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Mini project list for sem III

The input signal is applied to one side of a capacitor and the the output is
taken across the resistor. A differentiator circuit is used to produce trigger or
spiked typed pulses for timing circuit applications.
When a square wave step input is applied to this RC circuit, it produces a
completely different wave shape at the output. The shape of the output
waveform depending on the periodic time, T (an therefore the frequency, )
of the input square wave and on the circuits RC time constant value.
When the periodic time of the input waveform is similar too, or shorter than,
(higher frequency) the circuits RC time constant, the output waveform
resembles the input waveform, that is a square wave profile. When the
periodic time of the input waveform is much longer than, (lower frequency)
the circuits RC time constant, the output waveform resembles narrow
positive and negative spikes.
The positive spike at the output is produced by the leading-edge of the input
square wave, while the negative spike at the output is produced by the
falling-edge of the input square wave. Then the output of an RC
differentiator circuit depends on the rate of change of the input voltage as
the effect is very similar to the mathematical function of differentiation.
We have seen here that the RC integrator is basically a series RC low-pass
filter circuit which when a step voltage pulse is applied to its input produces
an output that is proportional to the integral of its input. This produces a
standard equation of: Vo = Vidtwhere Vi is the signal fed to the integrator
and Vo is the integrated output signal.
The integration of the input step function produces an output that resembles
a triangular ramp function with an amplitude smaller than that of the
original pulse input with the amount of attenuation being determined by the
time constant. Thus the shape of the output waveform depends on the
relationship between the time constant of the circuit and the frequency
(period) of the input pulse.
An RC integrators time constant is always compared to the period, T of the
input, so a long RC time constant will produce a triangular wave shape with
a low amplitude compared to the input signal as the capacitor has less time
to fully charge or discharge. A short time constant allows the capacitor more
time to charge and discharge producing a more typical rounded shape.
By connecting two RC integrator circuits together in parallel has the effect
of a double integration on the input pulse. The result of this double
integration is that the first integrator circuit converts the step voltage pulse
into a triangular waveform and the second integrator circuit converts the
triangular waveform shape by rounding off the points of the triangular
waveform producing a sine wave output waveform with a greatly reduced
4. RC Low Pass Filter RC low pass filter has a constant output voltage from
D.C. (0Hz), up to a specified Cut-off frequency, ( c ) point. This cut-off
frequency point is 0.707 or -3dB ( dB = -20log Vout/Vin ) of the voltage
gain allowed to pass.The frequency range below this cut-off point c is
generally known as the Pass Bandas the input signal is allowed to pass
through the filter. The frequency range above this cut-off point is
generally known as the Stop Band as the input signal is blocked or stopped
from passing through.
A simple 1st order low pass filter can be made using a single resistor in
series with a single capacitor (or any single reactive component) across an
input signal Vin, while the output signal Vout is taken from across the
capacitor.The cut-off frequency or -3dB point, can be found using the
standard formula, c = 1/(2RC). The phase angle of the output signal
at c and is -45o for a Low Pass Filter.
Mini project list for sem V
1. Automatic Plant Watering System Circuit
This circuit waters the plant once the soil turns dry. By adding timer circuits
and other components, we can extend the flexibility of this project and make
further improvements such that it operates automatically at duration set by

2. Adjustable Ripple-Regulated Power Supply

Using 741
Many instruments and equipments, such as function generator, transmitters,
trans-receivers, high quality stereo system and radio receivers, require
ripple-free power supplies. The most significant feature required in a good
quality power supply, beside load and line regulation, is minimum ripple as
its output in various applications where ripple is not desired, the circuit
adjustable ripple-regulated power supply using 741 for adjustable ripple
regulated power supply works quite satisfactorily
3. Cell Phone Detector Circuit
The most common electronic equipment used is cell phones. With
advancement in communication technology, the requirement of cell phones
has increased manifold. A cell phone typically transmits and receives signals
in the frequency range of 0.9 to 3GHz. This project provides a simple circuit
to detect the presence of an activated cell phone by detecting these signals
Mini project list for sem VII
1. Tuned amplifiers
Tuned amplifier are the amplifiers that are employed for the purpose of tuning.
Tuning means selecting. Among a set of frequencies available, if there occurs a
need to select a particular frequency, while rejecting all other frequencies, such a
process is called Selection. This selection is done by using a circuit called
as Tuned circuit.
2. Design of FIFO Memory
In every item of digital equipment there is exchange of data between printed circuit
boards (PCBs). Intermediate storage or buffering always is necessary when data arrive
at the receiving PCB at a high rate or in batches, but are processed slowly or
irregularly. Buffers of this kind also can be observed in everyday life (for example, a
queue of customers at the checkout point in a supermarket or cars backed up at traffic
lights). The checkout point in a supermarket works slowly and constantly, while the
number of customers coming to it is very irregular. If many customers want to pay at
the same time, a queue forms, which works by the principle of first come, first served.
In electronic systems, buffers of this kind also are advisable for interfaces between
components that work at different speeds or irregularly. Otherwise, the slowest
component determines the operating speed of all other components involved in data
transfer. A FIFO is a special type of buffer. The name FIFO stands for first in first out
and means that the data written into the buffer first comes out of it first. There are
other kinds of buffers like the LIFO (last in first out), often called a stack memory,
and the shared memory. The choice of a buffer architecture depends on the
application to be solved.