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1999 12 350-364
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2000 12 18 567
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A Preliminary Exploration of Morality


and Righteousness in Records of the
Grand Historian - Centered on Tables*

Wang Yen-Yen**

The Tables of Records of the Grand Historian include historical events of people and
pay special attention to annalistic style. The Tables respond to Basic Annals and
Collected Biographies and they all complement with one other. Therefore, the Tables are
a unique literary style. This study investigated the historical origin of morality and
emphasized that morality is associated with destiny. This study further clarified and
analyzed the righteousness in interactions between Emperor and courtiers based on
morality cultivation. The writing motivation of Records of the Grand Historian is to
understand the changes from the past to the present, as well as the core meanings of
Tables: One should practice righteousness even in difficult times. A nation can be
overturned and an Emperor can be killed if he does not practice righteousness. These
ancient metaphors can serve as profound vigilance to the present.

Keywords: Force, Righteousness, Records of the Grand Historian, Table, Morality

* Thanks to the reviewers for making valuable comments to this paper, as well as Prof. Hanchang Xu for inspiration
and guidance. The author assumes the responsibility for the writing.
** Doctoral candidate, Department of chinese, National Kaohsiung Normal University

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