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# Ex.

No:
Date:

## CIRCULARITY MEASUREMENT USING ELECTRONIC, MECHANICAL

COMPARATOR
Aim:
To determine the circularity error of the given specimen using mechanical and
electronic comparator

Apparatus Required:
Indexing head, Bench centers, Dial indicator, Electronic comparator and given
specimen
Specification:
Dial indicator: L.C:
Electronic Comparator: L.C
Post lab Questions:
1. What do you mean by circularity error?

## 2. What is the difference between roundness and circularity error?

Tabulation
Diameter of the Job:
Tolerance specified:

## Position Dial Gauge reading mm Electronic comparator mm

no
1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

10.

11.

12.
3. Draw the geometrical symbol indicating circularity and cylindricity for the given
specimen

Description:
The error of circularity is defined as the radial distance between the minimum
circumscribing circle and the maximum inscribing circle, which contain the profile of the
surface at a section perpendicular to the axis of rotation. Polar graph (a graphical record,
suitably magnified, of the displacement of the stylus of measuring elements, as either the
stylus or the part rotates on the axis of the precision spindle) is interpreted by using
concept of reference circle or a pair of circles which can be drawn/recorded or on the
graph.

Least squares circle. This circle represents the average of all the peaks and valleys, and
can be defined mathematically as follows: The sum of the squares of a sufficient number
of equally spaced radial ordinates, measured from the circle to the profile has minimum
value. The centre of such a circle is referred to as the Least Squares Centre
(L.S.C.). Out of roundness is defined as the radial distance of the maximum peak from
this circle (P) plus the distance of the maximum valley from this circle (V) i.e. P + V. It is
very easy to calculate the position of the least squares circle by computer

Procedure:

The given specimen is held in between centre on the surface plate. The lever type dial
indicator is fixed on its stand and lever made to touch the job at home position and
adjusted to zero on the dial. The job has to rotate at regular interval with help of indexing
head. Note down the deflection in indicator at various position (Minimum 12 position is
mandatory. Use simple indexing formula to index the job).
Replace the dial indicator with probe of electronic comparator and adjust the values
displayed to zero. Now note down the deflection at all position. The diameter of the given
specimen is measured and can be drawn as base circle in polar graph. The deflection
shown at various positions are plotted and roundness error is calculated as distance
between minimum inscribed and maximum circumscribed circle.
Post lab questions:
1. Draw the least squares circles on the polar graph using Excel in the computer and
find the circularity error.