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1)

Carbon fiber-reinforced plastic

2)

Applications: Aero space engineering, Automotive engineering, Civil engineering,


Carbon fiber microelectrodes, sports goods, and musical instruments etc,

Aero space engineering:

Methods have been developed and perfected for calculating the deformation and
strength characteristics of composite laminates in both the linear and nonlinear regions
of behavior, with and without stress concentrations. The properties of carbon fiber-
reinforced plastics (CFRP) have been investigated experimentally for various reinforcing
schemes, with and without stress concentrations, and at normal and elevated
temperatures. It has been found that the loading rate in uniaxial tension affects the
strength properties of the composite.The fatigue characteristics of CFRP, with and
without stress concentrations, have been investigated in asymmetric tension on a base of
106 cycles. The lifetimes are considerable and the fatigue curves have a shallow slope (m
= 40). Cantilevel bending tests with a symmetric loading cycle and interlaminar shear
tests, using the short-beam bending method, have also been carried out. A procedure has
been developed for calculating additional safety factors, taking as a basis the theory of
reliability and the concept of probability of failure. A unified finite-element method has
been developed for calculating the stress-strain state of aircraft control surfaces made of
composites and has been used to solve the problem of finding the optimum distribution
of material (thickness and arrangement of the laminations) consistent with satisfaction of
the static and acoustic strength requirements and possible technological constraints. The
results of using these methods to design the rudder of a supersonic passenger aircraft and
the aileron and interceptor of a medium trunkline aircraft are presented. The use of
CFRP in such structures makes it possible to reduce the weight by on average 25% as
compared with the weight of the metal structure and to improve the acoustic strength.

Automotive engineering:

The use of carbon fibre reinforced plastic in the automotive industry is ever growing
as new materials and new manufacturing processes become available. Designers are
always developing new ways to reduce weight, improve efficiency, and reduce
cost; CFRP is giving them the freedom to reconsider the use of thermoplastic
composites for both interior and exterior applications.
Any new trends in the automotive industry are assessed in terms of manufacturing
cycle times, reduced production cost through automation, decreased environmental
impact, improved comfort and safety, improved acoustic performance, and how much of
the new material can be recycled. CFRP is being looked at much more seriously by
manufacturers in the design of their cars as the cost of oil and raw materials such as steel
is continually increasing. The weight-to-performance ratio of CFRP means it is an
attractive prospect to manufacturers aiming to reduce the weight and overall performance
of a vehicle.
CFRP is widely used throughout the aerospace industry and for lightweight racing
cars, but the lack of suitable design processes has meant that the mass production car
market has previously been unable to embrace the technology fully. Thermoplastic
composites have been used extensively on interior car parts such as sun shades, door
panel trim, bumpers and parcel shelves. However, as yet it has always been a
significant challenge to develop the processes which can produce structural exterior parts,
without taking away from the crash safety standards of the vehicle. The other challenge is
to make the use of CFRP economically viable in a large scale production scenario.
Design solutions for high volume production of lightweight parts
There are several methods of manufacturing CFRP and researchers are moving ever
closer to developing the techniques to produce lightweight CFRP structures that can be
manufactured quickly enough for the mass produced market. CFRP can now be produced
to provide high strength parts with a greater stiffness to weight ratio than ever before; it
also retains excellent impact performance and dampening properties, which are highly
desirable for car manufacturers.

New resin transfer molding processes, composite braiding and continuous laminating
are some of the processes being developed which allow designers far greater freedom;
enabling them to create larger more robust load-bearing parts and connecting pieces
throughout their vehicles.
There is still a distance to travel for researchers and engineers alike to develop the
processes which will enable mass production on a large scale. Research shows that in the
manufacturing of the VW Golf, over 250,000 parts are produced per year with target
manufacturing cycles of one minute per part (1). Engineers at the Fraunhofer Institute for
Chemical Technology ICT have developed a process of thermoplastic resin transfer
molding (T-RTM) by which they are able to reduce composite part manufacturing cycles
to around five minutes; so it is clear that further innovation is required, but that the future
of lightweight CFRP production on a grand scale is within reach.

Civil engineering:
Carbon Fibre Reinforced Polymer (CFRP) is a composite Polymer matrix reinforced
with carbon fibres, which are very strong and light. In CFRP the reinforcement material
is carbon fibre that provides the strength. The matrix is commonly a polymer resin like
epoxy, which binds the reinforcement together. Thus, the CFRP is a combination of
extremely thin carbon fibres of 5-10m in diameter, embedded in polyester resin. Figure
1 illustrates a thin carbon fibre of 5m in diameter (in red). CFRP can be manufactured
with higher modulus of elasticity and higher strength than steel thereby improving the
flexural, shear strength and deflection of structural members. The tensile strength of a
commercial carbon fibre is 3500 -7000MPa with an elastic modulus of 230-650GPa and
an elongation at failure ranging from 0.6 to 2.4%.

CFRP wires are made through pultrusion, a process that ensures continuous extrusion
of reinforced plastic materials. Roving strands of reinforcement are pulled through an
impregnating tank containing epoxy resin, the forming die and finally a curing area. The
process aims at producing a structural material that is workable and with adequate
ductility while still retaining the favourable features of carbon. Since CFRP wires are
resistant to corrosion, it is not required to apply any corrosion-inhabiting compound or
grout. However, the wires still need to be protected against wind erosion and the attack of
ultraviolet radiation because the combined effect of these two factors on the wires could
lead to their degradation. For this reason, an UV-resistant polyolin sheath would be
required for adequate shielding. Figure 2 illustrates rolls of CFRP and steel wires.

CFRP cables consist of bundled parallel wires as shown in Figure 3. In line with
the corrosion resistant characteristic of CFRP wires cited above, the cables from them do
not require any non-corrosive compounds. However, and for the same reason, the cables
still need to be protected against wind erosion and the attack of ultraviolet radiation
because the combined effects of these two factors on the cables could lead to the
degradation of their surface. High specific strength and stiffness are properties of carbon
fibre reinforced polymer cables. Their non-corroding, non-relaxing, stress-free attributes
give them outstanding performance under fatigue loading, while their lightweight quality
is a great advantage for the performance of long stays and for very long-span bridges.
Stay cables, including post- and pre-tensioning cables, when made of steel, have resulted
in high maintenance costs in the past 30 years. Consequently, steel hanger cables used in
suspension bridges are being replaced regularly throughout the world. From the technical
point of view as highlighted in this paper, there is no doubt that CFRP is today the best
available material for such cables.. Table 1 compares CFRP cables with steel cables to
support this opinion.
The existing research on CFRP cables and examines the importance of such
studies. Literature has confirmed that CFRP cables do not corrode nor suffer stress
solution. They are easy to handle, exhibit outstanding fatigue behavior and have good
efficiency in life cycle cost, even though the initial cost may be substantial.

Carbon Fiber has High Strength to Weight Ratio:

Strength of a material is the force per unit area at failure, divided by its density. Any
material that is strong AND light has a favourable Strength/Weight ratio. Materials such
as Aluminium, titanium, magnesium, Carbon and glass fiber, high strength steel alloys all
have good strength to weight ratios. It is not surprising that Balsa wood comes in with a
high strength to weight ratio.

Carbon Fiber is very Rigid:

Rigidity or stiffness of a material is measured by its Young Modulus and


measures how much a material deflects under stress. Carbon fiber reinforced plastic is
over 4 times stiffer than Glass reinforced plastic, almost 20 times more than pine, 2.5
times greater than aluminium. Remember stress is force, strain is deflection such as
bending or stretching

Carbon fiber is Corrosion Resistant and Chemically Stable.

Although carbon fibers themselves do not deteriorate measurably, Epoxy is


sensitive to sunlight and needs to be protected. Other matrices (whatever the carbon fiber
is embedded in) might also be reactive. Carbon fibres can be affected by strong oxydizing
agents Composites made from carbon fibre must either be made with UV resistant epoxy
(uncommon), or covered with a UV resistant finish such as varnishes.

Carbon fiber is Electrically Conductive:

This feature can either be useful or be a nuisance. In Boat building conductivity


has to be taken into account just as Aluminium conductivity comes into play. Carbon
fiber conductivity can facilitate Galvanic Corrosion in fittings. Careful installation can
reduce this problem.

Carbon Fiber dust can accumulate in a shop and cause sparks or short circuits in
electrical appliances and equipment.

Fatigue Resistance is good:

Resistance to Fatigue in Carbon Fiber Composites is good. However when carbon


fiber fails it usually fails catastrophically without significant exterior signs to announce
its imminent failure. Damage in tensile fatigue is seen as reduction in stiffness with larger
numbers of stress cycles, (unless the temperature is high)

Test have shown that failure is unlikely to be a problem when cyclic stresses
coincide with the fiber orientation. Carbon fiber is superior to E glass in fatigue and static
strength as well as stiffness. The orientation of the fibers AND the different fiber layer
orientation, have a great deal of influence on how a composite will resist fatigue (as it has
on stiffness). The type of forces applied also result in different types of failures. Tension,
Compression or Shear forces all result in markedly different failure results.
Carbon Fiber has good Tensile Strength:

Tensile strength or ultimate strength, is the maximum stress that a material can
withstand while being stretched or pulled before necking, or failing. Necking is when the
sample cross-section starts to significantly contract. If you take a strip of plastic bag, it
will stretch and at one point will start getting narrow. This is necking. Tensile Strength is
measured in Force per Unit area. Brittle materials such as carbon fiber does not always
fail at the same stress level because of internal flaws. They fail at small strains. Testing
involves taking a sample with a fixed cross-section area, and then pulling it gradually
increasing the force until the sample changes shape or breaks. Fibers, such as carbon
fibers, being only 2/10,000th of an inch in diameter, are made into composites of
appropriate shapes in order to test.

Units are MPa This table is offered as a comparison only since there are a great number
of variables.

Carbon steel 1090 650

High density polyethylene (HDPE) 37

Polypropylene 19.7-80

High density polyethylene 37

Stainless steel AISI 302 860

Aluminium alloy 2014-T6 483

Aluminium alloy 6063-T6 248

E-Glass alone 3450

E-Glass in a laminate 1500

Carbon fiber alone 4127

Carbon fiber in a laminate 1600

Kevlar 2757

Pine wood (parallel to grain)

Fire Resistance/Non Flammable:

Carbon fibre is classified as non conbustible and has no listed flash point. If it is
exposed to high heat in the presence of fuel burning, it can eventually oxidize but as soon
as the flame and fuel is removed the flame does not continue. Because carbon fibre is
almost always used in a matrix such as epoxy, plastic or concrete, the tolerance of the
matrix to high temperature is the more significant factor. Depending upon the
manufacturing process and the precursor material, carbon fiber can be be made to feel
quite soft to the hand and can be made into or more often integrated into protective
clothing for firefighting. Nickel coated fiber is an example. Because carbon fiber is also
chemically very inert, it can be used where there is fire combined with corrosive agents
.HIGH TEMP FELT WELDING BLANKET - BLACK, 18" X 24" These felt carbon
fibre blankets are also used to protect substrates when doing plumbing soldering.

Thermal Conductivity of Carbon Fiber

Thermal conductivity is the quantity of heat transmitted through a unit thickness, in a


direction normal to a surface of unit area, because of a unit temperature gradient, under
steady conditions. In other words it's a measure of how easily heat flows through a
material.

This table is only for comparison. The units are W/(m.K)

Air .024

Aluminium 250

Concrete .4 - .7

Carbon Steel 54
Mineral Wool insulation .04

Plywood .13

Quartz 3

Pyrex Glass 1

Pine .12

Carbon Fiber Reinforced Epoxy 24

Low Coefficient of Thermal Expansion

This is a measure of how much a material expands and contracts when the temperature
goes up or down. Units are in Inch / inch degree F, as in other tables, the units are not so
important as the comparison.

Steel 7

Aluminium 13

Kevlar 3 or lower

Carbon Fiber woven 2 or less

Carbon fiber unidirectional minus 1 to +8

Fiberglass 7-8

Brass 11

Carbon fiber can have a broad range of CTE's, -1 to 8+, depending on the direction
measured, the fabric weave, the precursor material, Pan based (high strength, higher
CTE) or Pitch based (high modulus/stiffness, lower CTE).

In a high enough mast differences in Coefficients of thermal expansion of various


materials can slightly modify the rig tensions.

Low Coefficient of Thermal expansion makes carbon fiber suitable for applications
where small movements can be critical. Telescope and other optical machinery is one
such application.

10-11-12 Non Poisonous, Biologically Inert, X-Ray Permeable

These quality make Carbon fiber useful in Medical applications. Prosthesis use, implants
and tendon repair, x-ray accessories surgical instruments, are all in development.
Although not poisonous, the carbon fibers can be quite irritating and long term
unprotected exposure needs to be limited. The matrix either epoxy or polyester, can
however be toxic and proper care needs to be exercised.

Carbon Fiber is Relatively Expensive:


Although it offers exceptional advantages of Strength, Rigidity and Weight
reduction, cost is a deterrent. Unless the weight advantage is exceptionally important,
such as in aeronautics applications or racing, it often is not worth the extra cost. The low
maintenance requirement of carbon fiber is a further advantage. It is difficult to quantify
cool and fashionable. Carbon fiber has an aura and reputation which makes consumers
willing to pay more for the cachet of having it.

Carbon Fibers are brittle

The layers in the fibers are formed by strong covalent bonds. The sheet-like aggregations
readily allow the propagation of cracks. When the fibers bend they fails at very low
strain. In other words carbon fibre does not bend much before failing.

Carbon Fiber is not yet geared to Amateur techniques.

In order to maximize Carbon Fiber Characteristics, a relatively high level of technical


excellence must be achieved. Imperfections and air bubbles can significantly affect
performance. Typically, autoclaves, or vacuum equipment is required. Moulds and
mandrels are major expenses as well. The success of any amateur carbon fiber
construction will be closely linked to the skill and care taken.
4)

Hardness is described as resistance to surface indentation of the material. The variations


of micro hardness of the composite materials are shown in the Figure explains the effect
of glass fiber and carbon fiber reinforcements on the micro hardness of the hybrid
composites. The carbon fiber reinforced epoxy composite exhibits higher micro hardness
as compared to other two composites. The 60% carbon fiber reinforced composites shows
14.29% increase in the micro hardness as compared to 60% glass fiber reinforced
composites and 23% increase in the micro hardness with that of 30% glass fiber and 30%
carbon fiber reinforced hybrid composite. The increase in the hardness in the composites
is the indication of good bonding between the matrix and the reinforcement materials.

Tensile Strength Figure shows the effect of reinforcement on Ultimate Tensile


Strength (UTS) of the fiber reinforced composites. The ultimate tensile strength of
the carbon reinforced composite was higher as compared to other type of
composites. The 60% carbon fiber reinforced composites shows 65.24% increase
in the UTS as compared to 60% glass fiber reinforced composites and 38.01%
increase in the UTS with that of 30% glass fiber and 30% carbon reinforced
hybrid composite. The UTS of carbon fiber reinforced composite is higher
because the strength of carbon fiber is higher and it behaves like elastic material
during tensile loading. The inclusion of carbon fiber mat reinforced polymeric
composite significantly enhanced the ultimate tensile strength of the composite.

Yield Strength The yield strength of the glass fiber and carbon fiber reinforced
epoxy composites depends upon the strength and modulus of the fibers, strength,
and chemical stability of the matrix, fiber matrix interaction, and fiber length. The
60% carbon fiber reinforced composites shows 61.31% increase in the yield
strength as compared to 60% glass fiber reinforced composites and 30% increase
in the yield strength with that of 30% glass fiber and 30% carbon reinforced
hybrid composite. Figure shows the effect of reinforcements on yield strength of
the fibers reinforced composites. Yield strength increases with increase in
addition of reinforcement to composites this may be due to improved in interfacial
bonding strength between filler, matrix, and fiber.
Peak Load Figure shows the effect of reinforcements on peak load of the fibers
reinforced hybrid composites. The 60% carbon fiber reinforced composites shows
68.52% increase in the peak load withstand capability as compared to 60% glass
fiber reinforced composites and 35% increase in the peak load withstand
capability with that of 30% glass fiber and 30% carbon reinforced hybrid
composite. The hybrid composite shows more peak load withstand capability as
the carbon fiber reinforcement percentage increases in the hybrid composite.

Ductility The variation of ductility of fiber reinforced composites is shown in


Figure The ductility of 30%glass fiber and 30% carbon reinforced hybrid
composite is lower as compared to other two composites. The 60% carbon fiber
reinforced composites shows 26.19% increase in the ductility as compared to 60%
glass fiber reinforced composites and 50.94% increase in the ductility with that of
30% glass fiber and 30% carbon reinforced hybrid composite.

5)

The ensuing damage occurs during the shock compression phase but three other
tensile loading modes. longitudinal and radial as well as the hoop stresses generated in
inelastic flow at the impact surface.
Unidirectional fiber-reinforced composites of plain carbon fiberreinforced
polymer laminates and carbon nanofibers modified carbon fiberreinforced polymer
laminates were prepared based on the manufacture of the epoxy resin modified with
various contents of carbon nanofibers. The carbon nanofibersmodified epoxy matrix and
carbon fiberreinforced polymer laminates specimens were subject to constant amplitude
cyclic tensile loading, quasi-static tension loading, and incremental cyclic tension loading
while the values of their electrical resistance were monitored through electrical resistance
technique. Resistance-change curves of carbon nanofibers/carbon fiberreinforced
polymer laminates indicated the changes in conductive percolation networks formed by
carbon fibers or carbon nanofibers. These changes can identify the complex damage
modes and the loss of mechanical integrity in laminates. The changes in resistance of
specimens showed a nearly linear correlation with the strain, so the damage process of the
carbon fiberreinforced polymer laminates can be self-sensed according to the resistance-
change curves. In addition, uniformly dispersed carbon nanofibers formed a network that
spans the whole insulation area, which improved their self-sensing property of strain
sensitivity without compromising the mechanical properties of the carbon fiber
reinforced polymer laminates. This technology can achieve the quantitative strain and
damage self-sensing properties of nano-reinforced composites without any additional
sensor, and it is bound to be a promising method for in situ health monitoring.

6)

Eddy Current Techniques for Non-destructive Testing of Carbon Fibre Reinforced


Plastic (CFRP):

The impact laminates are tested using eddy current pulsed thermography under reflection
mode shown in Fig. 6a and transmission mode shown in Fig. 6b, respectively.

The signal-to-noise ratio depends on the heating of the sample, which in turn depends on
the power and the heating time. Therefore, the greater heating time can lead to the higher
signal-to-noise. However, thermal diffusion process can lead to the blurring of the image
over time. As the power of the generator is limited, a compromise is necessary to get
enough heat into the material under test and to have a good contrast in the image. This
compromise is quite easy for most materials and results in heating time of about 50
200 ms . In the experiments under reflection mode, the heating time is set after
optimisation and comparison as 200 ms and the cooling time is set as 300 ms. Firstly, the
front side of 10 J impact sample is tested. Fig. 7 shows the thermograms for front side
and rear side of 10 J impacted laminate at 200 ms. The unit for x-axis and y-axis is pixel
and the unit of temperature is digital level (DL). In Fig. 7a, there is a circle shape of
higher temperature around impact. However, the middle area (concavity with thinner
thickness) does not show the higher temperature. In Fig. 7b, the higher temperature
distribution is concentrated.

In the experiments under transmission mode, the front side and rear side of 10 J impacted
laminate are tested, respectively. In order to let heat conduct from surface to rear side, the
greater heating time (1 s) and cooling time (500 ms) are applied. Some points (A, B, C, D
and E) are selected to observe the temperature variation. Their locations are listed
in Table 1. Fig. 8 shows the thermogram of front side of 10 J impacted laminate at 50 ms
under transmission mode. The carbon fiber structure (including A and C) is clear and
matrix (including B and D) is low temperature. However, it is difficult to identify the
impact. Fig. 9 shows the thermograms of front side and rear side of 10 J impacted
laminate at 1 s under transmission mode. In Fig. 9a, points AD show the high
temperature and there is a circle shape higher temperature around impact like Fig. 7a.
However, the middle area (concavity) does not show the higher temperature. The circle
shape of higher temperature indicates that the lower conductivity caused by impact is
focused on the impact edge but not in the middle on the surface. In Fig. 9b, the higher
temperature by impact is like that in Fig. 7b. In this area, the partial broken structure
leading to the lower conductivity is concentrated, as displayed in Fig. 5c.
Impact characterization from temperature response:

Obviously, the fiber structure and polymer matrix will show the different transient
temperature responses due to specific electric and thermal properties. Table 1describes
the locations of some points on front side of 10 J impacted laminate. Figs. 8and 9a show
the locations on the thermograms. Fig. 10 shows the temperature responses for points A,
B, C, D and E. Point E in the middle of impact area always show the smaller temperature
than good parts (C and D) and impact edge (A and B). Point A and C have similar
temperature in early stage (50 ms). Points B and D also have the similar temperature in
early stage (50 ms). And points A and C show the higher temperature than points B and
D (250 ms), because points A and C are on the conductive carbon fiber. However, after
500 ms, points A and B show the higher temperature than points C and D until to 1 s,
which illustrate the conductivity change by impact begin to affect the temperature
change. In the cooling phase, points A and B still show the higher temperature than points
C and D. The results illustrate that the early stage of heating phase is suitable for carbon
fiber mapping and that both latter heating phase and cooling phase can be used for impact
characterization.

Both results under reflection mode and transmission mode illustrate that the detection of
impact is mainly based on the carbon structure broken and conductivity change but not
the thickness change using eddy current pulsed thermography. The carbon structure
broken and lower conductivity can lead to the remarkable difference from sound area in
eddy current heat phase.
Impact energy vs. damage:

The front sides of 4 J, 6 J, 8 J and 12 J impacted laminates are tested under


transmission mode. Fig shows the thermograms at 1 s from raw data using Altair
software and Fig. shows the thermograms reconstructed by principal components analysis
Obviously, 4 J impact cannot be observed from both raw data and reconstructed image.
The hot temperature areas by 6 J and 8 J impacts are concentrated. 10 J and 12 J impacts
lead to the circle shaped hot temperature distribution. The hot area (circle or point) can be
used to identify the impact and predict the impacted size. However, it is difficult to
extract the characteristic features to accurately quantify the impact energy from current
work, which will be dug out in forthcoming work.

The possibilities and limitations of eddy current methods for the inspection of carbon
fibre-reinforced plastics have been investigated. The electrical properties of these
composites lead to modifications of current methods applied to metals; in particular the
required frequencies are much higher, 130 MHz for weave and 10500 MHz for
unidirectional reinforcements. A proper design of the probes is essential. Single turn coils
are adequate, and it is shown how a higher sensitivity and s uppression of the lift-off
effect can be obtained. Fibre orientations can be detected conveniently with dedicated
probes using a polar scan technique. The eddy currents are insensitive to delaminations.
Only for unidirectional reinforcements and extensive delamination, over 20%, is the
effect large enough to show up in C-scan images. In contrast, fibre fracture is readily
detected for unidirectional and weave reinforcements, with a lower limit of about 8%
fracture. As a result, eddy current methods are useful to establish the type of defect when
a composite is damaged. This is confirmed by comparing eddy current and ultrasonic
measurements on composites with impact damage.
7)

Composites for Civil Structures

Designation Title

D7205 / D7205M Standard Test Method for Tensile Properties of Fiber Reinforced Polymer
- 06(2016) Matrix Composite Bars

Standard Practice for Evaluating Material Property Characteristic Values for


D7290 - 06(2017)
Polymeric Composites for Civil Engineering Structural Applications

D7337 / D7337M Standard Test Method for Tensile Creep Rupture of Fiber Reinforced Polymer
- 12 Matrix Composite Bars

D7522 / D7522M Standard Test Method for Pull-Off Strength for FRP Laminate Systems
- 15 Bonded to Concrete Substrate

D7565 / D7565M Standard Test Method for Determining Tensile Properties of Fiber Reinforced
- 10(2017) Polymer Matrix Composites Used for Strengthening of Civil Structures

Standard Test Method for Determining Apparent Overlap Splice Shear


D7616 / D7616M
Strength Properties of Wet Lay-Up Fiber-Reinforced Polymer Matrix
- 11(2017)
Composites Used for Strengthening Civil Structures

D7617 / D7617M Standard Test Method for Transverse Shear Strength of Fiber-reinforced
- 11(2017) Polymer Matrix Composite Bars

D7705 / D7705M Standard Test Method for Alkali Resistance of Fiber Reinforced Polymer
- 12 (FRP) Matrix Composite Bars used in Concrete Construction

D7913 / D7913M Standard Test Method for Bond Strength of Fiber-Reinforced Polymer Matrix
- 14 Composite Bars to Concrete by Pullout Testing

D7914 / D7914M Standard Test Method for Strength of Fiber Reinforced Polymer (FRP) Bent
- 14 Bars in Bend Locations

D7957 / D7957M Standard Specification for Solid Round Glass Fiber Reinforced Polymer Bars
- 17 for Concrete Reinforcement

D7958 / D7958M Standard Test Method for Evaluation of Performance for FRP Composite
- 17 Bonded to Concrete Substrate using Beam Test

Constituent/Precursor Properties

Designation Title

Standard Test Method for Constituent Content of Composite Prepreg by


C613 - 14
Soxhlet Extraction

D3529 - 16 Standard Test Methods for Constituent Content of Composite Prepreg

D3530 -
Standard Test Method for Volatiles Content of Composite Material Prepreg
97(2015)

D3531 /
Standard Test Method for Resin Flow of Carbon Fiber-Epoxy Prepreg
D3531M - 16

D3532 /
Standard Test Method for Gel Time of Carbon Fiber-Epoxy Prepreg
D3532M - 12

D3800 - 16 Standard Test Method for Density of High-Modulus Fibers

Standard Test Methods for Properties of Continuous Filament Carbon and


D4018 - 17
Graphite Fiber Tows

D4102 -
Standard Test Method for Thermal Oxidative Resistance of Carbon Fibers
82(2015)

D7750 - Standard Test Method for Cure Behavior of Thermosetting Resins by Dynamic
12(2017) Mechanical Procedures using an Encapsulated Specimen Rheometer

D8132 / Standard Test Method for Determination of Prepreg Impregnation by


D8132M - 17 Permeability Measurement
Editorial and Resource Standards

Designation Title

D3878 - 16 Standard Terminology for Composite Materials

D4762 - 16 Standard Guide for Testing Polymer Matrix Composite Materials

Standard Practice for Fiber Reinforcement Orientation Codes for Composite


D6507 - 16
Materials

Interlaminar Properties

Designation Title

Standard Test Method for Mode I Interlaminar Fracture Toughness of


D5528 - 13
Unidirectional Fiber-Reinforced Polymer Matrix Composites

Standard Test Method for Mode I Fatigue Delamination Growth


D6115 - 97(2011) Onset of Unidirectional Fiber-Reinforced Polymer Matrix
Composites

D6415 / D6415M - Standard Test Method for Measuring the Curved Beam Strength of a Fiber-
06a(2013) Reinforced Polymer-Matrix Composite

D6671 / D6671M - Standard Test Method for Mixed Mode I-Mode II Interlaminar Fracture
13e1 Toughness of Unidirectional Fiber Reinforced Polymer Matrix Composites

Standard Test Method for Through-Thickness Flatwise Tensile Strength


D7291 / D7291M -
and Elastic Modulus of a Fiber-Reinforced Polymer Matrix Composite
15
Material

Standard Test Method for Determination of the Mode II Interlaminar


D7905 / D7905M -
Fracture Toughness of Unidirectional Fiber-Reinforced Polymer Matrix
14
Composites

Lamina and Laminate Test Methods

Designation Title

D2344 / D2344M - Standard Test Method for Short-Beam Strength of Polymer Matrix
16 Composite Materials and Their Laminates

D3039 / D3039M - Standard Test Method for Tensile Properties of Polymer Matrix
17 Composite Materials

D3171 - 15 Standard Test Methods for Constituent Content of Composite Materials

D3410 / D3410M - Standard Test Method for Compressive Properties of Polymer Matrix
16 Composite Materials with Unsupported Gage Section by Shear Loading

D3479 / D3479M - Standard Test Method for Tension-Tension Fatigue of Polymer Matrix
12 Composite Materials

D3518 / D3518M - Standard Test Method for In-Plane Shear Response of Polymer Matrix
13 Composite Materials by Tensile Test of a 45 Laminate

Standard Test Method for Tensile Properties of Fiber Reinforced Metal


D3552 - 17
Matrix Composites

D4255 / D4255M - Standard Test Method for In-Plane Shear Properties of Polymer Matrix
15a Composite Materials by the Rail Shear Method

D5229 / D5229M - Standard Test Method for Moisture Absorption Properties and Equilibrium
14 Conditioning of Polymer Matrix Composite Materials

D5379 / D5379M - Standard Test Method for Shear Properties of Composite Materials by the
12 V-Notched Beam Method

D5448 / D5448M - Standard Test Method for Inplane Shear Properties of Hoop Wound
16 Polymer Matrix Composite Cylinders

D5449 / D5449M - Standard Test Method for Transverse Compressive Properties of Hoop
16 Wound Polymer Matrix Composite Cylinders

D5450 / D5450M - Standard Test Method for Transverse Tensile Properties of Hoop Wound
16 Polymer Matrix Composite Cylinders

D5467 / D5467M - Standard Test Method for Compressive Properties of Unidirectional


97(2017) Polymer Matrix Composite Materials Using a Sandwich Beam
Designation Title

D5687 / D5687M - Standard Guide for Preparation of Flat Composite Panels with Processing
95(2015) Guidelines for Specimen Preparation

Standard Test Method for Compressive Properties of Polymer Matrix


D6641 / D6641M -
Composite Materials Using a Combined Loading Compression (CLC)
16e1
Test Fixture

D6856 / D6856M - Standard Guide for Testing Fabric-Reinforced Textile Composite


03(2016) Materials

Standard Test Method for Glass Transition Temperature (DMA Tg) of


D7028 - 07(2015)
Polymer Matrix Composites by Dynamic Mechanical Analysis (DMA)

D7078 / D7078M - Standard Test Method for Shear Properties of Composite Materials by V-
12 Notched Rail Shear Method

D7264 / D7264M - Standard Test Method for Flexural Properties of Polymer Matrix
15 Composite Materials

Sandwich Construction

Designation Title

C271 / C271M -
Standard Test Method for Density of Sandwich Core Materials
16

C272 / C272M - Standard Test Method for Water Absorption of Core Materials for Sandwich
16 Constructions

C273 / C273M -
Standard Test Method for Shear Properties of Sandwich Core Materials
16

C297 / C297M - Standard Test Method for Flatwise Tensile Strength of Sandwich
16 Constructions

C363 / C363M - Standard Test Method for Node Tensile Strength of Honeycomb Core
16 Materials

C364 / C364M - Standard Test Method for Edgewise Compressive Strength of Sandwich
16 Constructions

C365 / C365M -
Standard Test Method for Flatwise Compressive Properties of Sandwich Cores
16

C366 / C366M -
Standard Test Methods for Measurement of Thickness of Sandwich Cores
16

C393 / C393M - Standard Test Method for Core Shear Properties of Sandwich Constructions by
16 Beam Flexure

C394 / C394M -
Standard Test Method for Shear Fatigue of Sandwich Core Materials
16

C480 / C480M -
Standard Test Method for Flexure Creep of Sandwich Constructions
16

C481 - 99(2016) Standard Test Method for Laboratory Aging of Sandwich Constructions

D6416 / D6416M Standard Test Method for Two-Dimensional Flexural Properties of Simply
- 16 Supported Sandwich Composite Plates Subjected to a Distributed Load

D6772 / D6772M
Standard Test Method for Dimensional Stability of Sandwich Core Materials
- 16

D6790 / D6790M
Standard Test Method for Determining Poisson's Ratio of Honeycomb Cores
- 16

D7249 / D7249M Standard Test Method for Facing Properties of Sandwich Constructions by
- 16e1 Long Beam Flexure

D7250 / D7250M Standard Practice for Determining Sandwich Beam Flexural and Shear
- 16 Stiffness

D7336 / D7336M Standard Test Method for Static Energy Absorption Properties of Honeycomb
- 16 Sandwich Core Materials

D7766 / D7766M
Standard Practice for Damage Resistance Testing of Sandwich Constructions
- 16

D7956 / D7956M Standard Practice for Compressive Testing of Thin Damaged Laminates Using
- 16 a Sandwich Long Beam Flexure Specimen
Designation Title

D8067 / D8067M Standard Test Method for In-Plane Shear Properties of Sandwich Panels Using
- 17 a Picture Frame Fixture

F1645 / F1645M -
Standard Test Method for Water Migration in Honeycomb Core Materials
16

Structural Test Methods

Designation Title

D5766 / D5766M Standard Test Method for Open-Hole Tensile Strength of Polymer Matrix
- 11 Composite Laminates

D5961 / D5961M Standard Test Method for Bearing Response of Polymer Matrix Composite
- 17 Laminates

Standard Test Method for Measuring the Damage Resistance of a Fiber-


D6264 / D6264M
Reinforced Polymer-Matrix Composite to a Concentrated Quasi-Static
- 17
Indentation Force

D6484 / D6484M Standard Test Method for Open-Hole Compressive Strength of Polymer Matrix
- 14 Composite Laminates

D6742 / D6742M Standard Practice for Filled-Hole Tension and Compression Testing of
- 17 Polymer Matrix Composite Laminates

D6873 / D6873M Standard Practice for Bearing Fatigue Response of Polymer Matrix Composite
- 17 Laminates

D7136 / D7136M Standard Test Method for Measuring the Damage Resistance of a Fiber-
- 15 Reinforced Polymer Matrix Composite to a Drop-Weight Impact Event

D7137 / D7137M Standard Test Method for Compressive Residual Strength Properties of
- 17 Damaged Polymer Matrix Composite Plates

D7248 / D7248M Standard Test Method for Bearing/Bypass Interaction Response of Polymer
- 12(2017) Matrix Composite Laminates Using 2-Fastener Specimens

D7332 / D7332M Standard Test Method for Measuring the Fastener Pull-Through Resistance of
- 16 a Fiber-Reinforced Polymer Matrix Composite

D7615 / D7615M Standard Practice for Open-Hole Fatigue Response of Polymer Matrix
- 11 Composite Laminates

D8066 / D8066M Standard Practice Unnotched Compression Testing of Polymer Matrix


- 17 Composite Laminates

D8101 / D8101M Standard Test Method for Measuring the Penetration Resistance of Composite
- 17 Materials to Impact by a Blunt Projectile

D8131 / D8131M Standard Practice for Tensile Properties of Tapered and Stepped Joints of
- 17e1 Polymer Matrix Composite Laminates

Standard and/or project (66) Stage TC

ISO 75-3:2004 90.60 ISO/TC


61/SC 2
Plastics -- Determination of temperature of deflection under load -- Part
3: High-strength thermosetting laminates and long-fibre-reinforced
plastics

ISO 527-4:1997 90.93 ISO/TC


61/SC 13
Plastics -- Determination of tensile properties -- Part 4: Test conditions
for isotropic and orthotropic fibre-reinforced plastic composites

ISO 527-5:2009 90.93 ISO/TC


61/SC 13
Plastics -- Determination of tensile properties -- Part 5: Test conditions
for unidirectional fibre-reinforced plastic composites

ISO 1172:1996 90.93 ISO/TC


61/SC 13
Textile-glass-reinforced plastics -- Prepregs, moulding compounds and
laminates -- Determination of the textile-glass and mineral-filler content -
- Calcination methods

ISO 1268-1:2001 90.93 ISO/TC


61/SC 13
Fibre-reinforced plastics -- Methods of producing test plates -- Part 1:
General conditions

ISO 1268-2:2001 90.93 ISO/TC


61/SC 13
Fibre-reinforced plastics -- Methods of
producing test plates -- Part 2: Contact and
spray-up moulding

ISO 1268-3:2000 90.93 ISO/TC


61/SC 13
Fibre-reinforced plastics -- Methods of producing test plates -- Part 3:
Wet compression moulding

ISO 1268-4:2005 90.93 ISO/TC


61/SC 13
Fibre-reinforced plastics -- Methods of producing test plates -- Part 4:
Moulding of prepregs

ISO 1268-4:2005/Amd 1:2010 60.60 ISO/TC


61/SC 13

ISO 1268-5:2001 90.93 ISO/TC


61/SC 13
Fibre-reinforced plastics -- Methods of producing test plates -- Part 5:
Filament winding

ISO 1268-6:2002 90.93 ISO/TC


61/SC 13
Fibre-reinforced plastics -- Methods of producing test plates -- Part 6:
Pultrusion moulding

ISO 1268-7:2001 90.93 ISO/TC


61/SC 13
Fibre-reinforced plastics -- Methods of producing test plates -- Part 7:
Resin transfer moulding

ISO 1268-8:2004 90.93 ISO/TC


61/SC 13
Fibre-reinforced plastics -- Methods of producing test plates -- Part 8:
Compression moulding of SMC and BMC

ISO 1268-9:2003 90.93 ISO/TC


61/SC 13
Fibre-reinforced plastics -- Methods of producing test plates -- Part 9:
Moulding of GMT/STC

ISO 1268-10:2005 90.93 ISO/TC


61/SC 13
Fibre-reinforced plastics -- Methods of producing test plates -- Part 10:
Injection moulding of BMC and other long-fibre moulding compounds --
General principles and moulding of multipurpose test specimens

ISO 1268-11:2005 90.93 ISO/TC


61/SC 13
Fibre-reinforced plastics -- Methods of producing test plates -- Part 11:
Injection moulding of BMC and other long-fibre moulding compounds --
Small plates

ISO 3597-1:2003 90.93 ISO/TC


61/SC 13
Textile-glass-reinforced plastics -- Determination of mechanical
properties on rods made of roving-reinforced resin -- Part 1: General
considerations and preparation of rods

ISO 3597-2:2003 90.93 ISO/TC


61/SC 13
Textile-glass-reinforced plastics -- Determination of mechanical
properties on rods made of roving-reinforced resin -- Part 2:
Determination of flexural strength

ISO 3597-3:2003 90.93 ISO/TC


61/SC 13
Textile-glass-reinforced plastics -- Determination of mechanical
properties on rods made of roving-reinforced resin -- Part 3:
Determination of compressive strength

ISO 3597-4:2003 90.93 ISO/TC


Textile-glass-reinforced plastics -- Determination of mechanical 61/SC 13
properties on rods made of roving-reinforced resin -- Part 4:
Determination of apparent interlaminar shear strength

ISO 4899:1993 90.93 ISO/TC


61/SC 13
Textile-glass-reinforced thermosetting plastics -- Properties and test
methods

ISO 4901:2011 90.93 ISO/TC


61/SC 12
Reinforced plastics based on unsaturated-polyester resins --
Determination of the residual styrene monomer content, as well as the
content of other volatile aromatic hydrocarbons, by gas chromatography

ISO 7822:1990 90.93 ISO/TC


61/SC 13
Textile glass reinforced plastics -- Determination of void content -- Loss
on ignition, mechanical disintegration and statistical counting methods

ISO 8604:1988 90.93 ISO/TC


61/SC 1
Plastics -- Prepregs -- Definitions of terms and symbols for designations

ISO 8605:2001 90.93 ISO/TC


61/SC 13
Textile-glass-reinforced plastics -- Sheet moulding compound (SMC) --
Basis for a specification

ISO 8606:1990 90.93 ISO/TC


61/SC 13
Plastics -- Prepregs -- Bulk moulding compound (BMC) and dough
moulding compound (DMC) -- Basis for a specification

ISO 9782:1993 90.93 ISO/TC


61/SC 13
Plastics -- Reinforced moulding compounds and prepregs --
Determination of apparent volatile-matter content

ISO 10350-2:2011 90.92 ISO/TC


61/SC 2
Plastics -- Acquisition and presentation of comparable single-point data -
- Part 2: Long-fibre-reinforced plastics

ISO/CD 10350-2 [Under development] 30.99 ISO/TC


61/SC 2
Plastics -- Acquisition and presentation of comparable single-point data -
- Part 2: Long-fibre-reinforced plastics

ISO 10352:2010 90.92 ISO/TC


61/SC 13
Fibre-reinforced plastics -- Moulding compounds and prepregs --
Determination of mass per unit area

ISO/CD 10352 [Under development] 30.99 ISO/TC


61/SC 13
Fibre-reinforced plastics -- Moulding compounds and prepregs --
Determination of mass per unit area

ISO 10406-1:2015 60.60 ISO/TC


71/SC 6
Fibre-reinforced polymer (FRP) reinforcement of concrete -- Test
methods -- Part 1: FRP bars and grids

ISO 10406-2:2015 60.60 ISO/TC


71/SC 6
Fibre-reinforced polymer (FRP) reinforcement of concrete -- Test
methods -- Part 2: FRP sheets

ISO 11667:1997 90.93 ISO/TC


61/SC 13
Fibre-reinforced plastics -- Moulding compounds and prepregs --
Determination of resin, reinforced-fibre and mineral-filler content --
Dissolution methods

ISO 12114:1997 90.93 ISO/TC


61/SC 13
Fibre-reinforced plastics -- Thermosetting moulding compounds and
prepregs -- Determination of cure characteristics

ISO 12115:1997 90.93 ISO/TC


61/SC 13
Fibre-reinforced plastics -- Thermosetting moulding compounds and
prepregs -- Determination of flowability, maturation and shelf life

ISO 12115:1997/Cor 1:1998 60.60 ISO/TC


61/SC 13

ISO 12815:2013 60.60 ISO/TC


61/SC 13
Fibre-reinforced plastic composites -- Determination of plain-pin bearing
strength

ISO 12817:2013 60.60 ISO/TC


61/SC 13
Fibre-reinforced plastic composites -- Determination of open-hole
compression strength

ISO 13003:2003 90.93 ISO/TC


61/SC 13
Fibre-reinforced plastics -- Determination of fatigue properties under
cyclic loading conditions

ISO/TR 13883:1995 90.93 ISO/TC


61/SC 13
Plastics -- Guide to the writing of test methods

ISO 14125:1998 90.93 ISO/TC


61/SC 13
Fibre-reinforced plastic composites -- Determination of flexural
properties

ISO 14125:1998/Amd 1:2011 60.60 ISO/TC


61/SC 13

ISO 14125:1998/Cor 1:2001 60.60 ISO/TC


61/SC 13

ISO 14126:1999 90.93 ISO/TC


61/SC 13
Fibre-reinforced plastic composites -- Determination of compressive
properties in the in-plane direction

ISO 14126:1999/Cor 1:2001 60.60 ISO/TC


61/SC 13

ISO 14127:2008 90.93 ISO/TC


61/SC 13
Carbon-fibre-reinforced composites -- Determination of the resin, fibre
and void contents

ISO 14129:1997 90.60 ISO/TC


61/SC 13
Fibre-reinforced plastic composites -- Determination of the in-plane
shear stress/shear strain response, including the in-plane shear modulus
and strength, by the plus or minus 45 degree tension test method

ISO 14130:1997 90.60 ISO/TC


61/SC 13
Fibre-reinforced plastic composites -- Determination of apparent
interlaminar shear strength by short-beam method

ISO 14130:1997/Cor 1:2003 60.60 ISO/TC


61/SC 13

ISO 14484:2013 60.60 ISO/TC


71/SC 6
Performance guidelines for design of concrete structures using fibre-
reinforced polymer (FRP) materials

ISO 15024:2001 90.93 ISO/TC


61/SC 13
Fibre-reinforced plastic composites -- Determination of mode I
interlaminar fracture toughness, GIC, for unidirectionally reinforced
materials

ISO 15034:1999 90.93 ISO/TC


61/SC 13
Composites -- Prepregs -- Determination of resin flow

ISO 15040:1999 90.93 ISO/TC


61/SC 13
Composites -- Prepregs -- Determination of gel time
ISO 15114:2014 60.60 ISO/TC
61/SC 13
Fibre-reinforced plastic composites -- Determination of the mode II
fracture resistance for unidirectionally reinforced materials using the
calibrated end-loaded split (C-ELS) test and an effective crack length
approach

ISO 15310:1999 90.93 ISO/TC


61/SC 13
Fibre-reinforced plastic composites -- Determination of the in-plane
shear modulus by the plate twist method

ISO 17771:2003 90.93 ISO/TC


61/SC 13
Plastics -- Thermoset moulding compounds -- Determination of the
degree of fibre wetting in SMC

ISO 18352:2009 90.93 ISO/TC


61/SC 13
Carbon-fibre-reinforced plastics -- Determination of compression-after-
impact properties at a specified impact-energy level

ISO 19044:2016 60.60 ISO/TC


71/SC 6
Test methods for fibre-reinforced cementitious composites -- Load-
displacement curve using notched specimen

ISO/DIS 19927 [Under development] 40.93 ISO/TC


61/SC 13
Fibre-reinforced plastic composites -- Determination of interlaminar
strength and modulus by double beamshear test

ISO/CD 20144 [Under development] 30.60 ISO/TC


61/SC 13
Fibre-reinforced plastic composites -- Standard qualification plan

ISO/CD 20337 [Under development] 30.60 ISO/TC


61/SC 13
Fibre-reinforced plastic composites -- Shear test method using a shear
frame for the determination of the in-plane shear stress/shear strain
response and shear modulus

ISO/DIS 20975-2 [Under development] 40.60 ISO/TC


61/SC 13
Carbon-fibre-reinforced plastics -- Methods for measurement of through-
thickness laminate properties -- Part 2: Considering size effects by
flexural test

ISO/DIS 21022 [Under development] 40.00 ISO/TC


71/SC 6
Test method for fibre-reinforced cementitious composites -- Load-
delfection curve using circular plates

ISO/CD 21746 [Under development] 30.60 ISO/TC


61/SC 13
Composites and metal assemblies -- Galvanic corrosion tests of carbon
fibre reinforced plastics (CFRPs) related bonded or fastened structures in
artificial atmospheres -- Salt spray tests

ISO 22314:2006 90.93 ISO/TC


61/SC 13
Plastics -- Glass-fibre-reinforced products -- Determination of fibre
length

There is a multitude of tests for FRP composite materials. They could be categorized for
material (resin and fibers) characteristics, mechanical properties, durability and long-term
characteristics.

The ACI 440.3R-12 provides a list of some tests and those transferred to ASTM. ASTM
Volume 15.03 includes most of the tests that you may be interested in. Please
The following are also some of the most commonly used ASTM ones for FRP
composites as well:
ASTM D792. "Standard Test Methods for Density and Specific Gravity (Relative
Density) of Plastics by Displacement."
ASTM D4475. "Standard Test Method for Apparent Horizontal Shear Strength of
Pultruded Reinforced Plastic Rods by the Short Beam Method."
ASTM D5028. "Standard Test Methods for Curing Properties of Pultrusion Resin by
Thermal Analysis."
ASTM D4476. "Standard Test Method for Flexural Properties of Fiber Reinforced
Pultruded Plastic Rods."
ASTM D570. "Water Absorption of Plastics."
ASTM D3171. "Standard Test Methods for Constituent Content of Composite
Materials."
ASTM D7205. "Standard Test Methods for Tensile Properties of Fiber-Reinforced
Polymer Matrix Composite Bars."
ASTM D7617. "Standard Test Method for Transverse Shear Strength of Fiber-
Reinforced Polymer Matrix Composite Bars."
ASTM E831. "Standard Test Methods for Linear Thermal Expansion of Solids
Materials by Thermo-Mechanical Analysis."
ASTM D3418. "Standard Test Method for Transition Temperatures and Enthalpies of
Fusion and Crystallization of Polymers by Differential Scanning Calorimetry."
ASTM D7705. "Standard Test Method for Alkali Resistance of Fiber Reinforced
Polymer (FRP) Matrix Composite Bars used in Concrete Construction."
ASTM D2344. "Standard Test Method for Short-Beam Strength of Polymer Matrix
Composite Materials and Their Laminates."
ASTM D3039. "Standard Test Method for Tensile Properties of Polymer Matrix
Composite Materials."

8)
Tensile test: The tensile test of the composite was done in accordance with ASTM
D638 and specimen is shown in figure. Each composite specimen was prepared by
marking the required dimensions and cut with the help of a saw cutter. A universal
testing machine was used to carry out the test. This test was done for 8 specimens of
glass fiber and 8 specimens of carbon fiber at varying strain rates (2.5, 1.5) and
temperature (35o C, 70o C) to get an average mechanical properties. The thickness of
the composite was measured at the point of failure by testing along with the
maximum displacement of the composite at break load. The specimen was placed in
the grip of the tensile testing machine and the test is performed by applying tension
until it undergoes fracture. The corresponding load and displacement obtained are
plotted on the graphs

Flexural test: The composite materials are now cut by using a saw cutter to get the
dimensions as per the ASTM D790 (50.8mmx12.7mm) standards as shown in figure
The 3-point flexure test is the most common flexural test for composite materials.
Specimen deflection is usually measured by the cross-head position. Test results
include flexural strength and displacement. The testing process involves, the placing
of the test specimen in the universal testing machine and applying force on it until it
fractures and breaks. The Flexural test were performed on the same universal testing
machine, using the 3 point bending fixture according to the ASTM D790 with the
cross head speed of 2mm/min

Impact test: An impact testing machine with Charpy arrangement is employed to


perform the test. It is done as per the ASTM D256 standards. The specimen is
subjected to an impact blow by the pendulum until it fractures and the corresponding
energy absorbed by the material is noted. This test gives the maximum energy that a
material can absorb.
9)

Fiber reinforced plastics (FRPs) are a promising alternative to steel due to their high
tensile strength, light weight, and resistance to electrochemical corrosion. Different types
of FRP tendons have been developed to potentially replace steel tendons in areas where
corrosion is a problem. However, before field application of FRPs as prestressing
elements, their long-term behavior must be investigated. This paper presents relaxation,
creep, and tension-tension fatigue test results of two carbon fiber reinforced plastic
(CFRP) tendons, namely, Leadline PC-D8 8-mm-(5/16-in.)-diameter, and 1 x 7-7.5-mm-
(5/16-in.)-diameter carbon fiber composite cable (CFCC). Twelve Leadline and 12 CFCC
tendon specimens were tested in air at temperatures of-30, 25, and 60 C to determine their
relaxation behavior. In addition, the relaxation behavior of 24 Lead-line and 24 CFCC
samples was examined in chemical solutions simulating aggressive field conditions. The
loss of tensile force for the 3000 hr test duration at stress ratios of 0.4 and 0.6 was
generally less than 10 percent, and it depended primarily on the initial stress level and the
type and temperature of the environment. Preliminary investigation of creep behavior of
Leadline and CFCC in air and in chemical solutions was also conducted. Six samples of
Leadline and six samples of CFCC were subjected to sustained load at room temperature
in air, in alkaline, and in acidic solutions, for a period of 3000 hr. Creep behavior of both
tendons was good; however, the creep strains were higher in solutions than in air.
Furthermore, 190 samples of Leadline and CFCC were tested in tension-tension fatigue to
examine the effect of repeated loading on the modulus of elasticity. Poissons ratio, and
the tensile strength of these types of tendons. Fatigue strength was generally good and
depended on the stress range and initial stress level.

10)

High-performance polymers provide light, stable materials that also resist high
temperatures, and find more and more applications from leisure goods to aerospace. The
Dreamliner from Boeing marked the launch of a new generation of airliners. Around 50%
of the aluminum formerly used in aircraft construction has been replaced by Carbon Fibre
Reinforced Polymer (CFRP) composites, which are lighter but at least equally stable.
Carmakers like BMW and carbon fiber manufacturers have teamed up to replace major
car components with CFRP. These are just two examples of how new materials are
revolutionizing the manufacturing industries. Carbon-fiber-reinforced polymer or carbon-
fiber-reinforced plastic (CFRP or CRP or often simply carbon fiber), is an extremely
strong and light fiber-reinforced polymer which contains carbon fibers. The polymer is
most often epoxy, but other polymers, such as polyester, vinyl ester or nylon, are
sometimes used. The composite may contain other fibers, such as Kevlar, aluminium, or
glass fibers, as well as carbon fiber. The strongest and most expensive of these additives,
carbon nanotubes, are contained in some primarily polymer baseball bats, car parts and
even golf clubswhere economically viable.
References:

http://www.christinedemerchant.com/carboncharacteristics.html

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carbon_fiber_reinforced_polymer

http://rsta.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/374/2071/20160018

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S026382231300562X

https://www.iso.org/ics/83.120/x/

https://www.google.co.in/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=2&cad=rja&
uact=8&ved=0ahUKEwinvqOhx8_XAhVEvo8KHRqIClwQFgguMAE&url=http%3
A%2F%2Fwww.ijmerr.com%2Fuploadfile%2F2015%2F0421%2F201504211016016
43.pdf&usg=AOvVaw2UanUDlSlgEjwCM4Uo_2gL

https://arizona.pure.elsevier.com/en/publications/relaxation-creep-and-fatigue-
behavior-of-carbon-fiber-reinforced-

http://techkiddy.blogspot.in/2012/11/the-future-of-carbon-fiber-reinforced.html#