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We all know that without electricity, we cannot do any of our job. If we look into the world we live in, the major development in technology and civilization took place only after the introduction of electricity and electrical devices. Can we imagine a life with out air conditioners/ceiling fans, lights, computers and communication devices and many more. So it is quiet evident that electricity and electrical equipments play a vital role in every inch of our life. One such equipment which created a giant leap to the mankind in both domestic & industrial sectors is the "Motor". The usage of AC motors is much more prevalent than DC
motors due to several practical reasons which we shall learn later on. A.C. Motors are playing a very vital role in everyday life, right from pumping water to overhead tank to modern robot's manoeuvring arm. The main factor which lead to the adoption & wide usage in various fields is its flexibility and its huge variety which can be matched with almost any kind of demand. To know what are the different types of A.C.Motors available, to match it perfectly with the demand, it is highly essential to know about the different classifications of A.C.Motors.
Types of AC Motors
Classification Based On Principle Of Operation:
(a) Synchronous Motors. 1. Plain
• Classification Based On Structural Features: 1. Open 2. Commutator Motors: (a) Series (b) Compensated (c) Shunt (d) Repulsion (e) Repulsion-start induction (f) Repulsion induction • Classification Based On Type Of Current: 1. Semi-enclosed . Induction Motors: (a) Squirrel Cage (b) Slip-Ring (external resistance). Adjustable Speed. 2. Super (b) Asynchronous Motors. Constant Speed. Single Phase 2. 2. Three Phase • Classification Based On Speed Of Operation: 1.2. Enclosed 3. Variable Speed. 3. 1.
. Riveted frame-eye etc. Pipe-ventilated 6. .4. Ventilated 5.
In other words.C. these kind of motors rule.Motors 1. The most widely used Induction Motors are very important for many industries due to their load bearing capacity and flexibility.They can also act as stepper motors. 3. 2.C. to improve the power factor of the local grid to which it is connected to. mixer grinders. Asynchronous Motors & it's Uses: The most common form of motor which is used in everyday life from pumping water up the overhead tank to power plant boiler feed pumps. Synchronous Motors & it's Uses: These motors have the rotor(which is connected to the load) rotating at the same speed as the speed of rotation of the stator current. slip when compared to the stator current field. They are generally used for various types of pumps. The single phase motors are generally found their use in low power requirements/domestic appliances like ceiling fans. These motors. These motors are very flexible to use and matches the load demand almost for everything.Overview of A.Motors can find their usage in 2 forms based on their power supply. portable power tools etc. Single & Three Phase Motors and their Uses: The A. compressors and acts as prime movers for many machineries.unlike synchronous motors. They are sometimes used no to drive the load but instead act as "synchronous condenser". These kind of motors are used even in high precision positioning devices like modern robots. The three phase motors are generally found for high power requirements like power drives . we can say these motors don't have slip with respect to the stator current.
and relatively low manufacturing costs. hydraulic pumps. AC Motors AC MOTOR TYPES AC MOTOR TYPES Various types of AC motors are used for specific applications. Varied Structure Motors: These types of motors have different outer cage arrangements. EO 1. Induction b. Synchronous Induction Motor Previous explanations of the operation of an AC motor dealt with induction motors. Constant. 4. whose discharge rate has to lowered as per the terminals requirement. For motors used in gas and oil terminals. Variable & Adjustable Speed Motors: As already said. The induction motor is the most commonly used AC motor in industrial applications because of its simplicity. irrigation pumps and many more. EO 1.9 STATE the applications of the following types of AC motors: a. The reason that the induction motor has these characteristics is because the rotor is a self-contained unit. thus it may either have a enclosed casing or a pipe ventilated arrangement such that the sparks produced inside the motor does not cause a fire outside it.8 DESCRIBE the effects of over and under-exciting an AC synchronous motor. By matching the type of motor to the appropriate application. Certain cooling water pumps driven by a.Motors are highly flexible in many ways including their speed control. air conditioning compressors.7 DESCRIBE how an AC synchronous motor is started. The speed of the motors can also be varied continuously by some electronic arrangements thus this can be suited for certain applications like a ship's cargo pump.5 DESCRIBE how torque is produced in a single-phase AC motor. STATE the applications of the following types of AC motors: a. Also many motors are totally enclosed as it may be open to weather like those used in hydro-electric power plants. increased equipment performance can be obtained. EO 1. Singlephase c. EO 1. EO 1.motors can be run at two or three speeds by just switching the number of poles used. There are motors which should be run at a constant speed for air compressors. If the number of poles are changed then the speed also changes. rugged construction. Induction b. the casing must be of intrinsically safe. 5. Single-phase c. A.C. with no external connections. The induction motor rotor (Figure 5) is made of a laminated cylinder with slots in its surface. This type of motor derives its name from the fact that AC currents are induced into the rotor by a rotating magnetic field.6 EXPLAIN why an AC synchronous motor does not have starting torque.for compressors. depending upon the usage or any special industrial requirement. These serve best for sea water cooling pumps in marine engine room applications & many power plants.c. The windings in the slots are one of . Synchronou b.
No insulation is required between the core and the bars because of the low voltages induced into the rotor bars. This rotor is made of heavy copper bars that are connected at each end by a metal ring made of copper or brass. When the same voltage VT is applied to the starting and main windings. This winding has a higher resistance and lower reactance than the main winding (Figure 6). the current in the main winding (IM) lags behind the current of the starting winding IS (Figure 6). a starting winding is utilized. The most commonly used is the "squirrel-cage" rotor. The size of the air gap between the rotor bars and stator windings necessary to obtain the maximum field strength is small. Single-Phase AC Induction Motors If two stator windings of unequal impedance are spaced 90 electrical degrees apart and connected in parallel to a single-phase source.two types. In a split-phase motor. The angle between the two windings is enough phase difference to provide a rotating magnetic field to produce a starting . This is called phase splitting. the field produced will appear to rotate.
the rotor locks into step with the rotating magnetic field and rotates at synchronous speed. In the synchronous motor. therefore. Synchronous motors use a wound rotor.torque. the motor needs some type of device to bring the rotor to synchronous speed. the synchronous motor is excited by an external DC source and. Unlike an induction motor. This type of rotor contains coils of wire placed in the rotor slots. a centrifugal switch on the motor shaft opens and disconnects the starting winding. When the motor reaches 70 to 80% of synchronous speed. Synchronous Motors Synchronous motors are like induction motors in that they both have stator windings that produce a rotating magnetic field. (Figure 7). and the motor will stop. no torque is developed. Types of Motors . Slip rings and brushes are used to supply current to the rotor. therefore. Singlephase motors are used for very small commercial applications such as household appliances and buffers. A synchronous motor is not a selfstarting motor because torque is only developed when running at synchronous speed. If the synchronous motor is loaded to the point where the rotor is pulled out of step with the rotating magnetic field. requires slip rings and brushes to provide current to the rotor.
The coils that produce the magnetic field are traditionally called the "field coils" while the coils and the solid core that rotates is called the "armature. other than the relatively small brushless types. The design of an AC motor is considerably more involved than the design of a DC motor. generating a torque on the coil. use a commutator assembly on the rotor. Its characteristic features are: . All DC motors. The DC motor can be designed to run at any speed within the limits imposed by centrifugal forces and commutation considerations. Many machine tools also use DC motors because of the ease with which speed can be adjusted.Direct Current (DC) Motors DC motor—Click image to enlarge and view reference Direct-current (DC) motors are often used in variable speed applications. an AC motor has a current passed through the coil." Two basic types of AC motors: Induction motor—The induction motor is a three-phase AC motor and is the most widely used machine. The magnetic field is produced by an electromagnet powered by the same AC voltage as the motor coil. The speed adjustment flexibility often justifies the extra cost. This requires periodic maintenance and is partly responsible for the added cost of a DC motor when compared to an alternate-current (AC) squirrel-cage induction motor of the same power.As in the DC motor case. Alternate Current (AC) Motors AC motor Click image to enlarge and view reference Alternate-current (AC) motors .
The motor "induces" current into the rotor by the rotating magnetic flux produced in the stator. Synchronous motor—The most obvious characteristic of a synchronous motor is its strict synchronism with the power line frequency. . When a three-phase voltage is applied to the stator winding. This rotating field is produced by the contributions of space-displaced phase windings carrying appropriate time displaced currents. A specially designed motor controller performs these operations in the proper sequence and at the proper times during the starting process. The reason the industrial user is likely to prefer a synchronous motor is its higher efficiency and the opportunity for the user to adjust the motor's power factor.• • • • Simple and rugged construction. The rotating field induces an electromotive force (emf). High reliability and sufficiently high efficiency. Motor torque is developed from interaction of currents flowing in the rotor bars and the stator's rotating magnetic field. Needs no extra starting motor and does not need to be synchronized. a rotating magnetic field of constant magnitude is produced. Low cost and minimum maintenance. Two basic assemblies make up an induction motor: the stator assembly and the rotor assembly.
The induction motor is the most commonly used AC motor in industrial applications because of its simplicity. rugged construction. If we reduce field excitation. . Keeping the same load. When the same voltage (VT) is applied to the starting and main windings. Single-phase motors are used for very small commercial applications such as household appliances and buffers. the motor operates at a leading power factor. the motor will operate at a lagging power factor.AC Motor Types Summary In a split-phase motor. The angle between the two windings is enough phase difference to provide a rotating magnetic field to produce a starting torque. when the field excitation is increased on a synchronous motor. and relatively low manufacturing costs. A synchronous motor may be started by a DC motor on a common shaft or by a squirrel-cage winding imbedded in the face of the rotor poles. Synchronous motors are used to accommodate large loads and to improve the power factor of transformers in large industrial complexes. a starting winding is utilized. This winding has a higher resistance and lower reactance than the main winding. A synchronous motor is not a self-starting motor because torque is only developed when running at synchronous speed. the current in the main winding lags behind the current of the starting winding.
2. Variable Speed. • 1. Single Phase 2. Commutator Motors: (a) Series (b) Compensated (c) Shunt (d) Repulsion (e) Repulsion-start induction (f) Repulsion induction 1. 2. Constant Speed. Semi-enclosed 4. Adjustable Speed. Induction Motors: (a) Squirrel Cage (b) Slip-Ring (external resistance).. Open 2. 1. Ventilated 5.(a) Synchronous Motors. Plain 2. 1. Three Phase • • Classification Based On Type Of Current: Classification Based On Speed Of Operation: 1. Enclosed 3. 3. Riveted frame-eye etc. Classification Based On Structural Features: . Super (b) Asynchronous Motors. Pipe-ventilated 6.
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