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X-ray machine: - There are three types

a) Portable apparatus maximum output varies from 70-110kV and 15-35 mA.

b) Mobile apparatus output from 90-125 kV and 40 to 300 mA.

c) Fixed apparatus output varies from 120-200kV and 300-1000 mA.

Basic x-ray unit has tube head, control panel and clockwise timer.

Tube Head: contains x-ray tube and high tension transformer.

X-ray tube: consists of two electrodes- the cathode (-) and the anode (+) from which air has been
evacuated to leave a high vacuum.

The cathode of x-ray tube acts as negative electrode for high tension current across the tube. Anode
consists of solid bar of copper with a small slip of tungsten and is aligned with the cathode on opposite
face. Anode is also called as target or focus of x-ray beam. An aperture is located at the base of tube head,
which is termed as window of x-ray tube. X-ray beam emerges from the same window.

Between the x-ray tube and the window is a layer of insulating oil which together with a glass tube
acts as a filter which absorbs soft x-ray. This property of the tube is called as inherent filtration. The x-ray
tube is further covered by a casing of lead except at the window for absorbing the generated x-rays.

Cone: It is a beam limiting device. It is fitted on the collar which surrounds the window. Its function is to
prevent nearby personnel from being irradiated by the direct beam and to reduce scattered radiations.

Stationary Grid: It is constructed of a large no. of fine strip of lead which alternates with strips of
radiolucent material, either plastic or aluminium. Only primary beam is needed in the production of sharp
contrasting radiographs. Stationary grid is advocated for regions over 10 cm thick. The grid acts as a filter
and only allows radiations coming from central direction to pass the film below. Secondary radiation
hitting the grid from either direction is absorbed by the lead plate. The height of lead strips in relation to
space between them is given by a ratio such as 4:1, 8:1, 10:1 and 16:1.

Types of Grid: 1) Parallel/linear Grid 2) Crossed Grid 3) Focussed Grid

Potter Bucky Diaphragm: It is a movable grid so that no lines are produced on the radiograph.

Table: the table used for radiography must be rigid. Normal dimensions are 54 inches by 20 inches by 36
inches.(196x61 cm with a height of 82 cm from the floor).

Cassette stand: cassette must be placed on a suitable holder and not held in the hand.
Masking of the film: Lead sheets are used to mask the film especially when radiography of distal
extremity is carried out. Lead or rubber sheet are available in 15 by 8 inches and 12 by 6 inches size.

Film markers: Radiographs are legal hospital records. Therefore each radiograph must be permanently
identified by (1) Veterinarians name / hospital name, (2) case no., (3) date of radiography .The alphabets
and nos. are made of lead and are called as lead markers. Right (R), Left (L) marker are used for
identification of side of the patient on radiograph.

Lead aprons, gloves and goggles: are essential for people working in radiology unit so as to prevent the
radiation exposure. A minimum of 0.25 mm lead equivalence is recommended for lead aprons and lead

Viewing illuminators: normal viewing boxes have 2 fluorescent tubes behind a sheet of white glass, with
suitable reflectors in back of box. These lamps give cold, shadow less even illuminations. The viewing
box can be mounted on the wall or kept on the table.

Dark room equipments:

X-ray film: It has an acetate base coated on both sides with emulsions. Emulsion has silver halide
crystals. X-ray films come in various sizes.10x12, 12x15etc.

Film cassettes: It is light tight metal container which holds the x-ray film and intensifying screen in close
contact; they are available corresponding to film size.

Ill ford channel hanger and Ill ford clip hanger: are also available to hold the film during processing
and drying.

Safe lightning: X-ray film before processing is sensitive to white light .Unexposed film must be handled
under safe light. Safe light is a box containing low wattage bulb (10 watt maximum) behind specified

Dry bench consists of loading and unloading of x-ray film in cassette and hangers.

Wet Bench consists of developer tank, rinser tank, fixer tank and wash

Dark room has processing solutions (a) Developer, (b) Rinser, (c) Fixer.

Developer consists of:

1) Reducing agent- Hydroquinone or metol

2) Activator- Sodium carbonate/Phenicidine/phenidone
3) Restrainer-Potassium bromide
4) Preservative-Sodium sulphite
5) Solvent-water

Rinser consists of running water.

Fixer- Consists of
1) Fixing agent-sodium thiosulphate or ammonium thiosulphate
2) Acidifier- Acetic acid/sulphuric acid
3) Hardner-Ammonium chloride or ammonium sulphide
4) Preservative- Sodium sulphite
5) Solvent-Water