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# Computational Fluid Dynamics Computational Fluid Dynamics

http://www.nd.edu/~gtryggva/CFD-Course/

## Computational Fluid Projects

Homework
60%
25%
Dynamics Final 15%

Lecture 27
May 3, 2017

Grtar Tryggvason

## Computational Fluid Dynamics Computational Fluid Dynamics

Coarse Goals:
What did we learn? Learn how to solve the Navier-Stokes and Euler
equations for engineering problems.
Coarse goals and brief outline
Hear about various concepts to allow continuing studies
More detailed list of topics of the literature.

Detailed coverage of selected topics, such as: simple
Input finite difference methods, accuracy, stability, etc.

## Rapid coverage of other topics, such as: multigrid,

monotone advection, unstructured grids.

## Computational Fluid Dynamics Computational Fluid Dynamics

Course outline Course outlinePart I

## Introduction, what is CFD, examples, computers,

Part I elementary numerical analysis, course administration
A brief introduction to CFD
Elementary numerical analysis, accuracy, stability,
Part II partial differential equations
Numerical Analysis of partial differential
equations, cumulating in solution techniques for Review of fluid mechanics: the governing equations
the Navier-Stokes equations
Finite Difference solution of the Navier-Stokes
Part III Equations in vorticity/streamfunction form
Advanced topics in CFD
Finite Volume Approach, Solving the Navier-Stokes
Equations in Primitive Variables, the MAC Method
Computational Fluid Dynamics Computational Fluid Dynamics
Course outlinePart II Course outlinePart II

## First order Partial Differential Equations (PDF's).

Characteristics. Classification of Second Order PDF's. Complex Domains. Body fitted Coordinates.

## Complex Domains. Grid Generation

Algorithms for Hyperbolic equations. The Euler equations.
Visualization
Algorithms for Parabolic equations.
Other Methods. Spectral, Finite Element, Vortex, etc
Algorithms for Elliptic equations.
Software

## More Volume Approach, Solving the Navier-Stokes Equations

in Primitive Variables, the MAC Method, Colocated grids

## Computational Fluid Dynamics Computational Fluid Dynamics

Course outlinePart III

## Introduction to Complex Flows: Turbulence, The Navier Stokes Equations:

Multiphase flow, and Combustion
The basic equations of fluid mechanics in integral and
Direct Numerical Simulations of Multiphase Flows differential form. The difference between a conservative
and non-conservative form. Different formulations of the
Current trends (predictivity, multiscale, large systems) basic equations: Primitive (velocity-pressure) form; stream
function-vorticity, and velocity-vorticity form in two- and
Parallel Computations, three-dimensions. The representation of advection,
viscous friction, and incompressibility, in the equations of
Computer Science Issues motion. The pressure equation for the primitive
formulation. Physical boundary conditions.

## Partial Differential Equations: Elementary Numerical Concepts:

Characteristics and the basic theory of first order Discrete approximations; finite differences; finite volume;
partial differential equations. Second order partial spectral and finite elements.
differential equations and how to convert them to a Numerical differentiation and integration. Time
system of first order equations. Hyperbolic, parabolic integration: Euler, Runga-Kutta and predictor-corrector.
and elliptic second order equations and their physical Implicit time integration.
significance. What is an ill-posed problem.
Conservation laws and the conservative form.
Classical model equations and their solutions.
Diffusion, linear and nonlinear advection, and the
Laplace equation. The advection-diffusion equation
and its relation to the Navier-Stokes equations.
Computational Fluid Dynamics Computational Fluid Dynamics

## Numerical Solutions of PDE's:

Hyperbolic equations: The method of characteristics.
Accuracy by Taylor series expansion. Consistency and the Finite difference methods: upwind, leap-frog and Lax-
Modified Equation. Stability by the von Neumann's method. Wendroff's method. The Courant conditions. Advection of
Basic finite difference schemes for hyperbolic, parabolic and sharp shocks: Numerical diffusion and oscillations.
elliptic equations. Godunov's theorem, Monotonic advection, artificial
viscosity, high order Godunov methods, and FCT. Linear
Parabolic equations: The forward in time, centered in space versus nonlinear advection.
method. Implicit versus explicit methods. Backward Euler's
method, ADI and splitting. Stability limits. The Crank- The advection-diffusion equation. Cell Reynolds numbers
Nicholson method, predictor-corrector schemes. and the stabilization of advection methods by diffusion
terms.
Elliptic equations: Iterative solutions of elliptic equations.
Jacobi, Gauss-Seidel, and SOR iterations. Fundamentals of
multigrid methods.

## Numerical Solutions of the Navier-Stokes equations:

Complex domains:
Vorticity-streamfunction form. Order in which the equations
must be solved. Boundary conditions for the vorticity. Boundary fitted grids. Derivatives and partial differential
equations in the mapped coordinates. One dimensional
Primitive variables. The MAC method and staggered grids. stretching and algebraic grid generation. Elliptic grid
Solution strategies and projection methods. Derivation of a generation and elementary control strategies. The
discretized pressure equation and treatment of boundaries. vorticity-streamfunction equation in mapped coordinates
Boundary conditions for the velocities. and its solution. Alternative strategies: Mapping versus
Higher order methods: Adams-Bashford/Crank-Nicolson, unstructured grids. Rectangular and triangular cells.
predictor-corrector. Block-structured grids.

Complex flows:

## Additional considerations for stratified and turbulent flows. Parallel computing

The k- model for turbulent flows.
Serial versus parallel, Shared versus
Computations of multiphase flows. Lagrangian and distributed memory, Domain decomposition,
Eularian modeling of disperse flow Message Passing Interface (MPI)

flames

## Multiscale and Large Systems

Computational Fluid Dynamics Computational Fluid Dynamics

Project 1
Warm-up. Solving a one-dimensional unsteady advection- Homework
diffusion problem
Elementary Concepts (problem 1)
Project 2 Basic Numerical Analysis (problems 2, 3, 4, 5, 13,14)
Modify a code for the Navier-Stokes equations in the Partial Differential Equations (problems 6-12, 15)
primitive variables (pressure and velocity) Mapped Grids (problems 19-24)
Advanced Topics (problems 18, 25, 23, 30)
Project 3 Solution Approach (problems 26-29, 31)
Two-dimensional compressible flow Review (problems 15-17)

Project 4
Visualization

## University of Notre Dame

Department of Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering
Computational Fluid Dynamics AME 67636 Computational
Computational Fluid Fluid Mechanics
Dynamics
Homework 8. Due April 8, 2013

Problem 21-22.
The two-dimensional advection/diffusion equation
c c c 2c 2c
+U +V = D 2 + 2
t x y x y
where U and V are given and D is a constant, needs to be solved in the domain sketched
below. It has been decided to map the domain into a rectangular domain. The solution is
Issues and
University of Notre Dame known to have a boundary layer along the bottom, so in addition to making to domain
Department of Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering rectangular, it is also desirable to cluster the grid points near the bottom.
Approaches
AME 67636 Computational Fluid Mechanics Propose a mapping function that accomplishes this.
Write down the finite difference equation to be solved.
Homework 8. Due April 8, 2013

Problem 21-22.
The two-dimensional advection/diffusion equation H2=1.3 m
2c 2c H1=1 m
c c c
+U +V = D 2 + 2 L=3 m
t x y x y
where U and V are given and D is a constant, needs to be solved in the domain sketched
below. It has been decided to map the domain into a rectangular domain. The solution is
known to have a boundary layer along the bottom, so in addition to making to domain Problem 23.
rectangular, it is also desirable to cluster the grid points near the bottom. To compute the mixing as a liquid jet enters a large rectangular domain it is often
Propose a mapping function that accomplishes this. necessary to cluster the grid points near the entrance region. Assume that the domain has
Write down the finite difference equation to be solved. a width W and length L, and the jet enters through the middle of the left boundary and
has a diameter D. The domain is very large and it is impractical to use a uniform grid.
You should solve for the flow using the Navier-Stokes equations in the pressure-velocity
form, but you can assume that the flow is two-dimensional.
University
(a) Describe your gridding strategy of Notre
and sketch whatDame
you would like the grid to look like
H2=1.3 m (b) Propose a Department
mapping function that clusters theMechanical
grid points near where the jet enters the
of Aerospace and Engineering
H1=1 m domain.
Computational Fluid Dynamics (c) Describe the flow Computational
AME 67636
solver FluidFluid
that Computational
you will use. Dynamics
Mechanics
L=3 m
Homework 9. Due April 15, 2013

Problem 24.
Problem 23. The following equation (a nonlinear diffusion equation),
To compute the mixing as a liquid jet enters a large rectangular domain it is often f f
necessary to cluster the grid points near the entrance region. Assume that the domain has =D f + q(x)
a width W and length L, and the jet enters through the middle of the left boundary and t x x
has a diameter D. The domain is very large and it is impractical to use a uniform grid. is solver time 0 t T for the domain 0 x L , where T is the final time and L is the
You should solve for the flow using the Navier-Stokes equations in the pressure-velocity length of the domain. The source q(x), which is concentrated at L/2 is turned on for a
form, but you can assume that the flow is two-dimensional. very short time at T/2. For the most part we expect to be able to use a relatively course
grid, except around the source when it is active. Thus, we want to use a grid that is
(a) Describe your gridding strategy and sketch what you would like the grid to look like refined in both time and space, around T/2 and L/2.
(b) Propose a mapping function that clusters the grid points near where the jet enters the
domain. (a) Propose a mapping function to refine the grid in space and time around T/2 and L/2.
(c) Describe the flow solver that you will use. (b) Write down the partial differential equation in the new coordinates.

Problem 25
Show that the one fluid formulation contains the usual Navier-Stokes equations for the
flow in each domain and the correct interface boundary conditions. The one fluid
equation is:

u
t
( ) (
+ uu = p + f + u + T u + F n x x f da )
Substitute the following into this equation
u = H1u1 + H 2u2
P = H1 p1 + H 2 p2
= H11 + H 2 2

## and show that

( ) ( ) ( )(
H1 + H 2 + x f = 0 )

Problem 26
Propose a numerical scheme to solve for the unsteady flow over a rectangular cube in an
unbounded domain. The Reynolds number is relatively low, 500-1000. Identify the key
issues that must be addressed and propose a solution. Limit your discussion to one page.
Do NOT write down the detailed finite difference equations, but state clearly what kind
(b) Write down the partial differential equation in the new coordinates.

Problem 25
Show that the one fluid formulation contains the usual Navier-Stokes equations for the
flow in each domain and the correct interface boundary conditions. The one fluid
equation is:

u
t
( ) (
+ uu = p + f + u + T u + F n x x f da )
Substitute the following into this equation
u = H1u1 + H 2u2
P = H1 p1 + H 2 p2
= H11 + H 2 2

## and show that University of Notre Dame

( ) ( ) ( )(
H1 + H 2 + x f = 0 ) Department of Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering
Computational Fluid Dynamics Computational
AME FluidFluid
67636 Computational Dynamics
Mechanics
Homework 10. Due April 22, 2013

## Problem 26 Problem 27.

Propose a numerical scheme to solve for the unsteady flow over a rectangular cube in an To evaluate the effectiveness of a new mixing device, you have been asked to write a
unbounded domain. The Reynolds number is relatively low, 500-1000. Identify the key code to simulate the flow in channel shaped somewhat like the one sketched below. The
issues that must be addressed and propose a solution. Limit your discussion to one page. Reynolds number is only a few hundreds, so the flow is laminar, and you can take the
channel to be two-dimensional. Accuracy is extremely important and you have been
Do NOT write down the detailed finite difference equations, but state clearly what kind
asked to accomplish this in only a few weeks. You only have to worry about getting the
of spatial and temporal discretization you would use.
flow field correct.

## University of Notre Dame

Department of Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering
AME 67636 Computational Fluid Mechanics
Homework 10. Due April 22, 2013
Describe how you would accomplish this. You do not need to write down the detailed
Problem 27. discrete equations, but your description should be sufficiently detailed so that it is clear
To evaluate the effectiveness of a new mixing device, you have been asked to write a what approximations you are going to use, and you should clearly state all critical issues
code to simulate the flow in channel shaped somewhat like the one sketched below. The and how you intend to deal with those.
Reynolds number is only a few hundreds, so the flow is laminar, and you can take the Limit the response to less than a page!
channel to be two-dimensional. Accuracy is extremely important and you have been
asked to accomplish this in only a few weeks. You only have to worry about getting the
flow field correct. Problem 28.
It is proposed to use a finite difference method to simulate the stirring and mixing of two
fluids by a prescribed velocity field. The fluids are completely identical, except that one
is read and the other is blue. The colors can mix, but diffusion is VERY small. The
velocity field is unsteady (but GIVEN) and maximum velocity is one. Assume that the
mixing takes place in a square, two-dimensional domain (with sides of length one) and
that the initial configuration of the fluids is given.
(a) EXPLAIN the main difficulties in solving this problem and
Describe how you would accomplish this. You do not need to write down the detailed (b) PROPOSE a method to allow us to simulate this problem. You do not have to write
discrete equations, but your description should be sufficiently detailed so that it is clear down the finite difference equations in detail Fluid Dynamics
what approximations you Computational
are going to use, andFluid Dynamics
you should clearly state all critical issues Computational
Limit the response to less than a page!
and how you intend to deal with those.
Limit the response to less than a page! Problem 29.
Propose a numerical scheme to solve for the unsteady flow over a rectangular cube in an
unbounded domain. The Reynolds number is relatively low, 500-1000. Identify the key
Problem 28. issues that must be addressed and propose a solution. Limit your discussion to one page.
It is proposed to use a finite difference method to simulate the stirring and mixing of two Do NOT write down the detailed finite difference equations, but state clearly what kind
fluids by a prescribed velocity field. The fluids are completely identical, except that one of spatial and temporalWhat if I dont
discretization have
you would use.MATLAB?
is read and the other is blue. The colors can mix, but diffusion is VERY small. The
velocity field is unsteady (but GIVEN) and maximum velocity is one. Assume that the Try OCTAVE (free)
mixing takes place in a square, two-dimensional domain (with sides of length one) and
that the initial configuration of the fluids is given. http://www.octave.org/
(a) EXPLAIN the main difficulties in solving this problem and
(b) PROPOSE a method to allow us to simulate this problem. You do not have to write
down the finite difference equations in detail
Limit the response to less than a page!

Problem 29.
Propose a numerical scheme to solve for the unsteady flow over a rectangular cube in an
unbounded domain. The Reynolds number is relatively low, 500-1000. Identify the key
issues that must be addressed and propose a solution. Limit your discussion to one page.
Do NOT write down the detailed finite difference equations, but state clearly what kind
of spatial and temporal discretization you would use.

## Computational Fluid Dynamics Computational Fluid Dynamics

Miscellaneous Resources
Commercial Solvers:
Fluent http://www.ansys.com/ We can expect that the development of numerical
methods for computing fluid flow will continue and we
will see methods that are
Other Solvers
OpenFoam http://www.openfoam.com/
More accurate
Gerris http://gfs.sourceforge.net/wiki/index.php/Main_Page
More robust
Specialized Solvers More versatile
Fire Dynamics Simulator http://fire.nist.gov/fds/
Multiphase Flow: https://www.mfix.org/ than current methods.
Other
AMR http://www.physics.drexel.edu/~olson/paramesh-doc/Users_manual/amr.html We are also seeing new trends and a shift in
emphasize to topics that in the past were on the
Visualization http://www.paraview.org
sidelines.
And many, many others!
Computational Fluid Dynamics Computational Fluid Dynamics

H. R. 5116

## Section 605 of the America COMPETES Reauthorization Act of 2010 

One Hundred Eleventh Congress
is titled Promoting use of high-end computing simulation and of the
United States of America
modeling by small and medium sized manufactures, and states that AT T H E S E C O N D S E S S I O N

## Congress finds that:

the fifth day of January, two thousand and ten

## New Directions for Computational Physics: An Act

To invest in innovation through research and development, to improve the competi-
tiveness of the United States, and for other purposes.

## (1) the utilization of high-end computing simulation and

(a) SHORT TITLE.this Act may be cited as the America COM-
PETES Reauthorization Act of 2010 or the America Creating
Opportunities to Meaningfully Promote Excellence in Technology,
Education, and Science Reauthorization Act of 2010.

is as follows:

## Computational predictivity Federal research entities has resulted in substantial

Sec. 2. Definitions.
Sec. 3. Budgetary impact statement.
TITLE IOFFICE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY
Sec. 101. Coordination of Federal STEM education.
Sec. 102. Coordination of advanced manufacturing research and development.
Sec. 103. Interagency public access committee.
Sec. 104. Federal scientific collections.
Sec. 105. Prize competitions.

## improvements in the development of advanced

TITLE IINATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION
Sec. 201. NASAs contribution to innovation and competitiveness.
Sec. 202. NASAs contribution to education.
Sec. 203. Assessment of impediments to space science and engineering workforce
development for minority and under-represented groups at NASA.

## manufacturing technologies; and

Sec. 204. International Space Stations contribution to national competitiveness en-
hancement.

Multiscale/multiphysics
Sec. 205. Study of potential commercial orbital platform program impact on
Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics.
Sec. 206. Definitions.
TITLE IIINATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION
Sec. 301. Oceanic and atmospheric research and development program.
Sec. 302. Oceanic and atmospheric science education programs.
Sec. 303. Workforce study.
TITLE IVNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY

Sec. 401. Short title.

(2) such simulation and modeling would also benefit small- and
Sec. 402. Authorization of appropriations.
Sec. 403. Under Secretary of Commerce for Standards and Technology.
Sec. 404. Manufacturing Extension Partnership.
Sec. 405. Emergency communication and tracking technologies research initiative.
Sec. 406. Broadening participation.
Sec. 407. NIST Fellowships.
Sec. 408. Green manufacturing and construction.

## medium-sized manufacturers in the United States if such

Sec. 409. Definitions.

Integrated simulations of complex systems manufacturers were to deploy such simulation and modeling
throughout their manufacturing chains.

## Ensuring American Leadership in Advanced Manufacturing by the

Presidents Council of Advisors on Science and Technology (PCAST) and
the Presidents Innovation and Technology Advisory Committee (PITAC)
states that powerful computational tools and resources for
modeling and simulation could allow many U.S. manufacturing firms
to improve their processes, design, and fabrication.

## Reports on the future

of simulations

February 2012
PLEASE FILL OUT COURSE
INSTRUCTOR FEEDBACK!

http://www.nd.edu/~cif/cif.shtml