SKRIPSI Untuk memperoleh gelar Sarjana Pendidikan Bahasa Inggris pada Universitas Negeri Semarang

Oleh Anteng Ria A. NIM 2201403631



1.1 Background of The Study English as an international language is spoken in most international events and is used as the medium of information flow on science, technology and culture. As we understand that learning a foreign language is more difficult than learning a national language or learning a mother tongue. It is because the foreign language has completely different aspects and systems, which should be understood by the students or the learners, such as pronunciation, spelling, and the cultural background of the language. Besides that we also remember that there are some important factors in foreign language learning, which will mostly influence students, or learners in mastering the language. Bustami Subhan (1990: 18) in his paper (entitled) “Some important factors in foreign language learning” explained that learning a foreign language involved five factors. The first of all is intelligence. It is a gate for knowledge. Secondly, motivation plays influential role in encouraging students to learn the language. It covers both intrinsic motivation which comes from the students themselves and extrinsic one which comes from outside. The third and fourth ones have close relation with each other that are students’ attitudes and strategy of language learning. Facilities of language learning are the last factor which is not less important than the others.


In the Basic Course Outline (GBPP) of English curriculum 2004, it is stated that English is considered as a tool or instrument for expressing meanings. Based on the concept and the function of English as stated in that BCO the teaching of English at secondary school aims to develop the four language skills (listening, speaking, reading and writing). The Indonesian students start learning English at the Junior High School (SMP). The process continues at Senior High School (SMA). In fact, now, English is also taught in some elementary schools as the local content and even in some kindergartens. The pupils are introduced to some English vocabularies. In addition to learning the language in formal education as mentioned above, people also learn it in non-formal education. English courses and private lessons are the examples of non-formal education. This indicates the failure of teaching English in this country; as Ramelan (1992:4) stated that the teaching of English in Junior high School in Indonesia is not successful. It can be seen from the quality of SMP graduates’ mastery of English. Ramelan (1992:3) also stated that most SMU graduates are still very poor in reading comprehension, since they cannot usually read or understand articles in English dailies, magazines which are now in circulation in this country, even though the Basic Course Outline of English (BCOE) 2002 stated that among the four language skills, (listening, speaking, reading and writing), reading is the most emphasized in English teaching and learning process. Quite simply, without solid reading second language readers cannot perform at levels they must succeed in reading. Thus, reading is not passive but rather an active


process, involving the reader in on going interaction with the text. Furthermore, reading constantly involves guessing, predicting, checking, and comprehending. In group reading, students may enjoy from time to time getting away from the usual pattern of reading the story or article aloud at sight. This is particularly true of better readers; what may be undesirable as routine procedure has real value as an occasional variation. By seeing the problems, it is important that a study of English especially reading should be done. The writer hopes there will be an improvement in the teaching of English.

1.2 The Definition of The Title The title of this final project is” The Teaching of Reading Comprehension by Using a Small Group Discussion at the First Year Students of SMP 1 Wanadadi in the Academic Year of 2006/2007”. Before discussing this final project deeply, however, in order to be clear, the writer wants to explain some words in the title so that the readers who want to read this final project will not misunderstand it. They are: a. Teaching As stated by Hornby the term” teaching” “ means “to cause somebody to know or be able to do something “. Teaching a child to read a story book, for instance, means causing the child to be able to read the story book (Hornby, 1986: 886). b. Reading comprehension


Reading is an active and interactive activity to reproduce the word mentally and vocally and tries to understand the content of reading text. It is important to bear in mind that reading is not an invariant skill, that there are different types of reading skills, which correspond to the many different purposes we have for reading (1989:33). In classroom, in student’s reading activities, the writer is sure that they have many purposes, among others are to graduate from their school and to provide themselves with the knowledge to continue their studies whatever their purposes are. In order to achieve the goal, the comprehension ability in reading is needed. According to Olson and Diller (1982:42), reading comprehension is a term used to identify those skills needed to understand and apply information contained in a written material. c. Small group discussion is a discussion within a group consisting of 3 students Everyday we use language to communicate with other people. It means that language can be used for doing social interaction. The process of interaction exchange may happen between at least two individuals who have social interaction. One of the ways to have social interaction is by conducting small group discussion in the classroom.

1.3 Reason for Choosing the Topic


No doubt that in a modern school, reading stands a basic tool as a means for students to learn about the world around them. All subjects of school lessons are provided with textbooks as a foundation, so the students should read them if they want to follow the school lessons well. A modern school is also characterized by of adversity and quality and quantity of good reading materials. Reading, thus, is very important in modern schools (Wiersma, 1991: 38). Reading competence is essential to personal enrichment and the development of intelligent citizenship. By reading, the students can enlarge or enrich their knowledge and experience because most of information they need is served in written form. The curriculum of English for SMP states that the teaching of English should cover the four language skills; (listening, speaking, reading and writing). The teaching of these four skills should be done integratively. The teaching approach used for the 2002 curriculum, competency-based curriculum, is communicative approach. Reading skill is always given the main emphasis. As it is stated in the 2002 curriculum of English for SMP, the main goal of teaching English is to make students able to read. It means that the main goal of English teaching and learning for Indonesian students is to comprehend, that is to fully understand written or printed information. If we say that a certain student is good at comprehension we mean that the student can read accurately so as to get the maximum information from the text with the minimum of misunderstanding (Swan, 1992: 1).


Teaching a foreign language especially English is not as easy as teaching the first language, because it is something new for the students of Junior High School. The first year students will certainly face many problems. Up to this time, we often hear the disappointment of English teachers because of low scores of their students in the final exam (Bustami Subhan, 1990). Considering the importance of reading skill, the teacher should improve the teaching of reading comprehension. The teacher can use some methods of teaching reading so that the students can enjoy and be stimulated in learning EFL reading comprehension. One of them is by using small group discussion teaching technique. The writer has found that teaching reading in junior high school needs such kind of communicative technique.

1.4 Statement of The Problem The problem that is going to be discussed in this study is as follows: Are there any differences on reading comprehension achievement between students taught using a small group discussion strategy and those taught using the traditional method?

1.5 Objective of The Study The objective of the study can be stated briefly as follows: to search whether there are any different effects on reading comprehension achievement of junior high schools students between those taught using a small group discussion strategy and those taught using the traditional strategy.





2.1. Small Group Discussion Small group itself, according to Baker (1987:159), is three or more people interacting face to face, with or without an assigned leader in such a way that each person influences, and is influenced by another person in the group. Johnson (1975:78) gives solution that students should be arranged so that each student can see all other members of his group and can be heard without shouting and disturbing the other groups. Two opposite tendencies exist with regard to the number of people in a group. The larger the group, the greater is the pool of talent and experience available for solving problems or sharing the effort. On the other hand, as the size increases, fewer members have the chance to participate, and indeed the differences in relative participation increase to the point where one or two members begin to dominate. Barker (1987:159) proposes that the best size in terms of total interaction and greatest efficiency is somewhere between five and seven members. Nevertheless, the writer used the teams of four in the experimental class.

2.2. Traditional Strategy Jacobsen (1989:211) states that when the teacher uses the traditional setting, or model, he begins with an objective and presents primary instructions to the



class. Primary instruction is mostly presented in the form of lectures, text book readings, teacher-lie discussion, or possible combination of any of these procedures. He also said that the traditional setting is just with rows of desks and teacher’s desk at front. So, the writer concludes here that in the traditional teaching model, the students focuses all attention upon the teacher and discourages communication among students. From Jacobsen’s explanation about the traditional strategy the writer concludes that this is the strategy used by English teachers in SMP 1 Wanadadi. By using this strategy, the teacher doesn’t need to divide her students into small groups, she just discussed the lesson in large group or in classroom setting. Students have only a little chance to express their opinion because the teacher speaks all the time. They get knowledge just from the teacher’s explanation. In the traditional teaching mode, the students focus all attention upon the teacher and discourage communication among students. All that they have to do is just listen to their teacher and make notes for the useful information. This strategy is a strategy without group’s work. The students only receive the knowledge from their teacher; they do not explore the knowledge themselves.

2.3. Reading Comprehension David Nunan says: “It is important to bear in mind that reading is not an invariant skill, that there are different types of reading skills that correspond to the many different purposes we have for reading” (1989:33).


So, in the classroom, in students’ reading activities, the writer is sure that they have many purposes, among others are to graduate from their school and to provide themselves with the knowledge to continue their studies whatever their purposes are. In order to achieve the goal, the comprehension ability in reading is needed. The concept of reading comprehension could be bottom-up and top-down approaches. Nunan (1989:33) mentions that with the bottom-up approach, the reading is viewed as a process of decoding written symbols, working from smaller units (individual letter) to larger ones (words, clauses and sentences). According to Olson and Diller (1982:42), what is meant by reading comprehension is a term used to identify those skills needed to understand and apply information contained in a written material. This statement is supported by Harris and Sipay (1980:179), who say that reading comprehension ability is taught to be a set of generalized knowledge acquisition skills that permits people to acquire and exhibit information gained as a consequence of reading printed language.

2.4. Small Group Discussion A student with good comprehension can be categorized as the one who reads accurately and efficiently, so as to get the maximum information from the text with the minimum of misunderstanding. However, language is not the only factor for successful comprehension.


The reason for failure in comprehension is connected with defective habits. Several things can go wrong in comprehension ability. Michael Swan (1975:1) illustrates: a. Some students find it difficult to “see the wood for the trees.” They may read slowly and carefully, paying a lot of attention to individual points, but without succeeding in getting a clear idea of the overall meaning of a text. b. Other students do not always pay enough attention to detail. They may have a good idea of the general meaning of a text, but misunderstanding particular points. c. Some students are “imaginative readers.” Especially if they know something about the subject, or have strong opinion about it, they may interpret the text in the light of their own experience and viewpoints, so that they find it (is) difficult to separate what the writer says from what they feel themselves. Other types of comprehension problem arise directly from the text itself. Even when a student is familiar with all words and structures in a passage, complexities in the way the writer expresses himself may present obstacles to efficient comprehension (Swan, 1975:1) Thus, to cope with those kinds of problem, the writer gives an alternative teaching technique in reading comprehension class, that is a small group discussion teaching technique. Because of the many passages written in English as an international language, foreign language students, including Indonesian, learn English to


broaden their knowledge by reading passages. It is not surprising that the Indonesian students may find some difficulties in comprehending English passages. What makes a passage difficult to understand is that the students are not really familiar with the language. The writer has observed that the teaching of reading in foreign language classes still emphasizes the passive way. Furthermore, students of a foreign language class may read slowly and pay much attention carefully to individual points, but cannot get a clear idea of the overall meaning of the text. Using a small group discussion teaching technique, a student is able to get the meaning of a passage by getting information from his fellows and teacher. Students can share the difficulties in the reading text to each other and provide themselves with the knowledge. The small group discussion learning can be conceptualized in various ways and that proponents of the technique have assessed only certain types of model. But when the group has found out how to plan and work together, they may not all agree. The members of the group know well enough to really trust each other, and they still have to determine each other’s skills, knowledge, situation and attitudes. They often feel comfortable and “lost.” (Barker, 1989:168).

2.5. The Process of Small Group Discussion in Classroom 2.5.1. The Classroom Management The classroom organization does not deal directly with the reading process, or with materials, methods, or approaches to teaching reading comprehension. Yet


without good classroom organization and classroom management, reading instruction may be totally ineffective. It is enough for teachers to know what organizational patterns and management techniques are conducive in learning. David Nunan (1989:91) points out that setting in the classroom is important. Setting here refers to the classroom arrangements specifying or implying the task, and it also requires consideration whether the task is to be carried out wholly or partly in the classroom. For example, an activity involving small groups will be an important factor influencing roles and relationship. In small group discussion, the class has to be in charge in each of the group. The writer also believes the discussion group applied to junior high school students still has to get more directions from the teacher. Hence, the students might have opportunity to arrange the chairs and tables in order to have communicative class using a small group discussion in the classroom after they get the instructions from the teacher. David and Roger Johnson (http:/, cited on March 26, 2004) explained that there are many ways to build a communicative class: 1) Jigsaw Group with five students are set up. Each group member is assigned some unique material to learn and then to teach to his group members. To help in the learning, students across the class working on the same sub-section get together to decide what is important and how to teach it. After


practicing in these “expert” groups the original group reform, and students teach each other. Test assessment follows. 2) Think-pair-share It involves three steps of cooperative structure. During the first step individuals think silently about a question posed by the instructor. Individuals pair up during the second step and exchange thoughts. In the third step, the pairs share their responses with other pairs, other teams, or the entire group. 3) Three-step interview Each member of a team chooses another member to be a partner. During the first step individuals interview their partners by asking or clarifying questions. During the second step partners reverse the roles. For the final step, members share their partner’s response. 4) Round Robin Brain Storming Class is divided into small groups (4 to 6) with one person appointed as the recorder. A question is posed with many answers. After the “think time,” members of the team share responses with one another round robin style. The recorder writes down the answer of the group members. The person next to the recorder starts and each person in the group in order gives an answer until time is called. 5) Three Minute Review


Teachers stop anytime during a lecture of discussion and give team three minutes to review what has been said then ask clarifying questions or answer questions. 6) Numbered Head A team of four is established. Each member is given numbers of 1,2,3,4. Questions are asked of the group. Groups work together to answer the question so that all can verbally answer the question. Teacher calls out a number (two) and each two is asked to give the answer.

7) Team Pair Solo Students do problem first as a team, then with a partner, and finally on their own. It is designed to motivate students to tackle and succeed at problems, which initially are beyond their ability. It is based on a simple notion of media led learning. Students can do more things with help (mediator) than they can do alone. By allowing them to work on problem they could not do alone, first as a team and then with a partner, they progress to a point they can do alone that which at first they could do only with help. 8) Circle the Sage First the teacher polls the class to see which students have a special knowledge to share. For example the teacher may ask who in the class was able to solve a difficult math homework question, who had visited Mexico,


who knows the chemical reactions involved in how salting the streets help dissipate snow. Those students (the sages) stand and spread out in the room. The teacher then has the rest of the classmates each surround a sage, with no two members of the same team going to the same. The sage explains what she knows while the classmates listen, ask questions, and take notes. All students then return to their teams. Each in turn, explains what they learned. Because each one has gone to a different sage, they compare notes. If there is disagreement, they stand up as a team. Finally, the disagreements are aired and resolved.

9) Partners The class is divided into teams of four. Partners move to one side of the room. Half of each team is given an assignment to be able to teach the other half. Partners work to learn and can consult with other partners working on the same material. Teams go back together with each set of partners teaching the other set. Partner quiz and tutor teammates. Team reviews how well they learned and taught and how they might improve the process. In this study the writer uses the Think pairs-share strategy in teaching reading comprehension in the experimental class. This strategy encourages students to think about the content, compare their thoughts with those of their


partners, and share their answers with the work group. This procedure of the experiment will be discussed in chapter III. 2.5.2 Teacher’s and Learner’s Role in the Reading Comprehension Activities The teaching of reading comprehension using a small group discussion means that the class has to be communicative. David Nunan (1989:10) informs “I too will consider the communicative task a piece of classroom work that involves learners in comprehending, manipulating, producing or interacting in the target language while their attention is principally focused on meaning rather than form” The researcher in communicative classroom according to Breen and Caldin as quoted by Nunan (1989:87) has three main roles. The first is to act as facilitator for the communicative process, the second is to act as participant, and the third is to act as an observer and learner. While the learners have more active role. They can communicate directly with each other, rather than exclusive with the teacher. As an activity is carried out in a small group work, it makes it possible for a greater amount of individual participation than when it is done in the classteaching situation. Thus, it is clear that using a small group discussion, the learner and the teacher can interact with each other in the classroom. Nunan (1989:87) then points out that the interaction can be either between the teacher and the students, or between students as they interact in small group works. The writer here concludes that in a classroom, students will be motivated by cooperative interaction in a group.


2.6 The Process of Traditional Strategy in Classroom The problem of classroom management has long been recognized as complex. Traditional strategy is a strategy without small group discussion. It means that the teacher doesn’t divide their students into groups. It is the most time-consuming and energy-draining activities to run a class of 30-40 students. An activity carried out in the traditional strategy doesn’t involve an individual participation. Jacobsen (1989:211) said that the traditional strategy is just with rows and desks and teacher desks at front. He also added that this might be ideal when a teacher is presenting a lesson to the entire class, but students tend to physically separate from the teacher and most likely to be ones causing problems. Richards and Rodgers (1986) as quoted by Nunan (1989:84) suggest that learner roles are closely related to the functions and status of the teacher. They point out that traditional strategy is totally teacher-dependent. From this statement the writer can conclude that if the teacher doesn’t give information, students will never get the information. It is true because in this strategy, the teacher is considered as the only source of information. The learners have a passive role. They just receive the information given by their teacher.




This chapter deals with population and sample, data collecting, using the instrument, the administration of experiment, and data processing. 3.1 Population and Sample Brown (1988:81) said that a population is any group of individuals that have one or more characteristic in common that is of interest to the researchers. While according to Gay (1987:120), population is the group of interest to the researcher; the group to which she or he would like the results of the study to be generalized. William Wiersma (1987:247), states that a sample, by definition is a subset of the population to which the researcher intends to generalize the results. The population of this study was the first year students of SMP N 1Wanadadi in the academic year of 2006/2007. Since the total population was more than 100 students, purposive technique was used to take the sample. As stated before, the writer chose the first year students of SMP N 1 Wanadadi in the academic year of 2006/2007 as the population of this research based on the following consideration: 1) The writer is an English teacher of SMP N 1 Wanadadi. From the experiences the writer found that the students had difficulty to comprehend the text when they had silent reading 2) It was hard for the students to have the meaning from the overall passages when the writer taught them using large group discussion



3.2 Sampling Technique The writer determined the sample by using purposive technique. The writer took the sample based on the students’ numbers and the same average score of the first year students of SMP N 1 Wanadadi in the academic year of 2006/2007. The numbers of students in each class are as follows: VII-A: 40 VII-B: 40 VII-C: 40 VII-D: 40 VII-E: 40 VII-F: 40

On the basis of these data, the writer then took the two classes with the same average score and have the same numbers of students; VII-A and VII-C then were taken as samples. They were taken randomly as experimental class and control class. In this study, the writer chose 30 students in each class to be her respondent.

3.3 Variables According to Wiersma (1987:25), a variable is a characteristic that takes on different or considerations for different individuals. There were two types of variables: independent and dependent variables. The independent variable, as Wiersma states (1987:26), is simply a classifying variable; it classifies the individual of the study. He also says that the values of the dependent variable depend on the independent variable. So, the variables of this study are: 1) Independent variable: the use of a small group discussion in teaching reading comprehension


2) Dependent variable: the score of reading comprehension test

3.4 Data Collecting Documentation study was used to get the number of students, number of classes, students’ name list and teaching schedule. In this study, tests were used to measure the students’ reading comprehension skill and were administered twice; namely, the pre test and the post test. Also, the writer did some observations when she was teaching using a small group discussion learning format to know about the major strength about this teaching method. Here, the pre test was used to see the students’ reading comprehension mastery before the treatment, and the post test was used to see the reading achievement after the treatment. In collecting the required data in the post test the writer used multiple choice. The choice of multiple-choice type was based on the following considerations: 1) It was easy and consistent 2) It was easy to compute and determine the reliability of the test 3) It was economical because the number of items can be answered in a short period of testing time 4) It was more practical for the students to answer. They just marked the most appropriate answer in the answer sheet Each of the tests consisted of 4 reading passages and 5 multiple choice reading comprehension questions followed each reading passage. Correct answers were scored 1 each and wrong answers were scored 0. Total score was 20.


3.5 Writing the Instrument The writer selected the reading passages, which have equal levels of vocabulary, she asked the teacher in composing her instruments in order to get the most suitable reading passages for her research. The passages were at 200 vocabularies level in line with the suggestion of The National Department of Education. According to Kerlinger (1965:84) instrument is an important tool for collecting the data in a research study. He also says that for the most part, the instrument used to measure the achievement in education in a test. From the certain kind of test, a teacher or an experimenter will be able to collect the data that is the scores which can be used to identify, classify, or evaluate the test takers. For the sake for this study, the writer chose some kind of reading passages taken from other sources. The reasons were: 1) It was difficult to make good texts by herself because of her limited ability. 2) There were various reading materials or articles that could be used. The try out of the instrument was conducted at VII-B class with the sample of 30 students. It was conducted on 22 January 2007. The instrument contained 20 comprehension questions and the instructional objectives in SMP English curriculum2002 were used as indicators of the test in this study.


In order to be able to collect valid and reliable data, the instrument must fulfill the requirements of validity and reliability. Using the Product Moment Formula, the writer tested the validity of the instrument. The formula is as follows: r xy =

{ Nx

NΣ xy − (Σx) (Σy )

− ( Σx 2 )

}{ N Σy


− ( Σy 2 )


In which; rxy x y : correlation index : the score number of odd items : the score number of even items

(Saleh, 2001:63) The reliability refers to the stability of test scores. Test reliability can be estimated in a number of ways. In this study, K-R 20 formula was used to test the reliability of the instrument as follows: r II =
V − pq K * 1 K −1 Vt

In which; r II K Vt pq : instrument reliability : the number of items in the test : total variance : sum of variance of items scored dichotomously (right/wrong)

(Ali, 1995:184)


3.6 Administration of Experiment 3.6.1 Experimental Class This class had the pretest before the experiment. The score of this test reflected the students’ reading comprehension ability before they were taught using a small group discussion teaching technique. The experimental class used a small group discussion as the teaching strategy. As stated in chapter II the writer used Think-Pair-Share method to build communicative class. The procedure of the experiment was as follows: 1) The students read silently the reading passages for 10 minutes. During this step, individuals thought silently about a question posed by the instructor 2) Individuals pair up and exchange thoughts for 20 minutes 3) The pairs are given 30 minutes to share their responses with other pairs, other teams, or the entire group 4) The students had their post-test The pre test of experimental class was held on 22 March 2007 and post test was held 1 May 2007.

3.6.2 Control Class This class had the pretest before the experiment. The score of this test reflected the students’ reading comprehension ability before they discussed the reading using the traditional method. The control class used the traditional method as the teaching technique. The procedure of experiment is as follows:


1) The students read silently the passages given by their teacher for 10 minutes 2) The teacher explained the passages for 50 minutes. The students were not divided into groups of four, they discussed the reading passages with the setting of classroom 3) The students had their post test The pre test of control class was held on 22 January 2007 and the post test was held on 27 May 2007.

3.7 Data Processing T-test formula was applied to see whether there was a significant difference between a small group discussion and traditional method teaching technique in teaching reading comprehension. The t-test formula is as follows:
t= x1 − x 2 ⎛ Σ x1 + Σx 2 ⎞ ⎛ 1 1 ⎞ ⎜ ⎜ n +n −2⎟ ⎜ n + n ⎟ ⎟⎜ ⎟ 2 ⎠ ⎝ 1 2 ⎠⎝ 1

In which;
x and x 2 = means of the two samples Σ x1 and Σx 2 = sums of the squares in the two samples

n1 and n2 = numbers of subject on two samples (Saleh, 2002: 67)


In order to measure the students’ reading comprehension achievement difference in pre test, the percentage achievement formula was used. The formula is as follows: P=

F x 100% N

In which; P F N : Percentage achievement : Total score : Maximum score

(Ali, 1995:184)



This chapter deals with reading comprehension achievement of the students who were given the small group discussion teaching method, and reading comprehension achievement of the students who were given traditional or large group teaching method, also it deals with the difference in reading comprehension achievement between the two groups of the students. 4.1. Students’ Reading Comprehension Achievement The score of reading comprehension for both experimental and control class in percentage was calculated using the formula below. P= F x 100% N

In which; P F N 4.1.1 : Percentage achievement : Total score : Maximum score Reading comprehension achievement of students taught without using small group discussion teaching strategy. The students’ pretest score taught without the small group teaching technique was 182 or 60. 72%. The post test score was 183 or 61%. Their score rose slightly from 182 to 183 or it rose 0. 33% (see chart 1)



Chart 1 Students’ Reading Comprehension Achievement without Using Small Group Discussion Teaching Strategy
200 150 100 50 0

= pretest = post test

We can see in chart 1 that by using the traditional teaching strategy, the score rose only 0. 33%. This teaching strategy is a strategy without small group discussion. The teacher was the only source of information so the students did not explore the information by themselves. 4.1.2 Reading Comprehension Achievement of students taught Using the Small Group Discussion Technique The students’ pretest score was 184 or put in percentage their reading comprehension ability was 61. 3%. The students’ post test score using the small group teaching technique was 231. In other words their reading ability was 77%. Thus, it could be seen that the students’ score rose from 184 to 231. In other words, it rose 15. 7% (see chart 2)


Chart 2 Students’ Reading Comprehension Achievement Using the Small Group Discussion Technique
250 200 150 100 50 0

= pretest = post test

Small group discussion teaching strategy has proved its effectiveness. The score rises 15. 7%. The score is higher than that of the students taught using the traditional strategy. The teacher was not the only source of information so that there was rich information in class because the students shared their thought. The teacher here just acted as a facilitator in group discussion. 4.2 Data Analysis of the Differences in Reading Comprehension Achievement Between Experimental Class and Control Class Examination of the means, as well as a t-test for independent samples (p=0. 5) indicates that the groups were equivalent (see chart 4.1). At the second session of both classes, the posttest was given to all students in the study. A t-test for independent samples was again used to compare the reading comprehension scores of the two groups and the result was found significantly (see chart 4.1). In addition, the working hypothesis that reads “there is a significant difference in reading comprehension proficiency between the students taught using the small


group discussion and those that using the small group discussion teaching technique” is accepted. The difference in scores between the students who were given the small group discussion teaching technique and those who were given the traditional or large group technique was 10. 7. It was obtained from the deduction of percentage of the achievement score of both classes. Note Maximum score= 9 a) df= 58, p>,05 b) df= 58, p<,05

Chart 4.1 Percentage Achievement for the class which was given the Small Group Discussion technique and the Class which was not given the Small Group Discussion technique.
300 200 100 0

= Experimental Class = Control Class

The result of this study supports the study hypothesis that there is a significant difference in reading comprehension proficiency between the first year students who were taught using the small group discussion teaching technique and those who were taught using the traditional or


large group teaching technique at SMP N 1 Wanadadi in the academic year of 2006/2007. The total score of experimental group was 183. 48 points top the control group. In percentage the control group had 77% and the experimental group had 61% reading comprehension proficiency. Thus, when they were contrasted, there was a 16% difference. The experimental class had better comprehension than the control class. From this, the writer can conclude that the students got more understanding and knowledge while they were discussing the reading passage in groups. Nevertheless, in small group discussion teaching technique, the teacher must be able to manage the students so that they could discuss the passage orderly. In experimental class, each member of a group could communicate freely and could cooperate effectively, so they could achieve more than they would as individuals. The students here were motivated by cooperation in planning group activities. Hence, the students can be more active and are able to read and willing to cooperate with each other better than in silent way. 4.3 Test of Significance To check whether the difference between the mean of the control group and the experimental group is statistically significant, the t-value obtained should be consulted with the critical value in the t-table. Before the experiment was conducted, the level of significant should have been


decided so that the decision making would not be influenced by the result of experiment. In this research, the number of subjects of both experimental and the control groups was large. The degree of freedom (df) was 58 which was obtained from the formula Σ Ne1 + ΣNe 2 . The critical value with the degree of freedom 58 at the 5 percent alpha level of significance is 2.000. The obtained t-value is 2.352; it means that the t-value is higher than the critical value (2.000). It can be concluded that the difference is statistically significant. Therefore, the null hypothesis saying that, “there is no significant difference in reading comprehension proficiency between the students taught using the small group discussion teaching technique and those taught using the traditional teaching technique” is rejected.



5.1 Conclusion In EFL reading comprehension, efficient reading comprehension requires the ability to relate the textual material to one’s own knowledge. Considering the importance of reading process, the teacher should improve the teaching of reading comprehension. In this attempt to find out the teaching reading comprehension technique, the writer has conducted a study to reveal the difference in reading comprehension proficiency between the students who were taught using the small group discussion teaching technique strategy and the traditional or large group teaching strategy. The technique used in analyzing the data was one tailed t-test in the level of significance alpha= 0. 05. Based on the results of the study, the writer comes to following conclusion: The small group discussion teaching strategy applied in reading

comprehension class of EFL students could be an effective method. It is proper since there was a significant difference between the control group and the experimental group when the study was conducted. In addition, the data showed that the means of students’ proficiency in reading comprehension of the experimental group in the post test was 7.70 and the mean of the students’ proficiency of the control group in the post test was 6.10. By having strategy in experimental class, the situation in this class was very enjoyable, the students freely communicated with each other and they were more enthusiastic when they were joining this class. The writer had observed that the



comprehension scores of experimental class students were higher than those of the students taught using the traditional strategy. It means that when the students enjoyed the lesson they were focusing on what the teacher gave to them and of course because of this they comprehended better than the students in the control class. 5.2 Suggestions On the basis of the results, some suggestions are presented in an effort to improve the EFL students’ reading comprehension. 1) The writer suggests that the teacher should use the small group discussion teaching strategy as an alternative in teaching reading comprehension class. This study shows that the experimental group got the higher score in the post test than the control group after they got small group discussion teaching strategy. The students of both groups used the reading passages from the handbook material. So it means that the small group discussion teaching strategy can motivate students wile they are discussing the reading passages because the students interest sometimes is stimulated by classroom “give and take” process. 2) In conducting a small group discussion teaching technique the teacher should know her students well so that she can divide the students properly. By dividing the group properly the interaction process will work and of course there will be a competition in the class. 3) The writer had observed that class condition had affected the students’ comprehension in this study. But, it is only the writer’s prediction and not


intensively analyzed. The writer suggests that a research about the correlation between class condition and students’ achievement scores be made so that this study can be further verified.



Ali, Mohammad. 1985. Penelitian Kependidikan: Prosedur dan Strategy. Bandung: Angkasa Barker, Larryl. 1987. Communication. Englewood Cliffs Jersey: Prentice Hall, Inc. Borman, Ernest. G. 1975. Discussion and Group. Work Method in Language
Learning. New Jersey: Harper and Row Publisher Inc.

Brown, John W.1981. Research in Education. New Jersey: Prentice Hall Carrel, Patricia L, J.Devine, and D. E Eskey.1988. Interactive Approach to Second Language Learning. Cambridge: Cambridge University. Press Gay, L.R.1987. Educational Research Competences for Analysis and
Application. Third Edition. Columbus: Nerril Publishing

Harris and Sipay. 1980. How to Increase Reading Ability. A guide to
Developmental and Remedial Methods, Seventh Edition Revised and Enlarged. New York: Longman Publisher Inc.

Hornby, A.S. 1986. Oxford Learnr’s of Current English. United Kingdom: Longman Group Ltd Jacobsen, David, Eggen, Paul, and Kauckhack, Donald.1989. Method for
Teaching.A Skill Approach. Ohio. Merril Publishing Company

Johnson, David. W and Roger T.1975. Learning Together and Alone.
Cooperation, Competition and Individualization. Engle woods Cliffs:

New Jersey: Prentice Hall


Kerlinger, F. N. 1965. Foundations of Behavioral Research. New York: Holt Rinehart and Wiston. Inc. Nunan, David. 1989. Designing Tasks for the Communicative Classroom. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press Nuttal, C.1982. Teaching Reading Skill in a Foreign Language. London: Heineman Educational Books Olson, J.P & M.H Diller.1982. Learning to Teach Reading in Elementary
School. London: Macmilan Publishing Company

Ramelan, 1992. Introduction to Linguistic Analysis. IKIP Semarang Press Saleh, Mursid. 2001. Pengantar Praktik Penelitian Pengajaran Bahasa. IKIP Semarang Press Subhan, Bustami. 1990. Some Important Factors in Foreign Learning. Angkasa: Bandung Swan, Michael.1975. Inside Meaning. Proficiency Reading Comprehension. Cambridge University Press Wardani, I.G.A.K.1983. Ketrampilan Memimpin Diskusi Kelompok Kecil. Jakarta: DEPDIKBUD. Direktorat Jenderal Pendidikan Tinggi Proyek Pengembangan Lembaga Pendidikan Tenaga Kependidikans Wiersma, William.1987. Research Methods in Education. Boston and Bacon


Appendik 1 INSTRUMENT TRY OUT The Students’ List of SMP N 1 Wanadadi CLASS VII-B No. NAME No. NAME 1 Abdiyatun Khayati 16 Galih Priyanto 2 Achmad Ichwan 17 Hardhika Gita Dewantara 3 Adi Susilo 18 Izzatul Ikhsan 4 Agus Eko Widiyanto 19 Kiki Wulandari 5 Anggi Novia Chair 20 Lolita Febriana Kusuma AS 6 Ati Muzzulloh 21 Marwanto 7 Bayu Ismoyojati 22 Mekatama Bayu Aji 8 Beni Septio Nugroho 23 Merina Wulan Sari 9 Bintang Tri Anggoro 24 Monika AmartaErliana 10 Catur Sigit Haryanto 25 Muhammad Nur Faiz 11 Dhiafah Qotrunnada 26 Nora Wahyu Imansari 12 Dwi Indriyani 27 Nuri Afriliyani 13 Eron Khotim Abdulloh 28 Prayoga Pangestu 14 Erviana Wulandari 29 Rahmawati Rahayu 15 Friska Fajar Hidayat 30 Rani Riyandini

Appendix 7 EXPERIMENTAL CLASS The students’ list of SMP N 1 Wanadadi Class VII-A No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 NAME Elok Marliana Zain Eni Latifah Erni Febriyanti Ervita Luluk Sahara Fitari Indriyanti Fitria Nur Laeli Gina Sarwo Aji Irhas Solehudin Latif Adiyana Lia Nur Isnaeni Mumbi Agustina Ngudi Setyanto Nunung Nur Faidah Nurjanah Lengkong Putri Operasiana Husada No. 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 NAME Puji Rujik Suswanto Retnosari Hastuti Rizki Zuliati Siti Nurhayati Solikhatun Tika Wahyuningsih Tino Ali Nurahmat Titi Santiyani Triyono Wahyu Adi Nugroho Wahyu Indiyah Wahyuni Wikawan Indra Waluyo Yosrezha Nugrah Pinastika Yuni Prihatin



The students’ list of SMP N 1 Wanadadi Class VII-C No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 NAME Ade Alim Muhdor Adit Dwi Purnomo Arif Riyanto Agustina Rahayu Anggun Pinda Witantra Anita Apriliyaning Tyas Anto Purwoko Asep Setyo Budi Bangkit Bagus Setiawan Dewangga Wisnu Pradana Diah Dwi Oktaviani Dwi Rahayu Indriyani Elga Wulandari Fariz Rahman Fita Rinti Rahayu No. 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 NAME Hery Setiawan Herlina Budi Utami Ika Fishiami Putri Intan Kriswaluyani Isti Nurazijah Jaka Prima Hari Lukman Munajat M. Ridwan Dika Candra Maharani Cahyaningtyas Mitra Surya Darojat Muhammad Jafar Sidiq Muslimin Mutoharoh Nur Ikhsan Rina Dwi Yunestis

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful