the threshold both for the cell and for its neighboring cells. with the GHCSPC parameter of the ADJC object. in fact: – HCS_THR(s) represents the threshold of the serving cell. by the GHCSTH parameter of the ADJC object. Regarding the previous parameters. it is important to underline that their values are broadcasted on the PBCCH of the serving cell. the user sets a HCS_THR(n) value for every adjacent relationship. The user defines the priority both for the cell and for its neighboring cells. in fact: – PRIORITY_CLASS(s) represents the priority of the serving cell. the MS can retrieve all of the cell reselection information from the PBCCH of the serving cell without monitoring the other neighboring carriers. the user specifies it by the GHCSPC parameter of the PTPPKF object. The T timer is started in the MS for each cell in the list of the 6 strongest neighboring cells. the user sets a PRIORITY_CLASS(n) value for every adjacent relationship.. GPRS_PENALTY_TIME is the duration for which GPRS_TEMPORARY_OFFSET applies. • PRIORITY_CLASS is the priority of each cell. by GTEMPOFF and GPENTIME parameters of the ADJC object. by reading their BCCH carriers.4 Management of GPRS/EGPRS Neighboring Cells". T is reset to 0 if the cell is removed from the list. This is different from the traditional GSM implementation for which the MS must retrieve the cell re-selection parameters of the neighboring cells. the user specifies it by the GHCSTH parameter of the PTPPKF object. as soon as it is placed in the list. i.GPRS/EGPRS Global Description Information System Neighboring Cell PRIORITY_CLASS(n) < > PRIORITY_CLASS (s) There are two cases: If T<=GPRS_PENALTY_TIME C31(n) = RLA_P(n) – HCS_THR(n) – GPRS_TEMPORARY_OFFSET(n) If T > GPRS_PENALTY_TIME C31(n) = RLA_P(n) – HCS_THR(n) Where: • HCS_THR is the signal threshold for applying GPRS/EGPRS hierarchical cell structures criteria in cell reselection. • GPRS_TEMPORARY_OFFSET(n) applies a negative offset to C31 for the duration of GPRS_PENALTY_TIME(n) after the timer T has started for that cell. 238 A30808-X3247-L24-5-7618 . The user can define this threshold using the GHCSTH parameter. The user sets a GPRS_TEMPORARY_OFFSET(n) value and a GPRS_PENALTY_TIME(n) value for every adjacent relationship.

A30808-X3247-L24-5-7618 239 . For CS services.g. 10. The user defines the priority both for the cell and for its neighboring cells. The user sets a GPRS_RESELECT_OFFSET(n) value for every adjacent relationship. The user can define this priority by the GHCSPC parameter (a higher value means a higher priority).2. so it is not necessary to give additional information to the MS. It is defined by: Serving Cell C32(s) = C1(s) Neighboring Cell PRIORITY_CLASS(n) = PRIORITY_CLASS (s) There are two cases: If T <= GPRS_PENALTY_TIME C32(n) = C1(n) + GPRS_RESELECT_OFFSET(n) – GPRS_TEMPORARY_OFFSET(n) If T > GPRS_PENALTY_TIME C32(n) = C1(n) + GPRS_RESELECT_OFFSET(n) Neighboring Cell PRIORITY_CLASS(n) < > PRIORITY_CLASS (s) C32(n) = C1(n) + GPRS_RESELECT_OFFSET(n) Where: • PRIORITY_CLASS is the priority of each cell. to make re-selection for PS services similar to the GSM handover algorithm. by GRESOFF parameter of the ADJC object. to decide about cell reselection.Information System GPRS/EGPRS Global Description i C31 is used for hierarchical cell structures. • GPRS_RESELECT_OFFSET(n) is a positive offset that increases the priority of cell in the list of the strongest neighbor cells. the Handover decision is done completely by the BTS. by the GHCSPC parameter of the ADJC object. The MS needs to get information of the neighbor cells (e. It is necessary to introduce C31 into GPRS/EGPRS. and the priority of the neighbor cells). in fact: – PRIORITY_CLASS(s) represents the priority of the serving cell. – PRIORITY_CLASS(n) represents the priority of the neighboring cells.. in which layer the neighboring cells are laying.3 C32 Criterion The C32 cell ranking criterion is used to select cells among those with the same priority. the advantage is that C31 also uses a priority mechanism.1. the user sets a PRIORITY_CLASS(n) value for every adjacent relationship. the user specifies it by the GHCSPC parameter of the PTPPKF object.

The T timer is started in the MS for each cell in the list of the 6 strongest neighboring cells. other conditions derive from the comparison between the serving cell and the neighboring ones. a cell reselection is executed if: C2 (GPRS/EGPRS serving cell) < C2 (suitable GPRS/EGPRS neighboring cell) If the suitable neighboring cell is in the same location area for a period of 5sec. 10.g. GPRS_PENALTY_TIME is the duration for which GPRS_TEMPORARY_OFFSET applies. by reading their BCCH carriers. a) GPRS/EGPRS serving cell and GPRS/EGPRS neighboring cells configured with BCCH C2 (GSM) criteria is switched on. T is reset to 0 if the cell is removed from the list. There are two different conditions: a) Both GPRS/EGPRS serving cell and GPRS/EGPRS neighboring cells configured with BCCH. To understand how this feature is implemented. i C32 is similar to the C2 criteria used for GSM..1. This is different from the traditional GSM implementation for which the MS must retrieve the cell re-selection parameters of the neighboring cells. i. no paging has been possible) • Cell becomes barred Beside these conditions that regard only the serving cell. The user sets a GPRS_TEMPORARY_OFFSET(n) value and a GPRS_PENALTY_TIME(n) value for every adjacent relationship. in addition to C1. b) Both GPRS/EGPRS serving cell and GPRS/EGPRS neighboring cells configured with PBCCH. the MS can retrieve all of the cell reselection information from the PBCCH of the serving cell without monitoring the other neighboring carriers. this can be used to prevent some cells from beeing re-selected by a fast driving MS).1..e.. but it makes use of GPRS/EGPRS parameters.GPRS/EGPRS Global Description Information System • GPRS_TEMPORARY_OFFSET(n) applies a negative offset to C32 for the duration of GPRS_PENALTY_TIME(n) after the timer T has started for that cell.4 Management of GPRS/EGPRS Neighboring Cells". Regarding the previous parameters it is important to underline that their values are broadcasted on the PBCCH of the serving cell. which is used to make the cell worse during the first x seconds (i. GPRS_TEMPORARY_OFFSET. by GTEMPOFF and GPENTIME parameters of the ADJC object. see "10. an offset (to make a cell better or worse than another) and a temporary offset. PRIORITY_CLASS and GPRS_PENALTY_TIME are broadcast on PBCCH of the serving cell. 240 A30808-X3247-L24-5-7618 .e.3 Cell Re-selection Algorithm The MS makes a cell reselection if: • C1 (serving cell) < 0 for a period of 5 seconds • MS detects DL Signalling failure (e. as soon as it is placed on the list. C32 contains. GPRS_RESELECT_OFFSET. the MS must "see" that cell for that period of time before it may re-select it.

the GPRS_CELL_RESELECT_HYSTERESIS is also subtracted from the C31 value for the neighboring cells. a cell reselection is executed if: C1 (GPRS/EGPRS serving cell) < C1 (suitable GPRS/EGPRS neighboring cell) If the suitable neighboring cell is in the same location area for a period of 5 seconds. and the MS is in MM ready state. The best cells are found under all of these cells. then this cell will be the best cell to make cell reselection on. When evaluating the better cell. C2 (GSM) criteria is not switched on. i The C1 value of the neighboring cell must obviously be greater than 0. if the new cell is in the same routing area. then the C32 criterion will be calculated for these cells. If there are not cells for which C31>0. i If the C31H parameter (C31_HYST) is set to TRUE. then the PRIORITY_CLASS is checked only for these cells. i The CELL_RESELECT_HYST value is defined by the user through the GSM CELLRESH parameter. a GPRS_CELL_RESELECT_HYSTERESIS value is subtracted to delay a cell reselection. C1 (GPRS/EGPRS serving Cell) + CELL_RESELECT_HYST < C1 (suitable GPRS/EGPRS neighboring cell) If the suitable neighboring cell is in another location area for a period of 5 s. If there are more cells with the highest PRIORITY_CLASS. therefore the following is checked: If there are cells for which C31>=0. A30808-X3247-L24-5-7618 241 . The cell with the highest C32 criterion will be the best cell on which to make cell reselection. b) in ready state. the C31 criterion for the serving cell and all neighboring cells is calculated. if the new cell is in a different routing area a RA_RESELECT_HYSTERESIS value is subtracted to delay a cell re-selection. If there is only one cell with the highest PRIORITY_CLASS. The cell with the highest C32 criterion will be the best cell on which to make cell reselection. since a TBF might be interrupted. then the C32 criterion is calculated for all cells. the following hysteresis values will be subtracted from the C32 value of the neighboring cells: a) in standby state.Information System GPRS/EGPRS Global Description C2 (GPRS/EGPRS serving cell) + CELL_RESELECT_HYST < C2 (suitable GPRS/EGPRS neighboring cell) If the suitable neighboring cell is in another location area for a period of 5 s. the user sets this hysteresis with the GCELLRESH parameter. c) in standby or ready state. if the new cell is in the same routing area no hysteresis values are subtracted. b) GPRS/EGPRS serving cell and GPRS/EGPRS neighboring cells configured with PBCCH First.

as the other internal target BTSs.1. i If the parameter C32QUAL (C32_QUAL) is set to TRUE. 242 A30808-X3247-L24-5-7618 . and RA_RESELECT_HYSTERESIS are broadcast on the PBCCH of the serving cell. among those cells for which C32 is compared above. d) if a cell re-selection occurred within the previous 15 seconds. If no suitable cells are found within 10 seconds. the user sets this hysteresis using the RARESH parameter. a distinction will be made between two possible situations: • adjacency between cells supporting only GSM service (adjacent relationships between BTSs) • adjacency between cells supporting GPRS/EGPRS service too (adjacent relationships between PTPPKFs) ADJACENT RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN BTSs In case of an adjacency to an internal BTS. if another suitable cell can be found. The MS may accelerate the measurement procedure within the requirements to minimize the cell reselection delay.GPRS/EGPRS Global Description Information System because routing area changes will produce a lot of extra signalling. A TGTBTS managed object instance contains a copy of the attributes of an external BTS MOI. the complete path) to the internal target BTS. 10. the TGTCELL attribute will contain a reference to a new object. positive GPRS_RESELECT_OFFSET values are only applied to the neighbors with the highest RLA_P value.22) takes place immediately. cells belonging to other BSCs). it may assign high priority to measurements on the strongest carriers from which it has not previously made attempts to obtain BCCH information and omit repeated measurements on the known ones. the TGTCELL attribute will contain a reference (i. Upon creating an adjacent cell relationship.4 10. cells belonging to the same BSC) and external adjacent cells (i. RA_RESELECT_HYSTERESIS.. a value of 5dB is subtracted.e.1 Management of GPRS/EGPRS Neighboring Cells Handling of Neighboring Cells A mechanism has been introduced to manage both internal adjacent cells (i. Cell re-selection for any other reason (see GSM 03.. C31_HYST. The management of both internal and external adjacent cells is provided by using the TGTCELL attribute of the ADJC object.. namely the TGTBTS object. to which an adjacent relationship must be made up. this attribute is a mandatory one that specifies the path of the target cell instance (see the explanation below). but the cell that the MS was camped on will not be returned to within 5 seconds.e.4. Since information concerning a number of channels is already known by the MS. Once a TGTBTS MOI is configured.1. the MS will wait until these values are available and then perform the cell re-selection if it is required. it will be treated by the system for the management of the adjacencies. If valid RLA_P values are not available. In case of external adjacency. the cell selection algorithm will be performed.e.

etc. etc. he/she must specify only those attributes that are not enclosed in BTS:5 (i. it will no longer be necessary to replicate all of the attribute values in every ADJC managed object instance. internal adjacent relationship towards BTS:2 (belonging to BSC:1) – BTS:1/ADJC:2.e. but it will be enough that the different ADJC MOIs refer to the same TGTBTS MOI. Therefore.Information System GPRS/EGPRS Global Description This means that. while for the other attributes (i.e. BSIC..) the TGTCELL attribute provides the reference to BTS:2. When the user creates the ADJC2 instance. BCCH. that contains all of the attributes (i.) enclosed in BTS:5. in the case in which the external target BTS is adjacent to more than one internal serving BTS. CELLGLID. Fig. handover management attributes). handover management attributes). BCCH.e. external adjacent relationship towards BTS:5 (belonging to BSC:2) When the user creates the ADJC1 instance he/she must specify only those attributes that are not enclosed in BTS:2 (i.e.1 shows the management of adjacent cells.. Fig. BSIC. CELLGLID. A30808-X3247-L24-5-7618 243 . 10. The TGTCELL attribute will provide the reference to the TGTBTS:0 instance.. two adjacent relationships are built: – BTS:1/ADJC:1.. the user must create the TGTBTS instance containing the attributes belonging to the external cell.1 Management of Adjacent Cells Referring to BTS:1. before creating an external adjacent relationship. 10.

the MS must synchronize to these cells to read their data. The TGTPTPPKF object class is introduced to configure. the TGTCELL attribute identifies the target PTPPKF instance. This happens only if the PBCCH is configured on the serving cell. Tab.2 illustrates these parameters.1 TGTPTPPKF Object The TGTPTPPKF object class is hierarchically dependent on the TGTBTS object class in the containment tree. through the reference to the superordinate BTS instance • in case of external adjacency.. GPRS/EGPRS Neighboring Cells and Involved Parameters As described in the previous chapters. cell re-selection parameters of both the serving cell and its neighboring cells are transmitted on the PBCCH of the serving cell. In this way. as the other internal target PTPPKFs. in the BSC database. the TGTCELL will identify the TGTPTPPKF object instance.2 ETSI GPRS_RXLEV_ACCESS_MIN GPRS_MS_TXPWR_MAX_CCH HCS_THR Parameters involved in the management of GPRS/EGPRS neighboring cells 244 A30808-X3247-L24-5-7618 . 10. Siemens GRXLAMI GMSTXPMAC GHCSTH Tab. and “old” GSM parameters are used for cell re-selection. through the reference to the superordinate TGTBTS object instance i 10. To allow the MS to read from the PBCCH of the serving cell. i. it is possible to configure up to 32 neighboring cells supporting GPRS/EGPRS. Tab. 2. involved in the management of the adjacency.GPRS/EGPRS Global Description Information System ADJACENT RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN PTPPKFs The same considerations apply for the management of the adjacencies between PTPPKFs. of an external PTPPKF instance. external GPRS/EGPRS neighboring cells. the involved parameters are specified either in the PTPPKF or in the ADJC/TGTPTPPKF objects. Once a TGTPTPPKF object instance is configured. the MS takes the re-selection parameters of the neighboring cells from the BCCHs of those cells. 10. Therefore: • in case of internal adjacency. “old” C1 and C2 GSM criteria.1. Functional object TGTPTPPKF Meaning Configure external GPRS/EGPRS neighboring cells.2 For each serving cell. the re-selection parameters of neighboring cells. a MS camped on a cell can read all of the re-selection parameters without synchronizing to the other cells.e. if the PBCCH is not configured on the serving cell: 1.4. A TGTPTPPKF managed object instance will contain a copy of the attributes. it is treated by the system for the management of the adjacencies. 10.

this parameter allows to making a link to the TGTBTS (TGTPTPPKF) object that defines this cell in the database.2. the MS can re-select the cell (with GSM C1 and C2) without any problem. 10. The GSUP parameter is meaningful only if the PBCCH is configured on the serving cell. Nevertheless. b) GHCSTH and GHCSPC parameters are defined both on a cell basis and on the adjacent relationship basis. GTEMPOFF.Information System GPRS/EGPRS Global Description Siemens GHCSPC GRESOFF GTEMPOFF GPENTIME Tab. for each neighboring cell of the involved cell.. c) GRESOFF. they will also be defined for every adjacent relationship.4. It enables the transmission of parameters of the neighboring cell to which it refers. the following parameters (belonging to the ADJC object) are involved: 1. Besides the GSUP parameter can be set also in a different band than the BCCH one. i. in the packet system information of the serving cell. – they are defined on a cell basis in the PTPPKF object to define the cell values. a distinction must be made with the following: a) GRXLAMI and GMSTXPMAC parameters are only cell parameters. only if the adjacent cell does not belong to the same BSC of the serving one. So.2 ETSI PRIORITY_CLASS GPRS_RESELECT_OFFSET GPRS_TEMPORARY_OFFSET GPRS_PENALTY_TIME Parameters involved in the management of GPRS/EGPRS neighboring cells Among parameters shown in Tab. to specifies the values of the neighboring cells.1.e.e. they must be defined in the TGTPTPPKF object. 10. using the PTPPKF object. leaving to the operator choice whether enable GPRs on extended band or not.3 Configuration of an Adjacent Cell with GSUP= TRUE When the PBCCH is configured on the serving cell and the user configures a neighboring cell with GSUP =TRUE two cases exists: A30808-X3247-L24-5-7618 245 . if the GSUP attribute of one of its neighboring cell is set to FALSE in the serving cell. 10. the two parameters are specified in the ADJC object. the neighborhoods that will be considered in the BA(GPRS) list will be those cells for which the GSUP attribute has been set to TRUE in the adjacent relationship. To manage the previous features. A The following considerations apply to the GSUP parameter: – if the PBCCH is not enabled in the serving cell. if the cell is external. and GPENTIME parameters regard only adjacent relationships. the parameter values are specified in the ADJC object to indicate the values of the neighboring cells. 2. but PS sevices are active in the neighboring cell. the GSUP in meaningless. – for each neighboring cell of the involved cell.. to allow the transmission of the neighboring cell parameters in the packet system information of the serving cell. this parameter allows making a link to the BTS (PTPPKF) object that defines this cell in the database. TGTCELL when the cell is internal. i. they must be defined only on a cell basis. – if the PBCCH is enabled in the serving cell.

GPENTIME. their default values are taken. Regarding the parameter shown in Tab. they must have the same values that have in the PTPPKF object of the BSC database where they have been defined. The Neighboring Cell is EXTERNAL If the target cell is external. executes a link to the TGTBTS object (and as a consequence to the TGTPTPPKF one) related to this cell. i.2.2. the neighboring cell is internal 2. – for the remaining 4 cells. in this case. 2. consider the following example referred to a cell (in which the PBCCH is configured) that has 10 neighboring cells. If: – for 6 neighboring cells. since this object does not belong to the same BSC. 10. the GSUP attribute is set to TRUE. GPENTIME. these two possibilities are examined from the point of view of the GPRS/EGPRS parameters shown in Tab. Regarding parameters shown in Tab. if they are not specified. from the GSM point-of-view. does not exist for the neighboring cell). if they are not specified. this cell is not included in the BA(GPRS) list. GRXLAMI and GMSTXPMAC parameters must not be defined in the TGTPTPPKF object (because this object. their default values are taken.1.e. the user. GHCSPC and GHCSTH parameters could be specified in the ADJC object.. both RACODE and RACOL parameters (see "9.2 Network Structure") must be specified in the TGTPTPPKF object. their default values are taken. GHCSPC and GHCSTH parameters could be specified in the ADJC object. Besides. 10. executes a link to the BTS object (and as a consequence to the PTPPKF one) related to this cell. 1. the cell is always considered for cell re-selection purposes (using GSM C1 and C2 criteria). C31 and C32 criteria. if they are not specified.4. then starting from the serving cell: – 6 cells can be re-selected from the PS/CS services point-of-view by means of C1 (with GPRS/EGPRS parameters). 10. 2. the list of cells over which GPRS/EGPRS re-selection can be done. To understand.4 Configuration of an Adjacent Cell with GSUP= FALSE Since the GSUP attribute is set to FALSE for the neighboring cell. the user. 10. the following considerations can be made: GRXLAMI and GMSTXPMAC parameters must be defined in the TGTPTPPKF object. the GPRS/EGPRS re-selection parameters of the neighboring cell are not transmitted in the serving cell. i When the target cell is external. if they are not specified. the GSUP attribute is set to FALSE. with the TGTCELL attribute. they must have the same values that they have in the database where they have been defined.GPRS/EGPRS Global Description Information System 1. 3. and GTEMPOFF parameters should be specified in the ADJC object. GRESOFF. and GTEMPOFF parameters could be specified in the ADJC object. 246 A30808-X3247-L24-5-7618 . 3. the following considerations can be made: 1. The Neighboring Cell is INTERNAL If the target cell is internal. with the TGTCELL attribute. the neighboring cell is external In the following.2. their default values are taken. GRESOFF. since they are cell parameters and are directly taken from the linked PTPPKF object.

RAARET parameter is set to TRUE. both the BA(GPRS) list and the BA(GSM) list are comprised of 10 neighboring cells. the abnormal cell reselection attempt is abandoned.1. In this case. if the PBCCH is not configured in the same cell. i Considering the previous example. are not met.2. i. but cannot be used. if the MS is unable to decode the PBCCH data block. The MS performs the following algorithm to determine which cell is to be used for this cell reselection attempt: 1.. an abnormal cell reselection based on BA(GPRS) list is attempted. it is not allowed to reselect the original cell for a number of seconds specified by the TRESEL parameter. when an abnormal release with cell reselection occurs. on this carrier. the abnormal cell reselection is attempted on this cell. When the PBCCH is configured on the serving cell and the user configures a neighboring cell with GSUP = FALSE. the MS attempts to decode the PBCCH data block containing the parameters affecting cell selection. the received level measurement samples.3 Cell Re-selection Algorithm") is performed. are averaged. since they are not transmitted on the serving cell. 5. or if the conditions in step 3. and a BA(GSM) list containing 10 cells. since the GSUP attribute is meaningless.1. if: – the C1 parameter is greater than zero – the cell belongs to the selected PLMN – the cell is not barred – access in another cell is allowed. i For example the mobile station starts the “abnormal release with cell reselection” procedure after having made M+1 attempts to send a Packet Channel Request on PRACH. the RAARET (RANDOM_ACCESS_RETRY) parameter must be set to TRUE. 4. 10.6 Uplink Access on PRACH (Access Persistence Control)").e. the GPRS/EGPRS re-selection parameters must not be specified in the ADJC object. This parameter allows enabling the abnormal cell reselection starting from the serving cell. independently if the neighboring cell is internal or external. without receiving any answer from the network (see "9.8. 3. 2. the carrier with the next highest received average level (RLA) and with a permitted BSIC is taken.. taken on the neighboring carriers indicated in the BA (GPRS) list and received in the last 5 seconds. we have a BA(GPRS) list containing 6 cells. if the cells with the 6 strongest received average level values (and with permitted BSICs) have been tried. and the usual reselection algorithm (see "10. A30808-X3247-L24-5-7618 247 . and 3. the carrier with the highest received average level (RLA) and with a permitted BSIC is taken. To enable the abnormal cell re-selection.Information System GPRS/EGPRS Global Description – 4 cells can be re-selected only from GSM mobile stations by means of C1 (with GSM parameters) and C2 criteria.5 Abnormal Cell Re-selection In the event of an “abnormal release with cell reselection” when PBCCH exists. When an MS has executed an abnormal cell reselection. then the MS repeats steps 2.

the MS may use search frames that are not required for BSIC decoding. so we can have: 1. For this monitoring. but the PBCCH channel is not configured in the GSM serving cell. In the case where the 20 seconds elapses without a successful abnormal cell reselection. it does not have the possibility to select the UMTS network.2. In the event of an abnormal release with cell reselection when only BCCH exists. the opposite case is outside the scope of this chapter. According to both the type of service that the MS supports and the configuration of the serving GSM cell. 2. this type of reselection is executed when: – the MS is not GPRS/EGPRS attached (so it must use the circuit switched modality to re-select UMTS cells). two different algorithms are defined to reselect a UMTS cell (either FDD cell or TDD one). 10. re-selection of the UMTS cell in case of packed switched modality.2 Cell Re-selection from GSM/GPRS/EGPRS Network to UMTS Network With the introduction of the UMTS network. the attempt is abandoned and the usual reselection algorithm (see "10. Without this feature. the UMTS adjacent cell information must be sent (in the 3G Cell Reselection List) on the broadcast carrier of the GSM network.1. – the MS is attached to GPRS/EGPRS services.3 Cell Re-selection Algorithm") is performed. the MS performs only the usual reselection algorithm. using the C1 and C2 criteria of GSM. this modality is used when the MS is GPRS/EGPRS attached and the PBCCH has been configured in the serving cell. If indicated by the parameter GUMTSSRHPRI. The two cases are briefly discussed. in the following sections. re-selection of the UMTS cell in case of circuit switched modality.GPRS/EGPRS Global Description Information System The MS is under no circumstances allowed to access a cell to attempt abnormal cell reselection later than 20 seconds after the detection within the MS of the abnormal release causing the abnormal cell reselection attempt. once a dual mode GSM/UMTS terminal is camped on the GSM/GPRS/EGPRS network. starting from a GPRS/EGPRS one. the MS may use up to 25 search frames per 13 seconds without considering the need for BSIC decoding in these frames. it becomes very important to allow a dual mode mobile station to re-select a UMTS cell starting from a GSM one.1 GSM-UMTS Re-selection Algorithm: Circuit Switched Case When the PBCCH is not configured in the serving cell. i Only the re-selection of a UMTS cell starting from the GSM network is considered. To allow this feature. the MS performs a cell re-selection to an adjacent UMTS (FDD or TDD) cell. to inform the UE/MS which UMTS frequencies must be monitored for re-selection purposes. 10. only if the following conditions are satisfied for a period of 5 seconds: for the serving cell: RSCP(UTRAN cell) >= RLA_C_s + XXX_Qoffset 248 A30808-X3247-L24-5-7618 .

If more than one UTRAN cell fulfills the above criteria. if a suitable GSM cell can be found. The MS will then reselect a suitable UTRAN cell if its measured RSCP value exceeds the value of RLA_C for the serving cell and all of the suitable non-serving GSM cells by the value XXX_Qoffset for a period of 5 seconds. There is also a threshold by which the network indicates whether or not the measurements for the cell reselection of the UMTS cells should be performed. and QSRHI parameters are broadcast on the BCCH of the serving cell. the MS selects the cell with the highest RSCP value. XXX_Qoffset is increased by 5 dB. in order to perform UMTS cells measurements. the user sets this value by the FDDQO parameter (BTS object) for FDD cells. cell reselection to UTRAN does not occur within 5 seconds.2. FDDQMI. the threshold indicates if the signal level of the serving cell should be below or above it. the MS will. the MS performs a cell re-selection to an adjacent UMTS (FDD or TDD) cell. at least every 5 seconds update the RLA_C value for the serving cell and each of the at least 6 strongest non-serving GSM cells. If the MS has reselected a GSM cell from an UTRAN one. the user sets this value by the QSRHI parameter of the BTS object.Information System GPRS/EGPRS Global Description for all of the suitable GSM neighboring cells: RSCP(UTRAN cell) >= RLA_C_n + XXX_Qoffset and also (only for FDD cells): Ec/No (UTRAN FDD cell) >= FDD_Qmin where: – RSCP (Received Signal Code Power): is the power level received from the UMTS cell – Ec/No: is the signal/noise ratio regarding the UMTS FDD cell – RLA_C_s: is the power level received from the serving cell – RLA_C_n: is the power level received from neighboring cells – XXX_Qoffset: offset for cell reselection for UMTS cells. and (only in case of FDD cells) the UTRAN cells measured Ec/No value is equal or greater than the value FDD_Qmin.2 FDDQO. the user sets this value with the FDDQMI parameter of the BTS object If the 3G Cell Reselection list (sent by the network to the MS) includes UTRAN frequencies. only if the following three conditions are satisfied for a period of 5 seconds: for the serving cell: RSCP(UTRAN cell) >= RLA_P_s + XXX_GPRS_Qoffset for all of the suitable GSM neighboring cells: A30808-X3247-L24-5-7618 249 . TDDQO. In case of a cell reselection occurring within the previous 15 seconds. i 10. GSM-UMTS Re-selection Algorithm: Packet Switched Case When the PBCCH is configured in the serving cell. or by TDDQO parameter (BTS object) for TDD cells – FDD_Qmin: minimum threshold for Ec/No for UMTS FDD cell re-selection.

2. If the MS has reselected a GSM cell from an UTRAN one. If more than one UTRAN cell fulfills the above criteria. XXX_GPRS_Qoffset is increased by 5 dB. a cell that does not belong to the BSC). the user sets this value by the GFDDQMI parameter of the PTPPKF object If the GPRS 3G Cell Reselection list includes UTRAN frequencies. the threshold indicates if the signal level of the serving cell should be below or above it.GPRS/EGPRS Global Description Information System RSCP(UTRAN cell) >= RLA_P_n + XXX_GPRS_Qoffset and also (only for FDD cells): Ec/No (UTRAN FDD cell) >= GFDD_Qmin where: – RSCP (Received Signal Code Power): it is the power level received from the UMTS cell – Ec/No: is the signal/noise ratio – RLA_P_s: is the power level received from the serving cell – RLA_P_n: is the power level received from the neighboring cells – XXX_GPRS_Qoffset: offset for cell reselection for FDD cells. the MS will. and QSRHPRI parameters are broadcast on the PBCCH of the serving cell.e. the MS selects the cell with the highest RSCP value. i. cell reselection to UTRAN does not occur within 5 seconds. GFDDQMI. To define a UMTS neighboring cell for 250 A30808-X3247-L24-5-7618 . There is also a threshold by which the network indicates whether or not the measurements for the cell reselection of the UMTS cells should be performed. at least every 5 second. i 10. update the value RLA_P for the serving cell and each of the at least 6 strongest non-serving GSM cells. The MS will then reselect a suitable UTRAN cell if its measured RSCP value exceeds the value of RLA_P for the serving cell and all of the suitable non-serving GSM cells by the value XXX_GPRS_Qoffset for a period of 5 seconds and (only in case of FDD cells) the UTRAN cells measured Ec/No value is equal or greater than the value FDD_Qmin. the user sets this value with the FDDGQO parameter of the PTPPKF object for FDD cells. or by the TDDGQO parameter of the PTPPKF object for TDD cells – GFDD_Qmin: minimum threshold for Ec/No for UMTS FDD cell re-selection. in order to perform UMTS cells measurements. If a cell reselection occurrs within the previous 15 seconds. TDDGQO.3 FDDGQO. Handling of UMTS Neighboring Cells Besides defining the re-selection criteria. the user must also define the UMTS neighboring cells to be re-selected (obviously a UMTS cell is always considered an external cell. the user sets this value by the QSRHPRI parameter of the PTPPKF object. if a suitable GSM cell can be found..

The following are the more important parameters of the TGTFDD object: – CELLGLID (C-ID cell identifier): identifies univocally the UMTS FDD cell in the UMTS/GSM networks and it is composed by MCC (Mobile Country Code). LAC (Location Area Code) and CI (Cell Identifier) – FDDARFCN: defines the frequency of the cell – RNCID: identifies the RNC – FDDSCRMC: defines the scrambling code – FDDDIV: indicates if diversity is applied for the cell • a TGTTDD object instance. – RNCID: it identifies the RNC. MNC (Mobile Network Code). – BNDWIDTDD: it defines the bandwidth used for TDD. in the BSC database. will indicate the same TGTFDD (or the same TGTTDD) object instance in the adjacent relationship defined by the subordinate ADJC3G object instance. the user create an instance of the ADJC3G object (subordinated to the BTS one). MNC (Mobile Network Code). different BTS objects. the user can define up to 32 neighboring GSM/GPRS/EGPRS cells (ADJC object) if there are no UMTS neighboring cells. the ADJC3G:4 instance of the BTS:1 object represents the neighboring relationship towards the UMTS cell defined by the TGTFDD:0 instance. – if.1 Handling of Neighboring Cells" is also used to manage external UMTS cells). a TGTFDD managed object instance contains all of the parameters that allow describing. the external UMTS TDD cell. the user sets the TGTCELL attribute equal to TGTFDD:0. the user must already have created either the TGTFDD or the TGTTDD object defining the UMTS cell. The TGTCELL parameter of the ADJC3G object contains a reference to the following: • a TGTFDD object instance. LAC (Location Area Code) and CI (Cell Identifier).1. for example. that have the same UMTS cell as neighboring cell. in case of FDD neighboring cell. – TDDARFCN: it defines the frequency of the cell. a TGTTDD managed object instance contains all the parameters that allow describing. i For each BTS object instance the user can define up to 64 neighboring UMTS cells (ADJC3G object). for example. the ADJC3G:2 instance of the BTS:5 object represents the neighboring relationship towards the UMTS cell defined by the TGTFDD:0 instance.Information System GPRS/EGPRS Global Description a specific BTS object instance. EXAMPLE: if the TGTFDD:0 instance has been created to define a UMTS cell in the BSC database. and up to 31 neighboring GSM/GPRS/EGPRS cells (ADJC object) if UMTS neighboring cells are defined. in case of TDD neighboring cell. Therefore. the external UMTS FDD cell (the same principle as described in "10. this UMTS cell can be defined as adjacent to both the BTS:1 and BTS:5 cells in the following way: – if.4. The following are the more important parameters of the TGTTDD object: – CELLGLID (C-ID cell identifier): it identifies univocally the UMTS TDD cell in the UMTS/GSM networks and it is composed by MCC (Mobile Country Code). A30808-X3247-L24-5-7618 251 . – TDDDIV: it indicates if diversity is applied for the cell. the user sets the TGTCELL attribute equal to TGTFDD:0. before creating the ADJC3G object related to an UMTS neighboring cell of a specific BTS. For each BTS object instance. In this way. in the BSC database.

if the user enables this feature. This algorithm is called Radio Link Network Controlled Cell Reselection because the network cell reselection brings mobile stations to another cell that is better from the radio condition point-of-view..1 describe the Traffic Control strategy and the related traffic control network controlled cell reselection algorithm 10. the network may redistribute MSs among cells to satisfy the maximum number of service requests. i. the network can transfer a mobile station to a another cell.3. The meaning of different values of the NTWCOR parameter is specified as follows: 252 A30808-X3247-L24-5-7618 . if the user enables the Traffic Control feature. So. he/she must enable. The Network Controlled Cell Reselection is another available cell reselection method: the network may request the measurement reports from the MSs and control their cell reselection. The NTWCOR (NETWORK_CONTROL_ORDER) parameter indicates if and how the network controls the reselection process. i. Therefore..1. the traffic control strategy. The following must be clear: a) if the user enables only the network controlled cell reselection feature.3.3. depending on these reported values. and performs autonomously cell reselection. Every MS in packet idle mode and in packet transfer mode measures received signals from both the serving cell and neighboring cells.e.1 Network Controlled Cell Reselection With Network controlled cell reselection.1 describes some notes about packet measurement reports – 10. although traffic capacity might be available in neighboring cells. Therefore.e.1 and 10. which is better from a radio condition point-of-view. However there is another topic that must be considered: the BSC allocates PDCHs as long as there are available resources in a given cell.3.e.3 Network Controlled Cell Reselection and Traffic Control Management As described in "10. The topics below are described in the following paragraphs: – 10. the better traffic distribution among the available channels in all of the available cells.1 describes how the network controlled cell reselection works – 10. the cell reselection algorithm is executed normally by the mobile station. This might lead to congestion. the Traffic Control Network Controlled Cell Reselection can be executed.3.2 describes the Radio Link network controlled cell reselection algorithm – 10. even if the handover functionality is not foreseen for GPRS/EGPRS services. the distribution of MSs among cells according to network criteria.3.GPRS/EGPRS Global Description Information System 10. only the Radio Link controlled cell reselection is enabled. the network can ask the mobile to transmit the carrier level of both serving and adjacent cells through packet measurement reports. the functionality of the traffic control network controlled cell re-selection has the same purpose of the handover due to traffic. i..1.2. b) if the user wants to enable the Traffic Control controlled cell reselection. the network may request measurement reports from the MSs and control their cell re-selection. besides the network controlled cell reselection. The Traffic Control network controlled cell reselection guarantees the optimum usage of resources.1 Cell Selection and Re-selection".

In addition. by PSI5 on PBCCH or SI13 on BCCH. The NTWCOR broadcast value (PSI5 on PBCCH or SI13 on BCCH) is always NCO. the network can use the Packet_Measurement_Order or Packet_Cell_Change_Order messages on PACCH to address a particular MS. see below) to transmit the carrier level of both serving and adjacent cells. so every mobile station in packet idle mode does not transmit any packet measurement report to the BTS. the network can ask the mobile (by setting the NTWCOR parameter for that mobile. the MS sends measurement reports to the network. but it performs autonomous cell re-selection NC2: network control. taking into account that the longest period of transmission of packet measurement report for mobile in packet idle mode is about 60 seconds. this would hardly increase PCU real time requirements. since MSs in packet idle mode do not send measurement reports. by the Packet Measurement Order message. then the MS sends measurement reports periodically.Information System GPRS/EGPRS Global Description • • • NC0: normal MS control. transmitted to that single mobile on PACCH. the MS performs autonomous cell re-selection as described in "10. there are impacts even on battery power safe. the BSC modifies the NTWCOR mode value. if the network controlled cell reselection is enabled (NCRESELFLAG set at ENABLE) things work in the following way. at least 60 channel requests per mobile per hour must be considered only for measurement report transmission. i Remember that when the user set the NCRESELFLAG parameter at ENABLE. When a GPRS/EGPRS mobile station is involved in a TBF (uplink or downlink). which overwrites the correspondent value optionally broadcasted by PSI5 or SI13. The period is defined by two attributes: – NTWCREPPIDL (NC_REPORTING_PERIOD_I) for MS in idle mode – NTWCREPPTR (NC_REPORTING_PERIOD_T) for MS in transfer mode i Regarding measurement reports. from NC0 to NC2. NTWCNDRXP and NTWCREPPIDL have no significant value (MS transmits packet measurement report only in packet transfer mode). Therefore. otherwise the network would have to manage the packet measurement reports and associated access requests needed by mobiles to transmit periodically packet measurement reports. When the feature is enabled. In the Packet Measurement Order message. This message also carries the NTWCREPPTR parameter. In fact. NC2 will be used only for mobiles in packet transfer mode. there is also the NTWCNDRXP parameter that defines the minimum time the mobile station will stay in non-DRX mode after a measurement report has been sent with the mobile in packet idle mode. only the radio link controlled cell reselection is enabled. To enable the Network Controlled Cell Reselection feature. the MS sends measurement reports to the network. which will then submit measurement reports with the reporting period defined by NTWCREPPTR. however this parameter is not used. at ENABLE. Consequently. Alternatively.1 Cell Selection and Re-selection" NC1: MS control with measurement reports. A30808-X3247-L24-5-7618 253 . GPRS and EGPRS mobiles in packet idle mode always work in NC0 mode. the user must set the NCRESELFLAG parameter. and it does not perform autonomous cell re-selection The NETWORK_CONTROL_ORDER parameter is broadcast from the network to all MS in the cell. belonging to the BSC object.

then the mobile station will return a PACKET CELL CHANGE FAILURE message with cause "frequency not implemented".GPRS/EGPRS Global Description Information System After this change. this message contains the following: – characteristics of the new cell that are necessary to identify it (i. it uses a RRBP assigned block If needed conditions are verified (see "10. the BSS will signal this exception condition to a SGSN by sending a RADIO-STATUS PDU (Radio Cause value: cell reselection ordered). When a network controlled cell reselection occurs (ordered by the BSC). If required. or if the contention resolution procedure fails on the new cell. If the mobile station was previously in a downlink packet transfer mode only on the old cell. 254 A30808-X3247-L24-5-7618 . NTWCREPPTR) – IMMEDIATE_REL parameter Upon receipt of the Packet Cell Change Order message the mobile station starts timer T3174. If T3176 expires and the mobile station was previously in an uplink packet transfer mode or in a simultaneous uplink and downlink packet transfer mode on the old cell. If the mobile station was in uplink packet transfer mode or in a simultaneous uplink and downlink packet transfer mode before the cell change. otherwise the mobile station may continue its operation in the old serving cell until TBF end. The mobile station regards the procedure as completed when it has received a successful response to its access request on the new cell. then the mobile station will start the T3176 timer and return to the old cell. stopping all RLC/MAC timers except for timers related to measurement reporting. or if an IMMEDIATE ASSIGNMENT REJECT or PACKET ACCESS REJECT message is received from the new cell.2 Radio Link Network Controlled Cell Reselection Algorithm" and "10.1 Network Controlled Cell Reselection Algorithm for Traffic Control Strategy") the BSC may transfer the MS to another cell by a Packet Cell Change Order message. (either TLLI or TMSI or IMSI).3.3.e. mobile working in NC2 control mode periodically transmits Packet Measurement Report messages to the BSC: • if MS is involved in uplink TBF. BSIC + BCCH frequency) – network controlled measurement parameters valid for the mobile station in the new cell (e. If the Packet Cell Change Order message is received by the mobile while a circuit switched connection is on-going. It will contain a reference to the MS. the mobile station will establish a new uplink TBF and send the PACKET CELL CHANGE FAILURE message on this TBF. timer T3176 will be stopped. When a network controlled cell reselection is made.g.. the mobile station will act upon the IMMEDIATE_REL value which has been received in the Packet Cell Change Order. When the mobile station has sent a PACKET CELL CHANGE FAILURE message.1. The mobile station will then resume its uplink transfer on this TBF.. the mobile station will perform an abnormal release with return to CCCH or PCCCH. On the mobile station side. if the Packet Cell Change Order message instructs the mobile station to use a frequency that it is not capable of using. If timer T3174 expires before a response to the access request message has been received on the new cell. it uses an USF scheduled block • if Ms is involved in downlink TBF. it will immediately abort any TBF in progress by immediately ceasing to decode the downlink and transmit on the uplink. The mobile station will then switch to the identified new cell and will obey the relevant RLC/MAC procedures on this new cell. the mobile station will perform the abnormal release with random access. then the mobile station will return a PACKET CELL CHANGE FAILURE message with the cause "on-going CS connection".2.

Then the BSC transmits the FLUSH_LL_ACK message to the SGSN. MS Packet Cell Change Order Start T3174 BSC SGSN Radio Status Cell Change Packet Channel Request Packet Uplink Assignment Stop T3174 RLC Block RLC Block LLC (Cell Update) Flush LL Fig.2 shows this procedure). When the MS changes the cell. that it has not been able to send. It is responsibility of the higher layer protocols in the SGSN to cope with discarded LLC frames. so when this mobile station enters the packet idle mode. The Packet Measurement Report contains: A30808-X3247-L24-5-7618 255 .Information System GPRS/EGPRS Global Description This condition indicates that the SGSN should wait for a cell update or a routing area update before resuming the transmission of LLC PDU to the BSS. it no longer transfers packet measurement reports. the queued RLC blocks are discarded. The MS will then discard any previous measurement report. the MS sends a measurement report to the BSS. If new cell belongs to another SGSN. indicating if re-route or discard is made.3. 10. After this procedure. Before ending TBF.1 Measurement Reporting After each reporting period defined by NTWCREPPTR.2 Network Controlled Cell Reselection Procedure 10. it starts a cell update procedure or a routing area update procedure towards the SGSN. an inter_SGSN routing area update is required before the TBF starts in the new cell (Fig. The BSC uses this indication to route the queued RLC blocks related to that MS. the SGSN transmits the FLUSH_LL message towards the BSC indicating the new cell where the MS is entered. if the cell belongs to a different PPXU. the BSC changes the network control mode to NC0.1. 10.

the MS will report the number of valid cells in each other radio access technology as indicated by specific parameters: GFDDMURREP (GPRS FDD MULTIRAT REPORTING) and GTDDMURREP (GPRS TDD MULTIRAT REPORTING) parameters define the number of valid UMTS neighbor cells (FDD and TDD) which will be reported by the MS/UE. GPRS_MS_TXPWR_MAX_CCH – P) 256 A30808-X3247-L24-5-7618 .0. when the BSC receives a packet measurement report from a mobile. these will be used to report the next valid UMTS cells. the received signal level is replaced by the relevant measurement quantity.3. the mobile station sends measurement reports to the BSC. carriers will be reported if they are among the 6 strongest carriers and BSIC is successfully decoded and allowed i. The remaining positions in the measurement report will be used for reporting of GSM cells. i 10.2 GPRS/EGPRS Traffic Control Strategy") has been enabled by the operator. ! The UMTS FDD measurement quantity Ec/No is not a suitable parameter for a comparison with the GSM received level because the Ec/No is a quality parameter and not a received level parameter.3.e. Network Controlled Cell Reselection towards the UMTS network is not supported in BR7. In the latter case. In the case of a multiband MS. For multi-RAT MS. on BCCH. In this case.1.GPRS/EGPRS Global Description Information System – – RXLEV for the serving cell received signal level for the non-serving cells For normal measurement reporting. If remaining positions still exist. the MS will report the number of the strongest BCCH carriers in each band as indicated by the GNMULBAC parameter. Therefore. According to what was described in "10. which applies for BA(BCCH) where no BSIC is given. broadcast on PBCCH. the following values are calculated: – the C1 value for the serving cell [C1(s)] – and the C1 value for each adjacent cell [C1(n)] reported in the packet measurement report The C1 value for both serving and neighboring cells is calculated with the following criteria: C1 = RLA_P – GPRS_RXLEV_ACCESS_MIN – Max( 0.e.2 Radio Link Network Controlled Cell Reselection Algorithm When the network controlled cell reselection is enabled (i.. the BSC chooses a better neighboring cell and commands that mobile to move on this new cell. the NCRESELFLAG parameter is set at ENABLE) the radio link controlled cell reselection algorithm is executed by the BSC. or if PBCCH does not exist.. i The algorithm works independently if the GPRS/EGPRS control strategy (see "10. the decoded BSIC will be included in the report.1 Network Controlled Cell Reselection". When the radio scenario of the mobile station is degraded. the GFDDREPQTY parameter (FDD_REP_QUANT) is introduced in order to tell the GPRS/EGPRS attached MS/UE whether to report the RSCP value (GFDDREPQTY=RSCP) or the Ec/No one (GFDDREPQTY=EC_NO) to the BTS.3. either equal to the BSIC of the list or with allowed NCC part of BSIC.

the mobile must be moved to another cell. adjacent cells of the same routing area have no priority compared to adjacent cells of other routing areas. therefore the following priorities are used to order cells: 1. the user can define this value by the GRXLAMI parameter (for the serving cell this parameter is set in the PTPPKF object. the user can define this value by the GMSTXPMAC parameter (for the serving cell this parameter is set in the PTPPKF object.Information System GPRS/EGPRS Global Description Where: . 3. to avoide losing it. If C1(s) < NCC1TH. under the NCC1TH threshold. the adjacent cell is searched. i The PKTMEASREPCNT parameter specifies how many consecutive measurements of the BCCH carrier of the serving cell. but on the same PPXU/PPCU 2.GPRS_MS_TXPWR_MAX_CCH is the maximum power that the MS can use to access the cell. for neighboring cells it is set in the TGTPTPPKF one) . the cell with the highest C32(n) value is chosen. for neighboring cells it is set in the TGTPTPPKF one). First of all. Then.P is the Power Class of the MS . If NCSARA = TRUE.GPRS_RXLEV_ACCESS_MIN is the minimum allowed received level to access a cell. before. 4. 2. target cell on different PPUX/PPCU and different BSC Among neighboring cells with the same priority. The C32(n) value is calculated as follows: there are two cases: If T <= NC_GPRS_PENALTY_TIME C32(n) = C1(n) + NC_GPRS_RESELECT_OFFSET(n) – NC_GPRS_TEMPORARY_OFFSET(n) If T > NC_GPRS_PENALTY_TIME C32(n) = C1(n) + NC_GPRS_RESELECT_OFFSET(n) Where: • NC_GPRS_RESELECT_OFFSET(n) is a positive offset that increases the priority of cell in the list of the strongest neighbor cells. target cell on different PPUX/PPCU and same BSC 3. the selected cells are ordered according to different priorities. 5. target cell with the same RA or target cell with different RA. among cells belonging to the same routing area of serving cell. only those for which C1 (n) > NCC1THADJC are selected. target cell with the same Routing Area on the same PPXU/PPCU target cell with different Routing Area but on the same PPXU/PPCU target cell with the same Routing Area on different PPXU/PPCU and same BSC target cell with different Routing Area on different PPXU/PPCU and same BSC target cell on different PPXU/PPCU and different BSC If NCSARA = FALSE. The user sets a A30808-X3247-L24-5-7618 257 . are necessary to order a cell change. according to the value of the NCSARA attribute. therefore the following priorities are used to order cells: 1. among the neighboring cells reported in the packet measurement report.

Moreover. the Network Controlled Cell Re-Selection feature introduces the management of measurements related to the neighboring cells reported by the GPRS/EGPRS MS. When TRFPS is set to TRUE. the TRFPSCTRL parameter in the object PTPPKF is used to avoid too frequent cell reselection of the same adjacent cell. When NCSARA is set at FALSE. the user must set the TRFPS (trafficPs) parameter to TRUE i The feature can be enabled only if Network Controlled Cell Reselection feature (see 10. GPRS/EGPRS Traffic Control Strategy The GPRS/EGPRS Traffic Control Strategy feature makes it possible to control the traffic distribution among cells belonging to the same PCU. NCRARESH must be set at DB00 (default value) when NCSARA is set at TRUE. BSC doesn’t order to MS to move again into same adjacent target cell where a NCCR failed. as soon as it is placed on the list. The user sets a NC_GPRS_TEMPORARY_OFFSET(n) value and a NC_GPRS_PENALTY_TIME(n) value for every adjacent relationship. that is to move MSs inside a high traffic cell towards available resources in neighboring cells. a hysteresis value is subtracted from the C32 value for the neighbor cells. NC_GPRS_TEMPORARY_OFFSET(n) applies a negative offset to C32 for the duration of NC_GPRS_PENALTY_TIME(n) after the timer T has started for that cell. T is reset to 0 if the cell is removed from the list. in order to prevent “ping_pong” effect due to questionable MS behaviour during Network Controlled Cell Reselection. i Traffic control algorithm is applied only to cells belonging to the same PCU. by NCGTEMPOFF and NCGPENTIME parameters of the ADJC object.2 If the STGTTLLIINF parameter set to NULL. the traffic control algorithm is applied (see "10.3. To enable the Traffic Control Strategy feature at BSC level.until timer TRFPSCTRL is expired and the following condition is satisfyied: – STGTTLLIINF > TRFPSCTRL i 10. by NCGRESOFF parameter of the ADJC object.in spite of good radio link scenario . the feature is based on the Network Controlled Cell Reselection one (see 10. The hysteresis value can be set by the user via the NCRARESH parameter belonging to the PTPPKF object.GPRS/EGPRS Global Description Information System • NC_GPRS_RESELECT_OFFSET(n) value for every adjacent relationship. 258 A30808-X3247-L24-5-7618 .To this end. because every PCU knows only its own traffic.1 Network Controlled Cell Reselection Algorithm for Traffic Control Strategy"). The T timer is started for each cell in the list of the 6 strongest neighboring cells.3. The feature goal is to spread the cell traffic on more than one cell.3.2.3.1) and on appropriate traffic thresholds set in each cell. NC_GPRS_PENALTY_TIME is the duration for which NC_GPRS_TEMPORARY_OFFSET applies. but it does not specify any traffic control strategy on how to run this available information (only radio link conditions are taken into account).1) is already enabled. this means that no TBF temporary data is stored and therefore the ping pong NCCR cannot be avoided. In fact. the GPRS/EGPRS Traffic Control Strategy feature exploits this information to distribute the traffic among all available network resources.

therefore only priority level exists. target cell with the same RA or target cell with different RA. applying the following criteria for the choice of target cell. i The radio link criteria. and the type of strategy set by the operator. A30808-X3247-L24-5-7618 259 .3. among cells belonging to the same routing area of serving cell.. If NCSARA = TRUE. First of all. before. among the neighboring cells reported in the packet measurement report. described in "10.1 Network Controlled Cell Reselection Algorithm for Traffic Control Strategy When the Traffic control strategy is enabled. by NCGRESOFF parameter of the ADJC object. Then.1. In the positive case. target cell with different Routing Area. target cell with the same Routing Area on the same PPXU/PPCU 2. 10. for a specific cell. according to the value of the NCSARA attribute. based on the number of channels configured. The C32(n) value is calculated as follows: there are two cases: If T <= NC_GPRS_PENALTY_TIME C32(n) = C1(n) + NC_GPRS_RESELECT_OFFSET(n) – NC_GPRS_TEMPORARY_OFFSET(n) If T > NC_GPRS_PENALTY_TIME C32(n) = C1(n) + NC_GPRS_RESELECT_OFFSET(n) Where: • NC_GPRS_RESELECT_OFFSET(n) is a positive offset that increases the priority of the cell in the list of the strongest neighbor cells. i.2. only those for which C1 (n) > NCC1THADJC are selected. The mobile(s) to move are chosen among those in packet transfer mode. the adjacent cell is searched. every TBF activation is checked if.e. the cell with the highest C32(n) value is chosen. but on the same PPXU/PPCU Among neighboring cells with the same priority. The user sets a NC_GPRS_RESELECT_OFFSET(n) value for every adjacent relationship.2 Radio Link Network Controlled Cell Reselection Algorithm" is maintained also when Traffic Control Strategy is enabled.Information System GPRS/EGPRS Global Description Traffic control algorithm performs an evaluation of the radio resource occupation into each cell. the radio resource occupation has reached or exceeded a threshold. therefore the following priorities are used to order cells: 1. the selected cells are ordered according to different priorities. but on the same PPXU/PPCU If NCSARA = FALSE. adjacent cells of the same routing area have no priority compared to adjacent cells of other routing areas.3. defined by the CRESELTRHSOUT parameter. the algorithm looks for MSs candidates to be forced to a cell reselection. and in service available for GPRS/EGPRS.

a hysteresis value is subtracted from the C32 value for the neighbor cells. The algorithm also looks for a possible candidate cell into which to move a MS. defined by the CRESELTRHSOUT parameter. When NCSARA is set to FALSE.GPRS/EGPRS Global Description Information System • NC_GPRS_TEMPORARY_OFFSET(n) applies a negative offset to C32 for the duration of NC_GPRS_PENALTY_TIME(n) after the timer T has started for that cell. The user sets a NC_GPRS_TEMPORARY_OFFSET(n) value and a NC_GPRS_PENALTY_TIME(n) value for every adjacent relationship. as soon as it is placed on the list.e. the relevant ADJC object already exists) – it is not barred – it supports the GPRS service and its resource occupation is under a threshold. in order to put the traffic load under the NCTRFPSCTH parameter. The calculation is applied both to uplink and downlink TBFs: it considers the number of allocated timeslots. NC_GPRS_PENALTY_TIME is the duration for which NC_GPRS_TEMPORARY_OFFSET applies. Then. the following statements are valid: – every TBF activation is checked if the radio resource occupation has reached or exceeded a threshold. which take into account the average number of timeslots allocated for each TBF (uplink or downlink). NCRARESH must be set at DB00 (default value) when NCSARA is set at TRUE. The hysteresis value can be set by the user via the NCRARESH parameter. the GMANMSAL attribute value and weight factors. As described. This threshold can be set by the user by means of the CRESELTRSHINP parameter. for a specific cell – the algorithm looks for a possible candidate cell into which to move a MS. the number of MSs to be forced in reselection is determined taking as many MSs as the radio resources that must be released. when the traffic control strategy is enabled. A cell can be a candidate for this procedure only if: – it belongs to the same PCU of the serving cell – it is adjacent to the origin cell (i.. The T timer is started for each cell in the list of the 6 strongest neighboring cells. T is reset to 0 if the cell is removed from the list. The algorithm calculates the available resources both in the uplink and downlink directions: 260 A30808-X3247-L24-5-7618 . by NCGTEMPOFF and NCGPENTIME parameters of the ADJC object. according to the following rules. This threshold can be set by the user with the CRESELTRSHINP parameter – the number of MSs to be forced in reselection is determined taking as many MSs as the radio resources that have to be released. the resource occupation of the candidate cell must be under a threshold. belonging to the PTPPKF object. in order to put the traffic load under the NCTRFPSCTH parameter. The network sends to each concerned MS a PACKET CELL CHANGE ORDER message with the indication of the new cell where the MS must perform the cell reselection. Details About the Calculation of the “Allocated Resources”. The traffic control strategy is active when vertical allocation is present and it is based on the calculation of the “allocated resources”.

b) when condition 2) is satisfied. For the uplink. If TRFPS is set to TRUE and if the vertical allocation is used.Information System GPRS/EGPRS Global Description AVAL_TBF_DL= [N_GPRS_allocated_ts * GMANMSAL_DL] / aver_ass_ts_dl AVAL_TBF_UL= [N_GPRS_allocated_ts * GMANMSAL_UL] / aver_ass_ts_ul where: – N_GPRS_allocated_ts is the number of allocated time slots when vertical allocation is present. to the reception conditions. taking into account the related weight factors aver_ass_ts_ul and aver_ass_ts_dl. which the network can optimize through a set of parameters. this adjacent cell is no longer suitable to accept mobile from a congested cell.4 Power Control The objective of the power control feature is to adapt the transmitted power of the MS. The algorithm can be used for both of the following power control methods: A30808-X3247-L24-5-7618 261 . the system stops moving mobiles to the adjacent cell for traffic reason. (PercTrfUL_adjc > CRESELTRSHINP ) OR (PercTrfDL_adjc > CRESELTRSHINP). The system calculates the “traffic percentage“ both for uplink and for downlink directions. reduction of the interference which is experienced by both co-channel and neighboring channel users. 2. as well as of the BTS. Then: a) when condition 1) is satisfied. (PercTrfUL > CRESELTRHSOUT) OR (PercTrfDL > CRESELTRHSOUT). c) when. condition 3) is verified. for an adjacent cell. the MS follows a flexible power control algorithm. the system moves a mobile station from the serving cell to a suitable adjacent cell. 3. (PercTrfUL < NCTRFPSCTH) AND (PercTrfDL < NCTRFPSCTH). – aver_ass_ts_ul and aver_ass_ts_dl are weighted factors which consider number of time slots assigned to the uplink and downlink TBF on average. The following are the two advantages of the power control algorithm: 1. this process of moving suitable mobile stations continues until condition 2) is reached. reduction of the power consumption of the MS’s batteries 2. the system checks the following conditions: 1. The process is stopped when a transition from the vertical allocation to the horizontal allocation is executed. 10. each time a TBF or a PDCH is added or removed: PercTrfUL = TBF_UL / AVAL_TBF_UL PercTrfDL = TBF_DL / AVAL_TBF_DL where TBF_UL and TBF_DL indicate the number of currently opened uplink and downlink TBFs.

For the downlink. PACKET UPLINK/DOWNLINK ASSIGNMENT. Therefore.ALPHA * (C+48). 10.GMSTXPMAC if PBCCH is configured in the serving cell . there is no need to specify the actual algorithm. Therefore.0 only open loop power control is supported. GAMMA0: = 39 dBm for GSM900 = 36 dBm for GSM1800. GAMMAch: 262 A30808-X3247-L24-5-7618 . Pch. the MS will use the output power defined by Pmax..0 downlink power control is not supported: power control is a mandatory feature for the MS. the MS uses the supported output power that is closest to the calculated output power. The operator can set this value using the GAM parameter of the PTPPKF object. while it is optional for the network. the power control is performed in the BTS. In BR7. If a calculated output power is not supported by the MS. PACKET UPLINK ACK/NACK. The RF output power. assuming the same path loss in uplink and downlink directions closed loop power control: the MS output power is commanded by the network based on signal measurements made in the BTS. but information about the downlink performance is needed. C: is the normalized received signal level at the MS side Pmax: is the maximum allowed output power in the cell.1 Power Control Algorithm Even if the BSS functionality is not directly involved.4. It is equal to: . this paragraph provides a brief description of the power control algorithm implemented in the mobile stations. ALPHA: is the ALPHA system parameter. When the MS receives either a new GAM or ALPHA value.e. sent to the MS in control messages such as IMMEDIATE ASSIGNMENT. Pmax) where: (1) is a MS and channel specific power control parameter.GAMMAch . In BR7. the analogous GSM parameter) otherwise Power levels are expressed in dBm. the MS will use the new value to update Pch according to equation (1). to be employed by the MS on each individual uplink PDCH is given by the following formula: i Pch= min (GAMMA0 . which is broadcast on the BCCH/PBCCH or optionally sent to MS in a control message. the MSs must transfer Channel Quality reports to the BTS.GPRS/EGPRS Global Description Information System – – open loop power control: the MS output power is based on the received signal strength at the MS side.MSTXPMAXCH (i. The MS uses the same output power on all four bursts within one radio block. When accessing a cell on PRACH or RACH (random access) and before receiving the first power control parameters during packet transfer on PDCH.

8. of the BCCH. it corresponds to the PRPBCCH parameter. It is broadcast on PBCCH or. Pb is broadcast on PBCCH. For PCCCH.2 Measurement at the MS Side A procedure is implemented in the MS to monitor periodically downlink received signal level and quality from its serving cell. on BCCH.8.1) + a * Cblock(n) where a is the forgetting factor: C(0)=0 a = 1/MIN(n.Information System GPRS/EGPRS Global Description 10. For BCCH.4.2 Discontinuous Reception").2. The filter will also continue from its previous state if TDRX is changed.1 Packet Idle Mode: Measurements for Power Control In packet idle mode. The MS measures the received signal level of each paging block monitored by the MS according to its current DRX mode and its paging group (see "9.3.4. Pb = 0 (not broadcast). packet idle mode or packet transfer mode). To calculate the Pch value according to equation (1). The filter will be restarted with n=1 for the first sample every time a new cell is selected. the MS must derive the C value. Finally. MAX (5.a)* C(n.2 Discontinuous Reception"). The normalized C value for each radio block is calculated as follows: Cblock(n)= SSblock(n) + Pb where: SSblock(n): Pb: (2) is the mean value of the received signal levels on the four normal bursts that compose the block. when entering packet idle mode. the filter will continue from the n and C(n) values obtained during packet transfer mode. if PCCCH is not configured. is the BTS output power reduction (relative to the output power used on BCCH) used on the channel on which the measurements are performed. Two different methods are used to estimate the C value. the MS periodically measures the received signal level of the PCCCH or. according to the MS state (i.e. Otherwise. n is the iteration index.3. the Cblock(n) values are filtered with a running average filter: C(n)= (1. TAVG_W/TDRX) TDRX: TAVG_W: n is DRX period for the MS (see "9. A30808-X3247-L24-5-7618 263 . if PBCCH does not exist. 10.. is the TAVGW parameter and indicates the signal strength filter period for power control in packet idle mode.

It is broadcast on PBCCH or. Finally.4. 10.1) + b * SS(n) where b is the forgetting factor: b = 1/(6 * TAVG_T) and: SSn: TAVG_T: is the received signal level of the measurement samples. the filter will continue from the n and C(n) values obtained during packet idle mode. n is the iteration index. when entering packet transfer mode. the MS uses the same received signal level measurements on the BCCH carrier of the serving cell as made for cell reselection (see "10.2 Packet Transfer Mode: Measurements for Power Control In packet transfer mode. the Cblock(n) values are filtered with a running average filter: C(n)= (1. if PBCCH does not exist.1) + c * Cblock(n) where c is the forgetting factor: b = 1/(12 * TAVG_T) and: TAVG_T: is the TAVGT parameter and indicates the signal strength filter period for power control in packet transfer mode. n is the iteration index.GPRS/EGPRS Global Description Information System The current C(n) value is used in formula (1) to calculate the output power when the MS transfers its first radio block.2 Packet Transfer Mode: Measurements for Power Control"). the MS will instead measure the received signal level of each radio block on one of the PDCH monitored by the MS for PACCH. The measurements are filtered with a running average filter: C(n)= (1. if PBCCH does not exist. It is broadcast on PBCCH or. the filter will continue from the n and C(n) values obtained during packet idle mode. on BCCH. For each downlink radio block a Cblock(n) value is derived according to formula (2) (if PBCCH does not exist.2. n If indicated by the PCMECH (PC_MEAS_CHAN) parameter.2.b)* C(n. on BCCH. n 264 A30808-X3247-L24-5-7618 .4. when entering packet transfer mode. is the TAVGT parameter and indicates the signal strength filter period for power control in packet transfer mode. Pb = 0).c)* C(n.

is referred to as Link Adaptation.3 BTS Output Power The BTS uses constant power on those PDCH radio blocks that contain PBCCH or which may contain PCCCH. Therefore. 10. an algorithm is needed to dynamically select the coding scheme that behaves better in a specific radio condition. instead.2. when the serving cell is not transmitting. CS1 and MCS1 respectively) show good performances in poor radio conditions.3 Derivation of Channel Quality Reports The channel quality is measured as the interference signal level during the idle frames of the multiframe. 10. using the ELKADPT parameter of the PTPPKF object. 10. Link Adaptation can be enabled. This power may be lower than the output power used on BCCH. the basic idea is to dynamically select the coding scheme that allows the highest throughput according to the present radio conditions. In packet transfer mode. only the highest coding schemes (e. CS4 and MCS9 respectively) can provide high data throughput in good radio environments. The measured interference will be averaged in a running average filter. taking into account GPRS CS2 and CS1 coding schemes.4. GPRS offers four different coding schemes. The dynamic selection of the coding scheme. Therefore. the MS measures the interference signal strength of all eight channels (slots) on the same carrier as the assigned PDCHs. NAVGI is broadcast on the PBCCH or.3. for EGPRS nine different modulation and coding schemes are defined. The interference measurements will be made and averaged in the same way as for packet transfer mode.g.. The advantage to switching to a more robust coding scheme can be seen in Fig. the MS will perform at least NAVGI measurements before valid running average filter values can be determined. For each channel. on the BCCH. for both GPRS and EGPRS services. if the PCCH does not exists. the MS will measure the interference signal strength on certain channelsthat are indicated on the PBCCH or if the PBCCH does not exist.5 Link Adaptation As previously described (see 4. The difference will be broadcast on PBCCH by means of the PRPBCCH parameter. Each time a new C(n) value is obtained or whenever the MS applies new GAM or ALPHA values. on the BCCH.g.2). The MS will make these measurements during the search frames and PTCCH frames. Link Adaptation is enabled in both uplink and downlink directions at the same time. this value is used to update formula (1). In both cases (GPRS and EGPRS) lowest coding schemes (e. on the other hand.Information System GPRS/EGPRS Global Description Once the current C(n) value has been obtained.4. Then the problem is to find the switching points that allow changing from one coding scheme to another.. A30808-X3247-L24-5-7618 265 . to suit radio link quality. 10. the Pch value is updated. In packet idle mode.

higher direction towards '+') than the value denoted with '='. according to the propagation conditions. it is impossible to calculate such optimal values for each particular scenario. the use of CS2 results in a lower gross throughput than with CS1.e. not only the gross throughput is lower than possible (i. containing all of the ideal switching points (downgrade/upgrade switching points from/to all coding schemes) for the particular RF scenario. if CS1 had been used) but also the delay increases.. Since switching points depend on the actual RF scenario. C/I values are difficult to estimate in a real network.e. so another mechanism is followed.1 and 10. by selecting the right radio environment.e.2..e. link adaptation is then based on BLER measurements (indirect measures of the radio quality). according to the chosen radio environment certain matrix tables are 266 A30808-X3247-L24-5-7618 . The situation changes. to be used in link adaptation. The switching points between coding schemes.GPRS/EGPRS Global Description Information System Gross Throughput [kbit/s] CS2 CS1 C/I [dB] Fig. the NACK/(ACK+NACK) ratio (Block Erasure Ratio . The RAENV parameter allows the operator to specify the radio environment. it is then possible to select the suitable matrix table.BLER) is used.. In this case the use of the higher coding scheme (i. are then defined in terms of BLER thresholds (see 10. As previously described.). In general. if propagation conditions improve. if the C/I becomes lower than '=' (direction towards '-'). a switch to a higher coding scheme results in a better gross throughput. Therefore to fix the switching points. 10. The triggering of the switch does not use separate measurements of channel quality.. the sum of the acknowledged blocks and the unacknowledged one). In other words: if conditions get worse. CS2) results in an improved gross throughput compared to the use of CS1.5. then a switch to the more robust coding scheme improves gross throughput and reduces delay. In this case.5. Upgrade switching points and downgrade switching points are then stored in pre-calculated matrix tables. In that situation. This due to the necessity to re-send many blocks because they could not be received without errors the first time. By O&M. but it is executed by analyzing the number of blocks to be repeated (not acknowledged blocks) versus the number of transmitted blocks in total (i. On the other hand.3 CS1 and CS2 Throughput Depending on C/I (dB) Assuming that the C/I ratio is better (i. one for each possible RF environment (these matrix tables cannot be set by O&M).

1 GPRS Acknowledged Mode"). for the MS. For Uplink and Downlink directions the Throughput versus C/I curves for all the CS/MCS has been measured again for low and high Diversity scenarios..9.4). In case of significant changes in the Link Adaptation threshold Tables the new values have been applied. Starting from this first improvement the Threshold Table has been optimized again. For a first idea about the values to be expected. In this way a better throughput per user and in general an overall data capacity increase of the network is reached.g. The parameter can assume two values: – LOWDIV (lowDiversity): it means that. for example because Frequency Hopping is disabled and the cell is characterized by low user mobility (e. because MS have a speed less than 50 Km/h or because the cell is a small one). radio conditions can change fast. link adaptation features for GPRS service are described. With GPRS the receiver operates only in type I ARQ mode (see "9.Information System GPRS/EGPRS Global Description selected (specific either for GPRS or for EGPRS) to define the BLER thresholds of the switching points. Even if there are some common parameters to manage link adaptation. for example because Frequency Hopping is enabled.5. some differences exist between GPRS and EGPRS handling.1.5. The GPRS/EGPRS Link Adaptation thresholds have been already optimized due to the improved RTT. the exact values of the switching points depend on the real network situation and are subjects of simulation and/or measurements. 10. Besides in the current release an improvement of the Link Adaptation (LA) GPRS/EGPRS algorithm’s thresholds has been implemented. 10. 10. for the MS.1. it is possible to interpret the following simulations based on TU3 with ideal frequency hopping (see Fig. A30808-X3247-L24-5-7618 267 . therefore link adaptation procedure is based only on this mode of operation. radio conditions can change slowly.1 GPRS: Switching Points As previously described. – HIGHDIV (highDiversity): it means that.1 Link Adaptation for GPRS In the following.

The corresponding BLER values are shown in Fig. switching points between coding schemes are defined in terms of BLER thresholds. 268 A30808-X3247-L24-5-7618 .GPRS/EGPRS Global Description Information System Fig. 10.5 dB However.2 dB C/I=9.6 dB C/I=16.4 Gross Throughput Depending on CS and C/I (dB) It is possible to estimate the 'ideal' switching points as follows: CS1 <---> CS2 CS2 <---> CS3 CS3 <---> CS4 C/I=6. 10.5.

CS1 CS1 Tab.Information System GPRS/EGPRS Global Description Fig. 43% of all blocks mus bet repeated at least once. These switching points are reported in Tab.4 and 20 kbits/s.05 kbit/s=7.5 dB For example. e.4) are re-scaled. Therefore the '-' point should be as close as possible to the '=' point. and are the values that are contained in the GPRS internal switching matrix. for CS1<->CS2 provides approximately the same gross throughputs: (1-0. then a change to CS1 will be decided. only one switching matrix exists. then a change to CS2 will be decided.g.51 kbit/s (1-0.4 kbit/s=7. The curves above (see Fig.3. if BLER goes below 17% while using CS1.17)*9.64 kbit/s It is also possible to see – depending on the wished QoS – that the hysteresis should be more towards the more stable CS: in the example above.2 dB C/I=9. 12. each one by a proper factor. It is important to underline that for GPRS.g. the following BLER thresholds. 14. 10.3 CS2 <10% GPRS Thresholds with RAENV set to LOWDIV/HIGHDIV CS3 CS4 A30808-X3247-L24-5-7618 269 . both CS have nearly the same gross throughput. and the 'ideal' switching points should be recalculated accordingly..6 dB C/I=16. so the delay will be much higher than if one uses CS1. 10. can be defined: BLER_CS1(CS1 ---> CS2) = 17% BLER_CS2(CS2 ---> CS3) = 14% BLER_CS3(CS3 ---> CS4) = 2% BLER_CS2(CS2 ---> CS1) = 43% BLER_CS3(CS3 ---> CS2) = 26% BLER_CS4(CS4 ---> CS3) = 17% C/I=6. When considering the net throughput. but with CS2. 10.5 BLER as Function of C/I (dB) for all GPRS Coding Schemes For GPRS. the maximum data rate values would become 8. A crosscheck e. if BLER goes over 43% while using CS2.. independently of the value given to the RAENV parameter.43)*13. 10.

3 10. whereas those written in the horizontal direction represent the arrival ones.2 “Quality Traps” Disadvantage It would be desirable to enforce in the downgrade situation. each RLC block will be correctly received after an average 1/(1-p) number of retransmissions. the BLER value must be less than 10%. i The situation described above is very pessimistic. to go from CS2 to CS1. 10. Therefore. Let BLER(CSi-->CSi+1) be the (upgrade) switching point from CSi to CSi+1 and BLER(CSi<--CSi+1) the corresponding (downgrade) switching point and BLER(CSi=CSi+1) the BLER of the current coding scheme where both corresponding coding schemes have with same C/I the same throughput.3.5.3 Selection of the Candidate Initial Coding Scheme" to get more details about this procedure). watching at Tab. Then the following must always be valid: 1) 2) BLER(CSi-->CSi+1)<BLER(CSi=CSi+1) BLER(CSi=CSi+1)<=BLER(CSi<--CSi+1) i=1. As usual.3. to allow an RLC block correct reception within a reasonable number of retransmissions. 10. However. if the current coding scheme is CS4 and link adaptation leads to switch to CS3 than: – CS3 coding scheme is used to transmit new blocks – CS4 (‘old’ coding scheme) is used for in progress retransmissions 270 A30808-X3247-L24-5-7618 .1.3 >50% CS2 CS3 <10% CS4 >50% >30% <1% GPRS Thresholds with RAENV set to LOWDIV/HIGHDIV In Tab. from block to block.. coding schemes written in the vertical direction represent the starting coding schemes. when the number of retransmissions of a block exceeds the N3101 value. For example.GPRS/EGPRS Global Description Information System CS1 CS2 CS3 CS4 Tab. to go from CS1 to CS2. for transmission in the downlink direction. the BLER value must be greater than 50%. 10. when radio conditions are bad and the link adaptation leads to switching to a lower coding scheme. but CS may not be changed because blocks must be resent with the old CS). overtaking quality traps disadvantages (see "10. a re-sending of the NACK blocks in the new.5. it will be re-opened with the last commanded/used coding scheme. If the TBF is re-opened within a time configured by the STGTTLLIINF parameter. the TBF is closed.3 i=1. interference and fading conditions are variable enough. In more common cases. remaining blocks will never be transferred at all (conditions are too bad for transfer with current CS. If p is the probability of retransmission. in progress retransmission will be in any case performed using the ‘old’ coding scheme.. For example. this is forbidden by Specifications and it may lead to the following situation (“quality trap”): if conditions worsen (or a too “high” CS was selected in the beginning) before all NACK blocks could be resent successfully. more robust coding scheme.

this coding scheme is the coding scheme to be used when a new TBF is opened.1. C/I or BLER) but also on the available resources.5. if the current coding scheme is CS4 and link adaptation leads to switch to CS3 than: – CS3 coding scheme is commanded (and used by the MS to transmit new blocks) – CS4 (‘old’ coding scheme) is used by the MS for in progress retransmissions When the number of retransmissions of a block exceeds the N3101 value.2 Link Adaptation for EGPRS For EGPRS. For retransmissions. 5. the TBF is closed. For example..e. For example. for transmission in the uplink direction. 3. If the time is elapsed (or if a cell reselection is executed) the used coding scheme is those provided by the INICSCH parameter (see "10. If the MS again requires the TBF within the STGTTLLIINF time. a 32 kbit/s channel available for a CS3. The upgrade procedure depends not only on the propagation conditions (i. the BSC can evaluate the BLER value.3 GPRS: Link Adaptation Algorithm Speaking about GPRS service. the following considerations can be drawn: – if the transmission to be started is a retry due to a previous “quality trap” (see 10.5. a downgrade to the lower CS is performed. to recognize a retry and adapt the CS for that case. the same or another MCS from the same family of MCSs can be selected. all of the not acknowledged blocks must be resent using the coding scheme A).e. 4. the BSC starts sending blocks with the new coding scheme. The PCU must store abnormal releases for a certain time. in downlink direction. an initial Modulation and Coding Scheme (MCS) is selected for an RLC block.2.1. CS3 coding scheme (last used coding scheme) will be used. This problem is solved only by expiration of a timer and reestablishing the transmission with a more appropriate CS.. the CS to be selected must be more stable than the one used before. this may lead to the 'quality trap'.5. the TBF is closed. Basing on received blocks. link adaptation is based on the following features: 1.Information System GPRS/EGPRS Global Description When the number of retransmissions of a block exceeds the N3101 value. the BSC informs the MS to change the coding scheme.g. If the TBF is re-opened within the STGTTLLIINF time. – as described in 10.3 PCU Frames and Dynamic Allocation on the Abis Interface").5. an upgrade to the higher CS is performed.g. If conditions improve..3 Selection of the Candidate Initial Coding Scheme"). each scheme belong to a certain family. CS2 to CS3) is not allowed. 10..1. after a change from coding scheme A to coding scheme B.2). according to the link quality. but all of NACK blocks must successfully be sent using the old coding scheme. A switch (e. In uplink case. up to nine modulation and coding schemes are defined. insufficient transmission capacity on the Abis (e. If conditions worsen. All of the signalling is done with CS1. 2. 10. the PCU holds in memory the value of the last used coding scheme for a defined time.g. but all of NACK blocks must be successfully sent using the old coding scheme (i. if MCS7 is selected for the first A30808-X3247-L24-5-7618 271 .5. if there is e. see "6. In general. Data transfer is started with the highest available coding scheme.. CS3 coding scheme will be used (last commanded coding scheme).

In the type I ARQ mode (see "9. 10.. erroneous blocks are stored by the receiver and a joint decoding with new transmissions is done. erroneous blocks are not stored).6 Simulation Results for Family A (+MCS1) without IR It is possible to estimate the 'ideal' C/I switching points where the MCS should be changed in order to maximize the net throughput. any MCSs of the family B can be used for the retransmission. Fig.5 dB C/I=16 dB 272 A30808-X3247-L24-5-7618 . for family A + MCS1 (without Incremental Redundancy).9. 10. decoding of an RLC Data Block is based solely on the prevailing transmission (i. Link Adaptation procedure allows the receiver to operate either in type I or type II hybrid ARQ mode.GPRS/EGPRS Global Description Information System transmission of an RLC block.6 shows curves for TU3 with no frequency hopping.e.1. different MCSs allow different performance (throughput) as a function of the C/I ratio (and the actual RF channel). 10.1 EGPRS: Switching Points With EGPRS. and assuming only using MCSs belonging to family A (plus MCS1).5. In the type II ARQ case.2 EGPRS Acknowledged Mode"). the 'ideal' switching points could be as follows: MCS1 <---> MCS3 MCS3 <---> MCS6 MCS6 <---> MCS9 C/I=1. Referring to the previous case.5 dB C/I=7. Fig.2.

if BLER goes below 38%.2. In real networks. Only retransmissions must be performed using a coding scheme in the same family of the original one (the one that was used for the first transmission of the radio block). one for each possible RF scenario.5. These values are stored in matrix tables.5 dB C/I=16 dB The throughput is maximized changing the coding schemes according to these threshold values. therefore: – if RAENV is set to HIGHDIV. For example. More precisely. the following constraints are automatically considered by the system: a) MCS1 is always included in the selection: this is needed for signalling and due to the fact that MCS1 is the only MCS that requires only one Abis timeslot. all of the lower order MCSy (y<x) of the same family must be implemented. considering a given MCSx in use. the operator must define which sets of coding schemes must be used in the cell. as downgrade switching points. 1<=x<y<=9) are adaptable to the radio environment. 1<=x<y<=9) and downgrade switching points (BLER(MCSy--->MCSx). Among all possible EGPRS coding schemes. i Link Adaptation is not restricted within a family. This is needed because retransmissions may have to be performed with a (lower order) MCS of the same family. Upgrade switching points (BLER(MCSx--->MCSy). these values are stored in pre-calculated matrix tables. 'ideal' switching points will depend on the actual RF scenario and it is impossible to calculate such optimal values for each particular scenario. while using MCS3. since C/I values are difficult to estimate.Information System GPRS/EGPRS Global Description As described for GPRS. some other threshold values are used With O&M. When configuring these sets. it is possible (by setting the RAENV parameter) to select the suitable matrix table. some examples of defined BLER thresholds could be as follows: BLER(MCS1 ---> MCS3) = 61% BLER(MCS3 ---> MCS6) = 38% BLER(MCS6 ---> MCS9) = 24% BLER(MCS3 ---> MCS1) = 77% BLER(MCS6 ---> MCS3) = 69% BLER(MCS9 ---> MCS6) = 62% C/I=1. 1<=x<y<=9 as upgrade switching points and BLER(MCSy_wIR--->MCSx_wIR). some threshold values are used – if RAENV is set to LOWDIV. c) If more than one family is configured.5 dB C/I=7. When IR is taken into account. b) If MCSx is implemented. then a change to MCS3 will be decided. if BLER goes over 69%. both in uplink and downlink direction (see "10. 1<=x<y<=9. the general rule to decide the upgrading/downgrading MCS is the following: the “upgrading” MCS is the one characterized by the highest switching threshold (among the config- A30808-X3247-L24-5-7618 273 . while using MCS6. different BLER threshold values should be considered: BLER(MCSx_wIR--->MCSy_wIR). containing all of the ideal switching points (downgrade/upgrade switching points from/to all MCSs) for the particular RF scenario. also with EGPRS the thresholds are given in terms of BLER. one for each possible RF environment.2 EGPRS: Link Adaptation Algorithm" to know how to enable EGPRS coding schemes in a cell). then a change to MCS6 will be decided.

the best choice is to switch to the upgrading MCS.4 MCS9 Thresholds to be used if Family A plus MCS1 are chosen >XX% 274 A30808-X3247-L24-5-7618 . the possible switching points are those given by the sum of tables related to the single families. the user has enabled FamilyB plus MCS1.4 shows which thresholds are considered if. 10. In this case one of the two conditions is always satisfied (implicitly this means that the current MCS is a “transition one” and the best choice is to immediately switch to a new one). for instance. 10.GPRS/EGPRS Global Description Information System ured ones). different thresholds must be considered. Tab. Therefore. coding schemes written in vertical direction represent the starting coding schemes. i If more than one family is enabled. Instead Tab. the user has enabled FamilyA plus MCS1. to go from MCS1 to MCS3 the BLER must be less than a XX% value. 10.4. for instance. According to the chosen sets of coding schemes (in uplink or downlink direction). for example. watching at Tab.5 shows which thresholds are considered if. In case both conditions are satisfied. to go from MCS3 to MCS1 the BLER must be greater than another XX% value. whereas those written in horizontal represent the arrival ones. In the tables. 10. since different coding schemes are selected. i It may happen that the upgrading threshold is higher that the downgrading threshold. while the “downgrading” MCS is the one characterized by the lowest switching threshold (among the configured ones). Fam C Fam B Fam A + Fam C Fam A Padding MCS3 <XX% MCS4 Fam B Fam A + Fam B Fam A Padding MCS6 MCS7 Fam A Fam A Padding MCS8 MCS9 MCS1 Fam C Fam B MCS1 MCS2 >XX% MCS2 MCS5 Fam A + MCS3 Fam A Padding Fam C Fam B MCS4 MCS5 <XX% Fam A + MCS6 Fam A Padding Fam B MCS7 >XX% <XX% Fam A MCS8 Padding Fam A Tab.

according to radio environment (i. 10. RAENV parameter setting) and IR. 10.8) RAENV set to HIGHDIV and IR is not working (see Tab.e. four different threshold settings are foreseen: a) b) c) d) To From MCS1 MCS2 MCS3 MCS4 MCS5 MCS6 MCS7 MCS8 MCS9 Tab..6) RAENV set to LOWDIV and IR is not working (see Tab.5 MCS9 Thresholds to be used if Family B plus MCS1 are chosen If all EGPRS coding schemes are enabled.6 >60% >70% >70% >60% >60% >70% >45% >65% >70% >70% >75% >70% >80% >70% >75% >80% >75% >80% >80% MCS1 MCS2 <35% RAENV set to LOWDIV and IR is working (see Tab. 10.7) RAENV set to HIGHDIV and IR is working (see Tab. 10.9) MCS3 <35% <30% MCS4 <30% <25% <20% <35% <35% <40% <30% <40% <40% <45% <40% <40% <30% <40% <30% <15% MCS5 MCS6 MCS7 MCS8 MCS9 EDGE with Incremental Redundancy working and RAENV set to "LOWDIV" A30808-X3247-L24-5-7618 275 .Information System GPRS/EGPRS Global Description Fam C Fam B Fam A + Fam C Fam A Padding MCS3 MCS4 Fam B Fam A + Fam B Fam A Padding MCS6 MCS7 Fam A Fam A Padding MCS8 MCS9 MCS1 Fam C Fam B MCS1 MCS2 >XX% MCS2 <XX% MCS5 <XX% Fam A + MCS3 Fam A Padding Fam C Fam B MCS4 MCS5 >XX% <XX% Fam A + MCS6 Fam A Padding Fam B MCS7 >XX% Fam A MCS8 Padding Fam A Tab. 10. 10.

GPRS/EGPRS Global Description Information System To From MCS1 MCS2 MCS3 MCS4 MCS5 MCS6 MCS7 MCS8 MCS9 MCS1 MCS2 <35% MCS3 <35% <30% MCS4 <30% <25% <20% MCS5 MCS6 MCS7 MCS8 MCS9 >60% >70% >70% >60% >50% >70% <35% <35% <40% <30% <40% <40% >70% >65% >60% >65% >65% >50% >45% >30% <25% <30% <25% <30% <15% <15% <15% >45% >65% >70% >70% >75% Tab. 10. 10.8 EDGE with Incremental Redundancy working and RAENV set to "HIGHDIV" To From MCS1 MCS2 MCS3 MCS4 MCS5 MCS6 MCS7 MCS1 MCS2 <15% MCS3 <3% <3% MCS4 <1% <1% <5% MCS5 MCS6 MCS7 MCS8 MCS9 >45% >50% >55% >35% >40% >60% <10% <50% <90% <35% <75% <15% >45% >55% >45% <2% <5% <2% <5% <2% <5% >25% >80% >70% >90% >90% Tab.9 EDGE with Incremental Redundancy not working and RAENV set to "HIGHDIV" 276 A30808-X3247-L24-5-7618 . 10.7 EDGE with Incremental Redundancy not working and RAENV set to "LOWDIV" To From MCS1 MCS2 MCS3 MCS4 MCS5 MCS6 MCS7 MCS8 MCS9 MCS1 MCS2 <15% MCS3 <10% <3% MCS4 <10% <1% <5% MCS5 MCS6 MCS7 MCS8 MCS9 >45% >50% >55% >35% >40% >70% <20% <40% <45% <35% <45% <15% >45% >70% >45% >60% >75% >25% >35% >50% <30% <5% <15% <5% <40% <5% <15% >25% >70% >70% >70% >70% Tab.

2. Uplink Direction The operator can configure which sets of coding schemes can be used in uplink direction. if MS support 8PSK modulation in the Uplink EGPRS TBF. The parameters are as follows (remember that in uplink direction. if MS does not support 8PSK modulation in the Uplink case. At least two sets of available MCSs must be enabled.Information System GPRS/EGPRS Global Description MCS8 MCS9 Tab. the basic ideas are as follows: • link Adaptation is based on BLER measurements • different BLER thresholds are needed to take into account type I ARQ and type II Hybrid ARQ cases • only a subset of MCSs should be used. some differences exist between uplink and downlink directions. A30808-X3247-L24-5-7618 277 . especially due to the fact that is quite difficult to define consistent thresholds among all of the possible MCSs. the Incremental Redundancy is not implemented): • EMFA1UNIR8PSK (enMcsFamAMcs1UplinkWoutIncrRed8Psk): enables MCS belonging to FamilyA and MCS1 to be used. • EMFB1UNIR8PSK (enMcsFamBMcs1UplinkWoutIncRed8Psk): enables MCS belonging to Family B and MCS1 to be used. if MS supports 8PSK modulation in the Uplink case.5. 10. but only the GMSK one (see "9. a parameter is given for each family. one for 8PSK transmit capable mobiles and the other one for GMSK-only transmit capable mobiles. To enable sets of coding schemes. • EMFCUNIRGMSK (enMcsFamCUplinkWoutIncrRedGmsk): enables MCS belonging to Family C to be used.2 EGPRS: Link Adaptation Algorithm Regarding the EGPRS link adaptation algorithm. • EMFCUNIR8PSK (enMcsFamCUplinkWoutIncRed8Psk): enables MCS belonging to Family C and MCS1 to be used. these differences arise from the following situations: a) there are EGPRS mobile stations that are unable to use PSK modulation in uplink direction. if MS support 8PSK modulation in the Uplink case. • EMFAP1UNIR8PSK (enableMcsFamilyApMcs1UplinkWithoutIncrementalRedundancy8Psk): enables MCS belonging to FamilyA padding and MCS1 to be used. 10. if MS support 8PSK modulation in the Uplink.1 Mobile Stations for Packet Switched Services").9 >50% >55% >25% >35% >50% <15% EDGE with Incremental Redundancy not working and RAENV set to "HIGHDIV" To summarize. b) incremental redundancy is not supported in uplink direction. if MS support 8PSK modulation in the Uplink case. • EMFGUNIR8PSK (enMcsFamGmskUplinkWoutIncRed8Psk): enables MCS belonging to Family Gmsk to be used.

. the algorithm switches to the next (less protected) available MCS. by the BLERAVEUL parameter. EGPRS mobiles will be able to receive 8PSK modulated signals. in uplink direction. after 100 radio blocks if BLERAVEUL is set to UNIT100). MCSy the next available one and MCSz the previous available one. MCS2. the defined MCSs will be used (see "10.g. Once the connection is established. since it is mandatory for EGPRS mobiles.3). 278 A30808-X3247-L24-5-7618 . if MS does not support 8PSK modulation in the Uplink case.GPRS/EGPRS Global Description Information System • EMFGUNIRGMSK (enMcsFamGmskUplinkWoutIncrRedGmsk): enables MCS belonging to Family Gmsk to be used. The IMCSULNIR8PSK attribute suggests the MCS to be used in uplink direction if the MS supports the 8 PSK modulation in this direction. the GMSK modulation only. i When upgrading to a less protected MCS.1 GPRS and EGPRS Modulation Principles"). the filtering period can be defined.5. The operator can configure which sets of coding schemes can be used in the downlink direction. The operator can also define the initial MCS to be used as default in uplink direction. if no information is available about a MS in a cell.5. the initial MCS will be IMCSULNIR8PSK (or IMCSULNIRGMSK for GMSK mobiles). Abis availability should be checked. Once the initial filtering period has elapsed (e.2 Upgrade of Abis Resources". MCS3. The coding schemes belonging to Family GMSK are: MCS1. if it exceeds the downgrade threshold (Dn_th). in number of radio blocks. unless some information is available about the last MCS used for a previous UL TBF characterized by the same TLLI. In this case. If actual BLER falls below the upgrade threshold (Up_th). therefore at least one family of available MCSs must be enabled (all of the MSs are 8PSK receive capable). the algorithm switches to the previous (more protected) available MCS.4.3 PCU Frames and Dynamic Allocation on the Abis Interface" and "5. and MCS4. The link adaptation algorithm in uplink direction works as follows: 1. 2.e. i Family GMSK is constituted by MSCs that can be used from a mobile station supporting. these coding schemes use the GMSK modulation (see "3..3. 3. BLER is continuously updated at the PCU (each 20 ms) by checking whether or not RLC blocks have been carefully received. the initial MCS of the new TBF will be set equal to the last MCS of the previous one (see 10. for each received block) BLER is checked and tested against the appropriate thresholds. the appropriate thresholds are: Up_th= BLER(MCSx--->MCSy) Dn_th= BLER(MCSx--->MCSz) upgrade threshold downgrade threshold 4. if MCSx is the actual MCS. direction incremental redundancy is assumed to always be enabled. see "6. The initial Modulation and Coding Scheme is decided. BLER is continuously monitored.3 Selection of the Candidate Initial Coding Scheme"). Each time (i. the IMCSULNIRGMSK attribute suggests the MCS to be used in uplink direction if the MS supports only the GMSK modulation in this direction. Downlink direction In the downlink. In the absence of Abis congestion.

5 – IR is considered as "properly working” when IR_status_k>0. BLER is updated at the PCU with the information provided by the EGPRS PACKET DOWNLINK ACK/NACK MESSAGE. • EMCSFAMGDL (enableMcsFamilyGmskDownlink): enables MCS belonging to Family GSMK to be used.Information System GPRS/EGPRS Global Description To enable sets of coding schemes. In this case. in Downlink case.5 4.5. 2.. Once the connection is established. the initial MCS to be used as the default in the downlink direction. in Downlink case. the filtering period can be defined. MCSy the next available one and MCSz the previous available one. In the absence of Abis congestion. the MS OUT OF MEMORY bit is checked to verify if no more memory for incremental redundancy procedure is available at the MS. the Incremental Redundancy is always supported by MSs): • EMCSFAMA1DL (enMcsFamAMcs1Downlink): enables MCS belonging to Family A and MCS1 to be used. 3. BLER is checked and tested against the appropriate thresholds. the appropriate thresholds would be: Up_th_k= BLER(MCSx_wIR--->MCSy_wIR) upgrade threshold Dn_th_k= BLER(MCSx_wIR--->MCSz_wIR) downgrade threshold – if IR did not work at all.5. the initial MCS will be INIMCSDL. providing information about the efficiency of incremental redundancy at the MS at a specific instant k: – IR is considered as "not-properly working” when IR_status_k<0. The following are the parameters (remember that in downlink direction. the appropriate thresholds would be: A30808-X3247-L24-5-7618 279 . in Downlink case. the appropriate thresholds are: – if IR was perfect (no memory size limitations. • EMCSFAMB1DL enMcsFamBMcs1Downlink): enables MCS belonging to Family B and MCS1 to be used. by the INIMCSDL attribute. in number of radio blocks. When an EGPRS PACKET DOWNLINK ACK/NACK message is received (i. BLER is continuously monitored.e. • EMCSFAMAP1DL (enMcsFamAPaddingMcs1Downlink): enables MCS belonging to Family A padding and MCS1 to be used. reported by the MS upon periodic request from the network (let k be the reporting instant). The initial Modulation and Coding Scheme is decided. the initial MCS of the new TBF will be set equal to the last MCS of the previous one (see 10. in Downlink case. The operator can also define. etc. in Downlink case.3). by the BLERAVEDL parameter. unless some information is available about the last MCS used for a previous DL TBF characterized by the same TLLI. the suggested MCSs will be used (see "10. if MCSx is the actual MCS. the IR_status_k variable is derived. The link adaptation algorithm in the downlink direction works as follows: 1. a parameter for each family is given. • EMCSFAMCDL (enMcsFamCDownlink): enables MCS belonging to Family C to be used. if no information about the MS in a cell is available. at the instant k).3 Selection of the Candidate Initial Coding Scheme").). each time an EGPRS PACKET DOWNLINK ACK/NACK is received. From the MS OUT OF MEMORY bit.

the last coding scheme (CS or MCS) used in Uplink or Downlink direction for TBFs associated to the MS. see "6. the algorithm switches to the next (less protected) available MCS. all of the EDGE MS are obliged to support the 8 PSK modulation. therefore: – the IMCSULNIR8PSK attribute suggests that the MCS to be used in uplink direction if the MS supports the 8 PSK modulation in this direction. so the INIMCSDL attribute suggests the MCS to be used in downlink direction for all the EGPRS mobiles. the PCU also holds in memory. As previously described. This value is used to assign radio resources to the new TBF (see "5. only when the PCU does not have valid information of the coding scheme to use when the TBF starts. for the same time. These values are used to choose the initial coding scheme. if it exceeds the downgrade threshold (Dn_th_k). the INICSCH parameter is used. – the IMCSULNIRGMSK attribute suggests that the MCS to be used in uplink direction if the MS supports only the GMSK modulation in this direction. the “historical BLER”. These values of coding schemes are called “historical” coding schemes.3 PCU Frames and Dynamic Allocation on the Abis Interface" and "5.3 Selection of the Candidate Initial Coding Scheme The Initial Coding Scheme is the coding scheme to be applied. 280 A30808-X3247-L24-5-7618 . the algorithm switches to the previous (more protected) available MCS. the last measured BLER. when a new TBF starts.3.5. not all the of EDGE mobile stations support the 8PSK modulation. • for EGPRS service. Abis availability should be checked. configured by O&M coding schemes will be used only if no historical values are available at the PCU side.e.GPRS/EGPRS Global Description Information System Up_th_k= BLER(MCSx--->MCSy) Dn_th_k= BLER(MCSx--->MCSz) upgrade threshold downgrade threshold – generally (IR efficiency given by IR_statusk) the appropriate thresholds would be something between thresholds defined above: Up_th_k= (1-IR_status_k)*BLER(MCSx--->MCSy)+ IR_status_k*BLER(MCSx_wIR--->MCSy_wIR) Dn_th_k= (1-IR_status_k)*BLER(MCSx--->MCSz)+ IR_status_k*BLER(MCSx_wIR--->MCSz_wIR) upgrade threshold downgrade threshold 5. • for EGPRS service. in uplink direction. i When upgrading to a less protected MCS.. as described in "9. These values are refreshed at the end of each TBF and cleared from memory if either a timer defined by the STGTTLLIINF (storageTimeTLLIInfo) parameter expires or if a cell reselection is performed. 10. in downlink direction. the user can configure the coding scheme to be used when a new data transmission starts both for GPRS and EGPRS services: • for GPRS service. If actual BLER falls below the upgrade threshold (Up_th_k).3.3 Management of Incoming GPRS/EGPRS Requests"). In fact. i. i Besides the coding scheme.1 Mobile Stations for Packet Switched Services".2 Upgrade of Abis Resources". for each mobile station.4. the PCU holds into memory.

the candidate initial coding scheme is selected in the order looking at the following.1 PCU Algorithm" and "5. In fact. – a EGPRS TBF mode. The following tables show the rules to decide the candidate initial coding scheme for the following: – a GPRS TBF mode. only the ‘candidate initial CS’ must be calculated b) for EGPRS capable mobiles.2 TDPC Algorithm") will be clear which TBF mode (GPRS or EGPRS) is to be used.3. the user has changed the value of O&M parameters. if historical CS/MCS are not available b) canditate initial CS: – historical CS. when the last coding scheme was stored for an EGPRS TBF mode (see Tab. if available (see Tab. the Candidate Initial Coding Scheme must be selected: a) for GPRS capable mobiles.11) – configured initial MCS.g. 10. because e.3.3. 10. if available – configured initial CS. Therefore.Information System GPRS/EGPRS Global Description When a new TFB starts.3.10) – configured initial CS. if any – based on historical CS..11). Historical MCS MCS1 MCS2 MCS3 MCS4 or higher MCSs CS1 CS2 CS3 CS4 Candidate CS Tab. 10.10 Candidate Initial Coding Scheme for a GPRS TBF when the Historical Coding Scheme is related to an EGPRS TBF A30808-X3247-L24-5-7618 281 . the rule to select the candidate initial MCS is: take the highest configured MCS less or equal to the available historical MCS. for EGPRS service it is important to remember that the operator can configure separately: – MCS families to be used in downlink transmission – MCS families to be used in uplink transmission for 8PSK capable mobiles – MCS families to be used in uplink transmission for GMSK capable mobiles As a consequence. if historical CS/MCS are not available Besides. if available (see Tab. if historical CS is not available For EGPRS capable mobiles: a) canditate initial MCS: – based on historical MCS. both the ‘candidate initial MCS’ and the ‘candidate initial CS’ must be calculated. if available – based on historical MCS. when the last coding scheme was stored for a GPRS TBF mode (see Tab. 10. it could happen that an available (historical) MCS cannot be directly usable for the new TBF to be set up. For GPRS capable mobiles: – historical CS. In this case. only after the Resource Allocation procedure (see "5. 10.10).

GPRS/EGPRS Global Description Information System Historical CS CS1 CS2 CS3 -MCS1 Candidate MCS -MCS2 if FamilyB is configured -MCS1 otherwise -MCS3 if FamilyA is configured -MCS2 if FamilyB is configured -MCS1 otherwise DL or UL TBF for fully 8PSK capable mobiles -Configured Initial MCS if it is upper than MCS4 -MCS4 if FamilyC is configured -MCS3 if FamilyA is configured -MCS2 if FamilyB is configured -MCS1 otherwise UL TBF for GMSK capable mobiles -MCS4 if FamilyC is configured -MCS3 if FamilyA is configured -MCS2 if FamilyB is configured -MCS1 otherwise CS4 Tab.11 Candidate Initial Coding Scheme for an EGPRS TBF when the Historical Coding Scheme is related to a GPRS TBF 282 A30808-X3247-L24-5-7618 . 10.

besides. – In the fourth one. all of the parameters.4 TBF Establishment for EDGE Mobile Stations" ACCEPTGDEGR ALPHA FSH 0516 FSH 0720 "5. all of the unspecific GPRS/EGPRS database objects that are also involved in GPRS/EGPRS. – In the second one the user finds.2. 11.Information System GPRS/EGPRS Global Description 11 Database Parameters and Objects The current chapter contains four tables: – In the first table the user finds.1 8 Bit or 11 Bit Uplink Access" "9.2 Packet Transfer Mode: Measurements for Power Control" BAF BEPAVGP BER BLERAVEDL BLERAVEUL BNDWIDTDD BPAGCHR FSH 0720 FSH 0420 FSH 0720 FSH 0444 FSH 0444 FSH 0418 FSH 0720 "7.1 Physical Layer" "10.8. a link to the features that describe the parameter is executed. For each parameter the user finds one or more links to the chapters of the manual where the parameter is described and also a link to the title of Feature Sheets (or Change Requests) that introduce or describe the parameter in Siemens technology. a link to the features that describe the parameter is executed.5.1 Power Control Algorithm" "10.5 release onwards. the user finds.4.5. starting from parameters of BR5.0 "7.2.5.2 PDCH Carrying both PBCCH and PCCCH" "9.5. Parameter ABUTYP Feature/CR FSH 0720 Chapters "9.1 Physical Layer" NOT USED IN BR7. related only to GPRS/EGPRS.4.1 GPRS/EGPRS Parameters Summary Table A30808-X3247-L24-5-7618 283 . the unspecific GPRS/EGPRS parametersthat are discussed in the manual since they are also related to GPRS/EGPRS . – In the third one the user finds.8. For each object he finds the link to the chapters of the manual that describe it.5 release onwards. all of the database objects that are related only to GPRS/EGPRS.8.2.3.2.2 EGPRS: Link Adaptation Algorithm" "10.3 PDCH Carrying PCCCH" Tab. For each object he/she finds the link to Feature Sheets (or Change Requests) that introduce the object in Siemens technology. in the alphabetical order. in the alphabetical order.3. in the alphabetical order. in the alphabetical order. starting from parameters of BR5.2.1 Upgrade of Radio Resources" "10. that are discussed in the manual. besides.3 Handling of UMTS Neighboring Cells" "4.2 EGPRS: Link Adaptation Algorithm" "10. he/she finds one or more links to the chapters of the manual where the parameter is described. For each parameter.4.2.2 Discontinuous Reception" "4.

1.3.8.4.3 Cell Re-selection Algorithm" "9.3 Management of Incoming GPRS/EGPRS Requests" EEDGE FSH 0420 CR .3 Aspects Related to Carrier Configuration" "5.8.F190 CR .1.3.9.1 Acknowledged and Unacknowledged Modes on Downlink TBFs" EGPLGPONETS Tab.2 GPRS/EGPRS Traffic Control Strategy" "4.3 SGSN-BSS Flow Control" "7.GPRS/EGPRS Global Description Information System Parameter BPRACHR Feature/CR FSH 0720 Chapters "4.X617 FSH 0720 FSH 0720 FSH 0418 FSH 0418 FSH 0419 FSH 0720 CR .2 Discontinuous Reception" EBCCHTRX "5.3.3.5 Polling Procedures" "7.1 Physical Layer" "10.1 GPRS Channel Coding" "9.3.3.3.5.2 Discontinuous Reception" BVCBHIPER BVCBMAPER BVCBLPER BVCBSPPER C31H C32QUAL CACKTYP CODE CRC CRESELTRHSOUT CRESELTRSHINP CSCH3CSCH4SUP DRXTMA FSH 0514 FSH 0514 FSH 0514 FSH 0514 FSH 0720 FSH 0720 FSH 0720 CR .3.9.5.3 SGSN-BSS Flow Control" "7.9.1.1 Physical Layer" "7.5.X0158 FSH 0420 "5.X617 FSH 0420 "7.3.8.1 GPRS/EGPRS Parameters Summary Table 284 A30808-X3247-L24-5-7618 .2 PDCH Carrying both PBCCH and PCCCH" "9.3 PDCH Carrying PCCCH" BSCDVMA BSPBBLK FSH 0720 FSH 0720 "9.3.2 PDCH Carrying both PBCCH and PCCCH" "4.3 Cell Re-selection Algorithm" "10.2.3 SGSN-BSS Flow Control" "10.3 SGSN-BSS Flow Control" "7.4 Release of an Uplink TBF" "4.2 GPRS/EGPRS Traffic Control Strategy" "10. 11.1 Enabling Packet Switched Services in a Cell" "9.3.1 Uplink TBF Using the Acknowledged Mode" "9.

2 EGPRS Acknowledged Mode" "9.4.1 Uplink TBF Using the Acknowledged Mode" "9.1 Enabling Packet Switched Services in a Cell" "9.9.9.2 EGPRS Acknowledged Mode" "9.4.1 Uplink TBF Using the Acknowledged Mode" "9.1 FSH 0420 CR .1.1.X0158 FSH 0420 FSH 0420 FSH 0420 FSH 0420 FSH 0420 FSH 0420 FSH 0420 FSH 0420 FSH 0444 "5.3.1 Uplink TBF Using the Acknowledged Mode" "9.1 Uplink TBF Using the Acknowledged Mode" "9.9.1 Acknowledged and Unacknowledged Modes on Downlink TBFs" EGPLGPTHREETS FSH 0420 "9.3.9.9.1.9.4.3.9.2 EGPRS Acknowledged Mode" "9.2.9.1 Uplink TBF Using the Acknowledged Mode" "9.2 EGPRS Acknowledged Mode" "9.9.2 EGPRS: Link Adaptation Algorithm" GPRS/EGPRS Parameters Summary Table A30808-X3247-L24-5-7618 285 .9.2 EGPRS Acknowledged Mode" "9. 11.5.1.9.2 EGPRS Acknowledged Mode" "9.9.1 Acknowledged and Unacknowledged Modes on Downlink TBFs" EGPLGPEIGHTTS FSH 0420 "9.Information System GPRS/EGPRS Global Description Parameter EGPLGPTWOTS Feature/CR FSH 0420 Chapters "9.4.1 Acknowledged and Unacknowledged Modes on Downlink TBFs" EGPLGPFOURTS FSH 0420 "9.9.3.9.3.9.4.1 Uplink TBF Using the Acknowledged Mode" "9.1.2 EGPRS Acknowledged Mode" "10.1 Uplink TBF Using the Acknowledged Mode" "9.1.4.1.9.9.9.9.1 Acknowledged and Unacknowledged Modes on Downlink TBFs" EGPLGPSIXTS FSH 0420 "9.9.1 Acknowledged and Unacknowledged Modes on Downlink TBFs" EGPLGPFIVETS FSH 0420 "9.9.1.1 Acknowledged and Unacknowledged Modes on Downlink TBFs" EGPRS EGWSONETS EGWSTWOTS EGWSTHREETS EGWSFOURTS EGWSFIVETS EGWSSIXTS EGWSSEVENTS EGWSEIGHTTS ELKADPT Tab.9.3.2 EGPRS Acknowledged Mode" "9.1 Acknowledged and Unacknowledged Modes on Downlink TBFs" EGPLGPSEVENTS FSH 0420 "9.4.3.

1 Measurement Reporting" GPRS/EGPRS Parameters Summary Table 286 A30808-X3247-L24-5-7618 .2.2.5.1 Physical Layer" "10.2.5.3.1.2 EGPRS: Link Adaptation Algorithm" "10.2 EGPRS: Link Adaptation Algorithm" "10.3.3.2.2.3 Switching between VA and HA According to Radio Conditions" "5.3.1.8.4.4.2 EGPRS: Link Adaptation Algorithm" "10.5.2 GSM-UMTS Re-selection Algorithm: Packet Switched Case" "7.2 EGPRS: Link Adaptation Algorithm" "10.5.2.1.5.4.3.2 Upgrade of Abis Resources" GASTRTH FSH 0503 "5.5.2 TDPC Algorithm" "5.2 EGPRS: Link Adaptation Algorithm" "5. 11.5 Allocation of Resources" "5.2.4 Switching between VA and HA according to Abis Interface Conditions" "5.3.1 FSH 0720 FSH 0418 FSH 0418 "10.2 Configuration of GPRS Channels in a Cell" "5.2.X706 "5.3 Cell Re-selection Algorithm" "10.2.X482 FSH 0720 ---- Chapters "10.2.2 Packet Transfer Mode: Measurements for Power Control" GASTRABISTH FSH 0516 "5.2.4.2.2 EGPRS: Link Adaptation Algorithm" "10.3.2.3.2.2 EGPRS: Link Adaptation Algorithm" "10.1.5 Allocation of Resources" "5.1 Measurement Reporting" "10.GPRS/EGPRS Global Description Information System Parameter EMCSFAMA1DL EMCSFAMAP1DL EMCSFAMB1DL EMCSFAMCDL EMCSFAMGDL EMFA1UNIR8PSK EMFAP1UNIR8PSK EMFB1UNIR8PSK EMFCUNIR8PSK EMFCUNIRGMSK EMFGUNIR8PSK EMFGUNIRGMSK ESUP FDDGQO FRSTD GAMMA Feature/CR FSH 0444 FSH 0444 FSH 0444 FSH 0444 FSH 0444 FSH 0444 FSH 0444 FSH 0444 FSH 0444 FSH 0444 FSH 0444 FSH 0444 FSH 0420 CR .2 EGPRS: Link Adaptation Algorithm" "10.5.5.2 Enabling EGPRS Service in the Cell" "10.5.1 Power Control Algorithm" "10.5.3.3.2.5.2.2.5.2 EGPRS: Link Adaptation Algorithm" "10.3.2 EGPRS: Link Adaptation Algorithm" "10.2 Discontinuous Reception" GCELLRESH GFDDMURREP GFDDREPQTY Tab.2.2 EGPRS: Link Adaptation Algorithm" "10.3.3 Switching between VA and HA According to Radio Conditions" "9.2.1 Upgrade of Radio Resources" GDCH (ex GCCH) FSH 0720 FSH 0457 FSH 0503 CR .2 EGPRS: Link Adaptation Algorithm" "10.

2 Configuration of GPRS Channels in a Cell" "5.3.3.3.3.1 PCU Algorithm" "10.2.2.2.1.3 Configuration of an Adjacent Cell with GSUP= TRUE" GHCSTH FSH 0720 CR .3.2.3.2 C31 Criterion" "10.2.3.1 Vertical Allocation Strategy (VA)" "5.0 "5.1.X232 CR .2 C31 Criterion" "10.1 Vertical Allocation Strategy (VA)" "5.X706 REMOVED IN BR7.4 Management of GPRS/EGPRS Neighboring Cells" "10.Information System GPRS/EGPRS Global Description Parameter GHCSPC Feature/CR FSH 0720 CR .1 Examples of Addressing" GMANMSAL FSH 0720 "4.3.F205 "10.3 Configuration of an Adjacent Cell with GSUP= TRUE" GLK FSH 0720 "7.1 Physical Layer" "7.4 Management of GPRS/EGPRS Neighboring Cells" "10.1.3.1.4.4.2 Configuration of GPRS Channels in a Cell" "5.3 SGSN-BSS Flow Control" GMAPERTCHRES Tab.2 Horizontal/Vertical Allocation Strategies" "5.1.4.3.0 GPRS/EGPRS Parameters Summary Table A30808-X3247-L24-5-7618 287 .F187 REMOVED IN BR6.1 CR .2.3 Multiplexing MSs on the same PDCH: Configuration" "4.F205 Chapters "10.0) FSH 0720 CR .1.3 Packet Data Traffic Channel (PDTCH)" "5.2. 11.1.2 TDPC Algorithm" "7.3 Switching between VA and HA According to Radio Conditions" "5.3 C32 Criterion" "10.3.1.2.1 Network Controlled Cell Reselection Algorithm for Traffic Control Strategy" GMANPAL GMANPRES (restored in BR7.

3.1.1.3.1.1.GPRS/EGPRS Global Description Information System Parameter GMSTXPMAC Feature/CR FSH 0720 FSH 0418 Chapters "10.1 Measurement Reporting" GPATH GPDPDTCHA FSH 0720 FSH 0503 CR .2.2.8.1 Vertical Allocation Strategy (VA)" "5.F205 CR .3 Configuration of an Adjacent Cell with GSUP= TRUE" "10.3.1.1.2.3 C32 Criterion" "10.F205 "10.4 Management of GPRS/EGPRS Neighboring Cells" "10.4.3.1.3 Switching between VA and HA According to Radio Conditions" "7. 11.3.2.3 C32 Criterion" "10.2 C31 Criterion" "10.3 Configuration of an Adjacent Cell with GSUP= TRUE" Tab.X617 "9.2.1.1 GPRS/EGPRS Parameters Summary Table 288 A30808-X3247-L24-5-7618 .4 Management of GPRS/EGPRS Neighboring Cells" "10.2 Configuration of GPRS Channels in a Cell" "5.4 Management of GPRS/EGPRS Neighboring Cells" "10.3.2.1.4.1.2 TBF Establishment Initiated by the MS on CCCH/PCCCH" "5.1.1 Network Controlled Cell Reselection Algorithm for Traffic Control Strategy" GNMULBAC FSH 0418 "10.2.2.3 SGSN-BSS Flow Control" GPENTIME FSH 0720 CR .1.1.1 GPRS/EGPRS Path Loss Criterion (C1 Criterion)" "10.3 Configuration of an Adjacent Cell with GSUP= TRUE" GRESOFF FSH 0720 CR .1 Measurements for Cell Selection and Re-selection" "10.1.4.X617 "10.2 Radio Link Network Controlled Cell Reselection Algorithm" "10.2 C31 Criterion" "10.

F205 "10.4.2.1.1 Network Controlled Cell Reselection Algorithm for Traffic Control Strategy" GS GSUP (TRX object) FSH 0720 FSH 0512 "9.1 Enabling GPRS Service in the Cell" "5.1.2 Cell Re-selection from GSM/GPRS/EGPRS Network to UMTS Network" Tab. 11.3 C32 Criterion" "10.2 C31 Criterion" "10.3.1 Measurements for Cell Selection and Re-selection" "10.2.1 Measurement Reporting" "10.1.8.1.1.4.4 Management of GPRS/EGPRS Neighboring Cells" "10.3.1.1.1.2 Radio Link Network Controlled Cell Reselection Algorithm" "10.1.8.Information System GPRS/EGPRS Global Description Parameter GRXLAMI Feature/CR FSH 0720 FSH 0418 Chapters "10.4.2.1.3 Configuration of an Adjacent Cell with GSUP= TRUE" "10.4 Management of GPRS/EGPRS Neighboring Cells" "10.2.1 GPRS/EGPRS Parameters Summary Table A30808-X3247-L24-5-7618 289 .2 Configuration of GPRS Channels in a Cell" GSUP (ADJC object) FSH 0720 "10.4.2.4 Management of GPRS/EGPRS Neighboring Cells" "10.6 Uplink Access on PRACH (Access Persistence Control)" "5.2.1 GPRS/EGPRS Path Loss Criterion (C1 Criterion)" "10.4 Configuration of an Adjacent Cell with GSUP= FALSE" GTDDMURREP GTEMPOFF FSH 0418 FSH 0720 CR .2.1.1 Examples of Addressing" GTXINT GUMTSSRHPRI FSH 0720 FSH 0418 "9.1.3 Configuration of an Adjacent Cell with GSUP= TRUE" "10.1 Physical Layer" "7.3 Configuration of an Adjacent Cell with GSUP= TRUE" GTS FSH 0720 "7.1.1.2 Enabling EGPRS Service in the Cell" "5.3.1.6 Uplink Access on PRACH (Access Persistence Control)" "10.1.

1.3 SGSN-BSS Flow Control" "9.2.3.5.1 Physical Layer" "4.2 EGPRS: Link Adaptation Algorithm" "10.1.3 SGSN-BSS Flow Control" "7.2 “Quality Traps” Disadvantage" "9.3 Procedures for PVCs" "7.3.4.2.1 FSH 0720 FSH 0720 FSH 0720 FSH 0720 FSH 0720 FSH 0720 FSH 0720 GPRS/EGPRS Parameters Summary Table 290 A30808-X3247-L24-5-7618 .3 Selection of the Candidate Initial Coding Scheme" LOWBER MNTBMASK MSBHIPER MSBMAPER MSBLPER MSBSPPER N3101 FSH 0720 CR .4.5.3 Derivation of Channel Quality Reports" "7.5.2.3 Selection of the Candidate Initial Coding Scheme" INIMCSDL FSH 0444 "4.3 Selection of the Candidate Initial Coding Scheme" INIBLER FSH 0516 "5.1.3 Procedures for PVCs" "10.5.2.3 GPRS: Link Adaptation Algorithm" "10.5.3.2.3 SGSN-BSS Flow Control" "7.5.1 BVC Procedures" N3103 N3105 N391 N392 N393 NAVGI NBVCBR Tab. 11.2 EGPRS: Link Adaptation Algorithm" "10.5.2.3.1.2.3.3 Anomalies During an Uplink TBF" "10.2 EGPRS Channel Coding" "10.3.1 GPRS Channel Coding" "10.1 GPRS Channel Coding" "7.2 EGPRS: Link Adaptation Algorithm" "10.3 Selection of the Candidate Initial Coding Scheme" INICSCH FSH 0720 "4.3.2.X617 FSH 0444 "7.3.GPRS/EGPRS Global Description Information System Parameter IMCSULNIR8PSK Feature/CR FSH 0444 Chapters "4.9.1.5.5.2.2.X1869 FSH 0514 FSH 0514 FSH 0514 FSH 0514 FSH 0720 CR .1.3.3 Selection of the Candidate Initial Coding Scheme" IMCSULNIRGMSK FSH 0444 "4.4 Release of an Uplink TBF" "9.2 EGPRS Channel Coding" "10.2.3 Procedures for PVCs" "7.2 EGPRS Channel Coding" "10.5.3 SGSN-BSS Flow Control" "7.1 PCU Algorithm" "10.2.9.9.1 Acknowledged and Unacknowledged Modes on Downlink TBFs" "7.

2 Radio Link Network Controlled Cell Reselection Algorithm" "10.3.1.2 Control Procedures" "7.2 Radio Link Network Controlled Cell Reselection Algorithm" "10.2.1 Network Controlled Cell Reselection Algorithm for Traffic Control Strategy" NCRARESH FSH 0418 "10.3.3.3.1 Network Controlled Cell Reselection" "10.1 Network Controlled Cell Reselection Algorithm for Traffic Control Strategy" NCGRESOFF FSH 0418 "10.1.3.2 Radio Link Network Controlled Cell Reselection Algorithm" "10.2.2 GPRS/EGPRS Traffic Control Strategy" NCSARA FSH 0418 "10.2 Radio Link Network Controlled Cell Reselection Algorithm" "10.1.2.1.2.1 Network Controlled Cell Reselection Algorithm for Traffic Control Strategy" NCRESELFLAG FSH 0418 "10.3.3.1 Network Operation Modes for Paging" "7.2.2 Radio Link Network Controlled Cell Reselection Algorithm" "10.3. 11.2 GPRS/EGPRS Traffic Control Strategy" "9.3.1.1 Network Controlled Cell Reselection Algorithm for Traffic Control Strategy" NCTRFPSCTH NMO NNSVCBLKR NNSVCRR Tab.1.3.2 Control Procedures" GPRS/EGPRS Parameters Summary Table A30808-X3247-L24-5-7618 291 .2.1.8.2 Radio Link Network Controlled Cell Reselection Algorithm" "10.3.3.3.1.3.1 FSH 0418 FSH 0720 FSH 0720 FSH 0720 "10.1.1 Network Controlled Cell Reselection Algorithm for Traffic Control Strategy" NCGPENTIME FSH 0418 "10.2.3.3.3.2.2.3.1 BVC Procedures" "7.2.1 Network Controlled Cell Reselection Algorithm for Traffic Control Strategy" NCGPENTIME FSH 0418 "10.2 Radio Link Network Controlled Cell Reselection Algorithm" "10.1 BVC Procedures" "10.Information System GPRS/EGPRS Global Description Parameter NBVCUR NBVCRR NCC1TH NCC1THADJC Feature/CR FSH 0720 FSH 0720 FSH 0418 FSH 0418 Chapters "7.3.1.3.2 Radio Link Network Controlled Cell Reselection Algorithm" "10.

8.4.1 BSSGP Addressing: BSSGP Virtual Connections (BVCs)" NSVCI FSH 0720 "7.1.1 Examples of Addressing" REMOVED IN BR6.1 Sub-Network Service: Frame Relay on Gb Interface" "7.2.2 Packet Transfer Mode: Measurements for Power Control" "7.1 Physical Layer" "10.1 Network Controlled Cell Reselection" "10.3.3 SGSN-BSS Flow Control" NNSVCUBLR NRLCMAX FSH 0720 FSH 0720 CR .2.GPRS/EGPRS Global Description Information System Parameter NNSVCTSTR Feature/CR FSH 0720 Chapters "7.1 Sub-Network Service: Frame Relay on Gb Interface" "7.3.3.1 Physical Layer" "7.4.1 Sub-Network Service: Frame Relay on Gb Interface" "7.1 Uplink TBF Using the Acknowledged Mode" "9.9.2.1 Examples of Addressing" NTWCNDRXP NTWCOR NTWCREPPIDL NTWCREPPTR FSH 0418 FSH 0720 FSH 0418 FSH 0418 "10.2 Control Procedures" "7.1.2.2.1 Network Controlled Cell Reselection" "10.8.3.2.2.1.2.2.3.1 Measurement Reporting" NUA PCMECH PCML FSH 0720 FSH 0720 FSH 0720 "7.6 Uplink Access on PRACH (Access Persistence Control)" PCUID (FLR object .2.1 Network Controlled Cell Reselection" "10.1 Acknowledged and Unacknowledged Modes on Downlink TBFs" NSEI FSH 0720 "7.2 Control Procedures" NSVLI FSH 0720 "7.1 Network Controlled Cell Reselection" "10.2.2.2.1 Examples of Addressing" "7.3.2 Control Procedures" "9.6 Uplink Access on PRACH (Access Persistence Control)" "9.1.2.2.1.1 Examples of Addressing" "7.2.3.X617 "7.0 "9. 11.9.FSH 0720 In previous releases it was called PCUN) PCUN (PTPPKF object) PERSTLVPRI1 PERSTLVPRI2 FSH 0720 FSH 0420 FSH 0420 Tab.1 GPRS/EGPRS Parameters Summary Table 292 A30808-X3247-L24-5-7618 .1 Physical Layer" "7.3.

3 Configuration of an Adjacent Cell with GSUP= TRUE" RACOL FSH 0720 "9.2 Network Structure" RAENV FSH 0444 "10.1.1 Uplink TBF Using the Acknowledged Mode" "9.1.2 Scheduling Process" "5.2 Uplink TBF Using the Unacknowledged Mode" PRPBCCH FSH 0720 "10.3.2 Uplink TBF Using the Unacknowledged Mode" PKTNMA FSH 0720 "9.3.2 Network Structure" "9.5 Link Adaptation" "10.1 Packet Idle Mode: Measurements for Power Control" "10.X482 FSH 0720 FSH 0720 "10.Information System GPRS/EGPRS Global Description Parameter PERSTLVPRI3 PERSTLVPRI4 PKTMEASREPCNT PKTNDEC Feature/CR FSH 0420 FSH 0420 FSH 0418 FSH 0720 Chapters "9. 11.6 Uplink Access on PRACH (Access Persistence Control)" "9.4.1.2 Uplink TBF Using the Unacknowledged Mode" PKTNINC FSH 0720 "9.9.3.1 Uplink TBF Using the Acknowledged Mode" "9.9.3.1 Physical Layer" "9.9.3.3.2 Network Structure" "10.7.2.1 PCU Algorithm" SCHWEIPRI2 FSH 0550 "9.1.2 Radio Link Network Controlled Cell Reselection Algorithm" "9.5.7.8.9.4.1.6 Uplink Access on PRACH (Access Persistence Control)" "10.3.3.1 PCU Algorithm" Tab.2.4.9.9.5 Abnormal Cell Re-selection" "9.2 GSM-UMTS Re-selection Algorithm: Packet Switched Case" "10.2.9.3.1 GPRS/EGPRS Parameters Summary Table A30808-X3247-L24-5-7618 293 .9.3 Cell Re-selection Algorithm" "7.1 Uplink TBF Using the Acknowledged Mode" "9.3 BTS Output Power" QSRHPRI RAARET RACODE CR .3 GPRS: Link Adaptation Algorithm" RARESH REMAL SCHWEIPRI1 FSH 0720 FSH 0720 FSH 0550 "10.2.8.3.2 Scheduling Process" "5.3.

X617 FSH 0720 FSH 0720 FSH 0720 FSH 0720 FSH 0720 FSH 0418 FSH 0418 FSH 0418 FSH 0720 "9.5.2.3.2 Scheduling Process" "5. 11.9.3.4.1 Packet Idle Mode: Measurements for Power Control" "7.2.9.3.8.2 Frame Relay Structure" "10.3 SGSN-BSS Flow Control" GPRS/EGPRS Parameters Summary Table 294 A30808-X3247-L24-5-7618 .2 TDPC Algorithm" TEMPPDT TF1 Tab.1.2.4 Release of an Uplink TBF" T3172 T3191 T3192 T3193 T391 TAVGT TAVGW TCONG TCONOFF TDDARFCN TDDDIV TDDGQO TEMPCH FSH 0720 FSH 0720 FSH 0720 CR .9.1 Generalities about Resource Assignments" "7.4.1.1.3.3 Procedures for PVCs" "10.2.2.GPRS/EGPRS Global Description Information System Parameter SCHWEIPRI3 Feature/CR FSH 0550 Chapters "9.3.3.3.7.2 Release of a Downlink TBF" "9.2 “Quality Traps” Disadvantage" "10.7.1 PCU Algorithm" SCHWEIPRI4 FSH 0550 "9.3 Selection of the Candidate Initial Coding Scheme" T1 T2 T3169 FSH 0720 FSH 0720 FSH 0720 "7.2.4.3.4.2 Packet Transfer Mode: Measurements for Power Control" "10.3 Handling of UMTS Neighboring Cells" "10.2.6 Uplink Access on PRACH (Access Persistence Control)" "9.X617 FSH 0720 CR .1.2 GSM-UMTS Re-selection Algorithm: Packet Switched Case" "5.3.5.1.1 Generalities about Resource Assignments" "5.2.1.9.2 Release of a Downlink TBF" "9.3.9.3.3.1 BVC Procedures" "7.1 BVC Procedures" "9.2.3 Handling of UMTS Neighboring Cells" "10.9.3 Anomalies During an Uplink TBF" "9.1 PCU Algorithm" STGTTLLIINF FSH 0444 "10.4.9.2 Frame Relay Structure" "7.3.3.2 Scheduling Process" "5.1 FSH 0429 FSH 0720 "5.1 PCU Algorithm" "5.3.2 Release of a Downlink TBF" "7.

4 TBF Establishment for EDGE Mobile Stations" "5.2.X1495 CR .3 SGSN-BSS Flow Control" TRESEL TRFPS TRFPSCTRL TRFPSCTRLT TRXMD FSH 0720 FSH 0418 CR .2.3 SGSN-BSS Flow Control" THSULBAL TIMEDTBFREL TNSVCBLK TNSVCPTST TNSVCR TNSVCTST FSH 0720 FSH 0720 "7.2.9.2 Release of a Downlink TBF" "7.0 release.1.2.5 Notes About Concurrent TBFs" "5.X1495 FSH 0516 "9.9.2 Unspecific GPRS/EGPRS Parameters Involved in PS Services A30808-X3247-L24-5-7618 295 .1 Upgrade of Radio Resources" GPRS/EGPRS Parameters Summary Table Parameter ASSLAPD BSCT17 BSCT18 CELLGLID Object Feature/CR Chapters "6.2.8.X617 FSH 0720 FSH 0720 Chapters This parameter was introduced for an older SMG release.2 Control Procedures" "7.2 Control Procedures" "7.9.1.3. "9.X617 CR .4. and it is no longer used starting from BR6.3 Configuration of the Abis Interface" "8.2.2 PCU Overload Management" "8.2.3.3.2.2 GPRS/EGPRS Traffic Control Strategy" "10.Information System GPRS/EGPRS Global Description Parameter THPROXT Feature/CR FSH 0720 CR .3.1 Enabling GPRS Service in the Cell" "5.2.4.0 release is not significant. 11.F287 CR .3 Aspects Related to Carrier Configuration" "9.2 Enabling EGPRS Service in the Cell" "5.5 Notes About Concurrent TBFs" "9.X260 Tab.1.2 Control Procedures" "7.2.3.5 Abnormal Cell Re-selection" "10.X1850 FSH 0418 FSH 0420 "10.2 Configuration of GPRS Channels in a Cell" TSULBAL UPGRFREQ Tab. "5.3.3 Handling of UMTS Neighboring Cells" SUBTSLB FSH 0419 BSC BSC TGTFDD ------CR .2 Control Procedures" "7. 11.1.1 CR .2 PCU Overload Management" "10.1.2 Radio Link Network Controlled Cell Reselection Algorithm" This parameter in BR7.

3.2 Enabling EGPRS Service in the Cell" QSRHI RNCID RXLEVAMI BTS TGTFDD BTS CR .1 GPRS/EGPRS Path Loss Criterion (C1 Criterion)" Tab.3.1 GSM-UMTS Re-selection Algorithm: Circuit Switched Case" "10.3.2 Discontinuous Reception" "9.3.2.X1150 Chapters "10.1 Supported BSC Types" "5.3.2.1 GSM-UMTS Re-selection Algorithm: Circuit Switched Case" "10.8.2.1.2.3.X260 CR .2.3 Forced Intracell Handovers of Already Established CS Calls" "5.1 GPRS Channel Coding" "6.F092 CR .2 Discontinuous Reception" "4.3. 11.6 Waiting Queue Management" "5.1 Pre-emption of PDCH Channels" ENFOIAHO DGRSTRGY BSC BSC FSH 0457 CR .X912 CR .3 Handling of UMTS Neighboring Cells" "10.3 Cell Re-selection Algorithm" "5.3.2 Unspecific GPRS/EGPRS Parameters Involved in PS Services 296 A30808-X3247-L24-5-7618 .2.1.X260 ---------FSH 0397 "10.1.F092 CR .2.2 TDPC Algorithm" "5.1.1 Pre-emption of PDCH Channels" FDDARFCN FDDDIV FDDQO FDDQMI TGTFDD TGTFDD BTS BTS "10.6.3 Handling of UMTS Neighboring Cells" "10.X1150 CR .X260 CR .3 Handling of UMTS Neighboring Cells" "10.X260 CR .X260 CR .2.3 Management of Incoming GPRS/EGPRS Requests" "5.F092 FSH 0457 CR .1 PCU Algorithm" "5.3.GPRS/EGPRS Global Description Information System Parameter CELLRESH CPOLICY Object BTS BSC Feature/CR ---FSH 0457 CR .2.8.X260 ---- "10.2.2.X482 "5.X260 CR .3.1 GSM-UMTS Re-selection Algorithm: Circuit Switched Case" "10.2 GSM-UMTS Re-selection Algorithm: Packet Switched Case" FDDSCRMC MSTXPMAXCH NBLKACGR NFRAMEPG NTWCARD TGTFDD BTS BTS BTS BSC CR .3.1 GPRS/EGPRS Path Loss Criterion (C1 Criterion)" "9.6.3 Handling of UMTS Neighboring Cells" "10.6.

3 SGSN-BSS Flow Control" "3.2.F119 Chapters "7 Gb Interface" "7 Gb Interface" "7 Gb Interface" "6 Hardware and Software Architecture" "4 Radio Interface Description" "10.3.X260 FSH 0419 FSH 1928 CR .X260 "10.F119 CR .3 Configuration of the Abis Interface" "10.Information System GPRS/EGPRS Global Description Parameter SISGSNREL99 Object BSC Feature/CR FSH 0420 FSH 0514 FSH 0418 FSH 1928 CR . 11.1.4 Management of GPRS/EGPRS Neighboring Cells" "10.2. 11.4 Feature/CR ---CR .2 Network Architecture" "10.1 Cell Selection and Re-selection" "10.3 Handling of UMTS Neighboring Cells" Tab.4.1.4 Management of GPRS/EGPRS Neighboring Cells" Tab.2 Unspecific GPRS/EGPRS Parameters Involved in PS Services Object FRL NSVC PCMG PCU PTPPKF TGTPTPPKF Feature FSH 0720 FSH 0720 FSH 0720 FSH 0720 FSH 0720 FSH 1928 CR .2.1.3 Handling of UMTS Neighboring Cells" "10.2. 11.3 Configuration of an Adjacent Cell with GSUP= TRUE" TDDQO TGTCELL BTS ADJC TGTCELL ADJC3G CR .X260 FSH 0418 Chapters "10.3 Handling of UMTS Neighboring Cells" "6.3 Handling of UMTS Neighboring Cells" Unspecific GPRS/EGPRS Objects Involved in PS Services A30808-X3247-L24-5-7618 297 .2.3.1 GSM-UMTS Re-selection Algorithm: Circuit Switched Case" "10.4 Management of GPRS/EGPRS Neighboring Cells" "10.3 Object Related to the GPRS/EGPRS Services only Object ADJC ADJC3G SUBTSLB TGTBTS TGTFDD TGTTDD Tab.1.F119 Chapters "7.

GPRS/EGPRS Global Description Information System 12 Abbreviations AGCH BCCH BECN BSC BSN BSS BSSGP BVC BVCI CCCH CCU CS DCE DE DLCI DRX DTE EGPRS FDD FECN FR FRL GGSN GMSK GPRS HA HCS HLR HSCSD HSN IMSI IP IR LA LAC LAPD LLC LMT MA MAC Access Grant Channel Broadcast Control Channel Backward Explicit Congestion Notification Base Station Controller Block Sequence Number Base Station Subsystem Base Station System GPRS Protocol BSSGP Virtual Connection BSSGP Virtual Connection Identifier Common Control Channel Channel Control Unit Circuit Switched Data Circuit-terminating Equipment Discard Eligibility Indicator Data Link Connection Identifier Discontinous Reception Data Terminal Equipment Enhanced General Packet Radio Service Frequency Division Duplex Forward Explicit Congestion Notification Frame Relay Frame Relay Link Gateway GPRS Support Node Gaussian Minimum Shift Keying General Packet Radio Service Horizontal Allocation Hierarchical Cell Structures Home Location Register High Speed Circuit Switched Data Hopping Sequence Number International Mobile Subscriber Identity Internet Protocol Incremental Redundancy Location Area Location Area Code Link Access Procedure on the D-channel Logical Link Control Local Maintenance Terminal Mobile Allocation Medium Access Control 298 A30808-X3247-L24-5-7618 .

Information System GPRS/EGPRS Global Description MAIO MCC MCS MNC MOI MS MSC NS SDU NS NSEI NSVC NSVCI NSVL NSVLI NUC O&M PAGCH PBCCH PCCCH PCH PCU PDCH PDT PDTCH PDU PDU PLMN PPCH PRACH PS PSI PSK PTCCH PTM P-TMSI PTP PTPPKF PVC QoS RA Mobile Allocation Index Offset Mobile Country Code Modulation and Coding Scheme Mobile Network Code Managed Object Instance Mobile Station Mobile Switching Centre Network Service Service Data Unit Network Service Network Service Entity Identifier Network Service Virtual Connection Network Service Virtual Connection Identifier Network Service Virtual Link Network Service Virtual Link Identifier Nailed Up Connection Operation and Maintenance Packet Acces Grant Channel Packet Broadcast Control Channel Packet Common Control Channel Paging Channel Packet Control Unit Packet Data Channel Packet Data Terminal Packet Data Traffic Channel Packet Data Network Packet Data Unit Public Land Mobile Network Packet Paging Channel Packet Random Acces Channel Packet Switched Packet System Information Phase Shift Keying Packet Timing Advance Control Channel Point to Multipoint Packet Temporary Mobile Subscriber Identity Point to Point Point To Point Packet Function Permanent Virtual Circuit Quality of Service Routing Area A30808-X3247-L24-5-7618 299 .

300 A30808-X3247-L24-5-7618 .GPRS/EGPRS Global Description Information System RAC RACH RAI RAT RC RLC SGSN SMS SNDCF SS7 TAI TBF TCH TDD TDMA TFI TLLI TSC UE UMTS USF VA VLR Routing Area Code Random Access Channel Routing Area Identity Radio Access Technology Radio Commander Radio Link Control Serving GPRS Support Node Short Message Service SubNetwork Dependent Convergence Protocol Signalling System number 7 Timing Advance Index Temporary Block Flow Traffic Channel Time Division Duplex Time Division Multiple Access Temporary Flow Identity Temporary Logical Link Identity Training Sequence Code User Equipment Universal Mobile Telecommunication System Uplink State Flag Vertical Allocation Visitor Location Register .

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