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# AME

60634
Int. Heat Trans.
Fluid Dynamics: Boundary Layers
Analogous Equations
if two normalized (dimensionless) equations take the same form the
equations are analogous

Reynolds Analogy
u*
* * u
*
1 2 u*
u * +v =
The momentum and energy boundary x y *
Re y *2
layer equations are analogous if there is L

a negligible pressure gradient (dp*/dx* ~ 0)
and the Pr ~ 1

terms term

* *
* T * T 1 2T *
u +v =
x *
y *
Re L y * 2
Given equivalent boundary conditions, the
solutions take the same form

u* = T * ! Re \$
C f # & = Nu
u* T * " 2 %
= *
y* y* =0
y y* =0

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AME 60634
Int. Heat Trans.
Fluid Dynamics: Boundary Layers
Reynolds Analogy

## Defining a new non- h Nu

St = = Stanton number
dimensional number VC p RePr

## The Reynolds Analogy is defined as

(when Pr =1)

Cf
= St
2
The Reynolds Analogy implies that under certain conditions (no
pressure gradient, Pr = 1) if the velocity parameters are known than the
heat transfer parameters can be determined (and vice versa)

Modified Reynolds Analogy: Chilton-Colburn (empirical)
Cf 2
= St Pr 3 j H 0.6 < Pr < 60 Colburn j factor
2
laminar flows: valid for dp*/dx* ~ 0
turbulent flows: generally valid without restriction on dp*/dx*
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AME 60634
Int. Heat Trans.
External Convection: Overview
Determining Heat Transfer Coefficients
determining heat transfer coefficients requires an accurate knowledge of
the flow field
few (pseudo-)analytical solutions exist (especially for turbulent flow)
similarity solutions, etc.
heat transfer coefficient relations are largely empirical and are
presented based on the Nusselt number

dT * hL h L average Nusselt
Nu = * = = f (x * ,Re L ,Pr) local Nusselt Nu =
dy y= 0
kf number k f number

The Nusselt number (and heat transfer coefficient) are functions of the
fluid properties (, , , c, kf)

the effect of variable properties may be considered by evaluating all
properties at the film temperature
Ts + T
Tf =
2
most accurate solutions often require iteration on the film properties

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AME 60634
Int. Heat Trans.
Fluid Dynamics: Boundary Layers
Transition

## Laminar and turbulent boundary layers have different heat transfer

characteristics
turbulent mixing typically increases heat transfer

## Critical Reynolds number approximates the location where the

flow transitions from laminar to turbulent flow

## Re x,c ~ 10 5 external (flat plate) flow

Vx c
Re x,c
Re D,c ~ 10 3 internal (duct) flow
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AME 60634
Int. Heat Trans.
Fluid Dynamics: Boundary Layers
Transition

## Transition leads to a significant increase in the local heat transfer coefficient

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AME 60634
Int. Heat Trans.
External Convection: Overview
External Flows
boundary layers develop freely without constraint (compare to a
internal/duct flow)
boundary layer may be laminar, laminar and turbulent, or entirely
turbulent
simplest external flow: flat plate in parallel flow

## Determining external flow conditions

u L
compute: Re L =

compare to critical Reynolds number
Re x,c ~ 10 5 external (flat plate) flow

## laminar flow along

Re L < Re x,c
length of flat plate
transition to turbulent x c Re x,c
Re L > Re x,c =
flow at critical length L Re L

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AME 60634
Int. Heat Trans.
External Convection: Overview
Transition to Turbulence
critical Reynolds number affected by free stream turbulence and surface
roughness of plate
nominally
Re x,c ~ 10 5 laminar free stream & smooth plate
if the boundary layer is tripped at the leading edge:
Re x,c = 0 x c = 0
flow is turbulent along entire length of flat plate

Average parameters
1\$ c ' 1# c &
x L x L
s,L = && s,x,lam dx + s,x,turb dx )) hL = %% hx, lam dx + hx,turb dx ((
L% 0 xc ( L\$ 0 xc '

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AME 60634
Int. Heat Trans.
External Convection: Overview
Thermal Conditions at the Surface (idealized)
uniform heat flux q"s"
uniform surface temperature Ts
unheated starting length

layer growth
x < Ts = T
x > Ts or q%s%

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