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# Structure Question 1:

Figure (a)

Figure (b)
Figure (a) shows the set-up of apparatus to investigate the heating process of substance Y. In this
experiment, solid substance Y was heated in a water bath from room temperature until it turned into gas.
Substance Y was stirred throughout the whole experiment. The temperature of substance Y was recorded
at fixed intervals of time and the graph of temperature against time during the heating of substance Y is
shown in Figure (b) above.

1. QR
2. ST
3. TU

## 2. What is the time when substance Y begins to melt?[1 mark]

3. What is the boiling point of substance Y?[1 mark]
4. Why the temperature of M remains unchanged from time t3 to t2 even though heating continues?

## 6. Give a reason why water bath is suitable in this experiment?

7. Name 2 substance, whose boiling point can be determined by using water bath.

8. Given that the boiling point of substance X is around 105C. Why cant we use water bath to
determine the boiling point of substance Y?

9. Suggest another method which can replace water bath in this experiment.

## 11. Compare the kinetic energy of particles of substance Y at t1 and t3.

12. State one different in the arrangement of the particles of substance Y before t 1and after t4.

Structure Question 2:

The above diagram shows the apparatus used in an experiment to determine the freezing point of liquid
naphthalene. The liquid naphthalene is cooled from 100C in a conical flask and it is stirred continuously
with a thermometer. The temperature of liquid naphthalene is recorded in every 30 seconds. The results
obtained are tabulated below:

## Temperature (oC) 100 93 85 78 78 78 78 60 43 25 25

1. Draw a graph of temperature against time for the cooling of liquid naphthalene. [2 marks]

## 2. Determine the freezing point of liquid naphthalene from the graph.

3. What is the physical state of naphthalene at
1. 60s
2. 120s
3. 180s

c. i.

c. ii.

## 5. Explain why the temperature remains constant between 3 and 6 minutes?

6. Explain why the boiling tube is placed inside a conical flask during the cooling process.
7. Give a reason why naphthalene needs to be stirred continuously during the process?

## 8. Will the melting point of naphthalene differ if it is contaminated by other substance?

9. Sketch a graph obtained when solid naphthalene is heated from room temperature (25C) to 100C.

Structure Question 3:

An experiment is conducted to study the change of state of iodine. Some powder of solid iodine is heated
as shown in the Figure above, the black solid iodine changes into a purple gas at 125C. The purple gas
is then cooled by a round bottom flask that fill with ice.

## 2. What can be observed at part R?

3. What is the name of the process when iodine gas turns into iodine solid again?

## 4. Explain why palm oil is used in the experiment instead of water.

5. Name two other substances which also sublime at atmospheric pressure (1atm).

tructure Question 4:
Table below shows the melting and boiling points of three different substances.
Substance Melting Point Boiling Point
H -120C -5C
I 45C 98C
J 10C 350C

## 1. What is the physical state of H, I and J at room temperature (25C)?

2. Which substance diffuses the fastest at room temperature? Explain your answer.

3. Draw some diagrams to show the arrangement of particles of substance I at 40C, 80C and 120C.

At 40C

At 80C
At 120C

4. What is the name of the process which atoms or molecules of a substance in liquid state gain
sufficient energy to enter the gaseous state below boiling point.

## 5. Define boiling point.

6. Sketch the graph of temperature against time for substance I when it is cooled from 120C to room
temperature.