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porosity

£
[-]
Nomencl atur e viscosity [g/cmsec]
[cm]

V
equivalent diameter of duct kinematic viscosity [cm2[g/cm3]/sec]
d
diameter of separation area [cm] Pf density of fluid
diameter of aggregate particle M, [cm] Pp particle density [g/cm s]
diameter of primary particle M, [cm] a surface tension [ dyne/cm]
critical particle diameter [/4 [cm] Ob bending stress [ dyne/cm2]
FH Op
dimensionless adhesive force by water strength of aggregate particle [ d yne/cm2 ]
bridge (=H/dpla) [-] T
[d yne/cm 2]
H
shearing stress
adhesive force by water bridge [dyne]
k
coordination number [-] Literature Cited
M [dynecm]
M
moment 1) Fuchs, N. A. : "Mechanics of Aerosols", Pergamon Press,
*f
f moisture content on dry basis [wt %] New York (1964).
drag force [dyne] 2) Kanou, T. "Funtairyushi no Kyodou", p. 303, Sangyo-
u air velocity [cm/ s ec] Gijyutsu Center (1977).
u average air velocity [cm/ s ec] 3) von Karman, Th.: Proc. 3rd Intern. Congress Appl.
Y Mech., Stockholm, Part I, 85 (1931).
dimensionless distance ( =yldp)
y
distance above flat surface [cm] 4) Kousaka, Y., K. Okuyama, A. Shimizu and T. Yoshida:
y* /. Chem. Eng. Japan, 12, 152 (1979).
distance from flat surface to separated
part ofFig.2aggregate particle as shownin 5) Ridgway, K and K.J. Tarbuck: Brit. Chem. Eng., 12,
[cm] 384 (1967).
Z = section modulus [cm3] 6) Rumpf, H.: Chem. Ing. Tech., 42, 538 (1970).
7) Zimon, A. D.: "Adhesion of Dust and Powder", p. 197,
T = velocity gradient [1 /sec] Plenum Press, New York (1969).
d = thickness of laminar sub-layer [fA, [cm]

POWER CORRELATION FOR ANCHOR AND HELICAL
RIBBON IMPELLERS IN HIGHLY VISCOUS LIQUIDS
Koji TAKAHASHI, Kunio ARAI
and Shozaburo SAITO
Department of Chemical Engineering, Tohoku University,
Sendai 980

A new power correlation for both anchor and helical ribbon impellers in highly viscous Newtonian
liquids is proposed on the basis of a physical model developed from an analytical approximate
expression for the drag of a plate in viscous liquids bounded by a plane wall. The correlation,
obtained by inserting the empirical factor of geometrical variables in the above expression, shows
good agreement with experimental data of power consumption of anchor and helical ribbon agitators
obtained in this work and other literature.

power consumption in the literature9>n). However,
Introducti on the power correlations1"4>8) published previously for
Liquid agitation is one of the most commonunit close-clearance impellers, such as anchor and helical
operations in the chemical industry. For the design ribbon impellers, are relatively limited. Most of
of mixing equipment, it is necessary to predict its power them are empirical and are restricted to particular
consumption. For impellers producing high stress in a impellers. In particular, those for helical ribbon
small portion of the vessel, such as turbines and pro- impellers are not satisfactory.
pellers, there is fairly extensive information about In this work, power consumption measurements for
Received July 2, 1979. Correspondence concerning this article should be anchor and helical ribbon agitators were carried out
addressed to S. Saito. under laminar flow conditions in Newtonian liquids,
VOL. 13 NO. 2 1980 147

//)=0. Based on an analytical approximate expression.102 ds/D=0.0250 AC3 12.54 54. From these figures. Experimental elliptical cylinder in viscous liquids bounded by a plane wall and carried out numerical calculations of the drag The vessels were transparent acrylic resin cylinders for various thickness ratios of the major-axis length to 148 JOURNAL OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING OF JAPAN . Table 1 Geometrical variables of anchor and helical ribbon impellers Geometry No. On the basis ofOseen's linearized and on the basis of a physical model we propose a equations of motion.52 0.80 h=L=U.54 0. Fig. 1 Power correlation for anchor impellers Fluid flow around an anchor blade in an agitated Fig.50 w/D=0A02 </. The impellers were rotated in a clockwise direction and pumped upwards at the blade in each run.50 w/D-0. having viscosities in the range of 10-300 poise.0500 AC2 12.0125 AC4 12.72 DH2 ll.055 2. 2 and 3 respectively.059 1. Most measurements were carried out in a vessel without a free surface.031 1. it may be useful to adopt a physical model which can represent the system approximately. 4 (a).094 ** D=H=\2M h=\2. 1 and the geometrical vari- ables of these impellers are summarized in Table 1. Agita- tion power was measured by a rotating torque meter and viscosities of the liquid were obtained from a coaxial cylinder viscometer.061 1. Takaishi10) derived analytical power correlation for both types of impeller. 1 Geometrical configurations of anchor and DH5 ll.38 0.29 0. To correlate the power consumption with geometri- cal variables. Results and Discussion The results of power consumptionmeasurements are presented in the form of relationship of power number (NP) to Reynolds number (Re). d c/D D/s L Anchor impellers* AC1 ll.02 39.094 with a flat bottom and a flat lid. 2.28 0.00 0. The relations for anchor and helical ribbon agitators are shown in Figs.02 34. we discuss power correlation used for both anchor and helical ribbon impellers.59 helical ribbon impellers * D=H=12.0100 AC5 12.05 72. New- tonian aqueous solutions of corn syrup were used.48 0.24 0.63 DH4 ll. 3 Power consumption for helical ribbon vessel is similar to that around a flat plate moving at a low speed in viscous liquid bounded by a plate as impellers shown in Fig. 16 0.098 1. The geometri- cal configurations of anchor and helical ribbon impel- lers used are shown in Fig.46 DH3 10.65 Fig.02 37. in the laminar flow region.0050 Helical ribbon impellers** DH1 12. approximate expressions for the drag coefficient of an 1. A vessel with a free surface was also used to account for the influence of the lid wall on power. it follows that the relations can be written as NP-Re= const.67 0. 2 Power consumption for anchor impellers 2.

K) Consequently. Equation (3) can be rewritten as follows: ^à"^21n(4+8^)-ri <4> This equation is a theoretical power correlation for anchor impellers. 4 Schematic diagram of blade motion Snfi 1m~gc UdL '21n(4+8c/w)-l 1 . 5. (4) and the experimental Fig.832 DH2 285. ments also for agitators with a free surface. But the discrepancy between Eq. this correlation agrees approxi- mately with the experimental data at large c/D. For anchor agitators having np=2: Fig. Eq.00735(i)/c)0 . free surface were hardly noticeable. blade angle 6B on the basis of the experimental data. (5) in terms of power seem to be negligible. The results are Therefore. (4) with the help of the experimental data.the minor-axis length. Therefore. 5 Comparison between theoretical power results increases with a decrease in clearance between correlation and experiment for anchor impellers the blade and the wall.3 2. 2 1980 149 .6 DH3 271. The power correla.)_1 (3) The velocity U is equal to that of the blade tip xdN. We consider sin dB =s/V(7rd)2+s2 that a plate with an arbitrary angle is moving at a low speed in viscous liquid as shown in Fig. The torque TMproduced by the rotation of the impeller is defined as follows : TM=Dr-L-j-n. an empirical factor of the clearance was introduced in Eq. r~g. D~ gc '21n(4+8c/w)-l UJ If the curvature of the vessel wall is negligible. The result is given by Table 2 Power consumption for helical ribbon impellers with and without a free surface Geometry with sa urface free ^'^withoutsurface a free where DH1 347. Equation (6) is compared with the experimental The correlation is given by data obtained in this work and other literature5"8jl2) VOL. As shown in Fig. we obtain the power P. power correlation for helical ribbon impel. but the In this case. the drag experienced by the plate will be differences between the agitators with and without a mostly dependent on the force normal to the plate. 13 NO. 1 275. 2 Power correlation for anchor and helical ribbon impellers An anchor impeller is considered as a variety of helical ribbon impeller which has its blades at a right ^à"^= 2 1n (4+t3/w)-l-f^C)-(sin^°-50 angle to the direction of motion. 4 (b). (6) tion for helical ribbon impellers is related to that for where anchor impellers by the blade angle. P=a>TM=2xN 2 1n (4+8c/M. The drag Dr applied by the liquid to the plate per unit length can be represented by the following equation as a special case of the thickness ratio 7=0. This The authors carried out power consumption measure- motion is similar to that of the helical ribbon impeller.1 f(D/c) = 1 +0. (1) is applicable to power correlation for anchor impellers.6 290.1 351. The effects of the lid wall on lers was obtained by modifying Eq. summarized in Table 2.

Process Des.. 308 On the basis of a physical model. 6. Nakajima: can be used for anchor as well as helical ribbon impel. Inst. Chem. J. V. 12. Costich and H. 46. In this figure. J. Progr. 539 (1967). Butler: ibid. the blade and the wall... Jpn. a new power cor. S. 6) Hoogendoorn. J. the blade width and the impeller diameter. and J. 472(1973). the blade angle. 13. New York and c = clearance between impeller and vessel wall [cm] London (1966). : Chem. Chem.V.. 22. Chem. Progr.. T224 (1966).T. data. 496 (1958). 6.. and J. Academic Press Inc. Dev. Smith: Trans. 44. 3) Chavan. J.-Ing. B. The in- fluence on power of the distance of the impeller from 7) Johnson.: Chem.W. V. the blade length. J. Vol.: /. S.: Ind.J. and H. Ltd.. 39. 340 (1967). (6) is shown to be quite satisfactory for predicting power consumption of Literature Cited anchor and helical ribbon impellers. 467 (1950). M. Everett: Chem. relation is proposed which takes into consideration 4) idem. Nishikawa. 47. L.. Eng. 34. Gray: "Mixing-Theory and Prac- CD = drag coefficient [-] tice". and J. Conclusion 2) Bourne. M. Process Des. M.. R. Eng. (1972). the lid is proved to be negligible. Nomenclature ll) Uhl. C. This correlation 8) Nagata.. Phys. 55 (1963). T263 (1969).sec] helical ribbon impellers p = density [g/cm3] a) = angular velocity of impeller [rad/sec] in Fig. Eng. 1689 (1967). Eng. Eng.. D =vesseldiameter [cm] 12) Zlokarnik. M. Eng. Engrs. Gotoh and M. Kagaku Kogaku. Set. and A. R. Y. geometrical variables such as the clearance between 5) Gray. H.. Dev.. 1. 1115 (1970). Eq. 6 Power correlation for both anchor and fi = viscosity [g/cm .P..: Ind. 59.-Tech. d = impeller diameter [cm] ds = shaft diameter [cm] gc = gravitational constant [g à" cm/G à" sec2] H = height of vessel [cm] h = height of blade [cm] L = length of blade (=/r/sin 0B) [cm] TV = rotational speed of the impeller [sec"1] NP = power number (=P-gclp-Nz-db) [-] np = number of blades [-] p = power consumption [G à" cm/sec] Re = Reynolds number (=d2-N'pl/j) [-] s = impeller pitch [cm] TM = torque acting on impeller [G à"cm] t = thickness ratio of major-axis length to the minor-axis length of an ellipitical cylinder [-] U = velocity of uniform flow [cm/sec] w = blade width [cm] 6B = blade angle [rad] Fig. lers and shows good agreement with experimental 9) Rushton. 1) Beckner.J. E. Dr = drag [G/cm] 150 JOURNAL OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING OF JAPAN . Soc. 3. den Hartog: Chem. W. 10) Takaishi. Ulbrecht: Chem.