Contingency Selection analysis

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Contingency Selection analysis

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existing facilities. It is quite difficult to construct new lines due to environmental and economic

considerations. As power systems become more complex and heavily loaded, along with eco-

nomical and environmental constraints, voltage instability become an increasingly serious prob-

lem, loading systems to operate close to their limits. The problem related to voltage instability

has become a major concern for secure operation of many power systems.

This has necessitated the implantation of techniques for analyzing and defecting voltage collapse

in bus bar or lines prior to its occurrence. Voltage stability is concerned with the ability of a

power system to maintain acceptable voltages at all nodes in the system under normal condition

and after being subject to a disturbance (Kundur et al., 2004; Wiszniewski, 2007;

Sode-Yome et al., 2007; Zhang et al., 2007). The main cause of voltage collapse may be due to

the inability of the power system to supply the reactive power or an excessive absorption of the

reactive power by the system itself. The continuous sequences of voltage instability leads to

voltage collapse and ended in total blackout of the power station. During the last decades, the

voltage stability problem has been given more attention primarily due to number of stability ac-

cidents that occurred in some countries. Some well known examples of voltage instability inci-

dents were in

France, Belgium, Sweden, Germany and Japan and in USA. Voltage collapse occurs when a sys-

tem is heavily loaded and unable to maintain its generation and transmission schedule, observed

by sudden decline or sag in system wide voltage. This change in voltage is so rapid that voltage

control devices may not take corrective actions rapidly enough to prevent cascading blackouts. It

is important for the operators and planners to find out the limit point of voltage instability.

Therefore finding a voltage stability index has become an important task for voltage stability

studies. A line stability index is proposed to aiming to detect the system loadability (Feurte-

Esquivel and Acha, 1997). These indices provide reliable information about proximity of voltage

instability in a power system. Usually their values change from 0(no load) to 1(voltage collapse).

Line stability indices determine the weakest line in the system and to evaluate the voltage stabil-

ity condition. Unified Power Flow Controller (UPFC) is a versatile FACTSs device which can

independently or simultaneously control the active power, the reactive power and the bus voltage

to which it is connected.

This controller offers substantial advantages for the static and dynamic operation of power sys-

tem (Hingorani, 1998; Ongskul and Jirapong, 2005).

However, to achieve such functionality, it is important to determine the optimal location of this

device to be installed in power system with appropriate parameters setting. Since UPFC can be

installed in different locations, its effective will be different. Therefore, we will face the problem

of where we should install the UPFC. For this reason, some performance indices must be satis-

fied. The following factors can be considered in the selection of the optimal installation and the

optimal parameters setting of multiple UPFCs: The topology of the system, the stability margin

improvement, the power transmission capacity increasing and the power blackout prevention.

This study introduces the application of line stability index for the optimal allocation multiple

shunt FACTS devices: Unified Power Flow Controller (UPFC), in order to improve voltage pro-

file, minimizing power system total loss and maximizing system loadability.

Also a lot of work has been done in the contingency analysis area. Different contingency selec-

tion methods can be found in (Sudersan et al., 2004). Operation scheme of FACTS devices to

enhance the power system steady-state security level considering a line contingency analysis is

suggested in (Sudersan et al., 2004). A method for contingency selection and security enhance-

ment of power systems by optimal placement of FACTS devices using Lmn is presented here.

Attention is required to ensure that the voltage stability margin of the power system is above a

desired level. It computes using simple Fast De-coupled Load

Flow (FDLF), the state of a power system. If the power system collapses, then additional capaci-

tor that needs to be switched on is computed by an iterative procedure (Arunagiri and Venkatesh,

2004). Increase the power transfer capability of transmission systems, minimize the transmission

losses, support a good voltage profile and retain system stability under large disturbances.

The study includes a detailed mathematical analysis of the impact of the shunt compensator on

the power flow, investigation of the system constraints and their effects on the static compensa-

tor control; in addition simulation of static compensator to control a transmitted active power

flow on the transmission line.

The voltage could be kept constant independent of the loads with static compensator. The results

show clearly the applicability of the proposed control scheme which is acceptable for the static

compensator (Al-Husban, 2009).

The application of hybrid particle swarm optimization technique to find optimal location of uni-

fied power flow controller to achieve optimal power flow. Simulations are performed IEEE bus

system for optimal location of UPFC and the results obtained are encouraging and will be useful

in electrical restructuring (Taher and Tabei, 2008). Static Synchronous Compensator

(STATCOM) and Static Synchronous Series Compensator (SSSC) have been individually ap-

plied to improve stability of power system. The system with a STATCOM or a SSSC can in-

crease damping of power system whereas the system with coordination of a STATCOM and a

SSSC provides the best results of stability improvement (Kumkratug, 2011).

would be violated by the occurrence of credible contingencies. CA generally consists of two

parts: contingency selection and contingency evaluation. The number of potential contingencies

at any moment in a large-scale power system is very large and the time window for system oper-

ators to analyze trouble spots and take appropriate preventive (precontingency) and corrective

(postcontingency) actions is quite limited. If the contingency selection is too conservative, the

time for its analysis could be too long; if the selection is not conservative enough, critical contin-

gencies that could cause constraint violations or catastrophes could be missed. Thus, a good con-

tingency selection scheme followed by contingency evaluation for a set of selected contingencies

must be executed for proper control actions. CA is further burdened by recent requirements for

monitoring flowgate violations. A flowgate is a specified group of lines in the network. Each

flowgate has a limit on the algebraic sum of real power flows in its lines. Violations of flowgate

limits have to be corrected the same way as violations of individual line flow limits. Ideally, an

ac power flow solution should be computed for each contingency case, but thiswould take far too

long. Using a shortcut, CA could limit ac power flow solutions to a relatively small number of

predefined contingencies that have been determined to be the most likely to cause violations.

Because of its speed, almost all CA algorithms now use the fast decoupled power flow (FDPF)

algorithm [19] to obtain complete and accurate solutions of contingency cases. The earliest, and

still widely used, method of CA employs line outage distribution factors (LODFs) [20], [21] to

determine the effects of contingent line outages. The LODFs for a specified contingent line out-

age are the incremental real power flows in monitored lines caused by the outage of contingent

line with a preoutage active power flow of one unit.

Thus the incremental flows in all monitored lines caused by the outage of a contingent line with

any given preoutage flow can be computed very rapidly from the contingent line LODFs.

In large networks, magnitudes of a large proportion of LODFs for each outage are negligibly

small and therefore usually omitted. Efficiency could be further improved by applying sparsity-

oriented localization techniques [22][25] that compute and process only a relatively small num-

ber of LODFs that are large enough to have significant effects in CA problems. A serious short-

coming of LODFs is that the dc power flow on which they are based provides no explicit infor-

mation on bus voltages and reactive power. The only way to compute these effects accurately is

by an ac power flow solution. In fact, the dc power flow has poor accuracy even in computing

the incremental real power flows. It is used only because of its speed.

1) Contingency Selection: To reduce the computer time as systems continue to grow increasingly

larger, the list of potential outage contingencies for CA could be selectively reduced by engineer-

ing judgment before submitting it to CA for further automatic selection. And the list of contin-

gencies to be monitored for violations could similarly be reduced beforehand to further decrease

the computational effort. Automatic contingency selection methods [26][28] fall into two stag-

es: screening and ranking. A common screening method is to use the results of the first iteration

of FDPF for each contingency case. Tests and experience indicate this is not a very reliable se-

lection method. Two iterations are somewhat better, though they take twice as long and still do

not provide useful information on the effects on reactive power sources. Another screening ap-

proach is by bounding [22], [23], [29], which explicitly exploits localization. The effects of a line

outage diminish rapidly with electrical distance from the outage and, beyond a certain tier of

buses surrounding the outage, become negligibly small for contingency analysis purposes. For

each contingency case, the bounding method identifies the boundary tier and computes the dc

power flow solution for the contingency in the bounded subnet work. At this point, the dc power

flow solution for the bounded network has been completely computed and is then used to check

for line flow violations and to screen the contingency.

As now used, the bounding approach requires no setup calculations, is performed on the fly for

each new case, and provides maximum flexibility for contingency selection.

The approach has been extended to ac network analyses and has potentials for improving CA be-

yond what was explored previously. Selection is performed by various ranking schemes which

compute a scalar performance index (PI) for each contingency derived from the dc or FDPF so-

lution for the contingency.

The assumption in these ranking schemes is that the magnitude of PI for each contingency is a

measure of likelihood that it will cause line overloads and violations of bus voltages and reactive

power sources. For instance, the MW-PI for each contingency is a summation of terms equal to

the number of lines in the network. Each term is a function of the incremental power flow in one

of the lines and its flow limit.

The efficiency of PI ranking methods in large networks could be improved by the localization

techniques suggested above for LODFs. Only the incremental line flows within a certain easily

determinable subnetwork around the contingency have a significant effect on PI results, and only

these elements need to be computed and processed in PI ranking.

Once contingencies are screened and ranked, a selected number of contingencies are evaluated

and possibly considered for security control actions. Power system solutions are prescribed based

on control actions until no violations are encountered in the case of contingencies. At this point,

CA is terminated.

2) Contingency Evaluation (Preventive and Corrective Actions): Once contingency violations are

identified, the system operator embarks on determining control actions that could partially alle-

viate or totally eliminate their threat. The control actions range from adjusting control transform-

ers, changing the network configuration, and modifying the economic schedule of units to a pre-

calculated set of load-shedding alternatives. It is customary for a system operator to obtain deci-

sion support by running the EMS static security analysis. However, it is usually more difficult to

achieve credible decision support from EMS for the dynamic security analysis of power systems.

The immediate goal is to continue with improvements in the computation of preventive and cor-

rective control actions to assist dispatchers in decision making. The primary tools for achieving

this goal are programs for solving various definitions of SCOPF problem. Reasonably satisfacto-

ry SCOPF solution methods [30][32] have been developed for some problems and better ones

are constantly being sought. SCOPF programs are not yet used for computing system control ac-

tions in real time, but operators in making decisions about control actions are increasingly using

them interactively. The trend is toward expanding their role.

The preventive and corrective control actions for managing contingencies in SCOPF represent a

tradeoff between economics and security in restructured power systems.

A preventive dispatch for uncontrollable contingencies is included in the precontingency (i.e.,

steady state) solution of SCOPF for maintaining the economics and the secure operation of a sys-

tem in the event of contingencies. However, the preventive dispatch is conservative and could be

expensive and even infeasible for potentially dangerous contingencies.

The corrective actions represent postcontingency control actions for eliminating system viola-

tions. Such contingencies are referred to as controllable contingencies.

The engine of SCOPF is the basic OPF problem, for which many solution methods have been

developed. In one of the leading approaches, based on variants of the Newton power flow algo-

rithm, contingency constraint violations obtained from CA are entered into the base case prob-

lem, which is then solved in the usual way to enforce them in the base case.

The alternative approach uses LP-based methods [33]. Although both approaches enforce the vi-

olations identified in a cycle of CA, they do not guard against new contingency violations pro-

duced by control actions. To check for new violations, it is necessary to repeat the CA. This ad-

ditional iterative loop makes SCOPF much more costly than OPF.

However, if SCOPF is unable to meet the system security, load shedding will be implemented as

an emergency control alternative.

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