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Structure Question 1:

Figure (a)

Figure (b)
Figure (a) shows the set-up of apparatus to investigate the heating process of substance Y. In this
experiment, solid substance Y was heated in a water bath from room temperature until it turned into gas.
Substance Y was stirred throughout the whole experiment. The temperature of substance Y was recorded
at fixed intervals of time and the graph of temperature against time during the heating of substance Y is
shown in Figure (b) above.

Answer:

1. What is the physical state of naphthalene at the region


1. QR
2. ST
3. TU

2. What is the time when substance Y begins to melt?[1 mark]


3. What is the boiling point of substance Y?[1 mark]
4. Why the temperature of M remains unchanged from time t3 to t2 even though heating continues?

5. Why water bath is used for heating the solid of substance Y?

6. Give a reason why water bath is suitable in this experiment?

7. Name 2 substance, whose boiling point can be determined by using water bath.

8. Given that the boiling point of substance X is around 105C. Why cant we use water bath to
determine the boiling point of substance Y?

9. Suggest another method which can replace water bath in this experiment.

10. Why stirring of substance Y is required throughout the whole experiment?

11. Compare the kinetic energy of particles of substance Y at t1 and t3.

12. State one different in the arrangement of the particles of substance Y before t 1and after t4.

Structure Question 2:

The above diagram shows the apparatus used in an experiment to determine the freezing point of liquid
naphthalene. The liquid naphthalene is cooled from 100C in a conical flask and it is stirred continuously
with a thermometer. The temperature of liquid naphthalene is recorded in every 30 seconds. The results
obtained are tabulated below:

Time (s) 0 30 60 90 120 150 180 210 240 270 300

Temperature (oC) 100 93 85 78 78 78 78 60 43 25 25


Answer:

1. Draw a graph of temperature against time for the cooling of liquid naphthalene. [2 marks]

2. Determine the freezing point of liquid naphthalene from the graph.


3. What is the physical state of naphthalene at
1. 60s
2. 120s
3. 180s

4. Draw the particles arrangement of naphthalene at c.i. and c.iii

c. i.

c. ii.

5. Explain why the temperature remains constant between 3 and 6 minutes?

6. Explain why the boiling tube is placed inside a conical flask during the cooling process.
7. Give a reason why naphthalene needs to be stirred continuously during the process?

8. Will the melting point of naphthalene differ if it is contaminated by other substance?

9. Sketch a graph obtained when solid naphthalene is heated from room temperature (25C) to 100C.

Structure Question 3:

An experiment is conducted to study the change of state of iodine. Some powder of solid iodine is heated
as shown in the Figure above, the black solid iodine changes into a purple gas at 125C. The purple gas
is then cooled by a round bottom flask that fill with ice.
Answer:

1. State the process of change of state demonstrated by iodine at 125C.

2. What can be observed at part R?

3. What is the name of the process when iodine gas turns into iodine solid again?

4. Explain why palm oil is used in the experiment instead of water.

5. Name two other substances which also sublime at atmospheric pressure (1atm).

tructure Question 4:
Table below shows the melting and boiling points of three different substances.
Substance Melting Point Boiling Point
H -120C -5C
I 45C 98C
J 10C 350C

Answer:

1. What is the physical state of H, I and J at room temperature (25C)?

2. Which substance diffuses the fastest at room temperature? Explain your answer.

3. Draw some diagrams to show the arrangement of particles of substance I at 40C, 80C and 120C.

At 40C

At 80C
At 120C

4. What is the name of the process which atoms or molecules of a substance in liquid state gain
sufficient energy to enter the gaseous state below boiling point.

5. Define boiling point.

6. Sketch the graph of temperature against time for substance I when it is cooled from 120C to room
temperature.