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NAVIGATION

NAVIGATION
1. STATE THE SPECIFIC CONDITION WHEN THE OOW MAY ACT AS A SOLE LOOKOUT octo-
09 (2 marks)
Under the STCW code, the OOW may be the sole look-out in daylight conditions provided that on
each such occasion:
1. The situation has been carefully assessed and it has been established without doubt that it is safe
to operate with a sole look-out:
2. Full account has been taken of all relevant factors, including, but not limited to:
a. State of weather, sea condition
b.Visibility
c. Traffic density
d. Proximity of dangers to navigation
e. The attention necessary when navigating in or traffic separation schemes:
3. Assistance is immediately available to be summoned to the bridge when any change in the
situation so requires.
If sole look-out watch-keeping practices are to be followed, clear guidance on how they should operate
will need to be given in the shipboard operational procedures manual

2. STATE THE FACTORS THAT MUST BE TAKEN INTO ACCOUNT PRIOR TO THE OOW
BECOMING AN SOLE LOOKOUT(MGN 315)octo-09- (5 marks)
Under the STCW Code, the OOW may be the sole look-out in daylight conditions.(2 marks) Factors
must be taken into account prior to the OOW becoming an sole look-out:
1. Under what circumstances sole look-out Watch-keeping can commence:
2. How sole look-out Watch-keeping should be supported:
3. Under what circumstances sole look-out Watch-keeping must be suspended.
It is also recommended that before commencing sole look-out Watch-keeping the master
should be satisfied, on each occasion, that:
I. The OOW has had sufficient rest prior to commencing watch,
II. In the judgment of the OOW, the anticipated workload is well within his capacities to maintain a
proper look-out and remain in full control of the prevailing circumstances.
III. Back up assistance to the OOW has been designated.
IV. The OOW knows who will provide that back-up assistance, in what circumstances back-up must
be called, and how to call it quickly.
V. Designated back-up personal are aware of response times, any limitations on their movements,
and are able to hear alarm or communication calls from the bridge.
VI. All essential equipment and alarms on the bridge are fully functional.

3. OUTLINE THE GUIDANCE ON HOW THE OOW MAY ENGAGE THE LOOKOUT'S
ATTENTION. (3 marks)
The OOW should consider the look-out as an integral part of the Bridge Team and utilise the look-
out to the fullest extent. As a way of fully engaging the look-outs attention consideration should be
given to keeping the look-out appraised of the current navigational situation with regard to
expected traffic, buoyage, weather, landfall, pilotage and any other circumstance relevant to good
watchkeeping.

4. OUTLINE THE JUSTIFICATION OF ENTERING THE TRAFFIC SEPARATION ZONE WHEN


[Pick the date]

THE MASTER DOES NOT INTENDS TO CROSS THE ZONE. Octo-09 (3 marks)
1. (i) A vessel shall not use an inshore traffic zone when she can safely use the appropriate traffic
lane within the adjacent traffic separation scheme. However, vessels of less than 20 metres in
length, sailing vessels and vessels engaged in fishing may use the inshore traffic zone.
2. Notwithstanding sub-paragraph (d) (i), a vessel may use an inshore traffic zone when en route to
or from a port, offshore installation or structure, pilot station or any other place situated within the
inshore traffic zone, or to avoid immediate danger.
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NAVIGATION

5. OUTLINE THE RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVE OF FORMING A BRIDGE TEAM WHEN THE
SHIP IS NAVIGATING IN RESTRICTED WATER octo-09/nov-07 (5 marks)
When a vessel is navigating in restricted waters, it is very essential to form a bridge team. The
objectives of forming a bridge team are:-
1. The duties can be delegated among the members of bridge team thus reducing the extra work
load on individual team member.
2. Navigation should be carried out on the large scale chart.
3. More careful and frequent assessment of the situation is possible.
4. Important feedback can be obtained.
5. Cross verification can be obtained.
6. The bridge team should maintain communication with engine room and all other operating areas
on the ship.
7. A bridge team fully understanding the coastal or restricted waters phase of the passage plan, as
well as understanding their individual roles and those of their colleagues, cannot be stressed too
strongly.

6. STATE TEN FACTORS TO BE CONSIDERED WHEN DETERMINING THE BRIDGE


COMPOSITION WHEN NAVIGATING IN RESTRICTED WATERS octo-08/nov-07 (10 marks)
Note to Students - Any 10 of the following:
1. visibility, state of weather and sea;
2. traffic density, and. other activities occurring in the area in which the ship is navigating;
3. the attention necessary when navigating in or near traffic separation schemes or other routeing
measures;
4. the additional workload caused by the nature of the ship's functions immediate operating
requirements and anticipated manoeuvres;
5. the fitness for duty of any crew members on call who are assigned as members of the watch;
6. The knowledge and confidence in the professional competence of the ship's officers and crew;
7. The experience of each OOW, and the familiarity of that OOW with the ship's equipment,
procedures and manoeuvring capability;
8. Activities taking place on board the ship at any particular time including radio communication
activities, and the availability of assistance to be summoned immediately to the bridge when
necessary;
9. The operational status of bridge instrumentation and controls, including alarm systems;
10. Rudder and propeller control and ship manoeuvring characteristics;
11. the size of the ship and the field of vision available from the conning position;
12. The configuration of the bridge, to the extent such configuration might inhibit a member of the
watch from detecting by sight and hearing any external development;
13. Any other relevant standard procedure or guidance relating to watch-keeping arrangements
and fitness for duty.

7. LIST SIX ITEMS OF EQUIPTMENT TO BE CHECKED TO ENSURE THAT THEY ARE FULLY
OPERATIONAL, WHEN ENTERING RESTRICTED VISIBILITY octo-08/july-10 (10 marks)
1. Radar, ARPA or other plotting facilities.
2. VHF.
3. Course and engine movement recorder.
4. Fog signaling apparatus.
5. Navigation lights.
6. Deck lights
[Pick the date]

7. The steering gear being tested and manual steering tried out.
8. Echo sounder if in shallow waters.
9. Watertight doors, if fitted.
10. Communication with engine control room.

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NAVIGATION

8. STATE FIVE FACTORS TO BE CONSIDERED WHEN DETERMINING THE FREQUENCY OF


POSITION FIXING IN RESTRICTED WATER octo-08 (5 marks) OR
9. OUTLINE FOUR FACTORS TO BE CONSIDERED WHEN UNDERTAKING THE
MONITORING STAGE WHEN DETERMINING THE FREQUENCY OF POSITION FIXING.
March-07 (4 marks)
1. Proximity of dangers. Monitoring vessels position at the time to nearest danger.
2. Speed of vessel
3. Presence of current / Tidal flow, its Set and Rate
4. State of visibility
5. Reliability / Accuracy of monitoring means available
6. Availability of continuous monitoring means (e.g. parallel indexing, ground stabilized mapping
lines, transit bearings, leading lights etc.)
7. Availability of cross checks by other monitoring methods
8. Maneuvering characteristics of vessel
9. Metrological effects and state of weather

10. STATE TEN FACTORS THAT SHOULD BE CONSIDER WHEN DETERMINING THE
COMPOSITION OF A BRIDGE WATCH TEAM octo-09 (10 marks)
1. Visibility, state of weather and sea,
2. Traffic density,
3. If navigating in or near TSS
4. Additional work load caused by nature of ships functions,
5. Fitness for duty of any crew members who will be the member of watch,
6. Knowledge of and confidence in the professional competence of the ships officers and crew,
7. Experience of the OOW and familiarity of that OOW with the ships equipment, procedures and
maneuvering capability,
8. Operational status of the bridge instrumentation and controls,
9. Rudder and propeller control and ships maneuvering characteristics,
10. Size of the ship and field of vision.

11. STATE THE THREE SPECIFIED ITEMS THAT THE OOW SHOULD ENSURE BEFORE
HANDING OVER THE WATCH march-08 (3 marks)
Handing Over the Watch -The OOW shall:
1. ensure that the members of the relieving watch are fully capable of performing their duties
2. ensure that the vision of the relieving watch is fully adjusted to the light conditions
3. ensure that all standing orders and the Masters night orders are fully understood

12. STATE THE TWO SPECIFIED INSTANCES WHEN THE OOW SHOULD NOT HAND OVER
THE WATCH TO THE RELIEVING OFFICER march-08 (2 marks)
The OOW shall not hand over the watch:
1. If there is reason to believe that the relieving officer is not capable of carrying out the
watchkeeping duties effectively, in which case the Master should be notified
2. When a maneuver is in progress until such action has been completed

13. STATE THE MINIMUM REST TIME, UNLESS AN EXCEPTIONAL CIRCUMSTANCES,


DURING 24 HRS WATCH march-08 (2 marks)
In summary, and unless covered by an exception, the Regulations provide for
1. a minimum of 10 hours rest in any 24 hour period and
[Pick the date]

2. 70 hours in any seven day period.


Hours of rest may be divided into no more than two periods; one of which should be at least 6
hours long, and the intervals in between should not exceed 14 hours.
3.the guidance is available in ISF publication (international ship board work hour limit.)
14. STATE THE MINIMUM LENGTH OF AT LEAST ONE OF THE DAILY REST PERIODS
(2 mark)

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NAVIGATION

Hours of rest may be divided into no more than two periods; one of which should be at least 6
hours long
15. AN OOW OBTAINS A SHIPS POSITION DERIVED BY CELESTIAL OBSERVATIONS WHICH
IS 20 NAUTICAL MILES TO THE SOUTH OF THE D.R. POSITION. AFTER HAVING CHECKED
THE CALCULATIONS AND PLOTTING OF THE SIGHTS THE OOW CAN FIND NO ERROR.
March-08 (2 marks) STATE THE ACTIONS REQUIRED BY THE OOW.
1. Call the master
2. Ensure that the vessel is safe in continuing from either position
3. Perform another sight and / or use another form of fixing to cross check original sight e.g. GPS

16. AT THE TIME OF THE OBERVATION THE SHIPS HEAD BY COMPASS SHOWED 083 deg.
(C). july-09 (5 marks)
Using Datasheet Q * - Deviation Curve, state the deviation that the OOW should have expected and
subsequent action, in light of the celestial observation, that should be taken by OOW. From Q, the
deviation is 2.1 deg. W. That time vessels compass heading is 083 deg. C and from the curve the
deviation is 7.2 deg. E. Therefore, the difference between both deviations is 9.3deg. E. Following
actions should be taken
1. Inform master
2. Check for any immediate navigation hazards in proximity and adjust course accordingly.
3. Verify deviation using terrestrial observation if vicinity (Transit Bearing)
4. Steer course allowing for the observe deviation and variation for the places as obtained from the
chart.

17. EXPLAIN WITH REFERENCE TO MANOEVEURING CHARACTERISTICS (i) ADAVNCE (ii)


TRANSFER (iii) WHEEL OVER POSITION. July-08 (Each 2 marks)
1. Tactical advance
Distance travelled by the centre of gravity in the direction of the original course until a point where
the vessel has altered her course by 90.
2. Total advance
The total distance travelled by the centre of gravity in the direction of the original course.
3. Transfer
The distance travelled by the centre of gravity measured perpendicular to the direction of the
original course.
4. Wheel Over Position
The position at which the course alteration is initiated
(b) 17. EXPLAIN WITH REFERENCE TO MANOEVEURING CHARACTERISTICS (i) ADAVNCE (ii)
TRANSFER (iii) WHEEL OVER POSITION. July-08 (Each 2 marks)

18. EXPLAIN (i) CLEARING BEARING (ii) LEADING LIGHTS (iii) CROSS TRACK LIMITS (iv)
ABORT POSITION. July-08 (Each 2marks)
(d) Clearing Bearing
A minimum or maximum bearing of a given object which must not be crossed if the vessel is to
remain on a safe track. This is mainly used for coastal navigation visual, but can also be used for
blind pilotage ie radar.
(ii) Leading Lights
Two lights at different ranges which have to be kept in a vertical line to keep the vessel on a safe
track. This is frequently used for entering and leaving port.
(iii) Cross Track Limit
The maximum perpendicular distance that a vessel may safely be from the planned track. This is
mainly used in conjunction with GPS
[Pick the date]

(iv) Abort Position


The Point of No Return. The position along a given track which is the last chance for the vessel to
abort the maneuver passing between two breakwaters. Once passed the abort position the
distance to the hazard is less than the turning circle and stopping distance, so the vessel is
committed to the required maneuver.

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NAVIGATION

19. STATE FOUR ADDITIONAL ITEMS OF INFORMATION THAT SHOULD BE PRESENTED


WITH THE MANOEUVERING DATA. July-08 (4 marks)
(i) Approach Speed (ii) Rudder Angle
(iii) Draughts, or Load/Ballast Condition
(iv) Weather (wind speed & direction)
(v) Underkeel Clearance
1. The pivoting point :
At any instant during the turn a line drawn from the center of curvature of the path, perpendicular
to the ships fore and aft line meets the later at a point called the pivoting point (About one third of
the length from forward). When the vessel moves under stern way the pivoting point moves aft,
very close to the stern.
2. The diameters:
The greatest diameter scribed by the vessel from starting the turn to completing the turn (ship's
head through 180o) is the Tactical Diameter, i.e. the transfer for 180o. The internal diameter of the
turning circle where no allowance has been made for the decreasing curvature as experienced with
the tactical diameter is the Final Diameter.
3. The drift angle:
Is the angle between the ship's fore-and-aft line and the tangent to the turning circle?
4. STOPPING DISTANCE:
Generaly a vessel will carry her way farthestwhen she is large, depply loaded, smooth hulled, non-
fouled, and fine form.
a. Inertia Stop:
When the engines are stopped with the vessel moving ahead and, run off without putting the
engines astern, the maneuver is described an inertia stop. Stopping a Ship in an Emergency
b. Crash Stop depends upon:
1. The mass of the and its velocity
2. The engine power available to bring the vessel to stop in water with minimum deviation from the
origenal course line.
When the engines are put astern to stop the ship as rapidly as possible while on full ahead the
maneuver is known as crash stop. GANGARAM BOMIDI inbox.ganga@gmail.com (LOWESTOFT)

20. OUTLINE THE EQUPITMENT THAT SHOULD BE VERIFIED AND THE TEST THAT
SHOULD BE CONDUCTED WHEN CONDUCTING STEERING GEAR TESTS PRIOR TO
DEPARTURE FROM A PORT. nov-08 (12 marks)
Shortly before departure, check and test the steering gear including, as applicable, the operation of
the following:
1. The main steering gear.
2. The auxiliary steering gear.
3. The remote steering control systems.
4. The main steering position on the bridge
5. The emergency power supply
6. The rudder angle indicators in relation to actual rudder position
7. The remote steering gear control system power failure alarms
8. The steering gear power unit failure alarms
9. Automatic isolating arrangements and other automatic equipment
CHECKS AND TESTS:
1. The full rudder movement according to the required capabilities of the steering gear,
[Pick the date]

2. The timing of rudder movement from hardover-to-hardover, using each steering gear power unit
singly and together, to ensure consistency with previous tests,
3. As visual inspection of the steering gear and its connecting linkage,
4. The operation of the means of communication between the bridge and the steering gear
compartment.

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NAVIGATION

21. STATE THE FREQUENCY, AS OUTLINED BY SOLAS, THAT EMERGENCY STEERING GEAR
TEST DRILLS MUST BE CONDUCTED nov-08 (1 mark)
Once in three Months
22. EXPLAIN WITH AID OF A DIAGRAM, HOW THE RELATIVE POSITIONS OF EARTH, SUN
AND MOON INFLUENCE TIDAL RANGES. Nov-08/march-06 (5 marks)
The main factors causing tides are the combined effect of the gravitational forces exerted on the
earth by the moon and also, by the sun and are combined with the centrifugal forces produced by
the revolution of the earth and moons orbit around the earth to cause tides. The difference in the
gravitational and centrifugal forces exerted on the earth's surface by the moon causes water to pile
up towards the moon and also, in the hemisphere opposite to the moon. Figure 1
*PMoonLWLWHWHWPoint.

2. Spring tides The tides with maximum range are known as Spring tides - they occur at fortnightly
intervals. Figure 2 represents the relative positions of the sun and moon at spring tides, when the
tidal generating forces of the sun and moon act together producing the highest high tide and the
lowest low waters. The moon is at conjunction (New Moon) or opposition (Full Moon). Figure 2 Sun
Earth Opposition Full Moon New Moon Conjunction
3. Neap tides The tides with minimum ranges are known as Neap tides - they also occur at
fortnightly intervals. Figure 3 represents the relative positions of sun and moon at neap tides when
the tidal generating forces are acting at right angles to each other, so that effectively a lower high
water and a higher low water is produced. . These forces of the Sun relative to the moon are in the
approximate ratio 7: 3. The moon is said to be at quadrature. Figure 3 Sun Earth 1st Quarter 2nd
Quarter

23. EXPLAIN THE RELIABILITY OF THE TIDAL INFORMATIONS CONTAINED IN THE


ADMIRALITY TIDE TABLES. Nov-08/march-06 (2 marks)
The reliability of tidal predictions is dependant upon:
(i) The methods of prediction that were used in the calculation the longer the period over which
the observations were made, the more accurate the data will be for the seasonal changes in
meteorological conditions for instance.
(ii) How recent the tidal observations were made. For example, over the years mean sea level
changes. The more recent the observations the more accurate the tidal prediction information will
be.

24. STATE THE REASONS FOR POSSIBLE DISCREPANCIES BETWEEN THE PUBLISHED
HEIGHTS/TIMES AND ACTUAL HEIGHTS/TIMES EXPERIENCED.Nov-08/march-
06(3marks)
The discrepancies between predicted and observed heights and times can be caused by: (i)
Meteorological Conditions:
1. Changes in barometric pressure
2. Effects of Wind
3. Seiches
4. Storm Surges
(ii) Shallow Water Effects (iii) Seasonal Variations:
1. in Mean Level
2. Harmonic Constants

25. STATE THE CRITERIA USED TO DETERMINE WHICH STANDARD PORT A SECONDARY
PORT IS LINKED TO WHEN THE PART II CORECTION TABLES WERE COMPLIED (2 marks)
The Standard Port from which the Secondary Port Data is based should have:
[Pick the date]

(i) Tidal Characteristics similar to that of a local standard port.


(ii) If (i) is not possible then another standard port distant from the secondary port which has similar
tidal characteristics

26. STATE THE POSITION OF THE APPARENT SUN, IN RELATION TO THE VISIBLE
HORIZON, WHEN AN AMPLITUDE BEARING SHOULD BE OBTAINED.(2 marks)
Amplitude or bearing taken when Sun or Moon is half the diameter above the horizon.
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NAVIGATION

27. STATE TWO CIRCUMSTANCES WHEN A VESSEL MAY ENTER THE SEPARATION ZONE
Coto-08 (2 marks) A vessel other than a crossing vessel or a vessel joining or leaving a lane shall
not normally enter a separation zone or cross a separation line except:
1. In case of emergency to avoid immediate danger.
2. To engage in fishing within a Separation Zone.

28. STATE TWO METHODS TO DETERMINE IF THE TSS HAS BEEN ADOPTED BY THE IMO
Octo-08/july-07 (2 marks) If a TSS has been IMO adopted it would be: (i) Stated on the BA Chart
used (ii) Published in the IMO Routing Guide
1. Sailing Directions 2. Annual Notices to Mariners No.173. Weekly Notices to mariners 4. Rule 10
of COLREG 5. MSN 1642 6. ALRS volumes 6/7

29. STATE WHICH VESSELS MAY USE THE INSHORE TRAFFIC ZONE octo-08 (5 marks)
The vessels that can use an inshore zone are(i) Vessels less than 20m (ii) Sailing Vessels (iii)
Vessels engaged in Fishing(iv) Vessels en route to and from a port, offshore installation or structure,
pilot station or any other place situated within the inshore traffic zone(v) Vessels avoiding
Immediate Danger .

30. STATE TWO CIRCUMSTANCES WHEN A SHIP IS EXEMPTED FROM COMPLYING WITH
RULE 10 octo-08 (2 marks) 1. A vessel restricted in her ability to maneuver when engaged in an
operation for the maintenance of safety of navigation in a traffic separation scheme is exempted
from complying this Rule to the extent necessary to carryout the operation. 2. A vessel restricted in
her ability to maneuver when engaged in an operation for the laying, servicing or picking up of a
submarine cable, within a traffic separation scheme, is exempted from complying with this Rule to
an extent necessary to carryout the operation.

31. STATE FIVE INSTANCES WHEN THE OOW SHOULD CHECK THE GYRO AND MAGNETIC
COMPASS ERROR octo-08 (5 marks) OR 32. STATE FIVE INSTANCES WHEN THE ERROR
OF THE SHIPS COMPASS SHOULD BE OBTAINED march-08 (5 marks) The compass error
should be obtained if:1. Once a watch when no major alterations of course take place 2. After any
major alteration of course 3. When entering or leaving restricted waters 4. When entering or
leaving an area of magnetic anomaly 5. If the OOW has any doubts as to its reliability 6. When the
vessel is in transit, 7. Whenever the gyro compass is restarted, 8. During coastal navigation, 9. Any
big alteration in ships structure, 10. When passing under high tension wires,

33. STATE TWO REASONS WHY 1 HR NOTICE SHOULD BE GIVEN TO THE ENGINE ROOM
PRIOR TO THE ARRIVAL AT STAND BY ENGINE POSITION march-08/octo-07 (2 mark) 1.
Additional generator has to be started for extra power consumption for running additional
machineries during maneuvering. 2. It will be required to stop fresh water generator. 3. To change
over main engine consumption from fuel oil to diesel oil. 4. To prepare the auxiliary boiler for steam
supply during maneuvering for heating purifiers and auxiliary purposes. Note: 5. OOW should be
aware that the E.R. personal also has many checks and preparations to make prior maneuvering. 6.
Depending on the characteristics of the plant, this time will be utilized for reduction to full ahead
maneuvering speed from full sea speed in order to protect the engines from thermal shock.

34. STATE THE MEANS OF COMMUNICATION WITH THE EMERGENCY STEERING


POSITION ON THE STEERING FLAT IN THE EVENT OF A TOTAL POWER FAILURE OF
SHIP'S TELEPHONE SYSTEM march-08 (2 marks) 1. Sound power telephone or 2. Telephone
whose power supply is from emergency battery. 3. Talk back system 4. VHF / UHF portable radio 5.
[Pick the date]

Messenger if applicable to that ship.

35. THE ADMIRALTY SAILING DIRECTIONS WILL BE USED IN THE APPRAISAL. STATE
EIGHT TOPICS OF INFORMATION CONTAINED IN THIS PUBLICATION nov-07 (4 marks)
The Admiralty Sailing Directions contents 1. The coast 2. Off laying features 3. Tidal streams and
currents 4. Navigational hazards 5. Buoyage systems 6. Pilotage 7. Regulations 8. Information about
channels and harbours 9. Port facilities 10. Seasonal currents 11. Direction for navigation in
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complicated waters 12. Ice 13. General notes on countries covered by the volumes 14. Climatic
conditions with direct access to the sea.

36. LIST FOUR PUBLICATIONS THAT SHOULD BE CONSULTED WHEN PLANNING A


LANDFALL July-10 (4 marks) 1. Large scale chart. 2. Sailing Directions (Pilot Books) 74 volumes
3. Admiralty List of Lights and Fog signals NP 74-84 4. Admiralty List of Radio Signals 5. Admiralty
Tide Tables published annually in 3 vol. covers whole world 6. Tidal Stream Atlas

37. STATE THE FACTORS TO BE CONSIDERED WHEN APPRAISING AND PLANNING A


LANDFALL AS PART OF A VOYAGE PLAN. Octo-07/july-10 (10 marks) The navigator must
consider the following factors planning a landfall 1. Clear navigational marks / or electronic fixing
systems are available 2. The availability of long range lights 3. Radar rages and radar characteristics
of the coast are good for position fixing 4. Traffic density is not heavy, i.e. avoiding known proximity
of fishing vessel and termination / start of TSS 5. Avoid strong tides and currents 6. There are no off-
laying dangers or predictable fog banks 7. High inland areas may be detected by radar sooner than
coastline 8. Nav. Aids may be until or out position Other points with regard to Executing and
Monitoring. 9. Check for relevant navigational warnings. 10. Large scale charts to be used (corrected
and up to date). 11. More than one means of position fixing method independent of each other to
be used. 12. Check Sailing Direction (topography) coastline features. 13. Pre calculated rising /
dipping of light house and buoys and expected time to sight them. 14. Radar to be tuned for large
ranges (S-band). 15. Previous radar log to be checked.
OR
(a) When appraising and planning for a landfall, the following should be considered:

The Landfall approaches should be clear of navigational hazards e.g. shoals, dangerous
wrecks;
Large scale charts of the area must be available
A sea bed with a distinct shoaling features that assists navigation using the echo
sounder;
The predicted meteorological conditions of the area for visibility and wind force and
direction, rainfall, low lying cloud etc;
The anticipated ranges of the first sighting of lights, and their identification e.g. by the
use of distinct characteristics and Racons;
The direction and rate of tidal streams especially when the tide is strong;
The mix of fixing methods available including visual, radar, electronic navigational aids
and echo sounder
Consider that low lying land may only be visible at close range distinctive mountainous
areas can be identified using the sketches in the Sailing Directions
Prominent coastlines with distinct features are useful for identification especially by
radar;
Fog signals to assist in recognition and proximity to land in poor visibility
Suitable anchorage areas;
[Pick the date]

Traffic density
(b) Publications that should be consulted when planning to make a landfall are:

1. Admiralty Sailing Directions (Pilot Books),

2. Admiralty Lists of Lights and Fog Signals,

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3. Admiralty Tide Tables;

4. Current and tidal atlases

5. Admiralty Lists of Radio Aids to navigation;

6. IMO Routing Guide.

7. Notices to Mariners

8. Nautical Almanac

38. LIST TEN CIRCUMSTANCES WHEN THE MUSTER MUST BE CALLED. octo-07 / july-10
(10 marks) 1. If restricted visibility is encountered or expected. 2. If traffic conditions or the
movements of other ships are causing concern. 3. If difficulties are experienced in maintaining
course. 4. On failure to sight land, a navigation mark or obtain soundings by the expected time. 5. If,
unexpectedly, land or navigation mark is sighted or a change in soundings occurs. 6. On breakdown
of engines, propulsion machinery remote control, steering gear or any essential navigational
equipment, alarm or indicator. 7. If the radio equipment malfunctions. 8. In heavy weather, if any
doubt about the possibility of weather damage. 9. If the ship meets any hazards to navigation, such
as ice or derelict. 10. If any vessel security concern arise. 11. In any other emergency or in any
doubt.

39. STATE SIX CHECKLISTS CONTAINED IN PART C OF THE BPG 1. C1-Main engine or
steering failure 2. C2-Collision 3. C3-Stranding or grounding 4. C4-Man overboard 5. C5-Fire 6. C6-
Flooding 7. C7-Search and rescue 8. C8-Abondoning ship

40. EXPLAIN THE OBLIGATION THE OOW WILL HAVE WHEN IN THE PRESENCE OF A
PILOT. July-10 (3 marks) The pilot has a specialized knowledge of navigation in coastal waters.
The presence of a pilot does not relieve the master or the OOW of their duties and obligations for
the safety of the ship. OOW will: 1. Call Master, if in doubt. 2. Monitor own vessel and other
position of other vessels in the vicinity. 3. Inform Master at check points and communication points.
4. Maintain an effective lookout. 5. Remain on manual steering. 6. VHF watch to be maintained on
CH 16 and channel as required by the pilot.7. Keep engine room informed. 8. Maintain logbook
entries. 9. Exhibit correct lights and shapes. 10. Fly correct flags.
11. Do not stand vessel into danger.
12. Use all available means to check vessel's position.

41. STATE TEN CHECKLISTS CONTAINED IN SECTION B OF BPG octo-07 (5 marks)


1. Familiarization
2. Preparation for sea
3. Preparation for arrival in port
4. Pilotage
5. Passage plan appraisal
6. Navigation in coastal waters
7. Navigation in ocean waters
8. Anchoring and anchor watch
9. Navigation in restricted visibility
[Pick the date]

10. Navigation in heavy weather or in tropical storm areas


11. Navigation in ice
12. Changing over the watch
13. Calling the master

42. STATE EIGHT PROPERTIES OF A MERCATOR CHART, july-07 (8 marks)

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1. Latitudes appears straight lines and parallel to each other,


2. Longitude appears straight lines and parallel to each other,
3. Latitude scale varies, increases towards the poles,
4. Longitude scale is constant - are equidistance to each other,
5. Rhumb line track appears as straight line,
6. Great circle track appears as curved line,
7. Land masses are orthomorphic - in correct shape,
8. Latitudes and meridians intersect at right angles.

43. GNOMONIC CHARTS


1. Great circles appear as straight lines and.
2. Rhumb line appears as curves.
3. Meridians are straight lines converging at the poles.
4. Parallels of latitude are curves.

44. EXPLAIN THE REQUIREMENT AND PURPOSE OF RECORDING BRIDGE ACTIVITIES


Octo-07 (2 marks) As per BPG It is important that a proper, formal record of navigational
activities and incidents, which are of importance to safety of navigation, is kept in appropriate log
books. Paper records from course recorders, echo sounders, navtex receivers etc should be
retained at least for the duration of the voyage, suitably date and marked if practicable.
REQUIREMENTS In addition to the national requirements, it is recommended that the following
events and items, as appropriate, be among those recorded:
1. Before Commencing voyage
Details of all data relating to general condition of the ship, such as manning and provisioning, cargo
aboard, result of stability, stress checks, inspection of controls, the steering gear and radio
communication equipment.
2. During the voyage
Details of the voyage such as course steered and distance sailed, position fixings, weather and sea
conditions, changes to the voyage plan, detail of pilots embarkation/disembarkation.
3. On special event
Details on special events should be recorded, such as death and injuries among crew and
passengers, malfunction of ship board equipment and to navigation, emergency and distress
messages received.
4. When the ship is at anchor or at port
Details on operational or administrative matters and details related to the safety and security of the
ship should be recorded. PURPOSE The purpose of recording orders, information and
communication is usually to allow a reconstruction of the sequence of the events following an
incident. This is necessary to :
1. Apportion blame.
2. Learn lesson. Investigation and findings can be promulgated throughout industry with the
primary purpose of preventing similar occurrence.
3. Refute spurious claims
4. A statistical examination of records can often lead to operating practices that promote a more
efficient use of resources. For example, records of bunker consumption against speed can lead to a
more engine management practice.

45. DEFINE (i) TRAFFIC LANE (ii) SEPARATION ZONE (iii) SEPARATION LINE (iv)
INSHORE TRAFFIC ZONE (v) PRECAUTIONARY AREA. July-07 (Each 2 marks)
[Pick the date]

1. Traffic Separation Scheme A routeing measure aimed at the separation of opposing streams of
traffic by appropriate means and by establishment of traffic lanes.
2. Traffic Lane An area within defined limits in which one-way traffic is established. Natural
obstacles including those forming separation zones, may constitute a boundary. (2 mark)
3. Separation Line or Zone A line or zone separating the traffic lanes in which ships are
proceeding in opposite o nearly opposite directions or separating a traffic Lane from adjacent sea.
(2 mark)
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NAVIGATION

4. Inshore traffic Zone A routeing measure comprising a designated area between the landward
boundary of a traffic separation scheme and adjacent coast-to be used in accordance with Rule
10(d) - intended for local traffic. (2 mark)
5. Precautionary Area An area where ships must navigate with particular caution and within
which the direction of traffic flow may be recommended. (2 mark)

46. STATE THE PRECISE OBJECTIVES AND RATIONALE OF A ROUTEING SCHEME AS


OUTLINED IN THE IMO SHIP'S ROUTEING GUIDE AND SOLAS CHAPTER V. july-07/0cto-09
(5 marks)
Objectives The objective of ships routeing is to improve the safety of navigation in areas of heavy
traffic, areas where traffic converges and areas where ships meet a lot of crossing traffic. Routing
may also be introduced where sea room for manoeuvring is restricted by lack of sea room,
obstructions, limited depths or bad weather conditions. The objectives of any particular routeing
system may include
1. Reduction head on situations
2. Clarifying crossing situations
3. Simplifying traffic flow on where ships converge
4. Organizing a safe traffic flow in oil and gas fields
5. Keeping some, or all, ships away from areas where navigation is dangerous or undesirable
6. Providing special guidance to ships in areas where water depth is uncertain or critical
7. Providing guidance to ships to keep clear of fishing grounds or to guide them through fishing
grounds

Ships routeing systems contribute to the safety of life at sea, safety and efficiency of navigation and
/or the protection of the marine environment Following are the matters related to ship
routeing;
1. Routeing system
2. Mandatory Routeing system
3. TSS
4. Traffic separation zone
5. Traffic separation line
6. Traffic lane
7. Round about
8. Inshore traffic zone
9. Tow way route
10. Recommended track
11. Deep water route
12. Precautionary area
13. Area to be avoided
14. Established direction of traffic flow
15. No anchoring area
16. Recommended direction of traffic flow.

47. STATE SIX ITEMS OTHER THAN COMPASS THAT OOW SHOULD CHECK EVERY WATCH
DURING AN OCEAN PASSAGE, july-07 (6 marks)
1. Gyro and repeaters.
2. Auto pilot should be tested manually.
3. Navigation lights are functioning properly and no alarms
[Pick the date]

4. Sound signaling are functioning properly and no alarms,


5. Operational and functional tests of radar and other plotting equipments,
6. Echo sounder,
7. Communication equipments such as VHF etc.

48. STATE TEN FACTORS TO BE CONSIDERED WHEN UNDERTAKING THE APPRAISAL


STAGE WHEN DETERMINING THE CHOICE OF ROUTE, march-07/march-06 (10 marks)
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NAVIGATION

1. Charterer instructions
2. Voyage requirement Fastest, Most economical, Best weather,
3. Condition and state of vessel, its stability,
4. Nature of cargo, distribution, stowage and securing,
5. Load line,
6. Recommended routes-from sailing directions, ocean routeing charts, marine routeing guide etc,
7. Maneuvering characteristics of vessel,
8. Draft with regard to UKC requirement and effect of squat in shallow areas,
9. Fuel onboard /fuel availability,
10. Stores and water onboard,
11. Status of ship equipment,
12. Regulations Dangerous cargo prohibited areas, Ships not permitted within certain distance of
coast line, Pollution e.g. tank cleaning,
13. Charts on board / chart correction available,
14. Availability of Navigation Aids / prominent features,
15. Availability of communications,
16. Navigational hazards / Risk assessment / contingency plan,
17. Accuracy / reliability of information,
18. Experience.

49. OUTLINE FOUR FACTORS TO BE CONSIDERED WHEN UNDERTAKING THE


MONITORING STAGE WHEN DETERMINING THE PRIMARY AND SECONDARY MEANS OF
POSITION MONITORING FOR A COASTAL PASSAGE, march-07 (4 marks)
1. Visual fixing methods most reliable and have maximum accuracy when coasting, if compass error
known. Visual fixes based on 3 position lines and may be plotted horizontal angles if compass error
not known.
2. Visual fixes independent of ships power supply and do not suffer the risk of monitoring ships
position being compromised in case of power / equipment failure.
3. Radar based parallel indexing and ground stabilized mapping lines give continuous monitoring.
4. Transit marks, leading lights, clearing bearings, clearing range techniques extremely useful.
5. Multiple radar ranges quick and effective way to obtain position, providing effective time
management in restricted waters.
6. Electronic navigation methods useful in restricted visibility or when coastline features are not goo
radar targets.
7. Electronic Navigation / Satellite based system very useful for position verification at landfall or in
case of ambiguity of coastline features.
8. Echo sounder provides valuable checks of depth.
9. Buoys not used for position fixing unless their position has been positively verified.

50. EXPLAIN WHY CO-TIDAL AND CO-RANGE DIAGRAM (CHART 5500) MAY BE OF USE IN
THE EXECUTION STAGE OF A PASSAGE PLAN. Dec-06 (3 marks)
This diagram enables a tidal prediction to be made for position offshore the co-tidal lines are drawn
through point of equal mean high water interval (MHWI). MHWI is the mean time interval between
the passage of the moon over the meridian of Greenwich and the time of next high water at the
place concern. Co-range lines are drawn through the points of equal mean spring range (MSR). MSR
is the difference in level between mean high water spring and mean low water spring and is given in
metres.
The time correction to be applied at required position should be obtained by finding the time
difference between its MHWI and that for the nearest standard port shown on the diagram. The
[Pick the date]

height at the position is obtained by multiplying that for the standard port by the ratio of the MSR.

51. STATE FIVE FACTORS TO BE CONSIDERED WHEN UNDERTAKING THE PLANNING


STAGE TO DETERMINE AN APPROPIATE DISTANCE TO PASS OFF A HEADLAND, march-07
(4 m)
1. Draft / required UKC/ Charted depth of water
2. Proximity of dangers.

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3. Position monitoring availability prior to headland.


4. Position monitoring availability at headland.
5. Currents / tidal streams.
6. Maneuver characteristics of vessel
7. Sea room for anti collision maneuver.
8. Regulations (pertaining to kind of cargo carried tankers and DG/hazards cargo).
9. Accuracy / reliability of information,
10. Status of ship equipments
11. Security of ship/cargo.
12. Experience.

52. LIST THE SIGNS INDICATING THE PROXIMITY OF DRIFT ICE. March-07 (7 marks)
The signs indicating proximity of ice
1. Ice Blink -On a fine day with blue sky, Yellowish haze on the horizon, Whitish glare in clouds on an
overcast day
2. A characteristic light in the sky just above the horizon caused by the reflection off the white
surface
3. Sudden smoothing of the sea surface & reduction in swell indicates drift ice to windward
4. Isolate fragments of ice pointing towards the thicker ice
5. Thick bank of fog. White patches of fog indicate ice at a short distance
6. Unusual presence of wildlife (in Arctic appearance of walruses seals & seabirds)
7. Surface temperature falls below +1C & vessel is not in a cold current
OR
Detection by radar - especially in a calm sea (cannot be relied upon for bergy bits and
growlers).
Visually appears as a white mass when shone on by the sun, with not sun a dark
mass. First signs may be the wash of the sea breaking on its base
Ice blink - sighted as a yellowish haze usually well before the ice itself is detected. If overcast
an ice blink will tend to have a white layer reflecting with the cloud formation.
Sea surface temperature If carefully watched in the North Atlantic may indicate entry into a
cold ice bearing current. If the recoded temp is 1C then ice can be assumed to be within 150
nautical miles. If below -1C then ice is within 50 nautical miles.
Fog bank - Ice edge is often accompanied by a thick bank of fog.
Wildlife prior to sighting ice or fog banks, it is more likely that observation of wildlife will
provide indication of ice e.g walrus, seals, and different species of birds far from land.
Sea state a distinct change in sea state, where an abrupt smoothing of the sea and a
reduction in swell indicates that ice could well be to windward
Noise a thunderous roar is heard when a growler is calved.

steer towards warmer conditions, or

seek shelter, as soon as possible.

If unable to reach shelter or warmer conditions, it has been found best to:
reduce spray to a minimum by heading into the wind and sea at the slowest
speed possible, or
run before the wind at the least speed that will maintain steerage.
Additionally:
[Pick the date]

manual removal / clearance may be considered.


Use of de-icing agents
(c) Under SOLAS Chapter V, 2004, the Master of every ship encountering dangerous ice or
conditions that will cause ice accumulation on ships, is required to report these conditions,
format of the report can be found in The Mariners Handbook (NP 100).

(d) (i) The message should contain:

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The type of ice


The position of the ice
GMT and date of the observation
(ii) The message should contain:

The date and GMT


The position of the ship
The air and sea temperatures
The force & direction of the wind

53. STATE THE PUBLICATIONS THAT OBLIGES A SHIPMASTER TO REPORT ICE AND
SEVERE ICE ACCERETION. March-07 (1 mark)
SOLAS Chapter-5, requires reporting of ice and Severe Ice Accretion (every 3 hrs or less)

54. OUTLINE THE REPORTING REQUIREMENTS OF (i) ICE (ii) SEVERE ICE ACCERETION
1. Ice march-07 (3 marks)
a. Type of ice
b. Position of the ice
c. UT (GMT) and date of observation

2. Severe ice accretion march-07 (4 marks)


a. Time - UT
b. Date - GMT
c. Position
d. Air temperature
e. Sea temperature
f. Wind force and direction

55. DESCRIBE THE METHODS OF AVOIDING OR REDUCING ICE ACCUMULATION AND


ACCERETION. March-07 (5 marks)
1. Altering course,
2. Reducing speed,
3. Moving towards an area of higher air / sea temperature,
4. Seek shelter,
5. Run before the wind at least speed that will maintain steerage way.
6. Clearing ice

56. EXPLAIN HOW THE USE OF ADMIRALITY CHART 5500, MARINERS ROUTEING GUIDE,
ENGLISH CHANNEL AND SOUTHERN NORTH SEA CAN AID AN OOW TO PLAN THE
PASSAGE THROUGH BUSY AND CONGESTED WATER. Dec-06 (10 marks)
CHART 5500, MARINERS ROUTEING GUIDE, ENGLISH CHANNEL AND SOUTHERN NORTH SEA:
1. PASSAGE PLANNING WITH CHART 5500 Provide guidance and advice in the aspect of APEM
(appraisal, planning, execution and monitoring) for a vessel progress through English channel and
Southern North Sea.

2. ROUTEING, GENERAL RULE AND REGULATION Vessel routeing through TSS shall comply with
Rule 10 of COLREG.
a. Deep water routes specially for deep draught vessels.
b. In 2 way route, vessel should keep to starboard side.
[Pick the date]

3. SPECIAL ROUTE AND RECOMMENDATIONS In TSS and associated routeing measures.


a. Vessel of 300 GRT and above, should be fitted with electronic fixing equipments. b. Special rules
and recommendations apply on tankers and ships carrying dangerous cargo and deep draft vessels.
4. PASSAGE PLANNING FOR SPECIAL CLASSES OF VESSEL Such as tankers, ships carrying
dangerous cargo, deep draft vessels and those bound to Euro port. 5. OIL AND DANGEROUS
CARGOES: MARINE POLLUTION This section contains list of oil and noxious substances that are

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NAVIGATION

required to be reported under EU regulation. Also tells about MARPOL 73/78 Annex I.6. RADIO
REPORTING SYSTEM Details regarding reporting methods adopted in the channel. Reporting
points and surveillance stations are shown on the chart.
7. REPORTING TO PORT OF DESTINATION Describe the requirement of reporting under UK
regulation, EU regulation and French regulations.

8. MARITIME RADIO SERVICES Provide details of station, frequencies and time of transmission of
specific messages including navigational warning, weather reporting, etc.

9. PILOT SERVICES Provide details about pilot boarding, frequency to use, boarding time and
position and communication required.

10. TIDAL INFORMATON SERVICES Provide tidal information for position offshore by use of co-
tidal and co-range
OR
(a) There are 10 parts to chart 5500, which would be used as follows:

Passage Planning Using this Guide This give advice on the application of
Appraisal, Planning, Execution and Monitoring in passage planning;
Routing: General Rules and Recommendations Covers the application of
IRPCS Rule 10 and the use of the Deep Water routes;
Routing: Special Rules and Recommendations informs of the IMO adoption of
the TSS schemes, and advises that vesasels over 300 GT should have electronic
position fixing systems;
Passage Planning: Special Classes of Vessel gives advice for deep draught
vessels eg underkeel clearances and routes to use, recommended routes for
vessels carrying dangerous goods and the use of ITZ for sailing vessels under
20m;
Oil and Dangerous Cargoes: Marine Pollution Gives advice on the MARPOL
and reporting requirements for different classes of cargo;
Radio Reporting Systems applying to through Traffic gives advice on where
reporting information can be found in ALRS, and the reporting requirements and
contents of the reports for different types of vessel carrying different types of
cargo in the various areas;
Reporting to a Port of Destination in the Area gives the reporting requirements
for ports to be used in the area (e.g. notice of arrival) and where information can
be found on the requirements (ALRS Vol 6);
Maritime Radio Services details on Navigation warnings and weather bulletins,
NAVTEX stations and Traffic surveillance in the area;
Pilot Services Details on both Deep Sea Pilot and Harbour Pilots
Tidal Information and Services Co-Range and Co-Tidal information in the area.

57. EXPLAIN HOW THE FOLLOWING WOULD BE USED IN APPRAISAL STAGE (i) TIDAL
STREAM ATLAS (ii) ADMIRALTY SAILING DIRECTIONS (iii) ADMIRALTY LIST OF LIGHT
AND FOG SIGNAL (iv) CATALOGUE OF ADMIRALTY CHARTS AND OTHER HYDROGRAPHIC
PUBLICATIONS. Dec-06 (Each 4 marks)

Tidal Stream Atlas march-10(5 marks) Gives location, rate and set of tidal stream in the area at
hourly intervals.
1. This can be used for planning the passage and executing the passage to transit the waters with
favorable tidal stream. 2. ETAs of each waypoint, critical section of passage or pilot boarding etc
can be calculated.
[Pick the date]

3. Helps in determining EP (estimated position) and countering set. Areas of strong tidal sets will
require more frequent position plotting.

4. Helps in planning arrival at anchorage (that is arrive in slack water) Admiralty Sailing Directions
Admiralty Sailing Directions or Pilot Books as they are commonly known, are published in
volumes by the UKHO. These provide world wide coverage and are intended to complete the
Admiralty charts: Provides information on the following;
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1. Describes the coast, off lying dangers and other navigational hazards for route planning,
2. Gives seasonal and climatological data for route planning,
3. Topography of coastline to landmarks for visual and radar monitoring.
4. Route recommendations and contingency anchorages,
5. Buoyage system,
6. Description of Pilotage waters,
7. Description of approach channels, harbor and anchorage areas.

Admiralty List of Lights And Fog Signals


1. Use long range lights for making landfalls.
2. Raising dipping distance.
3. Vertical sextant angle for distance off.
4. Visual bearings and horizontal sextant angles for position monitoring.
5. Transit bearing and leading lights for continuous monitoring of position along intended track.
6. Provide luminous range diagram for obtaining the range at which light will be first and last
sighted with reference to intensity and metrological visibility.
7. Characteristics and intensity of lights.

Use of fog signals in coastal and confined waters for position monitoring in restricted visibility.
Catalogue of Admiralty Charts The United Kingdom Hydrographic Office (UKHO) publishes The
Catalog of Admiralty Charts and Other publications (NP 131) annually. It shows the areas of
coverage of BA charts and other BA publications. The Defense Mapping Agency (DMA) of the USA
produces a similar document, as CATPV1U. The US version shows the areas of coverage of US charts
and other publications.

58. AS OOW STATE THE ACTIONS THAT SHOULD BE TAKEN IF A CELESTRIAL


OBSERVATION USING THE MAGNETIC COMPASS INDICATED THAT THE DEVIATION WAS
10 deg W GREATER THAT THE DEVIATION CARD SHOWED FOR THAT SHIP'S HEAD.
Dec0-6 (5 marks)
1. Inform master,
2. Check for any immediate navigational hazards in proximity and adjust course accordingly,
3. Verify deviation using terrestrial observation,
4. Steer Course allowing for the observed deviation and variation for the places as obtained from
the chart,
5. While investigating the cause for the difference in deviation consider following
a. Presence of magnetic anomalies.
b. Check the binnacle of the compass for bubble formation.
c. Check all Flinders bar magnet and heeling magnets are in place.
d. Adjust the Flinders bar and / or heeling magnates.

59. OUTLINE THE DETAILS CONTAINED IN THE TIDAL STREAM ATLAS TO ASSIST IN THE
APPRAISAL OF THIS PASSAGE. Dec-06 (4 marks)
Tidal Stream Atlas show the direction of the stream as vector arrows and spring and neap rates
from 6 hrs before to 6 hrs after on small chart lets, there are 17 Admiralty Tidal Stream Atlas, which
shows in diagrammatic form the major Tidal Stream for selected waters of NW Europe. Advantages
of Admiralty Tidal Stream Atlas can be summarized as:
[Pick the date]

1. They show both direction and rate of tidal streams at hourly intervals by careful and accurate use
of graded arrows.
2. Display mean neap and spring tidal rates in tenth of a knot.
3. Include diagram to assist you to calculate the tidal stream rates your required day.

60. STATE THE INSTANCES WHEN INTERMEDIATE TIDAL HEIGHTS MAY NOT BE
CALCULATED FOR PACIFIC PORTS. 0cto-06 (4 marks)
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1. The duration of rise or fall must be more than 5 hours.


2. The duration of rise or fall must be less than 7 hours.
3. There must be no shallow water correction.
4. There must NOT be any note on the bottom of the daily page(Harmonic constant)

61. STATE SIX OTHER PUBLICATION THAT SHOULD BE CONSULTED AS PART OF THE
APPRAISAL PROCESS. Octo-06 (6 marks)
1. Sailing Directions (Pilot Books) 74 volumes
2. Admiralty List of Lights and Fog signals NP 74-84
3. Admiralty List of Radio Signals
4. Admiralty Tide Tables published annually in 3 vol. covers whole world
5. Tidal Stream Atlas
6. Admiralty Notices to Mariners weekly , cumulative and annual summary-to keep charts up to
date
7. Radio Navigation Warnings- ALRS vol-3- radio weather services and Nav. Warnings
8. Navigational Aid information (manuals etc)
9. Ocean Passage of the World
10. Mariners Handbook
11. Mariners Routeing guides
12. Passage Planning Chart

62. DIRECTION TO ASSIST THE MARINER IN APPRAISING THE PASSAGE- CHART 5056
0cto-06 (8 marks) Provides information on the following;
1. Describes the coast, off lying dangers and other navigational hazards for route planning,
2. Gives seasonal and climatological data for route planning,
3. Topography of coastline to landmarks for visual and radar monitoring.
4. Route recommendations and contingency anchorages,
5. Buoyage system,
6. Description of Pilotage waters,
7. Description of approach channels, harbor and anchorage areas.

63. STATE SIX ITEMS CONTAINED IN THE BRIDGE PROCEDURE GUIDE, BRIDE CHECKLIST
FOR A VESSELS NAVIGATING IN HEAVY WEATHER. Octo-06 (6 marks)
1. The master, engine room and crew should be informed o the conditions.
2. All movable objects been secured above and below decks, particularly in the engine room, galley
and in the store rooms.
3. Ships accommodation secured and all ports and deadlights closed.
4. All weather deck openings been secured.
5. Speed and course adjusted as necessary.
6. Crew to be warned to avoid, upper deck areas made dangerous by the weather.
7. Safety lines / hand lines rigged where necessary.

64. EXPLAIN FIVE BRIDGE OPERATIONAL FACTORS THAT SHOULD BE CONSIDERED BY


THE OOW PRIOR TO A VESSEL ENTERING AN AREA OF OFFSHORE INSTALLATIONS. Octo-
06 (5 marks)
1. Ensure that the chart selected is of largest scale available and is up to date. 2. Vessel should stay
clear of safety zones as marked on the chart or advised by warnings. A minimum safe distance of
[Pick the date]

500m must be maintained in the absence of information. The rig should be given a wide berth.
3. OOW prepared to use the engines and call a look out and/or a helmsman to the bridge.
4. Use designated routing system established in the area,
5. Following factors should be taken into considerations:
a) Advice/recommendations in sailing directions,
b) Ships draft,
c) Tides and current,
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d) Weather and visibility,


e) Available navigable aids and their accuracy,
f) Traffic separation routing schemes,
6. Maintain a continuous listening watch on VHF Ch-16/Ch-70 to facilitate communication between
installation, stand by vessels, VTS or other vessels,

65. STATE FIVE FACTORS THAT WOULD INFLUENCE THE MARGIN OF SAFETY WHEN
UNDERTAKING THE PLANNING STAGE OF A VOYAGE PLAN. March-06 (5 marks)
1. The size and draft of the vessel, required UKC and squat effect.
2. Speed of the vessel.
3. The manoeuvring characteristics of the vessel.
4. Presence of strong tidal sets.
5. Available depth and width of water.
6. The accuracy of navigable aids to be used.

66. STATE WITH REASON FIVE FACTORS TO BE CONSIDERED UNDER THE EXECUTION
STAGE OF A VOYAGE PLAN. March-06 (5 marks)
EXECUTION; Once the ETD is known the ETA can be determined. Taking into account the weather
and tide conditions the passage can be commenced. Execution stage is the executing of the passage
plan. This is carried out by the bridge team.
1. Check reliability and condition of the vessel Nav equipments.
2. Calculate estimated time of arrival at the critical points of the passage when vessel requires a
tidal window.
3. Metrological conditions as well as weather routeing information at start and during passage.
4. Day time versus, night time passing of danger points or transiting restricted areas and any effects
this might have on the position fixing accuracy.
5. Traffic conditions specially at focal points (converging traffic from different directions).
6. Time management, frequency and means of position fixing, position fixing to be done by more
than one means for cross verification. Positions obtained by navaids should be checked wherever
possible by visual means.
7. Compare fix with DR to ensure position makes sense.
8. Buoys should not be use for position fixing unless it has positively ascertained that they are in
position, but may be used for guidance.
9. Check time when extra hands will be required along critical junctions of passage.

67. STATE WITH REASONS, FIVE FACTORS TO BE CONSIDERED WHEN CONSIDERING THE
MONITORING STAGE OF A VOYAGE PLAN. March-06 (5 marks)
1. Proximity of dangers to decide frequency of position plotting.
2. Speed of vessel to decide frequency of position plotting.
3. Availability of cross checks by other monitoring methods to verify position obtained.
4. Presence of current/Tidal flow, as frequency of position plotting to be increased to make out if
vessel setting off the intended track.
5. Visibility and state of weather to decide means of frequency of position fixing.
6. Availability of continuous monitoring means like parallel indexing, ground stabilized mapping
lines, transit bearings, leading lights etc.

68. USE OF TRANSITS


[Pick the date]

Coastal
1. Provides accurate position line independent of compass errors.
2. When crossed with another position line or circle provides a fix.
3. Provides compass error (deviation for ships heading or gyro error).
4. As leading lines through archipelagos or sandbanks.
5. As clearing transits from areas of danger.
6. To mark limits of measured miles.

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7. To indicate wheel over points or change in engine status.

Pilotage waters
1. As leading lines
2. As clearing lines
3. To indicate wheel over points in engine status
4. To fix vessels position when crossed with another position line or circle
At anchor-
1. To fix vessels position and/or position of anchor.
2. To determine compass errors.
3. To determine if anchor is dragging (any suitable landmark can be used for this, they do not need
to charted.)

69. STATE THE CONSIDERATIONS TO BE TAKEN INTO ACCOUNT WHEN SELECTING


OBJECTS TO BE USED AS TRANSITS
1. Ensure that the two objects observed are the same as those charted (Taking a bearing of the
transit and comparing with that on the chart can confirm this.)
2. The closest land mark should be the lower.
3. To maintain the ship on a leading line steer towards the closest transit mark.
4. The closer the landmark is to the observer, the easier it is to detect when ship is being set off the
leading line.

70. SELECTION OF AN ANCHORAGE


1. Depth of water-consult chart, tide tables and ships draught. Is there sufficient depth to remain
afloat at low water but shallow enough to afford good holding.
2. Shelter-consult chart and weather forecast. The position should be sheltered from both
prevailing and forecast winds and give adequate clearance from lee shores. Check that the tidal
streams are not too strong.
3. Swinging room-there should be adequate swinging room, taking into account tides, other vessels
and the scope of cable deployed.
4. Holding ground-consult chart, sailing directions, port publications VTS and pilots. Port authorities
often designate anchorage areas according to destination and/or size of ship.

71. AS OOW STATE THE ACTIONS THAT SHOULD BE TAKEN IF A CELESTRIAL


OBSERVATION USING THE GYRO COMPASS INDICATED THAT THE DEVIATION WAS 15*
HIGH. March-06 (5 marks)
1. Compare compass to verify gyro is wandering. 2. Plot vessels position by electronic means or
radar distances. 3. Inform the master. 4. Put vessel on hand steering and steer by magnetic
compass. Passage Planning Practical Work on Chart 72. Draw intended track, keeping in mind
shortest distance, margins of safety, Rule 10 and use T.S.S., regulation pertaining to cargo and type
of ship. 73. Mark A/C Wpts with reference point bearing and distance, Wpt no. DTG 74. Highlighting
dangers, mark no go areas. 75. Encircle charted features for visual and radar fixes. 76. Mark
parallel indexes, clearing bearing and ranges where possible and required 77. Mark Wheel Over
position. 78. Mark position for starting Echo sounder. 79. Position for engaging hand steering,
starting 2nd steering motor, extra look-out. 80. Identify areas where CROSS traffic expected.81. See
Notes on charts must be read and taken into account. 82. Circle tidal diamond en route, write HW
time of reference port. 83. DETAIL IN ORDER THE STEPS TO BE TAKEN AND THE
PUBLICATIONS TO BE CONSULTED TO COMPLETE THE REQUIREMENTS OF EACH OF THE
FOLLOWING STAGE OF A PASSAGE PLAN (i) APPRAISAL (ii) PLANNING APPRAISAL: This
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comprises of gathering all the relevant information for the voyage along the planned track. This task
is normally delegated to the Navigation officer. 1. Condition of the vessel, its state of stability, its
draft at different areas 2. Any special characteristics of the cargo 3. Provision of competent and well
rested crew 4. Select largest scale charts (corrected and up to date) 5. Obtain M.S.I. (Maritime
Safety Information on Navtex, Sat-C, Wx Fax); a. Radio navigational warnings affecting the areas are
received, b. Metrological information for recommendations on route to be taken. 6. Check that all
charts to be used have been corrected up to date 7. Check that all publications to used; Sailing
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directions, Admiralty List of lights and fog signals have been corrected and up to date from the
latest information available. 8. Consult following; a. Planning charts, Sailing Directions and Routeing
Charts for recommendations on route to be taken b. Current and Tidal Atlas to obtain direction and
Rate of Set. c. Tide Tables water depth available at time of passage any critical starches of the
passage d. Ships Routeing guide for requirements of traffic separation and routeing schemes.

9. Study charted navigational aids and coastline characteristics for landfall and position monitoring
purpose.
10. Consider volume and flow of traffic likely to be encountered.
11. Maritime environmental protection measures.
12. Study the maneuver characteristics of the ship to decide upon safe speed and, where
appropriate, allowance for turning circle at course alteration points.
13. Estimate draft of the ship during the various stages of the passage.
14. If a Pilot is to be embarked, make a careful study of the area at the Pilot boarding point for pre-
planning intended maneuvers.
15. Where appropriate, study all available port information data.
16. Check any additional items which may be required by the type of ship the particular locality, or
the passage to be undertaken.

PLANNING; Is the making of the passage plan for the voyage using all the data and information
gathered in the appraisal process. The Plan must be prepared by the Navigating officer and
presented to the master for his approval well before the vessel is to commence its voyage. Factors
which may influence the routeing decisions are;
1. Areas of safe water which will be encountered.
2. National, International and Company regulations which may be contravened by a particular
routeing.
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3. Permissible deviations from the track.

On the basis of the fullest possible appraisal, a detailed passage plan should be done covering berth
to berth. GANGARAM BOMIDI inbox.ganga@gmail.com (LOWESTOFT) 1. Hatch in all the danger
areas and hazards to navigation. no go areas, maintain safe UKC at least 20% of the draft.

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2. Plot intended track in 360 deg notations, write all alteration points (A/C), wheel over position,
DTG, WP No. reporting points (incl. method of reporting, channel or frequency and report), VTS.
3. Margin of safety (taking into account draft, speed, tidal stream, maneuvering characteristics,
available depth and width of water and cargo).
4. Encircle all radar conspicuous objects, recons, buoys, Nav Aids.
5. Identify primary and secondary means of position fixing.
6. Indicate transit bearings, clearing bearings and ranges.
7. Indicate positions where change machinery status may be required.
8. Permissible deviation from the intended track,(parallel indexing).
9. Abort point, contingencies of alternate route or anchorage for various failures (of equipment and
/ or machinery, points of no return).
10. Comply with the local and international regulations and also with the marine environmental
protection regulations.

Planning details should be recorded on voyage plan note book, and available at all times on the
chart table along with supporting publications (ALRS, ATT, Current Atlas etc). MONITORING Is the
continuous monitoring of the execution of the plan, to ensure that the vessel is at all times along
the intended track.
1. The plan should be available at all times on the bridge to get the reference to the details of the
plan.
2. Check the progress of the vessel in accordance with voyage and passage plan.
3. Monitor that the vessel is on the intended track, (plan operating ok).
4. Identify when failures have occurred, or a contingency situation has arrived.
5. Identify when plan has to be modified.
6. Visual bearings are usually the mostly accurate means of position fixing provided the compass
error is known. In the event that the compass error is not known, plot three bearing as horizontal
angles.
7. Compass error to be checked at every watch and after large alterations.
8. Compare fixes obtained by Nav Aids (like GPS etc) whenever possible with visual means.
9. Compare fix with DR to ensure position makes sense.
10. Buoys should not be use for position fixing unless it has been positively ascertained that they
are in position, but may be used for guidance.
11. Parallel indexing or ground stabilized mapping lines are effective ways of continuously
monitoring the ships progress specially, in restricted waters.
12. Transit marks, clearing bearings, and clearing ranges.
13. GPD XTE (cross track error) mode can be used for continuously monitoring the ships progress,
however this is not to be a perfect option in restricted waters.
14. Appropriate selection of radar display and range scale settings.
15. Echo sounder should be used for continuous monitoring of depths and UKC.
16. At least one monitoring method should be independent of the vessels power supply, so that
black-out will not compromise the monitoring of the vessels progress.
17. Position should be plotted on the chart at sufficiently frequent intervals to establish historical
trends and give early warning of running into danger.

84. LIST THE MAIN TOPICS OF PART A OF THE BRIDGE PROCEDURE GUIDE
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BPG PART-A: Guidance to masters and navigating officers


1. Bridge organization
1. Overview
2. Bridge resource management and bridge team
3. Navigation policy and company procedures
2. Passage planning
1. Overview

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2. Responsibility for passage planning


3. Notes on passage planning
4. Notes on passage planning in ocean waters
5. Notes on passage planning in coastal or restricted waters
6. Passage planning and pilotage
7. Passage planning and ships routeing
8. Passage planning and ship reporting systems
9. Passage planning and vessel traffic services
3. Duties of the officer of the watch (OOW)
1. Overview
2. Watchkeeping
3. Navigation
4. Controlling the speed and direction of the ship
5. Radiocommunications
6. Pollution prevention
7. Emergency situations
4. Operational and maintenance of bridge equipment
1. General
2. Radar
3. Steering gear and the automatic pilot
4. Compass system
5. Speed and distance measuring log
6. Echo sounders
7. Electronic position fixing systems
8. Integrated Bridge System
9. Charts, ECDIS and nautical publications
10. Radiocommunications
11. Emergency navigation lights and equipments and sound signaling equipment 5. Annexes

85.The following should be handed over:

the vessel's estimated or true position;


the vessel's intended track, course and speed and draught;
any conditions and dangers/hazards to navigation expected to be
encountered during the watch;
predicted tides, currents, weather, visibility and the effect of these factors
upon course and speed;
any errors in gyro and magnetic compasses;
the status of all bridge equipment;
the settings of bridge/engine controls;
the manning of engine room;
the presence and movement of vessels in sight or known to be
in the vicinity;
the vessels security status;
any standing orders/night orders/special instructions for the navigation of
the vessel;
the possible effects of heel, trim, water density and squat on underkeel
clearance;
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any special work on deck


any instructions/information given to the watchkeeping personnel to
ensure the keeping of a safe navigational watch, including maintenance of
a proper look-out.
(a) The handover should be deferred when:
The officer to be relieved is not satisfied that the relieving officer is: (i)
unfit to take over the watch through illness;
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(ii) unfit to take over the watch through drink drugs or fatigue;

(iii) unable
ble to carry out duties temporarily due to night vision;

If a manoeuvre is taking place;


If an action is taking place to avoid danger.
86.

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Vishal Petkar-petkarvishal@gmail.com[Mu
[Mumbai]