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The Best in Town (BiT) Hospital is embarking on a process improvement initiative. They have
constructed their process architecture and are now ready to start working on their top priority
process: trauma management, which has been identified as risky and inefficient. They have the full
cooperation of the ambulance operator to explain any activities relevant to the hospital. You are one
of the process analysts involved in the project. Based on many interviews with involved staff, and
based on observations of practice as well as analysis of forms and related reports, you have created a
description of the process (see Scenario section). Your next task to is to model this process using
BPMN, so that you can then further engage the process stakeholders to confirm your understanding
of the process, and to provide some further guidance to BiT Hospital on the benefits and risks of
Business Process Management, as well as any ethical considerations. Accordingly, you are required to
deliver on two aspects:

Part 1:

Using the Bizagi Modeler tool and your BPMN knowledge and skills, model the process scenario
provided in this assignment specification document. Only BPMN constructs that were taught in the
course are required for this assignment. Please note that where insufficient information is provided,
you may make your own assumptions. Should you make any assumptions, these must be documented
and submitted with your model. Ensure your name and student number appear in the PDF report.

Part 2:

In a concise discussion, outline the benefits and risks of Business Process Management that BiT should
be aware of. Also consider any ethical considerations that might be relevant to BPM initiatives
generally. Make use of supporting references. Word limit: 1000 words (references excluded). Submit
your document (in PDF or .doc format) together with your Part 1 submission. Ensure that you have
attached both files prior to finalizing your submission.


The process starts when Be There Soon Ambulance Services (BTSAS) receives an emergency call. The
emergency operators of BTSAS make a primary triage of the patient over the phone. Based on the
information collected, they assign required resources and the appropriate number of ambulances and
paramedic officers are then dispatched to the address. There are cases in which patients are not able
to provide their address and/or the situation is an extreme emergency with a patient unable to
communicate. In such cases, the operators obtain the patients address by tracking the patients
mobile phone or by using a landline address database. BTSAS has numerous ambulance dispatch
centres across the city. The dispatch point relevant to a particular emergency is chosen by the
emergency operators based on proximity to the patients address and the traffic condition of the
expected travel path, which is updated using GPS services.

Once the ambulance and paramedic officers arrive at the address, the paramedic officers start on-site
triage. In critical cases they also attempt to further stabilise the patient. The paramedic officers must
register the patients information and assessed condition into an online emergency database using
their portable computers. The submission is called a trauma case report and includes the result of
triage or immediate treatment made by paramedic officers and also the estimated arrival time to the
Best in Town (BiT) Hospital Emergency Department (BiT ED). In addition to this submission, the
paramedic officers call ahead to the hospital and report the incoming case.

When called by the paramedic officers, BiT ED Administration selects the appropriate trauma team
based on the information communicated by the paramedic officers in their call. The trauma can be
categorized into five categories depending on the severity of the situation, as assessed and reported
by paramedics. Category 1 and 2 are considered the highest priority and require immediate action and
response when the patient arrives at ED. Each trauma category has a set of relevant protocols to
follow. When the ED Administration determines the appropriate trauma team, the central Switch
Board of the BiT hospital generates a message and sends a trauma alert to the staff of the relevant
trauma team. The alert contains information about the trauma category and the estimated arrival
time of the patient, so the staff can organize their availability.

Concurrently, the resuscitation room is prepared for patient admission if the triage information
indicates a category 1 or 2 case. The availability of required substances and materials are checked,
versatility of the X-Ray, Cardio and Airway devices is retested and the full functionality of all resources
in the resuscitating room is ensured. Usually there is at least a five minute delay until the patient
arrives at ED, but this time varies depending on the situation of the patient and on traffic.

The patient arrives at the ED of BiT Hospital by ambulance. They are seen by a triage nurse, who pages
the relevant trauma team and updates the emergency database. Based on the trauma category, the
nurse transfers the patient to either the resuscitation room or to emergency ward cubicles.

If the trauma is categorized as 1 or 2, then the patient is handed over to the resuscitation room, where
the entire trauma team, including emergency consultants, relevant doctors, emergency nurses and
technicians are ready and equipped to resuscitate and stabilize the patient. Relevant tests, potentially
including emergency X-rays, blood tests, or other tests, as required, are conducted to assist with

If the trauma is categorized from 3 to 5, the patient is transferred to emergency ward cubicles and
awaits a visit from doctors, after which the emergency case concludes and a report is submitted to
the online emergency database.

Meanwhile, in the resuscitation room, a decision needs to be made based on the patients condition.
Some category 1 or 2 trauma cases require immediate further tests, such as CT Scans, for example,
which are not available in resuscitation rooms and require a transfer to another part of the hospital.
In some cases, a decision may also be required to conduct an emergency operation or to transfer the
patient to ICU; hence the patient can be handed over to other sections and the emergency case then
concludes. If the patient is transferred for CT Scans, they will be returned to the resuscitation room
upon completion of the scans. When the patients condition is stable and there is no further need for
resuscitation equipment, the patient is transferred to the ED ward cubicles, where they are kept under
observation until a decision is made by the ED ward doctors to either discharge the patient or further
hospitalise them by transferring them to another ward. Following either decision, the emergency case
concludes and a report is submitted to the online emergency database.