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Garlic Food Monograph

Student Name: Carleta Stan Student #:3546147

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Garlic, also called Allium Sativum belongs to the Liliaceae family of vegetables (1) therefore
some of the research below also relates to other members of this family (onion, leek,

Originally native to central Asia it is now cultivated throughout the world. (2)

Most of the herbs pharmacological activity is due to the action of its organosulfur
components: alliin, allyl cysteine, allyl disulphide and allicin.(1) Allicin (diallyl thiosulphate)
gives garlic the typical pungent smell. Allicin does not exist in garlic until it is crushed or cut,
at which time the enzyme allinase is activated and alliin is metabolized to allicin.(5)

Standard Serving Size (SSS)

1 clove / 3g (3)

Key Nutrients Major Actions (10,12,15) Amount (per Amount RDI / AI % of
(3,4) 100g) per SSS RDI / AI
(3,11) (3) 30yo female
Protein Proteins contribute to the plasma 6.1g 0.18g 46g 0.4%
pool of amino acids

Form the building blocks of our

tissue and can also be used as a
fuel source

Act as hormones, enzymes and

neurotransmitters, antibodies, cell
receptors, etc.

Keep your immune system

functioning properly

Maintain healthy skin, hair and nails

Fibre Sufficient intake helps reduce the 16.9g 0.5g 25g 2%
risk of diabetes, coronary heart
disease, diverticular disease, and
Lowers the risk of metabolic
OHTH2132. Garlic Food Monograph

syndrome: high blood pressure, high

insulin levels, excess weight,
elevated cholesterol and
triglycerides level, low HDL

Fat The bodys most concentrated form 2.8g 0.08g

of energy
Required for the absorption of fat-
soluble vitamins
Important structural component of
cell membrane
Important insulator of nerves,
enabling fast signal transmission
Fats, especially saturated, are
important building blocks of steroidal
hormones like sex hormones
Carbohydrates Provide the body with glucose, an 10.2g 0.3g
important source of energy
Vitamin C Required for collagen synthesis to 11mg 0.33mg 45mg 0.7%
build connective tissue, bones, skin;
deficiency leads to week bones and
teeth, bleeding
Activates B vitamin and folic acid
Converts cholesterol to bile salts
Converts tryptophan to serotonin
Protects cells from oxidative
It is immunoprotective and lowers
the risk of cancer
Re-activates vitamin E in the body
Improves iron absorption
Vitamin B1 Supports the function of the heart, 0.09mg 0.003mg 1.1mg 0.3%
(Thiamine) nervous and digestive system
through its central role of energy
Maintains the structure and function
of brain cells; deficiency could lead
to Alzheimer's and Parkinson's
Seeds and legumes have the
highest amount
Vitamin B2 Converts vitamin B6 to folate; 0.06mg 0.002mg 1.1mg 0.2%
(Riboflavin) maintains a healthy growth of red
blood cells
Supports cellular energy production

May help prevent cataracts

Reduces the number and length of
Eggs, organ meats (kidneys and
liver), lean meats, and milk and
greens are good source
Vitamin B3 Helps the body to metabolise 0.8mg 0.02mg 14mg 0.2%
(Niacin) carbohydrates, but also fats and

Helps lower cholesterol levels by

promoting steroidal hormone
OHTH2132. Garlic Food Monograph

synthesis in the adrenal glands

Suppresses inflammation and

improves circulation

Reduces blood level of LDL and


Lowers the risk of heart attack and

stops progression of atherosclerosis

Lowers the risk of Alzheimers


Tuna and red meat is a good source

Vitamin B6 Our body needs B6 to absorb B12 1.23mg 0.037mg 1.3mg 3%
and to make red and white blood
Helps the body to make serotonin
and noradrenaline
Required for normal brain
development and function
Low levels increase the risk of heart
Lowers blood levels of
May help reduce morning sickness
in pregnant women
Reduces the risk of macular
May help reduce symptoms of
Inflammation reduces levels of B6;
supplement in rheumatoid arthritis
Improve symptoms of tardive
Vitamin B9 Folate is the natural form whereas 3mcg 0.09mcg 400mcg 0.02%
(folate/folic folic acid is the synthetic
acid) Important in brain function and
mental health
Helps the synthesis of DNA, RNA
Supports the production of red blood
cells in conjunction to B12
Deficiency are common in
inflammatory conditions
Supports normal foetal development
May prevent miscarriages
Associated with lower risk of autism
if taken prenatally
Lowers the risk of speech
impediment if supplemented in early
Lowers the risk of developing heart
problems by lowering homocysteine
Slows the progression of age related
hearing loss
Lowers the risk of macular
degeneration in women
Lowers the risk of some cancers
Dark leafy greens an beats are a
good source
OHTH2132. Garlic Food Monograph

Vitamin A Helps cells to differentiate 10mcg 0.3mcg 700mcg 0.04%

Essential for good vision
Required for normal embryo
Helps to maintain integrity of
mucous membrane
Plays a role in immune function,
growth, bone formation, wound
healing and reproduction
May help in the treatment of acne
and other skin conditions
May lower the risk of some cancers
Beef, calf, eggs and chicken liver
are good sources
Vitamin E Helps the body to use vitamin K 0.08mg 0.002mg 7mg 0.03%
Helps the body to make red blood
Long term deficiency causes liver
and kidney damage
Reduces the effects of
chemotherapy in cancer patients
Lowers the effect of photodermatitis
Slows down the progression of
Alzheimers disease
Reduces the risk of developing
macular degeneration
Helps relieve menstrual pain
Reduces pain in rheumatoid arthritis
but not inflammation
Liver, eggs, nuts, sunflower seeds
are a good source
Vitamin K Helps blood clot 1.7mcg 0.1mcg 60mcg 0.2%
Reduces the risk of bleeding in liver
Helps to body to use calcium to
build bone
Lowers the risk of osteoarthritis and
Beef liver and green leafy
vegetables are a good source
Calcium Required for muscular contraction, 30mg 1mg 1000mg 0.1%
vascular contraction and
vasodilation, nerve impulse
transmition, intracellular signaling
and hormonal secretion
99% stored in bones and teeth, 1%
required for critical metabolic
Needed for proper functioning of
nerves and muscles, healthy, strong
bones and formation of blood clot
Dairy products are good sources;
non-dairy sources include: Chinese
cabbage, kale, and broccoli
(bioavailability of calcium in spinach
is poor)
Copper Cofactor for superoxide dismutase 0.30mg 0.01mg 1.2mg 0.8%
SOD major antioxidant enzyme in
the body
OHTH2132. Garlic Food Monograph

Deficiency of copper can lead to

irreversible damage to the nervous
Important element for collagen
synthesis; deficiency affects the
bones and blood vessels
Low copper intake may increase risk
of osteoporosis
Plays key role in energy production
Sesame seeds and cashews,
soybeans and garbanzo beans,
shiitake and brown Swiss (crimini)
mushrooms are good sources of
Iron As part of haemoglobin carried by 1.70mg 0.05mg 18mg 0.3%
erythrocytes, contributes to the
transfer of oxygen from lungs to
tissue all over the body

Keeps muscles oxygenated as a

component of myoglobin

Important for growth and

development, normal cellular
functioning and synthesis of some

Keeps the immune system healthy

Helps your body produce energy,

supports metabolism
Deficiency causes anemia with
gastrointestinal disturbances,
impaired cognitive function and
immune function, fatigue, and body
temperature regulation
Lean meat and seafood best
Magnesium Co-factor in hundreds of enzymatic 25mg 0.8mg 320mg 0.25%
systems that regulate: protein
synthesis, muscle and nerve
function, blood glucose level, and
blood pressure;
Required for energy production,
bone development and
maintenance, synthesis of DNA,
RNA and antioxidant Gluthathione
Co-transporter to calcium and
potassium across cell membrane,
therefore important to nerve impulse
conduction and heart rhythm
Green leafy vegetables are a good
Manganese Helps your body utilize several key 1.70mg 0.05mg 5mg 1%
nutrients such as biotin, thiamine,
ascorbic acid, and choline
Keep your bones strong and healthy
As co-factor in prolidase enzyme
synthesis required for collagen
production and as an antioxidant in
OHTH2132. Garlic Food Monograph

skin cells, is important for skin

Help your body synthesize fatty
acids and cholesterol
As supporting element in many
enzymatic systems, important in
gluconeogenesis to maintain normal
blood sugar levels
Promote optimal function of your
thyroid gland
Maintain the health of your nerves
Protect your cells from free-radical
Cloves, oats and spinach are good
Phosphorus As a key component of the 153mg 5mg 1000mg 0.5%
hormonal process in bone
metabolism, in combination with
calcium, it is necessary for the
formation of bones and teeth.
Phosphorus is also involved in the
metabolism of fat, carbohydrate and
protein, and in the effective
utilization of many of the B-group
Phosphate groups are fundamental
for the formation of AMP, ADP and
ATP, the energy exchange
molecules, central to the energy
supply process in our body
Key nutrient to maintain proper pH
phosphorus buffer system
scallops, cod, and crimini
mushrooms are excellent sources
Potasium together with sodium, chloride, 510mg 15.3mg 2800mg 0.5%
calcium, and magnesium, potassium
is an electrolyte: conduct electrical
charges in the body
Help your muscles and nerves
function properly
Maintain the proper electrolyte and
acid-base balance in your body
Help lower your risk of high blood
pressure, improving kidney function
and reduction in kidney stone risk
Very high or low levels shut down
the heart and nervous system
Green leafy vegetables, bananas
are very good sources
Sodium Required for the regulation of blood 8mg 0.24mg 460mg 0.05%
pressure and blood volume
Maintains normal functioning of the
nervous system and muscles
Regulates intracellular water
Blood levels are controlled by the
Most common source is table salt:
sodium chloride
Selenium Molecular constituent of a bunch of 14.30mcg 0.43mcg 60mcg 0.7%
OHTH2132. Garlic Food Monograph

proteins important in normal

functioning of the thyroid, in DNA
synthesis and reproduction
Required to activate a group of
enzymes important for the bodys
detoxification systems (glutathione
Required for enzymatic processes
that re-activate VitC
Antioxidant agent, having a
protective role against oxidative
stress and infections
Brazil nuts and fish are a good
Zinc Co-factor in hundreds of enzymatic 1mg 0.03mg 8mg 0.4%
processes (300 zinc-dependant

Plays a role in: protein synthesis,

DNA synthesis, cell division, and
wound healing

Supports normal growth and

development during pregnancy,
childhood, and adolescence

Helps balance blood sugar

Supports the activity of the immune

system; the elderlies are at risk of
zinc deficiency and reduced

Supports an optimal sense of smell

and taste
Oysters are the best source of zince

Key Phytonutrients Major Actions

Beta-carotene (1,4) Anti-carcinogenic, antioxidant
May reduce the risk of lung cancer in smokers
Saponins The crushing of garlic leads to many types of
steroid saponins
Inhibit absorption of cholesterol in the small
intestine, therefore reducing plasma cholesterol
level (14)
Eruboside-B, a steroidal saponin in garlic has
antifungal effects on Candida albicans (14)
Beta-chlorogenin has the ability to reduce platelet
aggregation in vivo (13)
OHTH2132. Garlic Food Monograph

Sulphides (oil-soluble) and cysteine Antioxidant

derivatives (water-soluble) (1,4) Anti-inflammatory
Significant decrease in plasma fibrinogen and and
increase in clotting time at high dose 1000mg/kg of
raw garlic
Significantly reduces atherosclerotic process
Significantly inhibits oxidation of LDL (vitro)
Prolonged administration in a slow release form
significantly reduces multifactor risk of coronary
heart disease CHD
Modest reduction in serum cholesterol level in long-
term treatment
Inhibits enzymes (75% in vitro) involved in
cholesterol and fatty acids synthesis
Garlic + exercise showed greater results in
cholesterol lowering than exercise alone
Mild to moderate antihypertensive activity in long
term use
Polysulfides indirectly control blood pressure by
converting to hydrogen sulphide (in RBCs), which
dilates blood vessels thus lowering blood pressure
Significant changes in glucose tolerance and
insulin secretion
Antineoplastic and Chemoprotective
Exerts anticarcinogenic properties by multiple
Modulates detoxification enzymes responsible for
the activation of carcinogenesis
Increases expression of phase II ezymes in
stomach, lung and liver cancer (vivo)
Upregulates gene expression of Glutathione S-
Inhibition of cancer cell growth by increase of
histone acetylation in human leukemia, prostate
and many other cancers
Inhibits angiogenesis and metastasis in human cell
Lowers risk of all cancers except prostate and
breast high intake (daily intake)
Lowers risk of colorectal and renal cancer
moderate intake (few times a week)

Allicin Antioxidant (1)
Anti-inflammatory (1)
Increased survival rate in mice due to significantly
OHTH2132. Garlic Food Monograph

higher number of immune cells and increased

inflammation mediators: interleukin, tumour
necrosis factor, etc
Anti-microbial (1)
Antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive and
negative bacteria, fungi and parasites including
multi-drug resistant: Escherichia coli,
Staphilococcus aureus, Mycobacterium
tuberculosis, etc.
Antimalarial action (vitro, vivo)
Significantly enhances the effect of amphotericin B
against Candida Albicans (vitro, vivo
Activates macrophage activity
Adjuvant in the treatment of Helicobacter Pylori
stomach infection
Antiatherosclerotic (1)
Reduces atherosclerotic plaque and slightly
regresses plaque formation in women
Anticholesterolemic (1)
Reduction in cholesterol and significant reduction in
triglycerides but no change in LDL and HDL when
garlic is chewed and allicin released
Antihypertensive (1,4)
blocks the activity of angiotensin II (vasoconstrictor)
reducing blood pressure
greater reduction in blood pressure and improved
cardiac hypertrophy in allicin plus captopril than
captopril alone
Antineoplastic and chemoprotective (1,4)

Allixin Antibacterial
Found in aged garlic extract, inhibits the activity of
Helicobacter Pylori (6)
Inhibits skin cancer (vivo) (7)
Recommended prophylactically at 1ng/ml in
neurodegenerative diseases (8); significantly
promotes survival of neurons, increases the
number of axonal branches
Allyl polysulfides (APS)
Diallyl sulfide (DAS) Anti-inflammatory(1,4), anti-arthritic (4)
Antineoplastic and chemoprotective (1,4)
Inhibits metabolism of cytochrome p450 in nasal
mucosa (vivo)
Induced apoptosis in human cervical cell cancer
lines via p-53 induced cell cycle arrest and
mitochondrial disruption
Inhibits angiogenesis and metastasis in human cell
lines by inhibition of capillary-tube like formation,
cellular proliferation and migration

Diallyl disulfude (DADS) Antioxidant(1)

OHTH2132. Garlic Food Monograph

Anticholesterolemic (1)
Inhibits enzymes involved in cholesterol and
triglycerides synthesis at high dose 500mg/kg
Antineoplastic and chemoprotective (1,4)
Arrests the G2/M phase of cell cycle and promotes
cell apoptosis in colon cancer
Induced apoptosis in prostate cancer cells through
modulation of insulin growth factors
Inhibits angiogenesis and metastasis in human cell
lines by inhibition of capillary-tube like formation,
cellular proliferation and migration

Ajoene Antioxidant (1)

highest hydroxyl radicals scavenging activity, where
Z-ajoene has better results compared to E-ajoene
Anti-clotting/antithrombotic (1,4)
In vitro inhibits platelet aggregation. Clinically the
effect is hard to determine, minimal or no effect
Antimicrobial (1)
Strong antifungal and antiparasitic activity
Stronger antiviral activity than allicin
Prevents dental caries and periodontitis and
supresses oral candidiasis
Antineoplastic and chemoprotective (1)
Significantly inhibits lung metastasis of melanoma
cells (vivo, IV injections)

Diallyl trisulfide (DATS) Antioxidant

Anticholesterolemic (1)
Inhibits enzymes involved in cholesterol and
triglycerides synthesis at high dose 500mg/kg
Antineoplastic and chemoprotective (1,4)
Induced apoptosis in colorectal cancer via
mitochondrial signalling pathways
More effective in arresting G2/M phase of the cell
cycle in human prostate cancer than DAS or DADS
Induced cell cycle arrest due to cytoskeleton
disruption in human colon cancer cells
Increase apoptosis by induction of reactive oxygen
species ROS that reduce cell viability and
inhibition of cell migration in breast cancer
Inhibits angiogenesis and metastasis in human cell
lines by inhibition of capillary-tube like formation,
cellular proliferation and migration

N-acetylcysteine (NAC)
S-allylcysteine (SAC) Antiatherosclerotic (1)
Prevents cerebrovascular damage in Alzheimers
Antihypertensive (1)
Potentiates the antihypertensive and cardio-
OHTH2132. Garlic Food Monograph

protective activity of captopril in a dose related

manner (vivo)
Hypoglycaemic (1)
Stimulates insulin secretion (vivo)
Significantly reduces blood glucose level and
increases serum insulin level in diabetic rats; more
effective than glibenclamide but comparable to
metformin (anti-diabetic drug) in a dose controlled
Reduces cell adhesion and invasion in human
breast cells

S-allylmercaptocysteine Antineoplastic and chemoprotective (1,4)

(SAMC) Mitotic arrest in human colon cell cancer with
cytoskeleton disruption and alteration of chromatin

S-ethylcysteine (SEC)
S-methylcysteine (SMC)
S-propylcysteine (SPC)
1,2-vinyldithiin (1,2-DT)
Thiacremonone Anti-inflammatory, anti-arthritic (4)

Therapeutic claims
Cardiovascular health (1)
Epidemiological studies demonstrate an inverse correlation between garlic
consumption and progression of cardiovascular disease
Double-blind, placebo-controlled study demonstrated that Alicor garlic tablets
administered for 12 months are:
o Effective in reducing the risks associated with cardiovascular disease in
hyperlipidaemia patients
o Significant reduction in coronary heart disease CHD, in both gender, in
high-risk patients.
o Reduced risk of myocardial infarction and sudden death in high-risk man but
not women
Long term, randomised, double blind and placebo controlled study demonstrated that
garlic powder supplements, administered in a dose controlled manner 900mg/day,
significantly reduced arteriosclerotic plaque
Double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomised study demonstrated that long term use
of aged garlic extract, 1200mg/day, in high-risk patients retards calcification of
coronary arteries, slowing the progression of disease
Multiple studies indicate the efficacy of using garlic supplements in combination with
both statin medication and other supplements (CoQ10, B6, B12, folic acid, l-
arginine), in treating atherosclerosis
o Significant favourable changes in oxidative biomarkers (reduced C-reactive
protein, coronary artery calcium) and reduced progression of atherosclerosis

Hypertension (1)

Earlier meta-analysis studies and more recent ones have confirmed that garlic
treatment significantly reduces blood pressure in hypertensive individuals
(SBP>140mmHg) after 12 weeks of supplementation with AGE 900mg/day
OHTH2132. Garlic Food Monograph

(standardized to 2.4 mg SAC) in addition to standard treatment. Other studies have

not been that conclusive and the effects were difficult to quantify.

Hyperlipidaemia (1)

Recent studies show significant results of reduced total cholesterol (marginal

improvement in HDL, reduction in LDL) and triglycerides mostly in individuals with
high levels of triglycerides and in long-term interventions (12 weeks to 1 year). Total
cholesterol is most affected by aged garlic and powdered garlic and triglycerides
most affected by powdered preparations. HDL improved more with garlic oil.
600mg fish oil, plus 500mg garlic oil/day for 60 days in hypercholesterolaemic
individuals reduced total cholesterol, LDL, serum triglycerides and very-low -density

Diabetes (1)

300mg*2/day of Alicor, reduces fasting blood sugar level and maintained it at the
mean level below 7.0mmol/L during 4 weeks of treatment in diabetic patients
Comparable effects with metformin diabetic medication in diabetic subjects at high
doses of 1200-1500mg/day over 24 weeks
Significant improvement in postprandial blood glucose level, total cholesterol,
triglycerides, LDL and C-reactive protein when 250mg garlic was combined with
500mg metmorfin

Antiplatelet effect (1)

7.2 g/day of AGE significantly inhibits platelet aggregation and adhesion

Infection (1)

1% ajoene cream 100% cure rate of tinea pedis, tinea corporis and tinea cruris
after 60 days
AGE 2.5 g/day for 90 days significantly reduces the incidence of cold and accelerates
recovery in individuals taking allicin-containing garlic preparations. At day 45, T-cells
and natural killer cells proliferation was significant.
Garlic is effective against H. Pylori infection. 275mg*3/day garlic oil, with or without
omeprazole, produced similar results (confirmed by another study)

Cancer (1)

Has a preventative effect in stomach and colorectal cancer when eaten at least once
a week for stomach cancer and twice a week for colon cancer, raw or cooked
Other studies found no benefit in either dietary or supplement garlic use in reducing
the risk of cancer
High dose AGE 2.4ml/day for 6-12 months, significantly suppressed both the size
and number of colon adenomas
High intake of raw/cooked garlic has a chemoprotective effect
High intake of garlic showed significant protective role against endometrial cancer.
Topical application of ajoene cream showed a reduction in tumour size

Safety issues.
Precautions and Contraindications
OHTH2132. Garlic Food Monograph

Caution in patients with bleeding abnormalities or before major surgery.

Caution in patients with known allergies to sulphurous vegetables.
No side effects in pregnant women but caution is recommended at high doses in
pregnant women in the first trimester

Adverse Reactions
Effects are limited to gastrointestinal discomfort, mainly: bloating, reflux, flatulence
when consumed in large doses (~960mg/day).
Some reports indicated bad odour and breath, allergic reactions, nausea, abdominal
discomfort and diarrhoea when taken on an empty stomach and doses greater than
Garlic is a type 1 allergen due to DADS, allyl propyl disulphide and allylmercaptin.

Drug or Nutrient Interactions (1)

Toxicity in AIDS patients when administered with Ritonavir
May interfere with warfarin and anticoagulants at doses >7g
Potentiation may occur at high doses when administered in combination with
antihypertensive which can be beneficial as adjunctive therapy
Potentiation may occur when used in Helicobacter Pylori triple therapy
Minimizes toxicity when combined with drugs due it its hepatoprotective properties
Reduces paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity
Increases drug serum level when administered together with hydroclorothiazide

Factors affecting food quality

Variations may occur in nutrient levels because of differences in variety, maturity at
harvest, soil quality, sunlight exposure, growing environment, processing and storage
conditions (1)
Although cooking may degrade some of the vitamin C content it will also increase the
bioavailability of other phytonutrients so the overall antioxidant effects should be
maintained (1)
Garlic needs to be chopped, crushed or chewed to activate the enzyme alliinase
which converts alliin to allicin. Allicin is unstable and degrades into other organosulfur
compounds such as ajoene. (1)

The enzyme alliinase can be inactivated by heat. In one study, microwave cooking of
unpeeled, uncrushed garlic totally destroyed alliinase enzyme activity. (9)
Prolonged oven heating or boiling (>6 min.) suppressed the inhibitory effect of
uncrushed and crushed garlic on platelet aggregation, but crushed garlic retained
more antiaggregatory activity compared to uncrushed garlic. (9)
For optimal nutrient formation crush the garlic and allow it to stand for 10 min. before
eating or cooking. (9)
Add chopped garlic towards the end of the cooking time to retain maximum flavour
and nutrition. Too much heat reduces the activity of sulfur compounds and it will also
make garlic bitter. Do not cook longer than 5-15 min. (2)

Buying and Storage suggestions

Choose organic garlic as it is higher in medicinal compounds (1)
Choose fresh, plumb, firm garlic with unbroken skin. Avoid garlic that is soft,
shrivelled, and mouldy or that has begun to sprout as it affects flavour and texture.(2)
OHTH2132. Garlic Food Monograph

Store garlic in a cool, dark place to avoid sprouting and maintain freshness, for no
longer than two months.
Several different types of garlic supplements are available commercially, and each
type provides a different profile of organosulfur compounds depending on how it was
processed. (9)

Therapeutic recommendations (1)

Type 2 Diabetes: Alicor 300mg/day
Hypertension: AGE 480-960mg/day for 12 weeks
Hyperlipidaemia: 600-900mg/day
Hyperglycaemia: 1200-1500mg/day
Fungal infection: 0.4-0.6% Ajoene cream applied twice/daily
Occlusive arterial disease: 600-800mg/day

Preparation/ Recipe Suggestions

Pure fresh garlic and combine with chick peas, tahini, olive oils and lemon juice to
make hummus dip (2)
Saut steamed spinach, garlic and coconut cream. Eat with fried eggs
and beetroot and horseradish salad.
Add garlic to sauces and soups. (2)
Pure roasted garlic, cooked potatoes and olive oil together to make delicious garlic
mashed potatoes. Season to taste. (2)

Word Count: 3747

1. Braun L, Cohen M. (2007) Broccoli. In: Herbs & Natural supplements: an evidence based
guide. 2nd ed. Australia: Elsevier;. p. 44-7, 54-5.
2. Max Wichtl (2004) Herbal drugs and phytopharmaceuticals . A handbook for practice on a
scientific basis. 3rd ed. Medpharm Scientific Publishers Stuttgart
3. USDA (2009) USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, Release 22:
4. WHFoods. (2010) Garlic, raw. World's Healthiest Foods:
5. S.H. Omar, N.A. Al-Wabe (2010) Organosulfur compounds and possible mechanism of
garlic in cancer. Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal Volume 18, Issue 1, January 2010, Pages
6. Mahady, G.B., Allixin, a phytoalexin from garlic, inhibits the growth of Helicobacter Pylori
in vitro, Am. Journal of Gastroenterology, 96:3454-3455, 2001
7. Nishino, H., Nishino, A., Takayasu, J., Iwashima, A., Itakura, Y., Kodera, Y., Matsuura, H.,
and Fuwa, T., Antitumor promoting activity of allixin, a stress compound produced by
garlic, Cancer Journal, 3:20-21, 1990
8. Moriguchi, T., Saito, H., and Nishiyama, N., Aged garlic extract prolongs longevity and
improve spatial memory deficit in senescence accelerated mouse, Biol. Pharm. Bull.,
17:395-307, 1996
9. Linus Pauling Institute
Micronutrient Information Center - Garlic and Organosulfur Compounds
OHTH2132. Garlic Food Monograph
10. WHFoods (2010) Essential Nutrients in the Worlds Healthiest Foods:
11. FSANZ (2006) NUTTAB 2006 Online Version:
12. NIH (2016) National Institute of Health Fact sheets for health professionals
13. Hiromichi Matsuura (2001), Saponins in Garlic as Modifiers of the Risk of Cardiovascular
Disease, JN The journal of nutrition, vol. 131 no. 3 1000S-1005S
14. Harunobu Amagase (2006) Clarifying the Real Bioactive Constituents of Garlic, JN The
journal of nutrition, vol. 136 no. 3 716S-725S
15. University of Maryland Medical Center, Medical reference guide, Complementary and
alternative medicine guide, Supplement

Turnitin submission
Carleta Elena Stan
Assignment title:
Garlic Monogrpah
Submission title:
Garlic Monograph
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15-Apr-2016 22:33 AEST
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