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Experiment No UGPE01

Generation of PWM pulses for MOSFET using 555 timer IC.

The primary aim of this experiment is to learn, how to use 555 timer for
generating fixed frequency pulse to switch a MOSFET.

1. To learn PCB soldering techniques (manual soldering).
2. To understand 555 timer operation.
3. Use 555 timer astable mode of operation to generate fixed frequency pulses.

Equipment required:
PE device testing KIT, Soldering station, Soldering lead, Mechanical tools
(cutting, holding etc), Multlimeter, Lab Power Supply, Oscilloscope and probes.

555 Timer is an integrated chip, used in variety of timing application, pulse
generation, oscillation applications, time delay generation etc. This IC consists of 8
pins, is available in various packages: DIP, SOIC, SSPO. We are going to use DIP
package for our experiment purpose. Below is the Pin description of 555 timer IC.

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Functional description:

The 555 timer consists of two voltage comparators, a bi-stable flip-flop, a discharge
transistor (Output Stage), and a resistor divider network. To understand the basic
concept of the timer let us first examine the timer in block format as in following figure:

The resistive divider network is used to set the comparator levels. Since all three
resistors are of equal value, the threshold comparator is referenced internally at 2/3 of
supply voltage level and the trigger comparator is referenced at 1/3 of supply voltage.
The outputs of the comparators are tied to the bi-stable flip-flop. When the trigger
voltage is moved below 1/3 of the supply, the comparator changes state and sets the
flip-flop driving the output to a high state. The threshold pin normally monitors the
capacitor voltage of the RC timing network. When the capacitor voltage exceeds 2/3 of
the supply, the threshold comparator resets the flip-flop which in turn drives the output
to a low state. When the output is in a low state, the discharge transistor is on, thereby
discharging the external timing capacitor. Once the capacitor is discharged, the timer
will await another trigger pulse, the timing cycle having been completed.

Mode of Operation:
1. Mono-stable mode
2. Astable mode
3. Bi-stable mode

We are going to use a modified version of astable mode of operation.

Astable mode of operation:

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In astable mode, three external components (two resistors RA, RB and one
capacitor C) are required. A simplified circuit for astable mode is shown below:

Here pins 2 and 6 are shorted together, this will trigger the 555 timer itself and
it will free run as a multivibrator. Pin 5 is connected to ground through a capacitor of
0.01uF as recommended in the datasheet. The load resistors RL are optional.
At power up the capacitor C is discharged thus holding the trigger pin as low.
This will trigger the timer, which starts the charging if the capacitor C through a path
RA and RB. When the capacitor reaches the threshold level of 2/3 VCC, the output
drops low and the discharge transistor turns on. The timing capacitor now discharges
through RB. When the capacitor voltage drops to 1/3 VCC, the trigger comparator get
activated, which will automatically retriggering the timer, creating an oscillator. The
frequency of this oscillator will be:

By selecting proper values of RA, RB and C, we can fix a desired frequency and duty
ratio. But there is one issue with the above arrangement, what if a duty ratio of less than
50% is required. Even if we make RA = zero. We can only achieve a duty ratio of nearly
equal to 50% but not less than 50%. So we need to modify the above circuit.

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Modified astable mode of operation:

Following are the modification made:

1. Put a diode in parallel with RB and one diode in series with RB. With this change
the timing capacitor C will charge through RA only and discharges through RB.
Now by selecting RA lesser that RB we can achieve duty ratio of less than 50%.
2. Put a variable resistor between RA and RB as shown in the figure, this will help
in varying the duty ratio while keeping the frequency constant.

For the above circuit:

RA = R5, RB = R6, C = C3

After these modification the timing equation will become

Charging time = T1 = 0.693 * RA * C
Discharge time = T2 = 0.693 * RB * C
Frequency = F = 1.44 / ( (RA + RB)*C)

From above equation to get a pulse of frequency of 1.2 kHz, keeping C = 0.1uF,
RA + RB = 12000.
In above circuit we have a variable resistor in between RA and RB.
So we can select RA = 1000, RB = 1000 and a variable resistor of 10000.
1. Prepare soldering station for manual soldering
a. Set the temperature o 270*C.

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b. Make sure that the cleaning sponge is wet.
c. Arrange soldering lead and all mechanical tools required for soldering.
2. Take out the Device testing PCB and components (first pouch) from the box.
3. Start soldering following components.
Item Part Value Remarks
Resistors R1 Do not
R2 470E
R3 100E
R4 10k
R5, R6 1k
Diode D1, D2 1N4007 Check anode and cathode
terminal properly
Capacitors C2, C4 0.1 uF Disc type
C3 0.01uF Disc type
C1 10uF Check the polarity
IC base IC1 8 pin IC
LED Led1 Red, 5mm Check anode and cathode
POT POT1 10k Pot
Connector J1 5 pin PM Check the orientation
Test GND, Either For probing
Points GND, single
TP4, pin
TP5, header or
Vin wires

4. After proper soldering verify the circuit with multi-meter and report it to the
respective lab in-charge.
5. Once confirmed by Lab in-charge, Connect the power cable of the Power supply
to connector J1. Make sure that the power supply is off.
6. Now turn on the power supply and check the status of LED1. If Led is not
glowing then check you connection once again, take lab in-charges help to solve
the issue.

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7. If the LED is glowing properly then monitor the input voltage by probing at the
test point V_IN with respect to GND. Report the reading in your lab file
8. Now turn off the power supply, Insert 555 IC, in the IC base at IC1.
9. Turn on the power supply and monitor the timing capacitor waveforms, by
probing at the test point TP4 with respect to GND.
10. Observe the voltage level and frequency of this waveform. Draw the wave form
in your lab report.
11. Now monitor the output PWM wave form, by probing at test point TP5 with
respect to GND.
12. Observe the voltage level and frequency of this waveform. Draw the wave form
in your lab report.
13. Vary POT1 using a screw driver and observe the change in the duty ratio of the
output PWM waveform.
14. Adjust the pot to get a PWM of 25% duty ratio. Report it to the Lab in-charge.

EEE, Amrita School of Engineering, Bangalore