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- CFX-Intro_16_L03_IntroCFD_CFX
- Turbulence Modelling for CFD by Hrvoje Jasak
- cfx-multiphase
- Course Discriptions U of T
- Prediction of Power-Law Fluid Flow through an Eccentric Annulus with Inner Cylinder in Rotation using k-ω Turbulence Model
- Reliable and Accurate CFD Solutions, Mark Keating
- Mathematical Modeling of Coalescence
- Kim_D_D_2014.pdf
- Navier Strokes Equation
- 1211.4464
- lect_3
- 267156
- Users guide
- cfd.pdf
- Timouchev Wind Turbine2005
- An Overview of Ar Up Computational Fluid Dynamics Projects
- 0407002
- Gas Detection Optimisation CS
- book-1
- Biomedical Flow Analysis

You are on page 1of 6

http://www.nd.edu/~gtryggva/CFD-Course/

Grading

Homework

60%

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Dynamics Final 15%

Lecture 27

May 3, 2017

Grtar Tryggvason

Coarse Goals:

What did we learn? Learn how to solve the Navier-Stokes and Euler

equations for engineering problems.

Coarse goals and brief outline

Hear about various concepts to allow continuing studies

More detailed list of topics of the literature.

Grading/Exam Ways:

Detailed coverage of selected topics, such as: simple

Input finite difference methods, accuracy, stability, etc.

monotone advection, unstructured grids.

Course outline Course outlinePart I

Part I elementary numerical analysis, course administration

A brief introduction to CFD

Elementary numerical analysis, accuracy, stability,

Part II partial differential equations

Numerical Analysis of partial differential

equations, cumulating in solution techniques for Review of fluid mechanics: the governing equations

the Navier-Stokes equations

Finite Difference solution of the Navier-Stokes

Part III Equations in vorticity/streamfunction form

Advanced topics in CFD

Finite Volume Approach, Solving the Navier-Stokes

Equations in Primitive Variables, the MAC Method

Computational Fluid Dynamics Computational Fluid Dynamics

Course outlinePart II Course outlinePart II

Characteristics. Classification of Second Order PDF's. Complex Domains. Body fitted Coordinates.

Algorithms for Hyperbolic equations. The Euler equations.

Visualization

Algorithms for Parabolic equations.

Other Methods. Spectral, Finite Element, Vortex, etc

Algorithms for Elliptic equations.

Software

Advection-diffusion equation

in Primitive Variables, the MAC Method, Colocated grids

Course outlinePart III

Multiphase flow, and Combustion

The basic equations of fluid mechanics in integral and

Direct Numerical Simulations of Multiphase Flows differential form. The difference between a conservative

and non-conservative form. Different formulations of the

Current trends (predictivity, multiscale, large systems) basic equations: Primitive (velocity-pressure) form; stream

function-vorticity, and velocity-vorticity form in two- and

Parallel Computations, three-dimensions. The representation of advection,

viscous friction, and incompressibility, in the equations of

Computer Science Issues motion. The pressure equation for the primitive

formulation. Physical boundary conditions.

Characteristics and the basic theory of first order Discrete approximations; finite differences; finite volume;

partial differential equations. Second order partial spectral and finite elements.

differential equations and how to convert them to a Numerical differentiation and integration. Time

system of first order equations. Hyperbolic, parabolic integration: Euler, Runga-Kutta and predictor-corrector.

and elliptic second order equations and their physical Implicit time integration.

significance. What is an ill-posed problem.

Conservation laws and the conservative form.

Classical model equations and their solutions.

Diffusion, linear and nonlinear advection, and the

Laplace equation. The advection-diffusion equation

and its relation to the Navier-Stokes equations.

Computational Fluid Dynamics Computational Fluid Dynamics

Hyperbolic equations: The method of characteristics.

Accuracy by Taylor series expansion. Consistency and the Finite difference methods: upwind, leap-frog and Lax-

Modified Equation. Stability by the von Neumann's method. Wendroff's method. The Courant conditions. Advection of

Basic finite difference schemes for hyperbolic, parabolic and sharp shocks: Numerical diffusion and oscillations.

elliptic equations. Godunov's theorem, Monotonic advection, artificial

viscosity, high order Godunov methods, and FCT. Linear

Parabolic equations: The forward in time, centered in space versus nonlinear advection.

method. Implicit versus explicit methods. Backward Euler's

method, ADI and splitting. Stability limits. The Crank- The advection-diffusion equation. Cell Reynolds numbers

Nicholson method, predictor-corrector schemes. and the stabilization of advection methods by diffusion

terms.

Elliptic equations: Iterative solutions of elliptic equations.

Jacobi, Gauss-Seidel, and SOR iterations. Fundamentals of

multigrid methods.

Complex domains:

Vorticity-streamfunction form. Order in which the equations

must be solved. Boundary conditions for the vorticity. Boundary fitted grids. Derivatives and partial differential

equations in the mapped coordinates. One dimensional

Primitive variables. The MAC method and staggered grids. stretching and algebraic grid generation. Elliptic grid

Solution strategies and projection methods. Derivation of a generation and elementary control strategies. The

discretized pressure equation and treatment of boundaries. vorticity-streamfunction equation in mapped coordinates

Boundary conditions for the velocities. and its solution. Alternative strategies: Mapping versus

Higher order methods: Adams-Bashford/Crank-Nicolson, unstructured grids. Rectangular and triangular cells.

predictor-corrector. Block-structured grids.

Complex flows:

The k- model for turbulent flows.

Serial versus parallel, Shared versus

Computations of multiphase flows. Lagrangian and distributed memory, Domain decomposition,

Eularian modeling of disperse flow Message Passing Interface (MPI)

flames

Computational Fluid Dynamics Computational Fluid Dynamics

Project 1

Warm-up. Solving a one-dimensional unsteady advection- Homework

diffusion problem

Elementary Concepts (problem 1)

Project 2 Basic Numerical Analysis (problems 2, 3, 4, 5, 13,14)

Modify a code for the Navier-Stokes equations in the Partial Differential Equations (problems 6-12, 15)

primitive variables (pressure and velocity) Mapped Grids (problems 19-24)

Advanced Topics (problems 18, 25, 23, 30)

Project 3 Solution Approach (problems 26-29, 31)

Two-dimensional compressible flow Review (problems 15-17)

Project 4

Visualization

Department of Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering

Computational Fluid Dynamics AME 67636 Computational

Computational Fluid Fluid Mechanics

Dynamics

Homework 8. Due April 8, 2013

Problem 21-22.

The two-dimensional advection/diffusion equation

c c c 2c 2c

+U +V = D 2 + 2

t x y x y

where U and V are given and D is a constant, needs to be solved in the domain sketched

below. It has been decided to map the domain into a rectangular domain. The solution is

Issues and

University of Notre Dame known to have a boundary layer along the bottom, so in addition to making to domain

Department of Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering rectangular, it is also desirable to cluster the grid points near the bottom.

Approaches

AME 67636 Computational Fluid Mechanics Propose a mapping function that accomplishes this.

Write down the finite difference equation to be solved.

Homework 8. Due April 8, 2013

Problem 21-22.

The two-dimensional advection/diffusion equation H2=1.3 m

2c 2c H1=1 m

c c c

+U +V = D 2 + 2 L=3 m

t x y x y

where U and V are given and D is a constant, needs to be solved in the domain sketched

below. It has been decided to map the domain into a rectangular domain. The solution is

known to have a boundary layer along the bottom, so in addition to making to domain Problem 23.

rectangular, it is also desirable to cluster the grid points near the bottom. To compute the mixing as a liquid jet enters a large rectangular domain it is often

Propose a mapping function that accomplishes this. necessary to cluster the grid points near the entrance region. Assume that the domain has

Write down the finite difference equation to be solved. a width W and length L, and the jet enters through the middle of the left boundary and

has a diameter D. The domain is very large and it is impractical to use a uniform grid.

You should solve for the flow using the Navier-Stokes equations in the pressure-velocity

form, but you can assume that the flow is two-dimensional.

University

(a) Describe your gridding strategy of Notre

and sketch whatDame

you would like the grid to look like

H2=1.3 m (b) Propose a Department

mapping function that clusters theMechanical

grid points near where the jet enters the

of Aerospace and Engineering

H1=1 m domain.

Computational Fluid Dynamics (c) Describe the flow Computational

AME 67636

solver FluidFluid

that Computational

you will use. Dynamics

Mechanics

L=3 m

Homework 9. Due April 15, 2013

Problem 24.

Problem 23. The following equation (a nonlinear diffusion equation),

To compute the mixing as a liquid jet enters a large rectangular domain it is often f f

necessary to cluster the grid points near the entrance region. Assume that the domain has =D f + q(x)

a width W and length L, and the jet enters through the middle of the left boundary and t x x

has a diameter D. The domain is very large and it is impractical to use a uniform grid. is solver time 0 t T for the domain 0 x L , where T is the final time and L is the

You should solve for the flow using the Navier-Stokes equations in the pressure-velocity length of the domain. The source q(x), which is concentrated at L/2 is turned on for a

form, but you can assume that the flow is two-dimensional. very short time at T/2. For the most part we expect to be able to use a relatively course

grid, except around the source when it is active. Thus, we want to use a grid that is

(a) Describe your gridding strategy and sketch what you would like the grid to look like refined in both time and space, around T/2 and L/2.

(b) Propose a mapping function that clusters the grid points near where the jet enters the

domain. (a) Propose a mapping function to refine the grid in space and time around T/2 and L/2.

(c) Describe the flow solver that you will use. (b) Write down the partial differential equation in the new coordinates.

Problem 25

Show that the one fluid formulation contains the usual Navier-Stokes equations for the

flow in each domain and the correct interface boundary conditions. The one fluid

equation is:

u

t

( ) (

+ uu = p + f + u + T u + F n x x f da )

Substitute the following into this equation

u = H1u1 + H 2u2

P = H1 p1 + H 2 p2

= H11 + H 2 2

( ) ( ) ( )(

H1 + H 2 + x f = 0 )

Problem 26

Propose a numerical scheme to solve for the unsteady flow over a rectangular cube in an

unbounded domain. The Reynolds number is relatively low, 500-1000. Identify the key

issues that must be addressed and propose a solution. Limit your discussion to one page.

Do NOT write down the detailed finite difference equations, but state clearly what kind

(b) Write down the partial differential equation in the new coordinates.

Problem 25

Show that the one fluid formulation contains the usual Navier-Stokes equations for the

flow in each domain and the correct interface boundary conditions. The one fluid

equation is:

u

t

( ) (

+ uu = p + f + u + T u + F n x x f da )

Substitute the following into this equation

u = H1u1 + H 2u2

P = H1 p1 + H 2 p2

= H11 + H 2 2

( ) ( ) ( )(

H1 + H 2 + x f = 0 ) Department of Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering

Computational Fluid Dynamics Computational

AME FluidFluid

67636 Computational Dynamics

Mechanics

Homework 10. Due April 22, 2013

Propose a numerical scheme to solve for the unsteady flow over a rectangular cube in an To evaluate the effectiveness of a new mixing device, you have been asked to write a

unbounded domain. The Reynolds number is relatively low, 500-1000. Identify the key code to simulate the flow in channel shaped somewhat like the one sketched below. The

issues that must be addressed and propose a solution. Limit your discussion to one page. Reynolds number is only a few hundreds, so the flow is laminar, and you can take the

channel to be two-dimensional. Accuracy is extremely important and you have been

Do NOT write down the detailed finite difference equations, but state clearly what kind

asked to accomplish this in only a few weeks. You only have to worry about getting the

of spatial and temporal discretization you would use.

flow field correct.

Department of Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering

AME 67636 Computational Fluid Mechanics

Homework 10. Due April 22, 2013

Describe how you would accomplish this. You do not need to write down the detailed

Problem 27. discrete equations, but your description should be sufficiently detailed so that it is clear

To evaluate the effectiveness of a new mixing device, you have been asked to write a what approximations you are going to use, and you should clearly state all critical issues

code to simulate the flow in channel shaped somewhat like the one sketched below. The and how you intend to deal with those.

Reynolds number is only a few hundreds, so the flow is laminar, and you can take the Limit the response to less than a page!

channel to be two-dimensional. Accuracy is extremely important and you have been

asked to accomplish this in only a few weeks. You only have to worry about getting the

flow field correct. Problem 28.

It is proposed to use a finite difference method to simulate the stirring and mixing of two

fluids by a prescribed velocity field. The fluids are completely identical, except that one

is read and the other is blue. The colors can mix, but diffusion is VERY small. The

velocity field is unsteady (but GIVEN) and maximum velocity is one. Assume that the

mixing takes place in a square, two-dimensional domain (with sides of length one) and

that the initial configuration of the fluids is given.

(a) EXPLAIN the main difficulties in solving this problem and

Describe how you would accomplish this. You do not need to write down the detailed (b) PROPOSE a method to allow us to simulate this problem. You do not have to write

discrete equations, but your description should be sufficiently detailed so that it is clear down the finite difference equations in detail Fluid Dynamics

what approximations you Computational

are going to use, andFluid Dynamics

you should clearly state all critical issues Computational

Limit the response to less than a page!

and how you intend to deal with those.

Limit the response to less than a page! Problem 29.

Propose a numerical scheme to solve for the unsteady flow over a rectangular cube in an

unbounded domain. The Reynolds number is relatively low, 500-1000. Identify the key

Problem 28. issues that must be addressed and propose a solution. Limit your discussion to one page.

It is proposed to use a finite difference method to simulate the stirring and mixing of two Do NOT write down the detailed finite difference equations, but state clearly what kind

fluids by a prescribed velocity field. The fluids are completely identical, except that one of spatial and temporalWhat if I dont

discretization have

you would use.MATLAB?

is read and the other is blue. The colors can mix, but diffusion is VERY small. The

velocity field is unsteady (but GIVEN) and maximum velocity is one. Assume that the Try OCTAVE (free)

mixing takes place in a square, two-dimensional domain (with sides of length one) and

that the initial configuration of the fluids is given. http://www.octave.org/

(a) EXPLAIN the main difficulties in solving this problem and

(b) PROPOSE a method to allow us to simulate this problem. You do not have to write

down the finite difference equations in detail

Limit the response to less than a page!

Problem 29.

Propose a numerical scheme to solve for the unsteady flow over a rectangular cube in an

unbounded domain. The Reynolds number is relatively low, 500-1000. Identify the key

issues that must be addressed and propose a solution. Limit your discussion to one page.

Do NOT write down the detailed finite difference equations, but state clearly what kind

of spatial and temporal discretization you would use.

Miscellaneous Resources

Commercial Solvers:

Fluent http://www.ansys.com/ We can expect that the development of numerical

StarCD http://www.cd-adapco.com/

methods for computing fluid flow will continue and we

will see methods that are

Other Solvers

OpenFoam http://www.openfoam.com/

More accurate

Gerris http://gfs.sourceforge.net/wiki/index.php/Main_Page

More robust

Specialized Solvers More versatile

Fire Dynamics Simulator http://fire.nist.gov/fds/

Multiphase Flow: https://www.mfix.org/ than current methods.

Other

AMR http://www.physics.drexel.edu/~olson/paramesh-doc/Users_manual/amr.html We are also seeing new trends and a shift in

emphasize to topics that in the past were on the

Visualization http://www.paraview.org

sidelines.

And many, many others!

Computational Fluid Dynamics Computational Fluid Dynamics

H. R. 5116

One Hundred Eleventh Congress

is titled Promoting use of high-end computing simulation and of the

United States of America

modeling by small and medium sized manufactures, and states that AT T H E S E C O N D S E S S I O N

the fifth day of January, two thousand and ten

To invest in innovation through research and development, to improve the competi-

tiveness of the United States, and for other purposes.

(a) SHORT TITLE.this Act may be cited as the America COM-

PETES Reauthorization Act of 2010 or the America Creating

Opportunities to Meaningfully Promote Excellence in Technology,

Education, and Science Reauthorization Act of 2010.

(b) TABLE OF CONTENTS.The table of contents for this Act

is as follows:

Sec. 1. Short title; table of contents.

Sec. 2. Definitions.

Sec. 3. Budgetary impact statement.

TITLE IOFFICE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY

Sec. 101. Coordination of Federal STEM education.

Sec. 102. Coordination of advanced manufacturing research and development.

Sec. 103. Interagency public access committee.

Sec. 104. Federal scientific collections.

Sec. 105. Prize competitions.

TITLE IINATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION

Sec. 201. NASAs contribution to innovation and competitiveness.

Sec. 202. NASAs contribution to education.

Sec. 203. Assessment of impediments to space science and engineering workforce

development for minority and under-represented groups at NASA.

Sec. 204. International Space Stations contribution to national competitiveness en-

hancement.

Multiscale/multiphysics

Sec. 205. Study of potential commercial orbital platform program impact on

Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics.

Sec. 206. Definitions.

TITLE IIINATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION

Sec. 301. Oceanic and atmospheric research and development program.

Sec. 302. Oceanic and atmospheric science education programs.

Sec. 303. Workforce study.

TITLE IVNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY

Sec. 401. Short title.

(2) such simulation and modeling would also benefit small- and

Sec. 402. Authorization of appropriations.

Sec. 403. Under Secretary of Commerce for Standards and Technology.

Sec. 404. Manufacturing Extension Partnership.

Sec. 405. Emergency communication and tracking technologies research initiative.

Sec. 406. Broadening participation.

Sec. 407. NIST Fellowships.

Sec. 408. Green manufacturing and construction.

Sec. 409. Definitions.

Integrated simulations of complex systems manufacturers were to deploy such simulation and modeling

throughout their manufacturing chains.

Presidents Council of Advisors on Science and Technology (PCAST) and

the Presidents Innovation and Technology Advisory Committee (PITAC)

states that powerful computational tools and resources for

modeling and simulation could allow many U.S. manufacturing firms

to improve their processes, design, and fabrication.

of simulations

February 2012

PLEASE FILL OUT COURSE

INSTRUCTOR FEEDBACK!

http://www.nd.edu/~cif/cif.shtml

Advanced Computing Infrastructure

Vision and Strategic Plan

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