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In the study of T. Tumolya, J. Ortenero, M.

Kubouchi, entitled Characterization and Treatment of

Water Hyacinth Fibers for NFRP Composites, water hyacinth fibers locally found in Philippine waters,

which are used to reinforce orthophthalic-type unsaturated polyester (ortho-UP) resin, and the

composites mechanical properties and carbon storage potential are assessed. Fiber treatment was used

as a remedy like grafting functional moieties using coupling agents for the high moisture absorption and

poor wettability of natural fibers. Water hyacinth fiber was tread with alkali and enzyme before

laminating into an ortho-UP composite. Sodium hydroxide was used for the alkali treatment while

xylanase was used for the enzyme treatment.

In their study, there are three concentrations of NaOH that were used namely: 2.5%, 5%, and 10%

NAOH (by weight). The most previous study considered the 15% NaOH concentration, but the fibers

were damaged dueto high alkali concentration. The sample were treated with NaOH for 2,4,8,12 and 24

hours. Full factorial design methodology was used in their study, which shows that there ,ust be a total

of 30 runs for the alkali-treated composites wherein there is an equal amount of runs with the tensile

specimen and wit the flexural specimen, each specimen has 15 runs and each combination of

parameters such as time and concentration had at least 5 specimens.

On the other hand, there four enzyme concentrations used in the optimization studies, these are

varying percentage of 1%, 2%, 4% and 8% xylanase by volume. These concentrations were based on

literature survey from a study by John and Anandjiwala in 2009 on the chemical modification of non-

woven flax fiber-reinforced polypropylene composites using 2% zein solution and 2 hours of fiber

immersion. But on the study of Tumolya and his colleagues, water hyacinth fibers were soaked in

xylanase solution for 1,2,4 and 8 hours. There were also a total of 30 runs conducted for xylanase-
treated fibers, same goes with the distribution of runs from the alkali-treated to the flexural specimen

and tensile specimen in enzyme-treated. After treatment, fabrication of fibers were conducted where

fibers were flushed with copious amount of water. A solution of HCI was prepared in advance for the

neutralization of the samples. The produced water hyacinth fibers were molded to be produced as

unsaturated polyester laminates by flat bars and aluminum sheets.

In their study, flat bars abide ASTM D638 for the tensile specimen and ASTM D790 for the flexural

specimen production. It is necessary to determine the changes that occur in the water hyacinth fibers

after treatment with alkali and enzyme, wherein a detailed study of properties and characteristics of

untreated and treated fiber will yield sufficient data as to how the fiber will behave as reinforcement to

a polymer. In their study, chemical analysis, tensile property evaluation of treated and untreated fiber,

FTIR studies and SEM studies were conducted due to time constraint.

After conducting all the necessary experiments, the researchers of this literature survey, conclusions

were made based on the results of their study. Alkali and enzyme-treatment reduce the tensile strength

of the water hyacinth fibers while the corresponding tensile strain is significantly improved. Sodium

hydroxide is the most effective alkali treatment which yielded to best tensile strength with a

concentration of 10% treated for 4 hours. And 5% NaOH for 8 hours for the best flexural strength, alkali-

treated fiber-reinforced composite. For the highest enhancement in tensile strength, the best treatment

condition for xylanase treated fiber reinforced composite is 2% for 1 hour, but 4% xylanase-treated

composite soaked for 1 hour yields superior strength. Alkali treatment, NaOH yileds a better result in

flexural and tensile properties compared to xylanase treatment. It is 10.25% and 6.71% higher compared

with xylanase-treated fiber-reinforced composite. With alkali treatment, there is 51.65% and 74.66%

improvement in flexural and tensile strength respectively compared with untreated fiber reinforced
composite. Also, chemical composition of decorticated water hyacinth fiber was along with properties of

alkali-and xylanase-treated and untreated water hyacinth were also determined:

Table number

Table umber: Chemical composition of Table umber: Flexural and tensile

decoriated water hyacinth fiber properties of alkali- and xylanase-treated water

hyacinth fiber-reinforced composites and

untreated fiber reinforced composite.

According to the study from Indian Journal of Chemical Technology conducted by N.K Singh,

P.C Mishra, V.K Singh, & K.K Narang on the Effect of HPMC on the properties of cement. HPMC

stands for Hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose, is just one of the water soluble cellulose based on

polymers and has viscosity modifying admixture. Cellulose components with antifoaming agents

and glasses as modifier have improved the bending strength and other properties. In one

percent of HPMC in cement, it has been found in the mix to have improved strength and

fracture toughness. In the case of its heat hydration, it has been reported that the heat of
hydration is higher at early ages when carbohydrate and some other water-soluble

polysaccharides were mixed with cement.

Table number

The Organic polymers acts as a retarder and have a distinct behavior towards setting of

cement and the setting time may be varied according to the physical and chemical properties

thereof; like solubility, viscosity, chain length, polarity and functional groups etc. The initial and

final setting times of cement were as follows respectively: 130 and 230 min. The initial and final

setting times for lower addition, which is 0.1 percent, of HPMC were observed as 145 and 250

min and for higher, which is 4 percent, as 250 and 695 min, respectively, showing that the HPMC

is a retarder.

HPMC is actually a derivative of cellulose, which is one of the chemical compositions of

decorticated water hyacinth fiber. Cellulose is also an insoluble substance that is the main

constituent of plant cell walls and of vegetable fibers such as cotton. It is a

polysaccharide consisting of chains of glucose. Hansen magnified the cause of the slow
setting reactions due to the organic set retarding agent containing HC-OH group in their

molecules , delayed the rate of absorption of water ions on cement universal surface.

In the case under compressive and tensile strengths, the setting delays are the

aftereffect of the ageing of the cement hydration process and also retard generation of

heat hydration. The nature and amount of additive and water cement ratio builds the

effect of strength. Setting and strength development are not strictly correlated. Also, it

was reported that the organic set retarders increase the strength of cement at late curing

ages. In the study of the authors mentioned above, it has found out from their data that

the compressive strength of cement of 7,8 and 91 days were observed as 31.3, 43.7,

and 53.5 Mpa and tensile strength of 2.9, 3.9 and 5.3 Mpa, respectively. There is a 0.25

percent additive content at 7 days and it has given a maximum compressive strength of

32.2 Mpa in cement-HPMC; 1 percent at 28 days, 48.3 Mpa and 4 percent at 91 days

64.4 Mpa. While the maximum tensile strength for 0.25 percent addition at 7 days was

3.2 Mpa; 1 percent at 28 days, 4.7 Mpa and 4 percent at 91 days, 6.4 Mpa.

Dr. Ragauskas cited in his journal Anselme Payen (1838) as the first to recognize

the composite nature of wood and referred to a carbon-rich substance also known as the

encrusting material which embedded cellulose in the wood then Schulze (1865) later

named this encrusting material as lignin. Lignin then become as a random, three-

dimensional network polymer comprised of variously linked phenylpropane units and the

second most abundant biological material containing and limited only by cellulose and

hemicellulose, consists 15-25% of the dry weight of woody plants. Lignin is a

macromolecule which provides mechanical support to bind plant fibers together. It has

an advantageous role in the transport of water and nutrients, wherein it decreases the
permeation of water through the cell walls of the xylem. Furthermore, it has an important

function in a plants natural defense against degradation by inhibiting penetration of

destructive enzymes through the cell wall. Lignin is not only present in woods and plays

a worthy macromolecule work for wood of the trees but also in plants, lignins are broadly

divided into three classes: softwood the gymnosperm, hardwood the angiosperm and

grass or annual plant the graminaceous lignin. Guaicyl lignin, Guaiacyl-syringly lignin,

Graminaceous lignin are the three different phenypropane units, or monolignols are

responsible for lignin biosynthesis, Guaiacyl lignin is composed of coniferyl and sinapyl

alcohol which is found in softwoods while Guaiacyl-syringly lignin is present in

hardwoods having the same composition. Graminaceous lignin is composed mainly of p-

coumaryl alcohol units. These three are also known as the precursors. Lignin is

chemically bound to cellulose. Other advantages and benefits of lignin (low level and

modified) to building materials especially in concrete mix are as follows: High

performance concrete strength aid, concrete grinding aid, reduce damage of building

external wall caused by moisture and acid rain, set retarder for a cement composition,

sulfonated lignin contributes higher adsorption properties and zeta potential to cement

particles, and hence shows better dispersion effect to the cement, and finally select

lignins can improve the compressive strength of cement pastes.