You are on page 1of 24

International Journal of Business Trends and Technology- volume3Issue1- 2013

Critical Success Factors for the Successful Customer Relationship Management: A Conceptual Case Study

Arpita Mehta
Research Scholar

Abstract Chen & Popovich, 2003). With a CRM approach the

organization is able to treat its customers on an
Customer Relationship Management (CRM)
individual and unique basis (Bose, 2002). Better
technology have integrated the latest information
serving the customer improves long-term customer
technology, including: internet and E-commerce,
loyalty, satisfaction and retention (Chen and
multi-media technology, data warehousing data
Popovich, 2003; Chang, 2007). The change in
mining and artificial intelligence. This is all about the
organizational focus is strongly supported and
value of customer relationship management. It
encouraged by developments in IT (Shah et al, 2006;
congregate the scattering data through the process of
Payne & Frow, 2004; Boulding et al, 2005).
analysis, it provide a comprehensive and holistic
view of certain individual customers. Customer
The Gartner Group first announced CRM as a
Relationship Management originated and prevailed
management philosophy and perceived it as a holistic
among western companies, it has already spread in
perspective for the management of the enterprises,
many East Asian countries, such as: Japan, Korean,
also the companies will equip with better
India and China etc. In order to improve the existing
communication skills. Primarily, it came as an
CRM implementation process and enhance the
answer to the increase in loss of the
success rate of the CRM implementation, we present
customers(Rosenberg & Czepiel,1984). According to
the most important Critical Success Factors for the
(Gartner report, 2009), the cost of winning a new
CRM implementation through literature reviews, the
customer are five times higher than that of
chosen CSFs were based on previous studies in the
maintaining an existing customer, while Reichheld
CRM implementation field, focus on the
and Sasser (1990) estimated that the retention of an
identification of CRM projects, whether they have
additional 5% of customers, can increase profit by
achieved success or subject to obscure deficiency.
nearly 80%. The CRM vendors has created
Subsequently, the literature study will provide us a
spectacular images thrives on the booming
group of CSFs which considered to be a
expectations towards CRMs benefits for the
comprehensive summarization of those most
organization. For those organizations who plan to
important factors for CRM implementation projects.
implement such systems as part of the business
It is a challenging work, still some points are
strategy. However, a huge number of CRM projects
fail, the efforts are proved to be in vain(Coltman,
2006). The current situation of CRM in Chinese
Keywords: CRM, CSF, Relationship Marketing,
commercial banks may encounter the identical
Case Study obstacles as the contemporary foreign banks in
Europe once had, the rate for successful
implementation of CRM in the Chinese commercial
Introduction banks is below 30%, hardly justify the investment on
implementing the CRM systems(Gartner
CRM is not just a project that can be
compartmentalized. Its an evolutionary process
new CRM processes and initiatives happen every
After many years of enthusiasm, customer
year its the way a company organizes itself
relationship management (CRM) which may be
(Campbell, 2003, p. 378). For many organizations
basically defined as a strategic approach with the
CRM became popular to overcome issues of
objective of creating improved shareholder value
increased competition, expanding markets and
through profitable and long-term customer
increasing customer expectations (Richard & Jones,
relationships (Payne and Frow, 2005) faces an
2008). The objective of CRM is to create a customer-
ambivalent discussion today. The reason is that CRM
oriented organization that maximizes customer value
projects can achieve high ROI, but also suffer from
and long-term organizational profitability through
high failure rates. The upside, for instance, is
realization of mutual beneficial, durable relationships
reflected by the fact that the worldwide CRM
with customers (Zablah et al, 2004; Shah et al, 2006;
software market is expected to grow by an average

ISSN: 2249-0183 Page 1

International Journal of Business Trends and Technology- volume3Issue1- 2013

annual rate of 10 % up to $13.3 billion in 2012 technological issues is a key reason of failure (Kale,
(Mertz, 2008). Moreover, companies still spend large 2004). Mostly neglected is the organizational
amounts of money on CRM projects (Thompson, perspective, i. e. the setting in the sense of
2008). The downside is reflected in reported failure structures and processes in which people execute
rates of up to 70 % (Langerak and Verhoef, 2003; operational CRM processes and CRM systems are
Reinartz et al., 2004) which should be subject to embedded. Nevertheless, organizational CSFs are
critical analysis, of course. In order to reduce these necessary to achieve CRM objectives. Just to
failure rates, much IS research has been conducted mention two examples: If it is a CSF to involve the
with respect to CRM-related critical success factors back office as customer contact point, organizational
(CSFs). CSFs are the few fields of action where CRM processes should be shaped respectively in
satisfactory results drive competitive performance order to improve overall customer care. If it is a CSF
(Rockart, 1979). Interestingly, most CSF studies take to analyze the reasons why order were won or lost,
on a project or technological perspective. They the CRM system should provide adequate
thereby neglect that the former often leads to quite functionality in order to foster organizational
abstract CSFs and that reducing CRM to learning.

Table: CRM definitions

Pepper and Rogers 1999 CRM that is created to have a mutual relationship between seller and
the buyer.
Wyner 1999 CRM is a business strategy that increases volume of transaction,
revenue and customer satisfaction.
Blattberg and Deighton 1993 CRM approach is based on positive relationships with customers to
increase customer loyalty.

Xu 2002 CRM is an idea about how a company can keep most profitable
customers by increasing the value of interaction.
Swift 2001 CRM is an approach to understanding and influencing customer
behavior by meaningful communications to increase customer
retention, loyalty and profitability.
Bose 2001 CRM increases customer value, also it can be used to motivate
valuable customers to remain loyal.
Goldenberg 2000 CRM is a one to one approach that tries to have the most information
regarding customers.

A broad strategic approach needs development of a applications (Payne & Frow, 2005, p. 168). Chen
strategic vision, understanding customer value in the and Popovich (2003) agree to this perspective by
multichannel setting, using suitable IT and CRM mentioning three key dimensions that need to be
applications, having excellent processes, high-quality integrated; people, processes and technology. They
execution of those processes and services (Payne & argue that a fully and successfully implemented CRM
Frow, 2005). To reflect this holistic and strategic strategy is a cross-functional, customer-driven,
view, they define CRM as a strategic approach that technology-integrated business process management
is concerned with creating improved shareholder strategy that maximizes relationships and
value through the development of appropriate encompasses the entire organization (p. 673). Zablah
relationships with key customers and customer et al (2004) add to this that CRM is an on-going
segments. CRM unites the potential of relationship process and not a onetime implementation project.
marketing strategies and IT to create profitable, long-
term relationships with customers and other key Later,(Fred Wiersema,2000) Fred Wiersema
stakeholders. CRM provides enhanced opportunities conducted careful investigations and analysis among
to use data and information to both understand large amount of the renowned companies. The results
customers and co-create value with them. This comprehensively explained that the customer focused
requires a cross-functional integration of processes, relationship maintenance. (Roger Cartwright,2001)
people, operations, and marketing capabilities that is Roger Cartwright pointed out: to satisfy the
enabled through information, technology and customers need is no longer the ultimate goal for

ISSN: 2249-0183 Page 2

International Journal of Business Trends and Technology- volume3Issue1- 2013

organizations. Only through providing an innovative holistic and strategic perspective. An organizations
user experiences can bring back the customers. Paul strategy is the basis for its competitive advantage.
Temporal and Martin Trott(2002)discussed the When these factors are not attuned during the CRM
principles of brand building in the CRM and project it becomes difficult, or even impossible to
illustrated that to achieve the success of CRM ,the make other CRM related changes; organizational
companies must completely shift to customer-centric changes should be made in order to contribute to the
strategy, and that a "structural change of thinking" organizations strategy (Daft, 2006).This final
should be emphasized as the core strategy of the category is related to the implementation project
company. Maintenance of the customer relationship itself. These enablers have to do with the
is therefore cost-effective. It has become a vital part implementation of the project and change
for most of the organizations business strategy, management. Implementation can be made successful
prompting extensive deployment of Customer by making changes in leadership, structural design,
Relationship Management (CRM) systems (Morgan human resources and information and control
& Hunt, 1994; Kim et al., 2003). systems. A strategys success depends on the
Firms produce according to the customers implementation of thoughts into action thereby using
expectations and due to these changes it is preferred managerial, administrative and persuasive abilities.
that companies concentrate on small customer When the manager carries out the plans himself,
segments. Hence, close relationship with customers employees are more committed to contribute as well
increased (Chatham et al., 2002)since they are not (Daft, 2006). There is only one boss the customer.
same in their wants and expectations. According to And he can fire everybody in the company from the
the techniques of customer relationship management, chairman on down, simply by spending his money
relationship marketing focuses on individual somewhere else (S. Walton, n.d.).
customers. The firm must also be customer centric
rather than product focused. Companies that focus Shaw and Reed (1999) gave out their definition about
upon customers try to serve them in the best manner CRM as an interactive approach which aims at
to satisfy them. It can be done by integrating achieving that an optimum balance between
marketing activities and the business process of the corporate investments and the satisfaction of
company. They also adopt themselves with changes; customer needs to generate maximum profit in
hence, they will be more flexible to respond aspects such as marketing, sales, and service. The
to changes in customers needs (Field and Shutler, goal of implementing the CRM is to continuously
1990, Bowen and Hedges, 1993, Conlon, 1999, advance the business working flows and apply the
Prabhaker, 2001, Flint et al., 2002, Bign et al., updated knowledge to better serve the customers.
2004).In the present study the researcher is trying to However, implementation of such a system is not a
identify the success factors of customer relationship panacea, and is not sufficient to transform a
management . production oriented organization into a customer-
oriented one (Kanji, 2002; Chang, 2005).Gummesson
Following from the abovementioned, it can be said (2002b) has considered four fundamental values for
that an organization needs appropriate processes to relationship marketing. First, the activities regarding
collect, analyse and apply customer information into relationship marketing do not focus upon a
all organizational areas to increase value delivery to specialized department. This means there must be a
the customer. An organization can benefit fully from marketing orientation of the whole company. Second,
the advantages of CRM when they approach it in a relationship marketing emphasizes on long-term
holistic way (Payne & Frow, 2004).study of AMR collaboration, so companies should view their
Research revealed that the popularity of CRM is suppliers and customers as partners(Halln et al.,
growing; in 2007 the CRM software market was 1987), where the goal is to create mutual value. The
worth $14 billion, a 12 per cent growth compared to relationship must be meaningful for all those
2006. This research predicted a further growth of the involved, with the purpose of retaining long- term
market to over $22 billion in 2012 (Lager, 1 July relationships with parties. Third, all parties should
2008). Strategic factors are the first category of CSFs accept responsibilities. Relationship must also be
for CRM execution. This category is related to the interactive(Guenzi and Pelloni, 2004) which means
enablers and barriers that have to do with decisions customer can initiate improvements or innovation of
and activities that determine the position and the product(Gupta et al., 2004). Fourth, customers
direction of the organization. This is an important should be considered as individuals, suppliers' task is
category for CRM, because CRM is meant to create a also to create value for the customers. Thus,
competitive advantage for the organization in the

ISSN: 2249-0183 Page 3

International Journal of Business Trends and Technology- volume3Issue1- 2013

obviously it can besaid that all these ideas lead to business strategy leverages marketing, operations,
customer relationship management. sales, customer service, human resources, research
and development and finance, as well as information
Gray and Byun (2001) explain that the concept of technology and the internet to maximize profitability
customer relationship management is very easy. of customer interactions. Reichheld(2000) and Bin-
Instead of focusing to a mass of people or companies, Xing(2005) has explained those companies that have
it goes for each individual customer. A one to one applied customer relationship management resulted
approach tries to have information on a customers in more competition, higher revenues and lower
needs and wants, so the products and services offered operational costs; it also increases customer
will be accepted better. Peppers and Rogers (1999) satisfaction and retention rates. In the same way
believe that some organizations consider customer Kassanof (2000) has explained customer relationship
relationship management as a technology that management brings customer loyalty and profitability
extends separate databases and sales force such like repeat purchases and longevity that means
automation tools to bridge sales and marketing customers understand that they are benefiting
functions in order to improve targeting efforts. because of time saving and money as well as
However, to other organizations customer receiving better information and
relationship management is a tool specifically special treatment. In fact, CRM has developed as an
designed for one-to-one customer communications, a approach based on maintaining positive relationships
sole responsibility of sales and service, call centers, with customers, increasing customer loyalty, and
or marketing departments. expanding customer lifetime value(Blattberg and
Deighton, 1996).
All the strategies have to be systematically
implemented in the information systems, so the Some advantages that appear from effective CRM are
emphasis on process does make sense. CRM improved possibilities to target profitable customers,
architecture( Geib et al.,2004)is composed of the integrated offerings across channels, personalized
relevant business processes which have been marketing messages, increased profits and improved
identified through a comprehensive analysis. The customer relationships (Richard & Jones, 2008; Ko et
processes are varied as: CRM delivery process: al, 2008). Ryals (2005) found for example an
processes with direct contact to the customer, and improvement of 270 per cent of a departments
CRM analysis and support processes: processes that profits by applying CRM measures. On the contrary,
collect and analyze the customer information that will organizations face disadvantages as well, especially
require a wide-ranging overhaul of organizational when they do not pursue a clear and consistent
structures, employee training and rewarding system, definition of CRM (Chen & Popovich, 2003; Rigby
as well as appropriate IT support (Chen & Popovich, et al, 2002; Richard & Jones, 2008). They are not
2003). Related to the holistic approach described in able to measure their results from CRM, and are thus
the previous section, critical success factors of CRM not able to make necessary adjustments (Richard &
execution are identified from literature. The selected Jones, 2008; Lindgreen et al, 2006). (Nguyen,2007)
articles are a mix of conceptual and empirical pointed out that CRM processes were all supported
findings. According to the authors CRM execution is by the information systems, in which large amount of
affected by these factors. An organization should data can be stored and processed. The request and
assess and align these aspects to the specific context delivery of the customer information can be
before CRM execution can be effective (Eid, 2007); facilitated. (Shahnam,2000)Shahnam categorized the
the effect of an enabler differs over organizational CRM systems into three sub-categories: Operational
contexts (Mendoza et al, 2007; Boulding et al, 2005; CRM systems which can improve the efficiency of
Zablah et al, 2004). the existing business, and support relevant business
processes. Analytical CRM systems which can store
and process the customer information which handled
Goldenberg (2000) has emphasized, Customer by the data warehousing tools or relational database
relationship management is not merelytechnology systems. Last but not least, collaborative CRM
applications for marketing, sales and service, but systems which can manage the customer-company
rather, when fully and successfully implemented a interactions and keep consistent communication.
cross-functional, customer-driven, technology- However, this broadness in defining CRM and
integrated business process management strategy that differences in perspectives regard it could be a result
maximizes relationships and encompasses the entire of a new emergence of the concept into two fields of
organization. Customer relationship management

ISSN: 2249-0183 Page 4

International Journal of Business Trends and Technology- volume3Issue1- 2013

study, marketing and information technology Others distinguish CRM in a particular technological
(DaSilva and Rahimi, 2007). solution, wide-ranging technology and a holistic
approach (Payne & Frow, 2005) and in technology,
The strategic factors express the direction the business and consumer perspectives (Teo et al, 2006).
organization is planning to go. However, strategic When an organization wants to implement CRM,
factors do not result in a successful business by involved parties need to be on the same level to work
themselves. This second category of factors is towards a common objective. The way they pursue
concerned with the development of the organization CRM, significantly affects acceptance and practices
to support the followed strategy. Thesefactors are the of CRM (Payne & Frow, 2005; Zablah et al, 2004).
components that shape and structure the organization
to contribute to successful execution of the chosen Swift (2000) has defined customer relationship
strategy. The organization should be structured in the management as an enterprise approach to
way it fits in the environment the organization understanding and influencing customer behavior
operates in, i.e. economic, political, legal, regulatory, through meaningful communications in order to
social and technological environment. Organizational improve customer acquisition, customer retention,
design is an ongoing process to align the customer loyalty, and customer profitability. Thus,
environment, the strategy and the organization which according to explanations and the stated definitions
are constantly changing and evolving (Roberts, of CRM, the researcher concluded that generally, all
2007). the definitions of Customer Relationship
Management revolve around creating a kind of
Finally, Versleijen and Pradham(2000) have asserted situation that incorporates customers in the best way.
that in recent years, companies have a new trend to CRM implementation also leads to mutual
implement customer relationship management as a relationship that is beneficial for both companies and
factor that will allow them to survive in the new customers. Companies will be able to render products
market conditions, favoring the relationship with and services to customers at the right time and right
their customers.Regarding the definitions of CRM, place.
there have been many definitions made by several
researchers. Among them is Wyner (1999) who has
defined customer relationship management as a This category of CSFs is related to the capabilities of
business strategy that increases volume of employees with regard to their job tasks which have
transaction. It tries to increase profitability, revenue, to contribute to the strategy. Two elements of
and customer satisfaction. Bose and Sugamaran strategic human resource management are employee
(2003)have explained that customer relationship skills and employee behavior. These aspects are
management is about managing the knowledge on argued to affect sustainable competitive advantage
customers to understand and serve them better. It is (Barney et al, 2001). With regard to CRM within an
an umbrella concept that places customers at the international organizations subsidiary, this is
centre of an organization. Thus, customer service is expected to be mainly about the skills at the
an important part of CRM. In addition, CRM is also operational level, although the local management
concerned with coordinating customer relations teams are involved in the strategic development as
across all business functions, points of interaction well. Headquarters is in charge of the strategic part of
and audiences. CRM. Daft (2006, p. 401) argues that a new idea
will not benefit the organization until it is in place
and being fully used. An idea can only be
What became clear is that CRM is about creation of implemented and being used in the optimal way
value for the customer. Therefore collecting, when the employees have the skills and behavior that
analysing and applying customer data is essential are needed to support it.
(Chang, 2007; Payne & Frow, 2005; Chen &
Popovich, 2003; Zablah et al, 2004). Although value
creation and customer knowledge are important Laplaca(2004) has emphasized that customer
concepts in customer relationship literature, relationship management is a mutual relationship
conceptualization of CRM is not clear, because it is between the customer and the seller that is beneficial
labelled in many different ways. For instance, Zablah to both. Dyche(2002) believes that CRM is the
et al. (2004) found 45 definitions of CRM which they infrastructure that enables the delineation of an
divide over five perspectives: process, strategy, increase in customer value and the correct means by
philosophy, capability, and/or technological tool. which to motivate valuable customers to remain

ISSN: 2249-0183 Page 5

International Journal of Business Trends and Technology- volume3Issue1- 2013

loyal-indeed to buy again. Xu (2002) states that Thus, although organizations expect high benefits, it
basically, customer relationship management is an is not easy to reach satisfaction on a CRM project as
idea regarding how a company can keep their most it costs lots of time, energy and money. For effective
profitable customers by increasing the value of execution of a CRM project it is important to
interaction. The value is maximized through understand which aspects are affecting it; this
differentiation of the management of customer increases the chance of positive results.
relationships. In another definition Xu has explained
that customer relationship management is a notion
regarding how an organization can keep their most Employees make or break an organizational
important customers and at the same time reduce strategy. Besides the abovementioned skills, they
costs, increase the values of interaction consequently have to be willing to cooperate. As mentioned, skills
maximize the profits. and attitude contribute to a persons behavior. It is
necessary to have employees with the right attitude to
AMR Research showed that only 20% of CRM collaborate with a strategy or project. Daft (2006)
software projects were successful around 1996. This mentions four reasons why employees would refuse
increased to over 70% in 2001 (Kerstetter, 2001). to cooperate in a change process; self-interest, lack of
More recent AMR Research revealed that the failure understanding and trust, uncertainty, and different
rates for the years 2005, 2006 and 2007 respectively assessments and goals. To stimulate collaboration he
were 18%, 31% and 29% (Krigsman, 2009). Over the suggests communication and education, participation,
years organizations became more and more satisfied negotiation, coercion and top management support.
with CRM software projects in their companies, but a Thus, besides the right skills, the employees need
significant number is still dissatisfied. This means supporting attitudes which together determine
that there are opportunities to improve CRM projects. employee behavior.

ISSN: 2249-0183 Page 6

International Journal of Business Trends and Technology- volume3Issue1- 2013

rates of CRM implementation is relatively low which

can not neither match up with the huge investments
Research Questions
on the CRM projects, nor to meet with the
expectations of the management team. Thus many
What are the major reasons which can lead researches have been done on finding out the reasons
to the failure of the CRM implementation? which lead to the failure of CRM projects(Rigby,
Can you discuss the advantages for having 2002; Zablah et al, 2004). There are many reasons
CSFs in CRM implementation? that can cause the failure of the CRM. Overall, those
What are the challenges and problems for reasons are related with different components and
CRM implementation? processes of the CRM(Goodhue ,2002). Some of the
As youve mentioned the human factor plays factors such as top management support, transparent
a very important role for the success of internal process, clear link between the CRM project
CRM, can you tell me why? and the company's business strategy, concern on the
Why we need the CRM systems? Can you ROI(return on investment)will eventually contribute
describe clearly about the benefits of CRM? to the success of the CRM implementation(Sherif &
What does a CRM business strategy Newby, 2007) . From another perspective,
(Chalmeta, 2006) Chalmeta presented some of the
include? factors that lead to the failure of the CRM, such as:

Research Objectives Take CRM just as a technology

Insufficient support from the management
To identify the critical success factors for Not focus on customer
the customer relationship management Business process is not ready for CRM
Very poor data quality
To increase the understanding of CRM Strategy and vision are vague
Customer havent been involved during the CRM
To identify the critical failure factors
solution design
affecting the implementation of CRM
Besides this, Forsyth (2001) conducted a research on
To justify and validate the summarized 700 companies to study the causes of the CRM
critical success factors (CSFs) and suggest project failure, including: organizational change
how to best reach success according to these (29%), company policies/inertia (22%), little
factors understanding of CRM (20%), and poor CRM skills
(6%). King and Burgess( 2007)summarized four
main pitfalls for CRM implementation :
Exploring CRM implementation failures
Implementation of CRM without properly set the
According to Hackney(2000), although CRM customer strategy
software vendors may be able to entice organizations Adopt CRM solution without evaluate the
with promises of all-powerful applications, till now companys situation
there is no such perfect solution. And Prefer advanced CRM technology instead of
Schweiger(2000)suggested that possible risks such as accessing their suitability.
project failure, inadequate return on investment, Not focus on retaining the customer
unplanned project budget revisions, unhappy
customers, vanished employee confidence, and In sum, the main reasons that lead to the failure of
diversion of key management time and resources CRM project are identified through literature study
must be well thought out. Later Mr.Mier Ai(2004) which had been listed above. The possible measure to
pointed out that most commercial banks do not deal with these problems can be solved through the
consider themselves as agents providing services to clear identification of success factors .
customers where customer are clients who deserve to
be well treated. We have pointed out that the success

ISSN: 2249-0183 Page 7

International Journal of Business Trends and Technology- volume3Issue1- 2013

CRM failure : Lack of top management support ( Sherif and Newby, 2007; Chalmeta, 2006)
CRM failure causes: Lack of customers involvement (Plakoyiannakiet al,2008 ; McCalla et al, 2003)
CRM failure causes: lack of managing (poor) structure change and redesign ( Kale, 2004; Forsyth, 2001)
CRM failure causes: lack of managing culture change( Chalmeta, 2006; King and Burgess, 2007)
CRM failure causes: Lack of skilful employees (Forsyth, 2001; (Bohling et al, 2006)
CRM failure causes: Lack/poor of CRM measures (Mendoza et al, 2007)
CRM failure causes: Poor data quality, management, and integration: (Chalmeta, 2006); Kale, 2004; Missi et al,
CRM failure causes: Poor IT management/integration (Brink, 2005 ; Meyer and Kolbe,2005)
CRM failure causes:: Lack of crossfunctional/ inter-departmental integration (Sherif and Newby, 2007; Mayer,
CRM failure Lack of clear CRM strategy and vision (Sherif and Newby, 2007; Chalmeta, 2006)

Literature Review critical success factors will be described and then the
factors will be discussed. Croteau (2003) says,
Extant literature about CRM discusses critical ''Critical success factors for CRM are the limited
success factors (CSFs) for CRM in general and number of areas that must achieve satisfactory results
success factors in some industries, e.g. financial to make CRM implementation a success..
services and automotive industry (Payne & Frow,
2005; Campbell, 2003; Lindgreen et al, 2006). In line
with the objective to increase value for the customer,
there is one article that identifies types of value Mankoff(2001), Meredith(2000), Nguyen (2007)
customers are looking for and that are offered by explained that from the beginning of the project, the
luxury organizations (Tynan et al, 2010). Another expected goals or benefits from implementing CRM
article elaborates the reasons why luxury brands should be determined. However, some organizations
should apply CRM, the results CRM might realize make it clear, but many projects fail since this factor
and what needs to be done to preserve the luxury has been ignored. It should be clarified what the
status (Cailleux et al, 2009).The way organizations company is trying to get from CRM. Is the company
approach their customers is changing over time. A trying to enhance customer satisfaction? Is the
rough distinction in business approaches can be made company attempting to reduce the customer retention
between product orientation and customer rates? Is the company trying to improve customer
orientation. Being customer-oriented is becoming of response times? To achieve all these objectives there
more interest by organizations, because these are some solutions, but they should be prioritized,
organizations are able to improve their customer and then the CRM technology should be selected
relationships. Thereby they create more loyal and accordingly. The needs of CRM project should be
satisfied customers which results in better guided by the business goals. The features that do not
organizational results in the short-term and long-term help company to provide better services and products
(Chen & Popovich, 2003). Organizations develop to customers should be removed (Mankoff,
relationship management programs to improve 2001).The tools and technology of CRM should be
relationships with their customers (Campbell, 2003), matched with the systems in the company(Meredith,
for example by using relationship marketing 2000). It means that try to change the tools of CRM
instruments as loyalty programs and direct mailings as a natural part of customer service interaction. For
(Verhoef, 2003). example, a major manufacturer of pet foods producer
has designed pop-up screens for the toll-free
To execute those programs successfully, internal consumer phone line. In this system, the final pop-up
organizational factors need to be involved and screen impelled the representative to ask customers
adapted (e.g. Keramati et al, 2010; Zablah et al, 2004; name and address, but after they have understood
Lindgreen et al, 2006). Therefore, Chen and this, it is becoming more natural if representatives
Popovich (2003) suggest alignment of people, themselves ask the customers Whats your name?
processes and technology within an enterprise-wide, Where are you calling from? and Whats your
customer-driven, technology-integrated and cross- pets name? in the beginning of the call (Anderson
functional organization (p. 675).Some studies have et al., 1994). Customers and end users should
been carried out to determine critical success factors participate in the designing as well as the functioning
of CRM implementation. First, the definition of of CRM project, so they will have a better idea on

ISSN: 2249-0183 Page 8

International Journal of Business Trends and Technology- volume3Issue1- 2013

how CRM support them. In addition, by employees

active participation, managers will not face any According to the success factors of CRM, the
resistance from them(Ribbers and Schoo, 2002, researcher concluded the followings: To provide the
Wilson et al., 2002, Croteau and Li, 2003, Mendoza basics of CRM such as CRM software from inside
et al., 2007, King and Burgess, 2008, Shum et al., the company so, no mismatch between the business
2008). process and CRM software will occur. Top managers
and all employees should participate deliberately in
Employees at all levels have to gather information on the implementation of the technology. In addition,
CRM implementation accurately. If they are well- top managers and CEOs have to get feedback
informed about CRM project, the implementation of regularly to be sure that all departments are well
the project is expected to be successful and the data integrated. Employees training will be helpful since
will be used merely in other CRM projects (Anderson they know the purposes of CRM implementation and
and Kerr, 2002). Not only the cooperation of all how they have to work with it, so managers will not
employees is needed to implement CRM, the see any rejection from employees.
cooperation and support from executives also have a According to vision and mission of organization, the
great role in the success of the project, thus, top goals and the expected results of CRM
managers must actively support the project. In some implementation should be clarified, so every one that
cases, CRM implementation is crucial for company is engaged with the technology knows how much
and the top executives and managers should inform work should be done to achieve the desired
all employees of the company (Mendoza, results.Success factors have received increasing
2007).Training of the end-users is also very attention within the literature of CRM. Many
important, it means that rendering and arranging publications of researchers and practitioners have
training courses can be a great help to addressed the area of CRM success factors (Pan et al.
implementation of the project since it leads to the 2007,Becker et al, 2009,Bohling et al, 2006, Callieux
success of the project. It should be considered that et al, 2009,Campbell, 2003,Chen and Popovich,
training must be done in the beginning of CRM 2003,Eid, 2007, Helander and Moller, 2007,Keramati
project(Bose, 2002). In another word, by training, and Mehrabi, 2009,Keramati et al, 2009, Kim et al,
employees will understand fully the positive impacts 2002,Kim and Kim, 2009, Lindgreen et al,
of CRM technology to render better products and 2006,Mendoza et al, 2007, Payne and Frow,
services to customers so, they will accept the changes 2005,Radcliff, 2001,Rigby et al, 2002,Ryals and
easier. It should be considered that to be supported by Knox, 2001, Shah et al, 2006,Teo et al, 2006, Wu,
employees, they should 2008,Yu, 2001,Zablah et al, 2004).). Following
be involved from the very beginning of the project Tables are a summary for the previous studies on the
(Mankoff, 2006). CRM success factors.

Table: The development of CRM

Year Issues
1950s Consumers were impressed by glitz and glamour in marketing and sales
Cooperation between sales and marketing does not exist
Mass marketing swiped a big chunk of sales role
1960s Marketers struggled to deliver different messages to different generations.
1970s Product focus was on being hip or cool as consumer knowledge increased.
1980s Customers started seeing more options and more opportunity to have things their way
and demanding more individual attention, responsiveness and customization.
Early customer contact management applications began to appear.
Marketing and sales focused on aiming messages at the individual customers.

ISSN: 2249-0183 Page 9

International Journal of Business Trends and Technology- volume3Issue1- 2013

1990 Database marketing technology started marking its way to the desktop.
First packaged contact management solutions appeared.
Formal telemarketing programs, multilevel customer service solutions within
industry segments were introduced.
1997-2000 The CRM market place began to mature.
The market for front-office solutions focused on customers grew explosively.
The use of ERP systems to manage the back and expanded.
1999 Companies will rapidly adopt service-based CRM. Mobile CRM solution will appear.
Componentised CRM services and peer-to-peer CRM will be introduced.
Continued growth in web-enabled CRM is expected.
Custom CRM solutions appeared.
Customer interaction on the Web began.
Disparate functions by sales, marketing and service are finally linked together
evolving what relationship marketing needed a long time ago.
First packaged sales force automation solutions became available.

ISSN: 2249-0183 Page 10

International Journal of Business Trends and Technology- volume3Issue1- 2013

King Top Commun KM Willingnes Willingne Technologica Cultural Process System integration capabilities
and managem ication capabilities s to ss to l change change
Burgess ent of CRM share data change readiness / customer capabilities
(2007) support strategy process orientation
Da Silva CRM Project Top Project Clint Connectivity Skilful Technical Client Monito Commu Troubl BPS
and philosoph mission management schedule consultati personnel tasks acceptan ring nication eshooti and
Rahimi y commitment and plan on ce and ng soft
(2007) feedba ware
ck confi
Pan and Evolution Timefra Reorganization Minimize Time and Customer No culture Use of the Measure Management involvement
et al. path me customizati budget involvement conflict CRM ment
(2007) on managem system
ent managers
Alt and Evolution Timefra Organizational System Change Top management support
Puschma Path me redesign architecture managem
nn ent
Mendoz Senior Creating Objective Interdepart Communi Staff Customer Custome Sales Marketi Support Custom Inf
a et al managem of definition mental cation commitment information r automati ng for er orm
(2006) ent multi integration the CRM management service on automat operationa contact atio
commitm disciplin strategy to ion l manage n
ent ary the managem ment syst
team staff ent ems
Saloman Top Change Significant Clearly Sufficient Understandi Extensive IT
et al managem in customer data defined resources ng support
(2005) ent corporat CRM of customer
commitm e processes behaviour
ent culture
Chalmet Awarenes Defining Creation of Official Developm Monitoring Prevent Motivate Measure the
a (2005) s among vision committee appointmen ent and to resistance staff degree of
managem and t of approval control time to change participation/Asses
ent objective coordinates of the slippage the results
s project

ISSN: 2249-0183 Page 11

International Journal of Business Trends and Technology- volume3Issue1- 2013


Roh et Process Custome System Efficiency Customer Profitability

al. fit r support satisfactio
(2005) informati n
Eid Top Organiza Developing a Clear Benchmar Employee CRM Integratio Trainin Realisti Enterpris Personali Custo Dat
(2007) managem tional clear project king s softwar n with g c CRM e zation mer a
ent culture CRM strategy vision/scop acceptanc e other implem performa orient mi
support e e selectio systems entatio nce ation nin
n n metrics g
schedul for CRM
Siebel Clear Back- Software customizati on
(2004) communi office
cat integrati
ion of on
Chen Champio Business System KM Culture/structure change
and n -IT integration
Chen leadershi alignmen
Roh et p and t
al. internal
(2005) marketing
Croteau Top Technol KM capabilities
and Li Managem ogical
(2003) ent Readines
Support s
Goodhu Top Vision Willingness Willingness to
e et al. Managem to share data
(2002) ent change
Support process

ISSN: 2249-0183 Page 12

International Journal of Business Trends and Technology- volume3Issue1- 2013

Wilson Gain Ensure Define Gain board Identify Organis Address Involve Manage Leverage Rapid Protot Manage Desig
et al champion market approval awareness need for e culture users in IT models strategy ype for n for
(2002) / orientati procedures of business around change system infrastruct of /action new delivery flexib
sponsor on which allow strategic system custome design ure best loop proce of ility
for potential of convergen r practice to sses benefits
uncertainty IT ce experim
Mankoff Establish Align Get executive Let . Use Activel Invest Use a Measure,
(2001) measurab business support up business Minimize trained, y in phased monitor, and
le and IT front goals drive customiza experie involve training Training track
business operatio functionalit tion by nced end to rollout
goals ns y leveraging consulta users in empowe schedule
out-ofthe- nts solution r end
box design users
Wilson Gain Ensure Define Gain board Identify Organis Address Involve Manage Leverage models Rapid Prototyp Ma
et al. champion market approval awareness need for e culture users in IT of best practice strategy/ e new nag
(2002) /sponsor orientati procedures of strategic business around change system infrastruct action processes e
on which allow potential of system custome design ure loop to for
for IT convergen r Design experime deli
uncertainty ce for nt ver
flexibili y
ty of
Goodhu Top Vision Vision Willingnes Willingness to
e et al. managem (again) s to share data
(2002) ent change
support processes
Croteau Top Technol Knowledge Technological readiness
and Li managem ogical management (again)
(2003) ent readiness capabilities
Siebel Clear Back- Software customization
(2004) communi office
cation of integrati

ISSN: 2249-0183 Page 13

International Journal of Business Trends and Technology- volume3Issue1- 2013

strategy on

Chen Champio Business System Knowledge Culture/str Business-IT alignment

and n -IT integration manageme ucture (again)
Chen leadershi alignmen nt change
(2004) p and t

ISSN: 2249-0183 Page 14

International Journal of Business Trends and Technology- volume3Issue1- 2013

Critical success factor Reference

Alignment with key stakeholder groups Becker et al, 2009,Bohling et al, 2006,
Channel integration Callieux et al, 2009,Campbell, 2003,
Company-wide CRM Chen and Popovich, 2003,Eid, 2007,
CRM capabilities employees (operational and Helander and Moller, 2007,Keramati and Mehrabi,
management) 2009,Keramati et al, 2009,
CRM goals/objectives Kim et al, 2002,Kim and Kim, 2009,
CRM strategy Lindgreen et al, 2006,Mendoza et al, 2007,
Cross-functional cooperation Payne and Frow, 2005,Radcliff, 2001,
Customer data collection Rigby et al, 2002,Ryals and Knox, 2001,
Customer knowledge Shah et al, 2006,Teo et al, 2006,
Customer segmentation Wu, 2008,Yu, 2001,Zablah et al, 2004
Customer systems integration
Customer-centric culture
Customer-centric philosophy
Customer-oriented processes (operational and
Employee behavior/attitude
Incentive system
Information technology
Internal communication
Management attitude
Market orientation
Organizational alignment
Organizational structure
Performance measures
Project champion
Training program

Alignment of CRM and business strategy / with IT strategy / with key stakeholders (Langerak and Verhoef, 2003;
Bohling et al., 2006; Rigby et al., 2002)
Approval procedures allowing for uncertainty (Wilson et al., 2002)
Board awareness of strategic potential of IT (Wilson et al., 2002)
Continuous evaluation (Bose, 2002; Payne and Frow, 2006; Bull, 2003)
CRM ownership at corporate level (Bohling et al., 2006)
CRM process (Kim et al., 2002)
Customer-centric organization (Langerak and Verhoef, 2003; Wilson et al., 2002; Bose, 2002; Rigby et al., 2002;
Payne and Frow, 2006)
Design for flexibility (Wilson et al., 2002)
Effective sourcing strategy (Kim et al., 2002; Bull, 2003)
Effective targeting strategy (Bull, 2003)
Focus on customer needs (Rigby et al., 2002)
Identification of customer/decision interaction points (Bose, 2002)
Integration of external expertise / Project Team Skills (Kim et al., 2002; Bose, 2002; Payne and Frow, 2006)
Knowledge management capabilities (Croteau and Li, 2003)
Long-term perspective / Staging project / Holistic approach (Langerak and Verhoef, 2003; Bose, 2002; Rigby et al.,

ISSN: 2249-0183 Page 15

International Journal of Business Trends and Technology- volume3Issue1- 2013

Provision of all necessary customer information / Customer data redesign (Bose, 2002)
Realistic expectations / Feasibility study (Langerak and Verhoef, 2003; Bose, 2002; Payne and
Frow, 2006)
Solid training program (Bose, 2002)
Top management support (Langerak and Verhoef, 2003; Bohling et al., 2006; Croteau and Li, 2003; Wilson et al.,
2002; Bose, 2002; Bull, 2003)
User involvement during system design (Kim et al., 2002; Wilson et al., 2002)

Limitations Awareness among management

This paper analyzes the CSFs of CRM, based on Back-office integration
research of the previous studies in western countries. Benchmarking
The summery of the CSFs acts as a guide for Board awareness of strategic potential of IT
improving the success rates of CRM projects. The BPS and software configuration
literature, which have been evaluated is limited since Business process redesign
the current research on this subject are insufficient, Business-IT alignment
thus this leads to the identified CSFs from literature Champion leadership and internal marketing
study, and will reflects more of the western world Change in corporate culture
scenarios. The decision of selecting only literature Change management
study instead of other research methodologies was Channel integration
based on the purpose of conducting a concentrated, Clear communication of strategy
and in-depth investigation towards the identified Clearly defined CRM processes
research questions. Of course, adopting various Client acceptance
methods can have advantages in providing more
Clint consultation
comprehensive views. And at the mean time, limit
Communication the CRM strategy to the
the chance of wrong doings during the research.
Company-wide CRM
Proposed Framework Connectivity
Critical Success Factor (CSF) is defined as a method Continuous evaluation
that can help the organizations to identify the factors Creating of multi disciplinary team
which considered to be critical for its success, and the Creation of committee
ignorance of such factors always lead to the failure CRM capabilities employees (operational
and loss of the organization(Huotari and Wilson, and management)
2001).This method has been widely applied to many CRM goals/objectives
industries, and cited in various fields of study. CRM ownership at corporate level
(Esteves and Pastor 2001) Esteves and Pastor defined CRM philosophy
CSF as the limited number of areas in which results, CRM process
if satisfactory, will ensure competitive behavior for CRM software selection
the organizations.Esteves and Pastor (2001) defined CRM strategy
that the success factors are a group of factors which Cross-functional cooperation
stands for certain purposes, if those factors have been Culture/structure change
well achieved, it will ensure the satisfactory result of Customer contact management
the project. Below is a list of CSFs
Customer data collection
Customer information management
Actively involve end users in solution
Customer information quality
Customer interaction
Address culture change
Align business and IT operations Customer involvement
Customer knowledge
Alignment of CRM and business strategy /
with IT strategy / with key stakeholders Customer orientation
Alignment with key stakeholder groups Customer satisfaction
Approval procedures allowing for Customer segmentation
uncertainty Customer service

ISSN: 2249-0183 Page 16

International Journal of Business Trends and Technology- volume3Issue1- 2013

Customer systems integration Long-term perspective / Staging project /

Customer-centric culture Holistic approach
Customer-centric organization Manage for delivery of benefits
Customer-centric philosophy Manage IT infrastructure
Customer-oriented processes (operational Management attitude
and management) Management involvement
Data management (quality/ fluency) Management support
Data mining Market orientation
Define approval procedures which allow for Marketing automation
uncertainty Measure the degree of participation/Asses
Defining vision and objectives the results
Design for flexibility Measure, monitor, and track
Development and approval of the project Measurement
plan Minimize customization by leveraging out-
Effective sourcing strategy of the- box functionality
Effective targeting strategy Monitoring and feedback
Efficiency Monitoring to control time slippage
Employee behavior/attitude Motivate staff
Employee training No culture conflict
Employees acceptance Objective definition
Ensure market orientation Official appointment of coordinates
Enterprise performance metrics for CRM Organize around customer
Establish measurable business goals Organizational alignment
Evolution Path Organizational culture
Evolution path Organizational redesign
Extensive IT support Organizational structure
Focus on customer needs Performance measures
Gain board awareness of strategic potential Personalization
of IT Prevent resistance to change
Gain champion/sponsor Process change capabilities
Get executive support up front Process fit
Identification of customer/decision Profitability
interaction points Project champion
Identify need for business system Project mission
convergence Project schedule and plan
Incentive system Prototype new processes
Information systems integration Provision of all necessary customer
Information technology information / Customer data redesign
Integration of external expertise / Project Rapid strategy/action loop to experiment
Team Skills Realistic CRM implementation schedule
Integration with other systems Realistic expectations / Feasibility study
Interdepartmental integration Reorganization
Internal communication Sales automation
Internal department cooperation Senior management commitment
Invest in training to empower end users Significant customer data
Involve users in system design Design for Skilful personnel
flexibility Software customization
IT systems( management/integration) Solid training program
Knowledge management capabilities Staff commitment
Knowledge management capabilities Sufficient resources
Let business goals drive functionality Support for operational management
Leverage models of best practice System architecture

ISSN: 2249-0183 Page 17

International Journal of Business Trends and Technology- volume3Issue1- 2013

System integration failure or the implementation result in deviance with

System integration capabilities the actual need. While the expert argues to implement
System support a successful CRM system, it always requires the
Technical tasks seamlessly cooperation between the managers and
Technological readiness technical expert, it is exactly align with the literature
Time and budget management study result Which stated that CRM implementation
project should start with identifying the need of the
customers, followed with the scientific plan, making
Top management support
relevant choice and training the personnel. Then the
implementation stages shall be designed, the last step
Training program is to choose the software and then implement the
Troubleshooting technical solutions. according to the aggregated
Understanding of customer behavior experiences: the organizational business process has
Use a phased Training rollout schedule to be redesigned, thus will cause position change and
Use of the CRM system managers might lead to some employees unemployment.
Use trained, experienced consultants Judging from the characteristic, it is not surprise to
User involvement during system design assume: the CRM system will face huge pressures
Vision and confront difficulties during the implementation
Willingness to change processes stages. Thus the IT consultants experience to address
Willingness to share data this issue is to seek the strong support from the
managers , and then ensure the organization to keep
Conclusion steady pace to implement the CRM systems, also
maintain a clear objective, thus the sufficient funding
To ensure the success of the CRM implementation, support can be guaranteed and the whole team shall
we have already proposed a specific CSF list , here move forward and stick the project plan (Becker et al,
we describe how to best reach success according to 2009,Bohling et al, 2006,
these factors . The CRM is not merely a technical Callieux et al, 2009,Campbell, 2003,Chen and
solution but also a management strategy can reach to Popovich, 2003,Eid, 2007, Helander and Moller,
every level, through redesign the business process, a 2007,Keramati and Mehrabi, 2009,Keramati et al,
new collaborative structure is constructed, this is the 2009, Kim et al, 2002,Kim and Kim, 2009, Lindgreen
most difficult and decisive part for the whole et al, 2006,Mendoza et al, 2007, Payne and Frow,
organization. Since industry are inevitably subject to 2005,Radcliff, 2001,Rigby et al, 2002,Ryals and
the planned economy.. The insufficient competition Knox, 2001, Shah et al, 2006,Teo et al, 2006, Wu,
result in slow reaction to the market demand and 2008,Yu, 2001,Zablah et al, 2004).
rigid responsive mechanisms which is quite .
vulnerable compare to the strong competitors from
the western companies. From the literature study we Bibliography
learn that the implementation of CRM systems
require the relevant business departments to work
cooperatively as one integral component, all the Anderson, J. C., Hkansson, H. & Johanson, J.
business process should be customer-oriented. In (1994). Dyadic business relationships within a
practical, the IT consultant told us the measure they business network context. The Journal of
took is gradually integrate the information resource, Marketing, 58, 1-15.
they obtain comprehensive, correct and in time Babbie, E. (2004). The practice of social
customer data. The expert also told us that through
research. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth/Thomson
effective analysis of the profit contribution, the Learning, Inc.
mangers can make decision on the management
Barney, J., Wright, M. & Ketchen, D.J. Jr.
strategy, and make corrections on irrational
(2001). The resource-based view of the firm: ten
segments. Overall, the efficiency of the organization
years after 1991. Journal of Management, 27, pp.
has been elevated and the customer satisfaction can
be increased. Human factors is nevertheless a
sensitive and complex issue that any information Becker, J.U., Greve, G. & Albers, S. (2009). The
system has to address(Myers,2007). We also find out impact of technological and organizational
implementation of CRM on customer
that without the communication and understanding of
the senior managers, the CRM project always lead to acquisition, maintenance, and retention.

ISSN: 2249-0183 Page 18

International Journal of Business Trends and Technology- volume3Issue1- 2013

International Journal of Research in Marketing, Bowen, J. & Hedges, R. (1993). Increasing

26, pp. 207-215. service quality in retail banking. Journal of
Bellaiche, J.M., Mei-Pochtler, A. & Hanisch, D. Retail Banking, 15, 21-21.
(2010). The new world of luxury Caught Brioschi, A. (2006). Selling dreams The role of
between growing momentum and lasting change. advertising in shaping luxury brand meaning. In
The Boston Consulting Group. J.E. Schroeder & M. Salzer-Mrling (eds.),
Benbasat, I., Goldstein, D. and Mead, M. (1987) Brand culture (pp. 198-210). Abingdon, Oxon:
The Case Research Strategy in Studies of Routledge.
Information Systems, MIS Quarterly, 11, 3, 369- Bull, C. (2003) Strategic Issues in Customer
386. Relationship Management (CRM)
Berthon, P., Pitt, L., Parent, M., & Berthon, J.P. implementation, Business Process Management
(2009). Aesthetics and ephemerality: Observing Journal, 9, 5, 592-602.
and preserving the luxury brand. California Bull, C.: Strategic issues in customer relationship
Management Review, 52(1), pp. 45-66. management (CRM) implementation. Business
Bign, J. E., Blesa, A., Kster, I. & Andreu, L. Process Management Journal 9(5) (2003)
(2004). Market orientation: an antecedent to the Bullen, C. and Rockart, J. (1981) A primer on
industrial manufacturer's power. European critical success factors, Massachusetts Institute
Journal of Marketing, 38, 175-193. of Technology (MIT), Sloan School of
Bin-Xing, L. (2005). Adoption of Customer Management. Working Paper No. 69.
Relationship Management (CRM) in China: a Cailleux, H., Mignot, C, & Kapferer, J.N.
Case Study of Inse Lighting Utensils co Ltd. (2009). Is CRM for luxury brands? Journal of
Blattberg, R. C. & Deighton, J. (1996). Manage Brand Management, 16, pp. 406-412.
marketing by the customer equity test. Harvard Campbell, A.J. (2003). Creating customer
Business Review, 74, 136. knowledge competence: managing customer
blog/projectfailures/crm-failure-rates-2001- relationship management programs strategically.
2009/4967 on 18 August 2011. Industrial Marketing Management 32, pp. 375-
Bohling T., Bowman, D., LaValle, S., Mittal, V., 383.
Narayandas, D., Ramani, G. & Varadarajan, R. Chang, H.H. (2007). Critical factors and benefits
(2006). CRM implementation: Effectiveness in the implementation of customer relationship
issues and insights. Journal of Service Research, management. Total Quality Management, 18(5),
9(2), pp. 184-194. pp. 483-508.
Bohling, T., Bowman, D., LaValle, S., Mittal, Chatham, B., Temkin, B., Gardiner, K. &
V., Narayandas, D., Ramani, G. and Nakashima, T. (2002). CRM's future: humble
Varadarajan, R. (2006) CRM Implementation: growth through 2007. Forrester Research,
Effectiveness Issues and Insights, Journal of Cambridge, MA.
Service Research, 9, 2, 184-194. Chen, I.J. & Popovich, K. (2003). Understanding
Bose, R. (2002) Customer relationship customer relationship management (CRM)
management: key components for IT success, People, process and technology. Business
Industrial Management & Data Systems, 102, 1, Process Management. Vol. 9 No. 5. pp. 672-688
89-97. Chen, I.J., Popovich, K.: Understanding
Bose, R. (2002). Customer relationship customer relationship management (CRM):
management: key components for IT success. people, process, and technology. Business
Industrial Management & Data Systems, 102(2), Process Management Journal 9(5) (2003)
pp. 89-97. Conlon, G., , (1999). Growing sales from
Bose, R. (2002). Customer relationship existing customers. Sales and Marketing
management: key components for IT success. Management ,Vol. 15, pp. 135.
Industrial Management & Data Systems, 102, Creswell, J.W. (2007) Qualitative Inquiry and
89-97. Research Design-Choosing Among Five
Boulding, W., Staelin, R., Ehret, M. & Johnston, Approaches, 2nd Edition, Sage Publications,
W.J. (2005). A customer relationship Inc
management roadmap: What is known, potential Croteau, A. and Li, P. (2003) Critical Success
pitfalls, and where to go. Journal of Marketing, Factors of CRM Technological Initiatives,
69, pp. 155-166. Canadian Journal of Administrative Sciences,
20, 1, 21-24.

ISSN: 2249-0183 Page 19

International Journal of Business Trends and Technology- volume3Issue1- 2013

Croteau, A. M. & Li, P. (2003). Critical success Guenzi, P. & Pelloni, O. (2004). The impact of
factors of CRM technological initiatives. interpersonal relationships on customer
Canadian Journal of Administrative satisfaction and loyalty to the service provider.
Sciences/Revue Canadienne des Sciences de International Journal of Service Industry
l'Administration, 20, 21-34. Management, 15, 365-384.
Da Silva, R., and Rahimi, I. (2007). A Critical Gummesson, E. (2002b). Relationship marketing
Success Factors model for CRM in the new economy. Journal of Relationship
Implementation. Int. J. Electronic Relationship Marketing, 1, 37-57.
Management, Vol. 1(1), pp. 3-15. Gupta, S., Lehmann, D. & Stuart, J. (2004). A
Daft, R.L. (2006). The new era of management. (2004): Valuing Customers. JMR, 41, 7-18.
Ohio: Thomson South-Western. Halln, L., Johanson, J. & Mohamed, N. S.
delivery channels (2005), 47 (1987). Relationship strength and stability in
Don Peppers,Martha Rogers etcIs your international and domestic industrial marketing,
Fretagsekonomiska institutionen vid Uppsala
Company Ready for one to one Marketing[J]
Harvard Business Review1999(January-- Helander, A. & Mller, K. (2007). System
February) suppliers customer strategy. Industrial
Marketing Management, 36, pp. 719-730.
Dub, L. and Par, G. (2003) Rigor in
Hofstede, G. & Hofstede, G.J. (n.d.). Culture.
Information Systems Positivist Case Research:
Retrieved from
Current Practices, Trends, and on 12
Recommendations, MIS Quarterly, 27, 4, 597-
January 2012.
Hofstede, G. (n.d.) Cultural dimensions.
Eckenrode, J.: Improving customer relationship
Retrieved from
management in banking with integrated
on 12 December 2011.
Eid, R. (2007). Towards a successful CRM
Hop, M., Bullock, J.: Why is customer service
implementation in banks: An integrated model.
still failing to benefit from CRM investment
The Service Industries Journal. 27(8), pp. 1021-
Hugh Wilson, Elizabeth Daniel, and Malcolm
Field, E. & Shutler, M. (1990). Service with a
McDonald. 2002. Factors for Success in
smile--The public face of public sector
Customer Relationship Management (CRM)
industries. European journal of operational
Systems. Journal of Marketing Management,
research, 45, 356-367.
Flint, D. J., Woodruff, R. B. & Gardial, S. F.
Injazz J. Chen and Karen Popovich. 2003.
(2002). Exploring the phenomenon of customers'
Understanding customer relationship
desired value change in a business-to-business
management (CRM) People, process and
context. The Journal of Marketing, 66, 102- 117.
technology. Business Process Management
Gartner (2009) Gartner Says Worldwide CRM
Journal, 9(5): 672-688
Market Grew 12.5 Percent in 2008,
J. Esteves, J. Pastor, Analysis of critical success
Geurts, P. (1999). Van probleem naar onderzoek. factors relevance along SAP implementation
Bussum: Coutinho. phases, in: Proc. Seventh Americas Conference
Gfhfg Eisenhardt, K.M. (1989). Building on Information Systems AMCIS 2001,
theories from case study research. Academy of Association for Information Systems, Boston,
Management Review, Vol. 4. No. 4, pp. 532- USA, 2001, pp. 1119 1125
J. Esteves, J. Pastor, Analysis of critical success
Goldenberg, B. (2000). What is an e-customer? factors relevance along SAP implementation
Why you need them now? . paper presented at phases, in: Proc. Seventh Americas Conference
conference on Customer Relationship on Information Systems AMCIS 2001,
Management. Boston, USA: Shared insights. Association for Information Systems, Boston,
Gray, P., Byun, J. (2001). "Customer USA, 2001, pp. 1119 1125.
Relationship Management". Center for Research Kale, S. H. (2004) CRM Failure and the Seven
on Information Technology and Organizations, Deadly Sins, Marketing Management, 13, 5, 42-
IT in business. 46.

ISSN: 2249-0183 Page 20

International Journal of Business Trends and Technology- volume3Issue1- 2013

Kapferer, J.N. (2006). The two business cultures Krigsman, M. (2009). CRM failure rates: 2001-
of luxury brands. In J.E. Schroeder & M. Salzer- 2009. Retrieved from
Mrling (eds.), Brand culture (pp. 60-68). L.E. Mendoza et al., Critical success factors for a
Abingdon, Oxon: Routledge. customer relationship management strategy,
Kassanoff, B. (Year). Build loyalty into your e- Inform. Softw. Technol. (2006),
business. In, 2000. 27-29. doi:10.1016/j.infsof.2006.10.003
Keramati, A., Mehrabi, H. & Mojir, N. (2009). Lager, M. (1 July 2008). Growth trend continues
Prioritizing investment in CRM resources to for CRM. Retrieved from
improve performance: an empirical investigation.
2009 International Conference on Information News/Daily-News/Growth-Trend-Continues-for-
Management and Engineering. CRM-49755.aspx on 29 September 2011.
Keramati, A., Mehrabi, H. & Mojir, N. (2010). A Langerak, F. and Verhoef, P. C. (2003)
process-oriented perspective on customer Strategically embedding CRM, Business
relationship management and organizational Strategy Review, 14, 4, 73-80.
performance: An empirical investigation. Langley, A. (1999). Strategies for theorizing
Industrial Marketing Management, 39, pp. 1170- from process data. Academy of Management
1185. Review, 24, pp. 691-710.
Kerstetter, J. (2001). Software highfliers. Laplaca, P. J. (2004). Special issue on customer
Business Week, 3737, pp. 108-109. Retrieved relationship management. Industrial Marketing
from Management, 33, 463-464. Lee, A. (1989) A Scientific Methodology for
%3A2.41&genre=article&atitle=SOFTWARE+ MIS Case Studies, MIS Quarterly, 13, 1, 33-50.
HIGHFLIERS+- Lemon K NWhite T BWiner R
chain+programs+are+strong-- SDynamic customer relationship management
and+growing&date=2001&epage=111&issn=00 incorporation future considerations into the
service retention decision[J]Journal of
108&title=Business+Week on 18 August 2011.
Kim, H., Lee, G. and Pan, S. (2002) Exploring Marketing200266(1)1-14
the Critical Success Factors for Customer Lindgreen, A., Palmer, R., Vanhamme, J. &
Relationship Management and Electronic Wouters, J. (2006). A relationship-management
Customer Relationship Management Systems, in assessment tool: Questioning, identifying, and
Lynda Applegate, Robert Galliers and Janice prioritizing critical aspects of customer
DeGross (Eds.) Proceedings of the 23rd relationships. Industrial Marketing Management,
International Conference on Information 35, pp. 57-71.
Systems, December 2002, Barcelona. Mankoff, S. (2001). Ten Critical Success Factors
Kim, H.S. & Kim, Y.G. (2009). A CRM for CRM. Siebel System, White Paper.
measurement framework: Its development Mendoza, L. E., Marius, A., Prez, M. &
process and application. Industrial Marketing Grimn, A. C. (2007). Critical success factors for
Management, 38, pp. 477-489 a customer relationship management strategy.
Kim, H.W., Lee, G.H. & Pan, S. (2002). Information and Software Technology, 49, 913-
Exploring the critical success factors for 945.
customer relationship management and Mendoza, L.E., Marius, A., Prez, M. & Grimn,
electronic customer relationship management A.C. (2007). Critical success factors for a
systems. International Conference on customer relationship management strategy.
Information Systems (ICIS). Information and Software Technology, 49, pp.
King, S. F. & Burgess, T. F. (2008). 913-945.
Understanding success and failure in customer Meredith, J., Mantel, S.J . (2000). Project
relationship management. Industrial Marketing Management: A Managerial Approach, New
Management, 37, 421-431. York, NY, John Wiley and Sons, Inc.
Ko, E., Kim, S.H., Kim, M. & Woo, J.Y. (2008). Meredith, J., Mantel, S.J . (2000). Project
Organizational characteristics and the CRM Management: A Managerial Approach, New
adoption process. Journal of Business Research, York, NY, John Wiley and Sons, Inc.
61, pp. 65-75.

ISSN: 2249-0183 Page 21

International Journal of Business Trends and Technology- volume3Issue1- 2013

Mertz, S. (2008) Market Trends: Customer Ramaseshan, B., Bejou, D., Jain, S.C., Mason, J.
Relationship Management Software, Worldwide & Pancras, J. (2006). Issues and perspectives in
2007-2012, global customer relationship management. Journal of Service Research, 9, pp. 195-207.
35809. Reichheld, F. F., Teal, T. & Smith, D. K. (1996).
Nguyen, T. U. H., Sherif, J. S. & Newby, M. The loyalty effect, Harvard Business School
(2007). Strategies for successful CRM Press Boston.
implementation. Information Management & Reinartz, W. J., Krafft, M. and Hoyer, W. D.
Computer Security, 15, 102-115. (2004) The CRM Process: Its Measurement and
Online, Available from: Impact on Performance, Journal of Marketing Research, 41, 3, 293-305.
[Accessed 05th November 2009] Ribbers, P. M. A. & Schoo, K. C. (2002).
Oxford Advanced Learners Dictionary. Oxford: Program management and complexity of ERP
Oxford University Press; 2005. implementations. Engineering Management
Payne, A. & Frow, P. (2004). The role of Journal, 14, 45-52.
multichannel integration in customer relationship Richards, K.A., & Jones, E., (2008). Customer
management. Industrial Marketing Management, relationship management: finding value drivers.
33, pp. 527-538. Industrial Marketing Management. Vol. 37, pp.
Payne, A. & Frow, P., (2005). A strategic 120-130.
framework for customer relationship Richemont (2011). About Richemont. Retrieved
management. Journal of Marketing, 69, pp. 167- from
176. on 21 January 2011.
Payne, A. and Frow, P. (2005) A Strategic Rigby, D. K., Reichheld, F. F. and Schefter, P.,
Framework for Customer Relationship "Avoid the Four Perils of CRM," Harvard
Management, Journal of Marketing, 69, 4, 167- Business Review, February 2002, pp. 101-109.
176. Rigby, D., Reichheld, F. and Schefter, P. (2002)
Payne, A. and Frow, P. (2006) Customer Avoid the Four Perils of CRM, Harvard Business
Relationship Management: from Strategy to Review, 80, 2, 101-109.
Implementation, Journal of Marketing Rigby, D.K., Reichheld, F.F. & Schefter, P.
Management, 22, 1, 135-168. (2002). Avoid the four perils of CRM. Harvard
Pedraza, M. (2010). 10 Critical steps for creating Business Review, pp. 101-109.
a powerful luxury CRM culture. Retrieved from Roberts, D.J. (2007). The modern firm. Organizational design for performance and
critical-steps-for-creating-a-powerful-luxury- growth. New York; Oxford University Press Inc.
crm-culture on 13 November 2011. Rockart, J. (1979) Chief executives define their
Peppers, D., Rogers, M., (1999). The One To own data needs, Harvard Business Review, 57,
One Manager: Real-world Lessons In Customer 2, 81-93.
Relationship Management, Doubleday, New Ryals, L. & Knox, S. (2001). Cross-functional
York, NY. issues in the implementation of relationship
Prabhaker, P. (2001). Integrated marketing- marketing through customer relationship
manufacturing strategies. Journal of Business & management (CRM). European Management
Industrial Marketing, 16, 113-128. Journal, 19(5), pp. 534-542.
Push S DService with a smile-emotion SAP white paper.: my SAP TM CRM for the
contagion in the service encounter[J] .Academy banking sector (2003),
of Management Journal200144(3):1018- P_CRM_banking
1027 Sarker, S. and Lee, A. S. (2002) Using a
Radcliff, J. (2001). Eight building blocks of Positivist Case Research Methodology to Test
CRM: A framework for success. Gartner Three Competing Theories-in-Use of Business
Research. Process Redesign, Journal of the Association for
Radcliffe, J.: Eight building blocks of CRM: a Information Systems, 2, 1.
framework for success. Gartner Research (2001), Saunders, M., Lewis P. & Thornhill, A. (2009). Research methods for business students. Essex:
Pearson Education Limited.

ISSN: 2249-0183 Page 22

International Journal of Business Trends and Technology- volume3Issue1- 2013

Schiffman, L. G., Kanuk, L.L., . (2004). Verhoef, P. (2003). Understanding the effect of
Consumer Behavior, Pearson Prentice Hall customer relationship management efforts on
Publications,U.S.A. customer retention and customer share
Schubert, P. and Wlfle, R. (2007) The development. Journal of Marketing. Vol. 67, pp.
eXperience Methodology for Writing IS Case 30-45.
Studies, in John Hoxmeier and Stephen Hayne Versleijen-Pradham. (2000). European CRM
(Eds.) Proceedings of the Thirteenth Americas Services Forecast and Analysis, 20002006
Conference on Information Systems (AMCIS), [Online]. [Accessed].
August 2007, Keystone. Walters, S.: What are the main weaknesses in the
Shah, D., Rust, T.R., Parasuraman, A., Staelin, financial sector concerning the application of
R. & Day, G.S. (2006). The path to customer CRM services? (2004),
centricity. Journal of Service Management, 9(2), (retrieved on March)
pp. 113-124. Wang, Y., Lo, H. P., Chi, R., and Yang, Y.
Shang, S., and Lin, J. (2005). A Model for (2004). An integrated framework for customer
Understanding the Market-orientation Effects of value and customer-relationship-management
CRM on the Organizational Processes. performance: a customer-based perspective from
Proceedings of the Eleventh Americas China. Managing Service Quality 14 (2/3), 169-
Conference on Information Systems, Omaha, 182.
NE, USA 2005. Wayne M. Morrison, China and the World Trade
Shum, P., Bove, L. & Auh, S. (2008). Organization (2001)
Employees' affective commitment to change: the Wilson, H., Daniel, E. & Mcdonald, M. (2002).
key to successful CRM implementation. Factors for success in customer relationship
European Journal of Marketing, 42, 1346-1371. management (CRM) systems. Journal of
Somers, T. M. and Nelson, K. (2001) The Impact Marketing Management, 18, 193-219.
of Critical Success Factors across the Stages of Wilson, H., Daniel, E. and McDonald, M. (2002)
Enterprise Resource Planning Implementations, Factors for Success in Customer Relationship
in RalphH Sprague, Sandra Laney and Dennis Management (CRM) Systems, Journal of
Eileen (Eds.) Proceedings of the 34th Hawaii Marketing Management, 18, 1/2, 193-219.
International Conference on System Sciences, Wilson, H., Daniel, E., and McDonald, M.,
January 2001, Maui. Factors for Success in Customer Relationship
Swift, R. S. (2000). Accelerating customer Management Systems, Journal of Marketing
relationships: Using CRM and relationship Management, (18), 2002, pp.193-219.
technologies, Prentice Hall. Winston, J.: CRM in financial services: are
Taber, D.: What price CRM data quality? (2009), companies realising the benefits of CRM in practice, and how is the strategy being
Teo, T. H. and Ang, J. K. (1999) Critical success implemented in organisations? Interactive
factors in the alignment of IS plans with business Marketing 5(4), 329344 (2004)
plans, International Journal of Information Winston, J.: CRM in financial services: are
Management, 19, 2, 173-185. companies realising the benefits of CRM in
Teo, T.S.H., Devadoss, P. & Pan, S.L. (2006). practice, and how is the strategy being
Towards a holistic perspective of customer implemented in organisations? Interactive
relationship management (CRM) Marketing 5(4), 329344 (2004)
implementation: A case study of the Housing Wu, J. (2008). Customer relationship
and Development Board, Singapore. Decision management in practice: A case study of hi-tech
Support Systems, 42, pp. 1613-1627. company from China. IEEE Xplore Digital
Thearling, K.: Increasing customer value by Library.
integrating data mining and campaign Wyner, G., (1999). Customer Relationship
management software. Direct Marketing Management. Journal of Marketing Research,
Magazine (1999) Vol, 11, pp. 39-41.
Thompson, E. (2008) How to get an approximate Xu, Y., Yen, D. C., Lin, B. & Chou, D. C.
initial estimate of the cost of a CRM project. (2002). Adopting customer relationship
Tynan, C., McKechnie, S. & Chhuon C. (2010). management technology. Industrial Management
Co-creating value for luxury brands. Journal of & Data Systems, 102, 442-452.
Business Research, 63, pp. 11561163.

ISSN: 2249-0183 Page 23

International Journal of Business Trends and Technology- volume3Issue1- 2013

Xu, Y., Yen, D.C., Lin, B., Chou, D.: Adopting

customer relationship management technology.
Industrial Management & Data Systems 102(8),
442452 (2002)
Yin, R. (2009) Case Study Research. Design and
Methods, Sage, Thousand Oaks.
Yin, R. K. (2002). Case Study Research: Design
and Methods, Applied Social Research Methods
Series, Vol 5.
Yu, L. (2001). Successful Customer-
Relationship Management. MIT Sloan
Management Review.
Zablah, A.R., Bellenger, D.N. & Johnston, W.J.
(2004). An evaluation of divergent perspectives
on customer relationship management: towards a
common understanding of an emerging
phenomenon. Industrial Marketing Management.
Vol. 33, pp. 475-489.

ISSN: 2249-0183 Page 24