You are on page 1of 48

UIPE

EDITOR
Irene Kabuzire

DESIGN & LAYOUT


Eunice Kuria - City Imaging (Nairobi)

HISTORIAL PICTURES
Martin Muthee

PUBLISHERS
College Publishers Ltd
P. O. Box 9350
Tel: (041) 257823
Fax: (041) 255904, Kampala
E-mail: college@africaonline.co.ug
List of Current Council Office Bearers

Eng Karuma Kagyina Eng. Winfred Naluyinda Eng Luyimbazi David Ssali Eng Retreat Nkya Kiiza

Eng Sooma Ayub Eng. Dr. Anania Mbabazi.psd Eng Mpango Edson Eng Sam Ssenkungu

Eng Alfred Kamule. Mugisa Daudi

From left: Eng Alfred Kamule, Eng. Livingstone Bangi, Eng Retreat Nkya Kiiza, Eng Karuma
Kagyina, Eng Dr. Anania Mbabazi, Hon. Eng John Nasasira, Eng Winfred Naluyinda, Eng Sooma
Ayub, Eng Peter Balimunsi, Eng Edson Mpango, Eng. James Omara Ogwang.

UIPE Council
President Eng. Karuma Kagyina Members Mr. Daudi Mugisha
Vice Presidents: Eng Sam Senkungu
Electrical Eng Edward Kasule Eng Sooma Ayub
Civil Eng Simon Peter Otoi Eng James Omara Ogwang
Mechanical Eng Winfred Naluyinda Eng Dr. Anania Mbabazi
Hon. Secretary Eng. Retreat Nkya Kiiza Eng Dr. Edison Mpango
Hon Treasurer Eng Peter Balimunsi Eng Alfred Kamule
Past President Eng Livingstone Bangi Eng. Luyimbazi David Ssali
3

Message of the Patron


Public to understand the challenges and cooperate to
find solutions.

Engineering and technological challenges in this


country are immense. They include the demand for
improved communication systems, better transport
infrastructure and services, adequate water supply,
sufficient power supply, better sanitation, improved or
better housing and settlements and quality living for the
citizens. As Engineers, we must rise to the challenged
because the public looks at us to make all the
difference.

I, as the Patron of the Institution, I get very concerned


when matters like substandard construction works,
collapsing structures and poor engineering practices
that keep cropping up.

I will endeavour to advise the Members of the Institution


as I have done before and in this vein, I wish to thank
the Council and the Members for the trust and
Uganda Institution of Professional Engineers
cooperation they have accorded me up to now.
(UIPE)
I encourage Members to participate more actively in
Publishing an Engineering Journal like this one is very
this and other Technology Conferences and contribute
important for the Engineers and the Public. For you
more to the Journal. Finally, let me congratulate the
engineers, this is an opportunity to learn from the other
Council for this feat and organizing the Conference and
engineers and technologists new innovations, new
encourage you to keep up with this effort.
methods of application and new ideas in the practice of
Engineering and Technology.
Eng.J.M.Nasasira(Hon.)
For the general public, it is important for them to be
PATRON AND MINISTER OF WORKS, HOUSING &
assured that their engineers are abreast with current
COMMUNICATIONS
trends and that they have not been outpaced by new
developments and challenges.

The general public will be comforted when it gets to


appreciate that someone somewhere is scratching
his/her head to find a solution to what seems to be
intractable challenges. Engineers and technologists are
very important to the development of any country.

They are the prime movers of production,


manufacturing, marketing and most aspects of
economic growth. This Journal will therefore provide a
forum for the Engineers and Technologists and the
4

Message From
The President Uganda Institution
of Professional Engineers (Uipe)
Journal that is being launched today. The Journal is portable,
reader-friendly and worth keeping on ones bookshelf. It is therefore
recommended for every one interested in new technological
advances.

You Engineers have a duty to use your professional knowledge and


training to improve the well being of your community and the
country as a whole. We must strive to inform the general public
what we are doing and whether we are doing it well and if we are
not doing it well, why. We have recently found ourselves under
severe criticism. The general public is expressing disquiet at
engineering practices in various fields. The accusing finger keeps
pointing at the falling professional integrity, falling technical
standards and lack of diligence. We therefore must take advantage
of events like the Annual Technology Conference to inform the
general public what we are doing, assess performance in the
outgoing year and pick new knowledge and initiatives from the
interaction the Conference offers to improve our performance.

I wish to encourage Members of the Institution to be very active in


On this auspicious occasion of the 11th National Technology
this and future Conferences, contribute to the Journal, prepare and
Conference and the launching of the Institution's Technology present papers, and to really learn from one another so that we
Conference Journal, I wish to thank the NTC Organizing improve our performance.
Committee for its strenuous efforts in organizing the
Conference and conceiving the idea of producing this very Let me conclude by thanking the Guest of Honour for having
important and apt Journal, the first of its kind, since the accepted our Invitation, thank our Patron for his continued support
Institution started holding the Annual Technology Conference, and guiding the Institution all this time, thank my Council for the
some eleven years ago. support they have given me and the Institution Members for the
good work done. Last but not least, I wish to thank our collaborators
The Technology Conference is the single most important event in and those who have continued to support the Institution.
the Institution's calendar. It offers the Institution the opportunity to
bring out to the engineers, other professionals and the general
public, engineering innovations in technology, new materials and
new ideas spotted from within and outside the country in the year so Signed,
that this knowledge is shared out to the benefit of Ugandans and the Eng. Karuma-Kagyina
country as a whole. This is also the occasion when topical PRESIDENT
engineering or technological issues that affect the public and the
country are, after a thorough analysis, brought forth in form of
Conference Papers to the public for discussion. Knowledge is key
to all development. However, knowledge which is not shared so
that it is applied, is valueless knowledge.

In the past Conferences, there have been many interesting


exhibitions and topical presentations but the Institution has not been
keeping the proceedings in an orderly manner. It is this time round
that the Institution has aggregated this valuable information into
5

Introduction. . .
Promoting the Engineering Profession in Uganda contributions to the profession; or to the institution; or are eminent
UIPE was born in 1972 and since then has had the mantle of in engineering or public service, which contributions are recognized
steering the engineering profession in Uganda; promoting the by the Council.
professional ethics of engineering and overall, place
Graduate
engineers at the centre of developments taking place in
The graduate category calls for at least 4 years of service in the
Uganda for instance in telecommunications, road
engineering profession after graduation. They must also present
construction, bridges, new buildings, water supply, power
and submit a career development report which is assessed by
supply among a host of others. assessors within the institution. This is a prerequisite for an
engineer to be registered on the Engineers Registration Board
The Institution aims to be a leading professional organization in the which board allows one to practice as an engineer in Uganda.
country and sub-region, spearheading development and integration
of science, engineering and technology into public policy and Technologist
management of resources in a sustainable manner for the These are members with a higher diploma in engineering with at
betterment of mankind. least three years working experience related to the profession and
is not eligible to be a corporate member.
UIPE's mandate is to bring together engineers of various disciplines
aiming at professional development and improvement of the Technician
general profession The technicians category, refers to members who, like the
Technologist should have three years working experience with a
Organisation of Uganda Institute of Professional Engineers (UIPE) diploma in engineering and is also not eligible for corporate
UIPE is headed by a President currently assisted by three vice membership.
presidents and a council. The Council works on behalf of the
Institute in carrying out its mandate through council committees, Student members
through divisions and through branches of UIPE. The committees These are members who are currently pursuing a career in the
deal with the area of finance and administration; membership engineering profession.
education and training; disciplinary, professional ethics; career
guidance and library. The branches are at district level and include: Programmes and activities undertaken by the Council
Jinja Fort Portal Mbale and Kampala. • The Abraham Waligo Memorial Lecture where prominent
personalities within the industry are called upon to speak to the
There is a Secretariat headed by an Honorary Secretary. The participants about innovations and improvements in the industry.
Secretariat is the administrative body which runs the day to day • The National Technology Conference where exhibitions of new
activities of UIPE. It reports to the council. advancements in technology are displayed and presentations on
a technical nature affecting the Ugandan professionals.
UIPE functions under three Divisions, Branches and Committees. Basically, giving the professionals a glimpse into new
The Divisions of UIPE are: technologies relevant to the industry.
• Civil Engineering Division • An Annual General Meeting is also held under which a new
• Electrical Engineering Division and presidency and council is chosen to continue to implement the
• Mechanical Engineering Division affairs of the institute.
• There is also an annual engineer dinner and social evenings
Membership planned for professionals where apart from socializing, key
Membership under UIPE is in three categories; Fellows, Ordinary persons from the engineering fraternity are brought in to talk to
and Associate members. The whole list of categories includes; the professionals on topical issues about the industry.

Fellows/honorary All these activities are carried out voluntarily except for the duties of
These are corporate members who have made significant administration e.g. Secretaries.
6

Interviews with Past Presidents


Memorable occurrences
What cannot go unmentioned is when I was elected to become the
president of the Institution. To be a leader of engineering
professionals was for me a humbling experience and a most
gratifying one. I remember we worked closely with the oil companies
to bring practical skills to the membership in the business of
lubricants. In those days the Institution placed some priority in
educating our members on the need for quality maintenance.

Also fresh in my mind is the event when President Yoweri Museveni


laid the foundation stone for the engineers' house in Kyambogo.
One day I hope this monument to engineering will be built.

Challenges encountered by UIPE over the years


Just like any other field, there are some shortcomings, which mainly
hinged around the failure of UIPE to successfully implement the
continuous training and assessment of the engineering practice.
Also the elders in the profession drift away from the activities of the
Institution yet they posses vast experience that would have been of
Eng. Dr. F.B Sebbowa is a 1982 PhD graduate of Mechanical great value to the up coming engineers.
Engineering (Leeds University) and recently added the
ESAMI/Maastricht Executive MBA. He was a Senior Lecturer at On the upcoming Technology Conference
Nairobi and Makerere universities lecturing mechanical engineering The Coming conference should however explore ways to overcome
to undergraduates and supervising postgraduate student, worked these challenges. For instance the review of the council's strategic
with the Uganda Clays for 9 years from where he joined the plan to make it more applicable to today's circumstances.
Electricity Regulatory Authority (ERA) as the Chief Executive
Officer.

Comment on past Technology Conferences


Past conferences helped both the young and old engineers to focus
on topical issue the affect their profession and the country at various
times. However, they were sometimes quite academic in leaning
and some failed to address real practical engineering issues. This is
what we want to change.

The forthcoming conference should focus on the day-to-day issues


that affect the engineers and find lasting solutions to the prevailing
challenges in our society.

The past conferences mainly had a problem of resolution


implementation which requires us to go an extra mile say appointing
a dedicated group or team of individuals to follow up the
implementation of our conference the resolutions. Part of the work
the team will do is to evaluate the impact of the conference and
make subsequent recommendations.
7

relationship between the Industrial sector and the Engineering


sector. Also, the need to encourage students to take up sciences
right from early levels of their education.

During my tenure as president, we carried out massive mobilization


through all cadres i.e. undergraduates, branch members that were
instrumental in the history of the UIPE. It was a peak period of
registration of Engineers into the Association (2001/2002)

Challenges
There are a number of challenges met in the engineering field. For
the association particularly, our membership is still low compared to
the number of Engineers practicing. There is also need to improve
the quality of construction materials through imposing proper
regulation on the materials supplied to the industry. Yet more, the
area of research has not been tackled. There is need to encourage
more research in the engineering sector which has been dormant
compared to the other sectors say agriculture.

On the upcoming conferences


Eng. Alex Gisagara is a graduate of Mechanical Engineering from The upcoming conferences should devise strategies that will enable
Makerere University. He also has a master's degree in Engineering members improve the engineering ethics and encourage more
from the same University. He is a specialist in urban Water & Waste technical know how in the construction industry. Also the need to
Water Engineering and has a working experience of 24 years. He ensure that the quality of engineering works is good enough through
first worked in Sugar Engineering in Moshi Tanzania and Lugazi. site inspection is very paramount.
For the past 17 years, he has been working in the water industry as
the Chief Engineer for National Water & Sewerage Corporation. He Lastly, it is my greatest desire to see the work on the technology
was a Vice President for the UIPE from 1999 to 2001 after which he building resume.
became President in 2001/2002.

Comment on past Technology Conferences


When we started these conferences, the papers presented mainly
focused on the needs in the Engineering sector. The quality and
content of the presentations was very good and highly valued.
However overtime, this has gone down and we need to address
this.

Memorable occurrences.
I still remember vividly the international conferences I attended and
the impact they had on me. There is one we had in Harare for the
Federation of African Engineers. The representatives were from
SADC countries and the main topic for discussion was on how to
improve Engineering Ethics and practice. The other conference is
when I also represented UIPE in the East Africa Federation for
Engineers. I cannot underrate the impact they had on me and it is
from these conferences that I strongly recommend a close working
8

Interviews
Ans: The issues impacting on the engineering fraternity are
wide ranging. The most recent revolve around on-site
accidents involving collapsing buildings, poor quality building
materials, and the now incessant energy crisis, the often
flouted ethics and integrity in the profession, and a generally
unfavourable working environment.

Qtn: The issues outlined will lead the evolution of certain


guiding principles what are some of the anticipated
outcomes?

Ans: The conference will come up with guiding principles to


policy makers, in key areas such as protection of human life
and property on-site in Uganda. Furthermore it is imperative
to note that the key role of an engineer is to create wealth, this
should however not be at the cost of lives. Therefore, the 11th
National Technology Conference will seek to draw from the
current experiences a set of guiding principles in critical areas
such as the present energy shortage. It will thus establish a
basis for debate on major issues affecting the engineering
Seeking solutions, to the challenges fraternity.
of the engineering profession in
Uganda Qtn: Some of the challenges facing the engineering
profession are similar throughout the region. Do engineers
The 11th National Technology Conference is set to be unique; from the region have a role to play in the conference?
this is owing to the wide spectrum of professionals ranging
from engineers, contactors, architects, policy makers, local Ans: Indeed, the conference will attract professionals from the
authorities, surveyors, lawyers among a host of others. This neighbouring countries. These participants will accord the
year's conference theme is " Challenges of the Engineering conference a regional dimension. Just as pointed out, some
Profession in Uganda." Eng. Ayub Sooma CEng. MIET (UK), of Uganda's engineering challenges are similar to those
R.Eng (U), MUIPE Chairman, 11th National Technology experienced by the professionals in the neighbouring
Conference, Steering Committee, outlines the focus of the countries. Forv instance the challenge of massive traffic jams
conference. is not only unique to Kampala but other regional; capitals as
well.
Qtn: What factors motivated the choice of the theme
"Challenges of the Engineering Profession in Uganda"? Qtn: The issue of building materials has sparked debate
Ans: The theme was chosen because the 11th National across Uganda. Key players in the building and construction
Technology Conference (NTC) is set to focus on the current industry have discussed it in different fora, will the 11th
challenges in the engineering profession in Uganda. It is National Technology Conference tackle this issue, kindly
imperative to note from the outset that the conference will not explain
only articulate the challenges, but also act as a forum to seek
possible solutions to the challenges facing the engineering Ans: Building materials are critical components in the building
fraternity. industry. The industry is one of the fastest growing in the
country to date. This is an indicator of sound economic
Qtn: What are some of the critical issues facing the growth. However, it has been observed that building material
engineering profession in Uganda today? standards have not been accorded due priority, not until
9

recently when structures began collapsing in the country. Qtn: Describe the conference format?
Though it is important to state that the collapse may not only Ans: The 11th National Technology Conference, will adopt a
necessarily be attributed to the standards of building materials highly interactive format so as to ensure that the participants
but also to one or more of the following factors, a cross- contribute to the debate optimally. There will also be a feed
section of which the conference will handle: back on the 10th National Technology Conference this will
a) Poor workmanship accord the conference the much needed continuity and focus.
The 250 or more professionals will thus have their
b) Lack of professional supervision discussions recorded and set for possible action by the
relevant stakeholders.
c) Questionable designs
Qtn: What is your message to the stakeholders in the
Qtn: Most industry players have pointed out during previous engineering fraternity?
stakeholder meetings that the legislative environment ought
to be addressed. What is your view as Chairnan of the 11th Ans: I would like to express my sincere and heartfelt
National Technology Conference? appreciation to the members of the UIPE Council. We all look
forward to a successful conference, marked by the UIPE's
Ans: The Engineering Act needs to be amended to reflect inaugural journal.
existing realities. It is noteworthy that this crucial fact ought to
be addressed with the urgency it deserves since without its
amendment no policy suggestions or guiding principles can
be implemented. There should be an enforceable strict code
of conduct for engineers to practice their profession in the
country. For example there have been cases of pseudo
engineers executing major engineering works that have in
some cases collapsed occasioning loss in both human life
and destructing of property. What are the penalties prescribed
for such flagrant violations? Policy makers ought to be part
and parcel of the engineering fraternity. This leads to effective
co-ordination in the sector.

Qtn: This conference will bring together different sets of


professionals yet it is essentially an engineering event. Any
particular reason?

Ans: Engineers do not work in a vacuum, a series of


professionals are involved in any job for instance in the
construction of a building, architects , contractors, quantity
surveyors among others are involved. Professionals, by their
very nature interact frequently. The 11th National Technology
Conference is cognizant of this fact and firmly believes that
the link between engineers and other professionals is just like
a chain which leads to a set outcome.

Qtn: Some professionals, once they graduate from various


institutions of learning do not see the need for any form of
professional development. What is the view of the 11th
National Technology Conference on this subject?

Ans: The Uganda Institute of Professional Engineers (UIPE)


undertakes Continuous Professional Development seminars
for all its members. This is in taking cognizance of the
importance of professional development. Furthermore in
starting early, the institute undertakes career guidance
discussions on engineering in schools in different parts of the
country.
10

Papers
Introduction Problem Definition
The water supply and sanitation sector was identified by the Shuuku Sub-County, like most other rural areas of Uganda, does
Government of Uganda as one of the priority areas of intervention not have a system in place for gathering hydrological and
to eradicate poverty [1]. The National Water Policy [2] identifies the meteorological data on its catchments. As a result, designs are not
main technologies for rural and peri-urban communities to include based on long historical time series but more on instantaneous yield
point sources including protected springs, shallow wells with hand measurements and assumptions. The limitations of the latter
pumps, boreholes, and gravity-fed piped schemes, also known as method result in uncertainty in determination of safe yields
gravity flow schemes (GFS). GFS have been widely promoted and especially if done during rainy periods. Thus, the downstream flow
established in areas where there are continuously flowing and regime of the Nyakabwera Stream has already been observed to
perennial water sources, such as springs or natural streams, at a cease during the dry season and has reduced tremendously even
higher altitude than the supply area. Construction of GFS involves during the rainy season. It is feared that the wetlands downstream
protection of the water source by intercepting its natural flow, then are diminishing in extent, and this may affect both the local climate
collecting the water into a distribution reservoir. The water is then and the ecosystem of this area. The Nyakabwera Stream and
fed into a network of pipes that supply the downstream several other streams in the region are harnessed for GFSs. They
communities. Source protection may include some form of finally drain into the River Rwizi. Reduced downstream discharges
treatment such as sedimentation and/or filtration, drainage of from the streams naturally results in falling river stage of the Rwizi,
surface runoff, and fencing off the catchment area to prevent and it is not known whether this is resulting in irreversible
activities upstream that may compromise the quality of water. deterioration of the ecosystems that depends on the river and the
Shuuku gravity flow scheme was constructed in the early 1980s to streams. Also, since the development of this GFS is similar to the
supply rural communities in Shuuku Sub-County in Bushenyi development of other GFSs in the country, the combined
District with safe water. The population of Shuku Sub-County grew environmental impact here described may be significant. The last
with time and in 2001, the scheme was redesigned and improved to problem relates to wastage, where it has been noted that more
supply the then population of 4000 inhabitants and six educational water than designed is abstracted. The excess water eventually
institutions [3]. overflows at the subsidiary reservoirs in the distribution system.
The lack of overflow controls for the reservoirs is a major omission
Water abstraction is done by interception of a natural stream in in most of the GFS designs seen today, and the resulting wastage
Nyakabwera Hills (photograph 1). The water is channelled is not restricted only to Shuuku but occurs in most other GFSs
successively through a roughing filter, sedimentation tank and slow constructed throughout the country.
sand filter to improve the water quality before distribution. The yield
of the stream was determined as 0.004m³/s having been measured Design Aspects of Shuuku GFS
during the dry season. For design purposes, only 0.0026m³/s was Table 1 summarises the information considered during the design of
used [3]. On March 03, 2005 the Uganda Bureau of Statistics Shuuku gravity flow scheme. The design provided for three check
released a national report on the impact of poverty eradication dams upstream of the abstraction point to prevent debris and large
programs [4]. The report revealed that environmental degradation, sediments from reaching the intake and choking the system. A
in terms of deforestation and diminishing wetlands, is on the rectangular weir intake was designed with a straining steel mesh
increase in areas where poverty alleviation has been most effective. draining into a roughing filter. The roughing filter was filled with rock
Developments cannot be sustainable if they lead to increased boulders and equipped with overflow pipes to allow excess water to
poverty alleviation while at the same time adversely impacting the flow downstream. The roughing filter feeds into two sedimentation
environment. Water supply developments being part of the tanks through to a slow sand filter that drains into a 60m3
considered measures for poverty eradication must be critically distribution reservoir. The reservoir was sized for peak demand and
assessed to determine their contribution to environmental is augmented by two reservoirs in the distribution network, each
degradation. It is for this reason that this paper seeks to assess the with a capacity of 20m3. The network was designed with 28 tap
possible role of GFS in local environmental degradation. stands to serve the community and the institutions. The construction
cost was approximated at US$65,000 [3].
Description of the Project Area
Shuuku Sub-County is located in Bushenyi District in the South- Special Construction Features
Western part of Uganda. Shuuku GFS supplies communities in During construction of Shuuku GFS, the intake was considered
some parishes of the Sub-County, namely Kishaabya, Kyempitsi, sensitive due to its vulnerability to flooding and accumulation of
Butsibo, and Kashozi. The terrain varies from hilly to plain ranges sludge. As such, several improvements were made in the design to
(photograph 1). The area experiences an average annual rainfall of minimise this risk. The incoming stream was equipped with three
about 1,200mm. The main economic activities include farming, check dams in form of rectangular weirs installed with screens in
both arable and livestock, and retail trade activities in the trading form of steel bars. During construction a silt trap was included just
centres. before the roughing filter. Here, a diversion to a flood channel was
11

constructed to prevent flooding of the filters during periods of heavy However, the most significant loss was identified at the storage
rains. The roughing filters were installed with overflow pipes. It was tanks in the distribution network, which overflow without any control
considered that only the water needed in the supply area would be when a tank fills up. These in effect shift the stream to where it was
maintained through the system, while the excess water (over the not originally flowing, where it is lost through seepage and
design yield) would spill over and continue flowing in the original evapotranspiration.
stream. In GFSs where the source is a natural spring, the spring
eyes are identified by excavating around the spring area. The eyes Recommendations
are protected and channelled into a collection box. The collection To ensure balanced development which provides for the water
box is installed with overflow pipes. Similarly in this case, the supply needs of the communities without compromising the
consideration is that only the design yield would be flowing into the environmental integrity, the use of design yields as low as 50% of
distribution system while the water in excess of the design yield the measured yields are suggested in order to reduce design
would overflow to maintain the water supply downstream of the uncertainty. More so, such measurements should be done in the
source. driest months to ensure they are as close as possible to the safe
yields. This allows increased safety factors where the span of the
Assessment of the Current Situation historical data is unreliable. However, it is important for the relevant
In Uganda today, the design assumptions made, and provisions authorities to initiate the monitoring of flows for all the potential
during construction for maintaining the flow downstream of the sources. If the design and construction provisions to maintain a
source have in many cases not translated into downstream flow for downstream flow at the source are to serve their purpose, overflow
most of the constructed GFSs. The Nyakabwera Stream for the controls in the systems have to be included in designs and
Shuuku GFS is no exception, and the stream has become construction. The simplest mechanism is the installation of float
seasonal. The stream can only be sustained for a short period after valves at inlets to all the reservoirs, break pressure tanks, and
heavy rains. Photograph 2 shows a photograph taken in March cisterns. A float valve cuts off supply when the tank fills up. It is
2005, when the area was receiving moderate rains. It is taken at a recommended that environmental concerns be given as much
point where the stream used to cross the main feeder road. attention in all phases of the project development, including design,
However, even at this time the stream was dry as can be seen in the construction, operation and maintenance, and during monitoring of
photograph. the performance of the GFS. Monitoring has been done for the
technical and management aspects of the schemes. Monitored
The vast hinterland for this stream no longer benefits from the aspects of the GFSs should include environmental impacts. This
stream and the swamp that was fed by this stream is diminishing. would allow for timely corrective or preventive measures before the
The swamp in question serves as one of the water sources feeding impacts reach irreversible levels.
into River Rwizi, a major river in the area, running through three
districts and from where Mbarara Town gets its water supply. The Table 1. Design parameters for Shuuku GFS [3]
local farmers who used to water their livestock from the
Nyakabwera Stream have now reverted to hand dug ponds in the
Parameter Quantity
swamps, which practice is only exposing the water resource in the
swamps to a further risk of depletion. On visiting Shuuku and other Safe Yield, m³/s 0.004
GFSs that have been constructed, it has been established that the Design Period, years 0.020
provisions made to maintain the downstream flow do not serve the Design Domestic Demand, m³/c/day 0.025
purpose. Water continues to flow into the distribution system most
Design Institutional Demand, m³/c/day 0.006
of the time, without overflowing at the source as expected. When
not simply overtopping the distribution reservoirs, the excess water Design Domestic Population, no. 6773
is used for applications that were not considered in design. These Design Institutional Population, no. 4549
include irrigation and livestock watering by some of the inhabitants Average Water Demand, m³/s 0.0026
of the supply area. More water is wasted through spillage at the
Peak Demand, m³/s 0.0047
water collection points and through leakages in the system.

Nyakabwera hills, Shuuku Sub-County in background The dry Nyakabwera stream. Notice the exposed water pipe.
12

Application of the Road


Investment Models In Uganda
Introduction • Determine the funding requirements of the entire road asset
The Performance Assessment Model (PAM) and Road Economic under two scenarios i.e. 'maintaining status quo' and 'desirable
Decision (RED) models were introduced to the Ministry of Works, maintenance condition';
Housing & Communications in Uganda in the year 2003 by the • Impacts of funding various funding scenarios i.e. increase in
Road Management Initiative (RMI) of the Sub-Saharan Transport vehicle operating costs (VOCs), total transport costs (agency and
Policy Programme. This was undertaken to enable the road sub- VOCs), shadow costs of funding deficits, benefits of improving
sector prepare reports on the trend and direction of the current network condition etc;
Maintenance management reforms in the country.
The analysis is carried out on a representative road network matrix.
The PAM and RED models are also being used to come up with The national road network was divided into 'condition families' as
cursory estimates of road maintenance requirements, road network surrogate units to manage the entire network. A 'condition family'
performance monitoring indicators and analysing road maintenance contains segments of roads of approximately the same condition
strategies. index and furthermore, pavements within a family are assumed to
deteriorate in the same manner requiring the same type of
The results of the assessment done using these models are only maintenance treatments when falling below standard. The road
indicative and represent the trends in a first step assessment of the network matrix comprises of combined homogeneous segments
maintenance regime and conditions of the road network. For a more (length of road network for which road condition and surface type
thorough assessment, higher generation models such as HDM-4 attributes are constant) into a matrix of representative sections.
need to be put to use. Each of the representative sections in the matrix represents a large
number of real sections (often thousands of kilometers of roads)
1 Description of the Models scattered around the road network, each of which has similar
1.1 PAM Model characteristics of condition and surface type. Instead of each of the
The PAM is a tool developed to carry out strategic network analysis constituent sections being analyzed separately, just the
mainly in order to: - representative section (whose length is the sum of the constituent
sections) is analyzed.
13

The major advantage of this approach is the fast turn-around that it matrices. A transition matrix specifies, for a homogeneous sub-
facilitates in respect to the ability to iterate to a preferred network, the proportion of that sub-network that deteriorates from
solution/strategy relatively quickly. one condition band to the following worse condition band every
year.
1.2 RED Model
The RED Model is another tool developed by the World Bank to The above matrix indicates, for instance, that 60% of the roads (that
mainly carry out economic evaluation of road investments and are in V. Good Condition this year) will remain in V. Good condition
maintenance operations particularly for low volume roads. This the next year and 40% of it will deteriorate to condition band 'Good'.
model has now has up to four modules (Main economic evaluation, Each value in the matrix is known as a transition probability (i.e.
VOC, Risk Analysis and Program Evaluation Modules) of which the transition probability Pij indicates the probability of a pavement in
relevant one for the PAM analysis is the VOC Module. condition band 'i' to move to condition band 'j' in any one year). The
PAM uses constant factor transition probabilities of 0.9:0.1 and
In the PAM analysis, the VOC Module is used to calculate the VOCs 0.7:0.3 for paved and unpaved roads.
per vehicle - km that are then used as input to the PAM. These
figures or numbers are used for PAM economic analyses as well as Therefore, based on the present road network condition profile, the
the computation of total VOCs on the entire network. next year's network condition can be determined by operating the
current condition vector with the transition matrix.
2 Data requirements for PAM analysis
In order to carry out a PAM analysis, the following data 4 Definition and costing of treatment strategies
requirements are essential: - The most challenging and difficult part of using the PAM is the
determination of the treatment costs in step 3 of the figure 1 above.
• Homogeneous road network matrix by road condition and Whereas each of the above five steps is very important towards
surface type (derived from road inventory and condition obtaining meaningful results from the PAM analysis, step 3 may be
surveys). This data is now captured on an annual basis by the most important. Pavement maintenance standards define when
District Engineers at Information Quality Level - 4 (IQL-4); and how pavements should be maintained, and therefore have an
• Routine and Periodic Maintenance planning unit costs. This data important impact on the definition of budgets.
is determined from historical bid rates of works let out to private
contractors; The unit costs for the PAM model are built up based on the 'Water
• Vehicle Operating Costs input data for the RED Model e.g. Pump Model' above i.e. the user to define the type of
vehicle, fuel, tyre, lubricant, maintenance labour and crew costs treatments/activities needed to improve a road from one condition
etc. This data is collected by headquarters dealers from vendors to a better one.
of vehicles, fuel and lubricants, garages and transporters; and
• Aggregated average traffic levels for the different road surface As shown, one needs a bigger pump to improve a road from very
types. This is based on data from traffic counts carried out on an poor condition to excellent compared to improving from very poor to
annual basis on most of the national road network system. fair (due to larger difference in elevation). Similarly, the costs of the
pumps needed to do these tasks are guided by the same principle.
As a normal practice, the Ministry now carries out annual road This principle is extended to the application of the PAM model to
condition and traffic surveys as well as the collection of VOC define the activities required to improve a road from one condition
information, which serves as useful input to the PAM analysis. Data to a better one and as such the required costs. The major finding in
collection represents a significant effort in the operation of the PAM the costing of the various treatment strategies was the following:
so that valid outputs are derived from its reports.
• If pavements can be repaired while still in 'fair' condition, repair
Notwithstanding the need for accurate data if PAM is to be costs are generally about one-third the cost of repairing roads in
meaningfully utilized, it should be noted that the data needed is the poor condition. This significantly reduces the overall life-cycle costs
basic minimum for the operation of a pavement management of that road. In this respect, pavement preservation is a cost
system (PMS). It therefore seems reasonable that for any agency effective strategy for maintaining the national road network with
with an operational pavement management system, it is very easy immediate savings of up to 70% of costs not to mention the savings
to create the required data to operate the PAM. The major in VOCs.
difference between the data requirements of PAM and any
conventional PMS is the quantity and quality of data needed with 5 Outputs from the PAM analysis
the PAM system demanding the basic minimum. The PAM provides many useful reports in the form of excel
spreadsheets for the two analysis scenarios (i.e. maintaining
3 Modeling Road Deterioration existing network condition and achieving desirable network
Pavement deterioration is modeled for each homogeneous sub- condition) and they include the following: -
network by means of a probabilistic models making use of transition
14

• Routine Maintenance funding required; • Total Vehicle Operating Costs


• Required physical activities to compensate deterioration; Table 7: Total Road User VOC existing network (USD 1000 per
• Periodic Maintenance Funding required; year)
• Total VOCs.

Other important reports provided by the analysis are: -

• Optimal road condition as a function of traffic; The total vehicle operating costs for the existing network condition
• Desirable maintenance condition of the road network; profile is derived from the calculation below: -
• Minimization of economic impact of funding gap; and
• Funding impact on road condition. Table 8: Total Annual VOCs - Scenario 1 (m US$)

6 PAM analysis output for Uganda


The analysis of the Ugandan national (trunk road network) yielded
the following results for the two analysis scenarios defined earlier: -

1. Assessment of Scenario 1: Maintaining Existing Condition


The objective is to assess the funding levels required to sustain the
existing road network in its present condition. The assessment
determines the minimum cost of compensating for the deterioration
of the network i.e. maintaining the existing network at the current
conditions. The calculation is based on the maintenance standards
determined by the Ministry.

• Routine Maintenance Requirements


Table 4: Routine Maintenance Need of 'Existing Road Network' 2. Assessment of Scenario 2: Achieving Desirable Network
(USD 1000 per Year) Condition
The objective is to assess the funding levels required to sustain the
condition of the 'Desirable' road network. In this 'Desirable' network,
existing roads are maintained using existing design standards
(gravel, bituminous and AC road design standards are unchanged).
• Periodic Maintenance Requirements
The 'desirable' maintenance condition of roads is optimised and
Table 5: Periodic Maintenance Funding Need of 'Existing Road justified by traffic volumes and savings in vehicle operating costs.
Again the assessment puts focus on determination of the minimum
cost of compensating for the deterioration of the network i.e.
maintaining and sustaining the 'Desirable' network conditions. The
calculation is based on the maintenance standards determined by
Network' (USD 1000 per year) the Ministry.
• Required Periodic Maintenance Activity
• Routine Maintenance Requirements
Table 6: Periodic Maintenance Activity for 'Existing Road Network' Table 9: Routine Maintenance Need of 'Desirable Network' (USD
(Km per year) 1000 per year)

• Periodic Maintenance Requirements


Table 10: Periodic Maintenance Funding Need of 'Desirable
Network' (USD million per year)

• Required Periodic Maintenance Activity


15

Table 11: Periodic Maintenance Activity for 'Desirable Network' per VOCs as a result of driving on roads in need of repair. The current
year (Km) maintenance funding for national roads stands at US$32 million,
which indicates that there is a large maintenance-funding shortfall
with respect to both scenarios. To the extent that this is not
forthcoming the road condition of the road network in Uganda is
deteriorating and the heavy investment in roads being lost.

6.2 Assessment of impact of funding deficits


The cost implication of the various national road maintenance
funding scenarios in terms of VOCs incurred by road users is as
shown in Table 11 below. The cost of maintenance for the desirable
road condition, of about US$45.75 million, corresponds to the 0%
deficit level of funding. The cost of maintaining the existing
conditions is at about US$65.75 million, of national roads were
allocated USD 32 million for the FY 2003/04.

• Total Vehicle Operating Costs The current funding level of US$32 million per year corresponds to
Table 12: Total Road User Vehicle Operating Costs of 'Desirable a 30% deficit on the 'desirable network'. The shortfall in the long run
Network' (1000 USD per year) leads to a deterioration of the network (backlog build-up) and
increased road user operating cost.

Table 14: Impact Assessment of Budgetary Shortfalls wrt to


'Desirable Funding levels

The total vehicle operating costs for the desirable network condition
profile is derived from the calculation below: -
Table 13: Total Annual VOCs - Scenario 2 (m US$)

6.1 Comparison of the two analysis scenarios From table 11 and the chart above, for every US$1 dollar of
• The cost of maintaining the total road network at the existing maintenance expenditure held back, each road user incurs an
condition is now estimated at US$65.75 million (US$22.76m and additional US$3.58 in VOC. The chart also brings out two main
US$42.99m for routine and periodic maintenance respectively). The issues: -
comparative cost of maintaining the road network at the 'desirable' • As the funding levels go on dwindling, the VOCs increase; and
condition is US$45.75m (US$10.74m and US$35.01m for routine • Road Users carry a huge burden in terms of VOCs compared to
and periodic maintenance respectively); the Road Agency Costs as shown by the scale on the Y-axis.
• Despite the fact that it is cheaper to maintain roads in the
'desirable' network condition by US$20m, it is worth noting that it In terms of propagation of the maintenance backlog (i.e. roads in
requires approximately US$160m of rehabilitation and periodic Very Poor condition), the table below shows the impact of various
maintenance interventions to achieve this. Government cannot funding deficits: -
afford to raise these resources in the present circumstances i.e.
funding limitations, construction absorptive capacity etc; Table 15: Impact of Funding Level on Maintenance Backlog (Km)
• The saving in VOCs for improving the road network from the
'existing' condition to the 'desirable' condition is US$ 113m in one
year alone. In the long term, it is quite viable to invest US$ 160m to
improve the road network to the 'desirable' condition and save more
than US$ 113m (US$ 74.2m due to Gravel roads and US$ 38.6m The table above shows the progression and buildup of the
due to Paved Roads as shown in Figure 2) annually. In this respect, maintenance backlog as funding levels decrease. For Uganda, the
each Ugandan motorist spends an extra US$ 402.72 annually in National Road Maintenance backlog is estimated at approximately
16

3,000 - 3,500km, which is consistent to a good extent with the VOC module and the PAM model;
model predictions. • The current model does not support scenario analyses with
budget constraints or long term assessments;
6.2 Use of PAM and RED Outputs • The IQL can compromise the quality of outputs from the models.
The outputs from the PAM and RED model analysis have been used
by the Ministry for the following: - 7 Conclusion
The absence of simple operational road management systems to
• Carrying out rapid and simple assessments of Network needs articulate the consequences of these road-funding trends to
(Routine Maintenance and Periodic Maintenance); politicians and financiers in a robust manner has often failed the
• Impact of Funding Deficits (on maintenance backlog, network Ministry in winning its argument for more funding. Complex models
condition, VOCs and TTCs); such as HDM-4 whereas more accurate have tended to alienate
• Preparation of simple and effective reports for management; decision makers because of the complexity of its outputs. The PAM
• Deriving performance indicators for the national road network provides a simple approach to the assessment of road requirements
e.g. VOCs (US$)/Veh-Km, Total VOCs etc. together with rich reports on impacts of various scenarios. Whereas
insufficient funding for the national road network has been the case
6.3 Benefits of PAM/RED Analysis for some time since 1994, it was not possible until the introduction
of the PAM model to carry out rapid assessments of the impacts of
Amongst the benefits of being able to utilize the above models are government funding decisions. This model has assisted the Ministry
the following: - articulate to politicians and finance Ministry officials the
consequences of continued under-funding for road maintenance to
• Decision makers appreciate the value of the data collected the extent the some of Government's policies have changed.
annually (traffic and road condition) and the practice of data
collection is now entrenched in our policy documents and budgeted Although the PAM model has been implemented, it is not the end. It
for on an annual basis; is a living system that needs to be updated with information on new
• Ministry has been able to carry out strategic planning analysis of circumstances surrounding road management for new updated
the national road network that consists of approximately 400 links in analyses on an ongoing basis. Furthermore, it is important that the
a few minutes, instead of the usual weeks or months required for information derived from the analysis is put to use especially in
traditional analyses using models such as HDM-4 etc; regard to funding otherwise the system will become obsolete.
• The model provides the Ministry with a flexible tool that can
assist with the definition of network maintenance programme and References
corresponding priorities in a significantly reduced time period and 1. The Updated 10 - Year Road Sector Development Programme
consequently cost; (RSDP-2: 2001/02 - 2010/11) of March 2002, publication of the
• Model has been instrumental in strengthening relationships Government of Uganda;
between the Ministry, the Finance Ministry, development partners as
well as political institutions by providing information and 2. National Road Network Performance Report for Financial Year
demonstrating the consequences of various funding scenarios; 2002/03 of October 2003, publication of the Ministry of Works,
• The outputs of this Model have been useful in influencing Housing & Communications;
Government policies and attitudes toward maintenance funding.
Examples of policy changes include the decision to seek additional 3. Application of the Performance Assessment Model (Revised
external funding support for road maintenance; regularized data National Roads Maintenance Estimates) of October 2003,
collection regime to allow monitoring of maintenance requirements; publication of the Ministry of Works, Housing & Communications;
etc;
• The Model has been useful in providing input towards the annual 4. Short User Guide for RMI Performance Assessment Model
Performance Indicators e.g. VOCs/veh-km, Total VOCs etc. (PAM) Ver 1 of March 2003;

6.4 Drawbacks 5. Short User Guide on the use of the RED model for estimation of
• The key to this analysis is to derive a representative road Vehicle Operating Cost inputs to the RMI Performance
network matrix that reflects the composition of the road network as Assessment Model of October 2002;
accurately as possible. This is not always possible for low
hierarchical roads such as district and urban roads. As such they 6. Andras I. Bako, Zoltan Horvath: Decision Support Model for
are not included in the analysis; Highway Maintenance;
• There is need to calibration the road condition regression or
transition transformations to local conditions. The default 7. Gasper, L: Highway Pavement Performance models, 9th
transformations can easily provide misleading results; International Conference on asphalt pavements, Copenhagen.
• There is need to create an automatic linkage between the RED- CD-ROM Proceedings.
18

Large buses for greater kampala provides movement for 100 passengers. A minibus takes 200sqm
and carrier only 14 passengers. Certainly we have no argument for
"A sure fight against traffic jams" sustaining the use of small vehicles and microbuses of UTODA on
our narrow streets, nor is shifting offices a logical answer to the
BY traffic scleroses of the city.
M.K.TIBABIGANYA
RELOCATION OF OFFICES/INDUSTRIES
High lights Unique intrinsic forces exist among upper and middle class
• There is a nauseating traffic crisis in kampala urbanites. They tend to get away from the city centres rigmarole by
• Dubious operators of the large buses are being lined up shifting to high-class residences out of town e.g. Muyenga, Lubowa
• Utoda is brandishing political clout but has no relevant and Ntinda etc leaving the low income earners clustered around
capacity,cohesion and professonalism for operating large buses their work places of Kisenyi, Katwe and Mulago etc. Naturally
• Relocation of terminals increases passenger trnsfer agonies supermarkets are established near human agglomerations to make
shopping trips shorter and more convenient while industry and
INTRODUCTION whole sale premises get located outside the central business
Professional practices must guide the introduction of large buses in districts. Improved traffic design is a very important factor in
grater Kampala to ensure reasonable speeds; reliability of services; adopting traffic flows to urban conditions. It permits maximum
acceptable frequencies; safety and security of occupants and utilization of space, orderly and safe flow of traffic and minimizes
affordable fares for the users etc. The East African region has only negative impacts of traffic on other activities and the environment.
a few transport pundits with relevant local experience but they rarely
appear on such delicate and expensive projects hence the current CHOICE OF OPERATORS
human and monetary wastage in public transport of the region with All public transport operators must be chosen along public and
Uganda taking the last position professional criteria because users must have a clear knowledge of
the operators integrity and capabilities. Public transport is not run
A glance at the urban commuter transport requirement for Kampala like the tomato sales at St.Balikuddembe market where a tomato
shows a fleet of 6000 minibuses costing over 300bn/=.The same decays and is thrown away without much loss but when a bus
commuter can effectively be moved by only 500 buses costing only decays while moving people, over 50 innocent people die in one
60bn/=.The minibuses will soon lower the peak hour speed of the accident alone leaving no compensation for their dependants. The
entire inner Kampala to less than one kph while the large buses integrity of the operators must be known because in the past, some
have the capacity to increase the same speed to over 14kph on the owners have connived with highway robbers to strip their own
most congested roads. Damage caused to the city by micro buses passengers and buses bought with stolen money are believed to
in lost time, environmental degradation and accidents etc will soon get involved in fatal accidents or fail dismally. Bus operators must
cost the country 1 trillion shillings a year but that of large buses can be of high caliber.
not go beyond 500m/= during the same period. Fuel and spares for
the minibuses are four fold those of large buses. THE RIGHT BODIES
We should have sustainable vehicles along the routes. Each bus
STREET CAPACITIES must carry over 90 seated and standing passengers. There are
Street capacity studies indicate that a road of 4-meter exclusive three types of bodies from which to choose according to
lanes can carry 2000 cars (6000passengers),800 minibuses(8000 geometrical elements of our streets. The standard bus will use most
passengers) and 500 large buses (50,000 passengers) per hour, of our roads but the double-decker carrying over 100 passengers
thus making the large buses capable of scavenging urban areas of will not use roads with low overpass bridges. The articulated bus
passengers in the shortest time possible. The pandemic traffic carrying over 120 passengers will climb some of our steep roads
thromboses of Kampala are aggravated by narrow streets, dormant and does not offer comfortable rides but has higher line capacity
traffic signals, microbuses, street parking and improper high and lower cost per passenger per km. The road network has over
conduct etc. A compact car takes 30sq meters at its 47 routes with adequate road design elements for the standard
origin,60sq.meter en route,30sqm at its destination and 10sqm buses and fewer routes for the other bodies. We have no special
when servicing or filling. This is a total of130sqm for only one or two treatment for buses because any street with less than four standard
passengers per trip while 300sqm of road space for a large bus lanes in each direction does not qualify for special bus lanes. The
19

stops, stages and terminals lack adequate dimensions, proper reduce traffic jams by over 80% but the current street widening
location and need revamping plus facilities for waiting passengers reduces the traffic thrombosis by only 20%.
like shelters, benches, and free toilets etc. The stages must each
accommodate at least two large buses at any one time. OPEN BIDDING
A number of urban large aspiring operators I talked to want the
SERVICE AND FARES government and KCC to come out clearly on the status of UTODA
A ten-meter wide zebra crossing to facilitate large numbers of in Kampala parks and routes. The political clout brandished by
people crossing to catch a bus or reach their destinations must be UTODA can not allow smooth transition without government
placed along the streets at intervals of 400 meters and opposite intervention and regulations. Importation and licensing of minibuses
schools and hospitals. The random street parking should be re- should stop immediately and all minibuses, which are 15 years old
designed to make it friendly to the urban traffic flows instead of the and above should be, converted into goods vehicles. UTODA has
current haphazard locations. The trip distribution of the Kampala no capacity, cohesion and professionalism of transiting from
commuters in various social and economic struggles dictate a bus microbuses to large buses hence the need for sourcing for
service that starts at 4:00am and ends at 12:00 midnight on the professional operators from out. Large buses are usually in small
majority of the routes that join residential estates and industrial numbers because of low demand arising out of their long life spans.
locations. At times some of these routes have no single passenger All together the new operator should introduce at least 200 large
aboard but service must continue. Public transport is, in the main, buses annually so that by 2010 we have reasonable traffic
for the common man and must be designed in such a way in all sensitization and affordable fares etc. It is also important that the
respects. The money magnets have other modes at their disposal. committee for the conference of the common wealth will include a
Factory workers, students, petty traders and junior office workers traffic expert.
etc should reach their destinations punctually, safely and at
affordable fares etc. For the purpose of professional fare May I appeal to the government to ensure major stages, terminals
calculations, the operator must find the average low-income and their facilities remain under the ownership and supervision of
earnings and ensure that an average trip to work and back home of government agencies or their representatives who have no stake in
the low-income earner does not cost over 17% of their daily income the bus ownership so that all bonafide interests of bus operators
because they must pay for essentials of life. Passengers must and users are attended to without blood shed at the change of
always carry fares in the right denominations because a bus manager as witnessed in the past. With good planning and large
conductor is not obliged to provide change. vehicles, shifting of terminals, offices and markets will come after
year 2040.a fully fledged transport college should start immediately
EFFICIENCY & PUBLIC SERVICE OBLIGATIONS in the country and teach all the scopes of transportation (Planning,
These buses should employ over 2500 workers, cover a minimum Technology, Operations, Management &Finance)
of 200km per bus per day and carry at least 1000 passengers per
day per bus etc. these statistics for high quality operations can be LICENCING
achieved only under professional guidance and consultants. The In future P.S.V's licenses must clearly indicate;
operators should have route and quasi area monopolies so that 1) Timetables 2) Route profiles
during peak hours the buses get full to crush capacity to maximize 3) Stages or express 4) Fare levels
revenue which cross-subsides low takings from slack periods. The 5) Drive/resting time 6) Urban/long route or country
monopolies are a condition for running full routes and following etc
timetables at as low fares as 200/= for Ggaba-Kampala trip. In
public transport we have public service obligations. Students, the
handicapped, the young and members of the armed forces on duty
travel at reduced fares because the grandfathers and mothers of
this Uganda have helped to shape the nation's infrastructure and
therefore deserve a token of thanks on the buses. Now and again I
listen with dismay to appeals from patients soliciting funds for travel
for heart operations in Madras or Cape Town. Some of them keep
wailing until they die before even raising a penny; yet Mulago and
other hospitals were built by taxes of their parents. Investors perse
are not large operators since some of them invest in blood spillage
of their passengers with unprofessional practices. Government is
asked to come out clearly on the professional and patriotic
requirements of new operators and openly invite competent bidders • Public Transport is as important as eating, drinking and sleeping.
so that only the best candidates can steer Uganda from this All citizens should make their travel per capita with ease.
transport shame before the summit of the common wealth premiers. • All forms of partisan politics must not be allowed in any sector of
Remember large buses and trains with traffic engineering measures Public Transport.
20

showing in form of cracks and leakages


within the Nalubaale Powerhouse Structure,
raising concerns about the safety of the
Dam in its current state. Though major
Dams are designed for a very low risk of
failure, it is important to note the risk
becomes more significant with age.
Therefore, as we ponder the current energy
crisis, it is important to keep in mind the risk
of failure and associated threats.

2.0 POTENTIAL FAILURE INCIDENTS


From the previous research, the types of
potential incidents that could occur to the
Dam complex are presented below. The
characteristics of the catchment and the
configuration and arrangement of the Owen
falls complex are unusual and heavily
impact the type and nature of the incidents
that could occur.

2.1 Earthquake Damage


The Dam lies in a relatively inactive Earth
Quake zone between the two more active
OWENFALLS DAM zones of the rift valley and the Rwenzori
Mountains. The Owen falls Dam complex
was designed to withstand with no damage
BREAK SIMULATION an Earthquake acceleration of 0.06g
The impact of a potential Dam Break on the capacity is 380MW after the extension of (Operating Basis Earthquake, OBE) and
Hydro Electric Power generation in Uganda the Owen Falls (Nalubaale) Dam Complex withstand with no failure an Earthquake
in Jinja, Uganda. The Dam was formally acceleration of 0.17g (MDE or Maximum
ABSTRACT: opened on Thursday 29th April 1954 by Her Design Earthquake).
Dams play a vital role in the economy of a Majesty the Queen Elizabeth of England as
country by providing essential benefits like one single investment that would lay the These Earth quakes have a probability of
irrigation, hydropower, flood control, foundation for Industrial development in recurrence of 1,000 and 10,000 years
drinking water, recreation etc. However, in Uganda. It is a reinforced concrete gravity respectively and are applied as horizontal
the unlikely and rare event of failure, these dam with a design life of 50 years and is (or of Vertical force).
may cause catastrophic flooding in the located on the Victoria Nile River in the However, this does not eliminate the
down stream area which may result in huge southeast Uganda near Jinja. The old Owen extremely remote possibility of a large
loss to human life and property worth Falls (Nalubaale) Dam has a capacity of event. If a large event occurred, it could
billions of money. 180MW of Hydro Electricity. An additional cause instability of the intake dams or the
200MW of installed capacity was realised main concrete dam, stability failure of the
The loss of life would vary with extent of after the completion of the Owen falls wing walls embankments adjacent to the
inundation area, size of population at risk, Extension Project (Kiira Dam). Kiira Power station or the cutting/
and the amount of warning time available. embankment forming the west bank of the
Also a severe energy crisis would befall a No structure is permanent however canal or damage leading to later failure.
nation whose energy is heavily dependent advanced the construction and material
on Hydro Electric Power. This would in the technologies employed. (Anderson et al, 2.2 Terrorist Attack
long run hamper industrial progress and the 2002; Fleming, 2001). According to the US The Owen Falls Dam complex is
economic development of the nation. Association of Dam Safety Officials, the strategically located as a gateway linking
average life expectancy for an un- Uganda to the coast of Mombasa. Given its
1.0 INTRODUCTION maintained dam is approximately 50years. strategic location and the damage that
Uganda is a young country which is heavily (Donnelly et. al., 2001). The Dam has could be inflicted by deliberate action, the
dependent on Hydro Electric Power to feed therefore outlived its design life of 50 years Owen Falls Complex must be regarded as a
the National grid. Uganda's installed and some serviceability failures are already terrorist target.
21

2.3 Sliding or Overturning of Concrete gravity sections Dam Break studies can be carried out using either (i) Scaled
The failure of gravity sections, should it occur would be by; physical hydraulic models or (ii) mathematical simulation using
computers. A modern tool for the dam break analysis is the
i) Overturning (toppling) , (ii) Sliding, (iii)Combination of the two mathematical model which is most cost effective, and approximately
The gravity sections were designed to international dam safety solves the governing flow equations of continuity and momentum by
standards. The configuration and height of the structures also computer simulation. Computer models such as SMPDBK,
naturally limits the discharge that would result from a credible DAMBRK and MIKE11 have been developed in the recent years,
failure. Stability failure is therefore unlikely, but a worst credible however, these computer models are dependent on certain inputs
event can be derived for purposes of generating a flooding event. regarding geometrical and temporal characteristics of the breach.
This can be assumed to be the collapse of Owen Falls Nalubaale The state-of-art in estimating these breach characteristics is not as
intake block at the level of the machine hall, the main Owen Falls advanced as that of the computer programs and therefore, these
Dam complex or the Kiira Power station. are limiting factors in the Dam Break Analysis

2.4 Embankment Instability 3.2 THE SIMPLIFIED DAM BREAK MODEL


Embankment instability would take the form of settlement and/ or The SMPDBK model was developed by Wetmore and Fread (1984)
slip circle failure. Any failure of this sort is likely to be progressive at the National Weather Service (NWS) of the USA. This model
and therefore gives some measure of warning. The embankments produces information needed for determining the areas threatened
like those adjacent to Kiira power station or the cutting/ by dam-break flood waters while substantially reducing the amount
embankment forming the west bank of the canal were designed and of time, data, computer facilities, and technical expertise required in
assessed for stability. These assessments including settlement and employing more sophisticated unsteady flow routing models such
slip circle failure analysis were performed to modern safety as the DAMBRK model. The NWS SMPDBK model computes the
standards. Hence failure resulting embankment instability is highly dam break outflow from a simplified equation and routes the outflow
unlikely. base on curves generated with the NWS DAMBRK model. Flow
depths are computed based on Manning's equation.
2.5 Embankment seepage failure
Embankment seepage failure would take the form of seepage 3.2.1 Data Requirements
through the structure or foundation which increases and removes i) Breaching Parameters (final height and width of breach)
material as the flow builds up leading to the development of a pipe ii) Breach formation time
and ultimately to failure. Depending on the location of the seepage iii) Non dam break flow (spillway/turbine/sluice gate/overtopping
outlet, some measure of warning may be expected. The flow)
embankments like those adjacent to Kiira Power station, or the iv) Volume of reservoir
embankment forming the West bank of the canal have been v) Surface area of reservoir
designed and assessed for seepage failure. These assessments vi) Manning's roughness coefficient for the river channel
were performed to modern safety standards and hence seepage downstream
failure is unlikely. In addition, as with the forms of embankment vii)Elevation Vs. Width Data for up to five downstream river cross
failure, the configuration and width of the canal would limit the sections
discharge resulting from a seepage failure.
In producing the dam break flood forecast, the SMPDBK model first
3.0 MODELLING AND SIMULATION computes the peak outflow at the dam, based on the reservoir size
A model is a simplified representation of a complex system. and the temporal and geometrical description of the breach. The
Modelling refers to the work of making a simple description of a computed flood wave and the channel properties are used in
system or process that can be used to explain it. Simulation refers conjunction with routing curves to determine how the peak flow will
to the development and use of a computer model for evaluating be diminished as it moves downstream. Based on this predicted
actual or postulated dynamic systems (McGraw-Hill, 1987c). flood wave reduction, the model computes the peak flows at
During simulation, a particular set of conditions is created artificially specified down stream points with an average error of less than
in order to study or experience a system that could exist in reality. 10%.
Engineering models can be used for planning, design, operation
and for research. The model then computes the depth reached by the peak flow
based on the channel geometry, slope, and roughness at these
3.1 DAM BREAK MODELLING downstream points. The model also computes the time required for
Dam break modelling consists of the peak to reach each forecast point and, if the user entered a flood
i) Prediction of the outflow hydrograph due to the dam breach depth for the point, the time at which that depth is reached as well
ii) Routing of the hydrograph through the downstream valley to get as when the flood wave recedes below that depth, thus providing
maximum water level and discharge along with the time of travel at the user with a time frame for evacuation and fortification on which
different locations of the river downstream of the dam. the preparedness plan may be based.
22

4.0 MODEL SETUP 6.0 CONCLUSIONS


4.1 Reservoir Data 1. The Consequence of any breach at Owen Falls in the short term
Due to the hydraulic constraint at the former Rippon Falls, the would result into a sudden flood of up to 17365.93m3/s and a
outflow from Lake Victoria will not significantly empty the lake in the subsequent increased steady flow in the Nile up to 5000m3/s
short term apart from the 2.8km reach from Rippon Falls to Owen controlled by the Rippon falls
Falls. Therefore, this reach will act as the effective reservoir in the
short term (immediately after the breach) 2. The 2.8km stretch of the Napoleon gulf would be emptied in
Length of reach 2.8km (1.75mi) minutes and the extent of flooding would impact the reach of
Surface Area 0.884km2 (88.4acres) Victoria Nile between Jinja and Lake Kyoga. The Attenuation of the
Average Depth within Reach 12m (39.37ft) flows will occur at Lake Kyoga and Albert, hence limiting the
Total live storage volume 10,600,000m3 (3480.315 acres-ft) flooding effects downstream.

4.2 Flow Data 3. The Water level in Lake Victoria would significantly reduce and
Nalubaale Power station hence affecting Water Supply, Water transport and fishing activities
Turbine flow (10 turbines) 1200m3/s in the Lake.
Sluice gates flow (6 sluices) 1200m3/s
Kiira Power station 4. The following infrastructure would be potentially at Risk
Turbine flow 1100m3/s i) Road bridge across the Owen falls Dam
Three bay Spillway 1740m3/s ii) Road Bridge Across the new canal
Victoria Nile iii) Njeru town main water supply crossing the Nalubaale Power
Average flow rate in Victoria Nile1154.175m3/s (Source: ADCP station intake, Owen falls dam, and the new canal bridge.
flow data from WRMD) iv) Telecommunications landline from Kampala to Jinja
v) Fibre optic control line which connects the two control rooms in
4.3 Victoria Nile Channel Geometry and Model set up the Nalubaale and Kiira power stations. This route crosses the
The Victoria Nile Reach that has been modeled is 51km long and Owen falls Dam and runs along the left bank of the canal.
comprises of 14 cross sections obtained from ADCP measurements vi) Minor electric power line along the roadway
carried out along Victoria Nile and Napoleon Gulf in 2004 by the vii)Power and control cables to the sluices on the Owen Falls Dam
WRMD of the DWD. Missing values of altitude along the Nile were viii) Transmission lines at Jinja connecting Kiira Power station to the
obtained by interpolation between known ones. Also missing cross switch yard at Nalubaale Power station
sectional data was modeled as average values of the known cross ix) New MTN fibre optic line installed in June 2003
sections. The average depth of water in the River Nile Model has
been taken as 5m. Also 1 in 50,000 topographic maps were 5. A Serious energy crisis would result in the Nation
obtained from WRMD i.e; Jinja (sheet 71/1), Kagoma (sheet 62/3),
Kamuli (sheet 62/1), Kayonza (sheet 61/2) and Bale (sheet 51/4). 7.0 RECOMMENDATIONS
These were used to obtain distances along the Nile from Owen falls 1. There is need to carry out an immediate Dam Safety Analysis
dam to the particular points of interest.
2. There is need to carry out an inventory/Structure appraisal for
5.0 DAM BREAK ANALYSES the Dam to ascertain its life span
Failure of the dam will most likely result from earth quake damage
of one of the concrete sections or from a terrorist attack (sabotage). 3. Plans should be set to either decommission the dam or carry out
Therefore, we can consider breaching of the dam by considering immediate renovation works.
three scenarios;
4. Take account of the resulting flood in the design of the flood
i) Breaching of the Nalubaale Power station intake block control structures at Bujagali Dam
ii) Breaching of Kiira Power station intake block
iii) Breaching of the Main Owen falls Dam complex

The Owen Falls Nalubaale Intake Block can be considered as a


concrete gravity dam which will tend to fail by partial breaching as
soon as one or more of the monolithic concrete sections formed
during construction are removed by the escaping water. The time
required for breach formation in this situation is in the range of a few
minutes.
Radio Interference
to Aircraft

Eng. John Kagoro Tusubira cases in aviation in Uganda and the efforts
Mr. Ronnie Barongo to fight interference. The last section
suggests remedies.
Abstract
The paper addresses the problem of radio 2. Interference general
interference of FM broadcast transmitters to Radio interference affects aircraft
aircraft radios. Examples of interference operations by corrupting communications
cases in Uganda are given. The paper and navigation receivers.
traces the problem to a number of causes,
namely: the high power differential between Communication receivers experience
FM transmitters and aeronautical radio interference in the form of nuisance
transmitters, the lack of a guard band background noise, actual intelligible
between FM and aeronautical bands, broadcast audio, and distorted or garbled
possible non-compliance of some aircraft reception of the desired ground
receivers with FM interference immunity transmissions. Interference to
requirements and lack of consideration of communication receivers is immediately
aircraft routes when allocating FM detectable.
broadcast frequencies. The paper ends with aeronautical band. The third is that some
possible remedies namely: protection of On the other hand, navigation receivers aircraft receivers may not be complying with
flight routes by zoning, review of procedures experience nuisance audio, errors in course interference immunity requirements. The
of allocation of frequencies in the FM deviation indicators and erroneous flag fourth factor is that the procedures for
broadcast band, enforcement of aircraft FM indications. Interference to navigation allocation of TV and FM broadcast
immunity requirements receivers is very serious because it is frequencies may not be taking aircraft flight
potentially catastrophic especially when it routes into account. The issues are
1. Introduction occurs during approach or landing phases elaborated in 3.1 through 3.4.
Due to the rapid growth of both aeronautical of the aircraft's flight. Errors during
and commercial broadcast services, the approach and landing can lead, at best to 3.1 Power Differential.
number of interference cases involving aborted landing and at worst, crashes. FM and TV broadcast stations typically
aircraft and commercial broadcast Interference to navigation receivers is not operate at 1-5 kilo watts while aeronautical
emissions has increased dramatically. as easily detectable as interference to radios operate at 25 - 100 watts. This high
Interference is usually most severe at communication receivers. power differential leads to very low ratios of
airports with high power FM and TV Wanted to Unwanted signal at the aircraft
broadcast facilities nearby. This paper 3. Causal factors receiver input. Ideally the ratio of Wanted to
discusses the problem as it obtains in There are mainly four factors that contribute Unwanted signal at the aircraft radio
Uganda. to radio interference to aircraft. One is the receiver is +14 dB []. The high power
high power differential between commercial differential cited above could to ratios as low
The paper has five sections. The next broadcast FM / TV stations on one hand as -230 dB if the aircraft passes close to the
section discusses the form and effect of and aeronautical radio transmitters on the FM/TV station.
interference. Section 3 address the causal other. The second factor is the absence of a
factors. Section 4 discusses interference guard band between FM broadcast and the 3.2 Guard Band
Regarding absence of a guard band, the
25

high end of the FM broadcast band is 107.9 MHz while the low end The second measure is the setting up of a mechanism for
of the aeronautical radio band is at 108.0 MHz. Thus there is a documenting cases of interference. This has helped in the analysis
difference of only 0.1 MHz. Yet spurious emission levels from of interference and contribution to the global effort to fight against
commercial transmitters are significant as far as 0.6 MHz away from radio interference to aircraft. The third measure is the maintenance
the allocated channel. Also, due operational necessity, the minimum of coordination with the UCC. As stated before UCC has helped
standards for aircraft receivers require them to be broad band. isolate and combat interference sources.

3.3 Interference Immunity Requirements 5. Possible remedies


Radio interference to aircraft has been a subject of concern both at The interference problems discussed in the previous sections as
the International Civil Aviation Organisation (ICAO) and the well as the reported successes in combating some of the problems
International Telecommunication Union (ITU). This has resulted in indicate that solutions are available. The possible remedies to the
the development of interference immunity criteria for aircraft interference problem are three-fold. First is the review of flight
receivers. ICAO standards and recommended practices require that routes vis-à-vis the locations and frequencies of FM transmitting
from 1 January 1998 all aircraft receivers should meet FM stations. The second is the review of frequency allocation
interference immunity requirements [Annex 10, Volume 3, part II: procedures. The third is the enforcement of interference immunity
2.3.3]. Under this requirement, an aircraft receiver should with stand requirements of aircraft receiver stations.
desensitization and third order inter-modulation effects from FM
broadcast signals of up to -5dBm.. 5.1 Flight routes and FM transmitters
A study of flight routes vis-à-vis FM broadcast frequencies and
3.4 Flight Routes location is necessary to develop criteria for protection of aircraft
The procedures for spectrum allocation do not take aircraft receivers from interference. The study would lead to plotting of
operations into account. As such, FM broadcast stations whose zones in which certain FM broadcast frequencies should not be
frequencies have potential for causing interference to aircraft are permitted. Such a study would require collaboration with Uganda
located in the vicinity of aircraft flight paths. Communications Commission, Civil Aviation Authority and the
Broadcasting Council.
4. Situation in Uganda
There have been numerous reports of instances of communication 5.2 Frequency Allocation Procedures
interference, but none of navigation interference. (The absence of After studying flight routes and plotting the zones, subsequent
reported cases of navigation interference could be because they allocation of FM broadcast and aeronautical frequencies would take
have not been detected). The Civil Aviation Authority (CAA) has these zones into account.
been vigilant in fighting against radio interference.
5.3 FM Immunity Requirements
The most recurring case of interference occurs on the Entebbe The current licensing requirements for aircraft radio installations do
approach frequency of 119.1 MHz. Another but less notorious case not specifically check for compliance with ICAO Annex 10 standards
has been on the Entebbe Tower frequency of 118.1 MHz. The and recommended practices including FM interference immunity
interference has presented in the form of complete blocking, and requirements. These requirements should be included in the
highly intelligible reception of FM broadcast programmes such as licensing procedures.
music and news. These have affected mostly airborne receivers but
some times even ground receivers have been affected. The Uganda References
Communications Commission (UCC) has been helpful in identifying 1. ICAO Annex 10 Volumes III and V
the culprits. 2. US FAA Order 6050.32A
3. ITU Radio Regulations
In the particular case of the interference on 119.1 MHz, the cause
has been third- order inter-modulation products arising from two FM About the Authors
broadcast stations in Kampala. The mechanism of third-order inter- John Kagoro Tusubira is the Director of Air Navigation Services in
modulation products at work in this case is as follows: A second the Uganda Civil Aviation Authority. He is a corporate member (no
harmonic of an FM broadcast frequency f1 beats with another FM 514) of UIPE and registered with Engineers Registration Board (no.
broadcast frequency f2 to produce a difference frequency f3 which 507). He has been in the aeronautical radio communication field
happens to coincide with the Entebbe approach frequency. That is since 1979. He graduated from Makerere University with a
to say f3 = 2f1 - f2 = 119.1 MHz. BSc(Eng) in 1979. He obtained an M.Eng from Makerere University
in 1998. Ronnie Barongo is a Senior Engineer in the department of
In order to contain the interference situation, CAA has taken the Technical Services in the Air Navigation Services Directorate of Civil
following measures. One measure has been the acquisition and Aviation Authority. He joined CAA in 2001. He graduated with a
application of equipment to help isolate radio interference. These BSc(Eng) from Makerere University in 2000.
include a VHF Direction Finder (VDF) and a spectrum analyzer.
26

Sub-standard Building
Materials:
A Challenge for
Engineers in Uganda

By Deusdedit Mubangizi, So what is the magnitude of the problem in Uganda and what
Principal Standards Officer & Head, Quality Assurance Division should be done to curb the proliferation of these substandard
UGANDA NATIONAL BUREAU OF STANDARDS (UNBS) products on the market?

The 11th National Technology Conference This paper focuses on substandard building materials on the
May 2006, Kampala, Uganda Ugandan market and how their prevalence on the market is a
challenge for engineers and other professionals, and is threatening
Abstract people's lives. The substandard building materials include steel
The advent of globalisation, fuelled by technological advancement, products, cement, electrical materials, fittings and many others.
turned the world into a global village and forced many countries to Fake and substandard building materials manifest themselves in
abandon their policies of state-controlled economies to embrace the many ways but the common factor is that they are unsafe and result
policies of economic and trade liberalisation. Global institutions like in construction of weak structures, at the same time driving the
the World Trade Organisation (WTO) were created to ensure economy decades back as money exchanges value for no value.
through trade agreements, that goods traded across borders were The fight against substandard building materials needs to be taken
given similar treatment as goods manufactured and traded within seriously by all stakeholders and should be intensified. Government
the borders of the originating countries. This development initially has put in place institutions to deal with the problem but these
evolved basing on the noble concept of fair trade. institutions need adequate resources and strong legislation to
facilitate the work. Curbing substandard building materials on the
However, whether unforeseen or not, trade liberalisation seems to market will need more public awareness, more commitment, more
have outgrown its noble intentions and is spinning out of control. resources and most importantly collective action.
Dubious manufacturers and traders have taken advantage of the
trade liberalisation policies, encouraged by ineffective controls in SOME DEFINITIONS:
poor countries and sometimes the "I don't care as long as they are Certification
for export" attitude of the countries of origin, to dump all sorts of procedure by which a third party gives written assurance that a
fake, substandard, counterfeit and worthless products into markets product, process or service conforms to the specified requirements.
of developing countries.
Conformity Assessment
On the local scene, unscrupulous business people, eager to make any activity concerned with determining directly or indirectly that
a quick buck out of the liberalized economy started uncontrolled relevant requirements are fulfilled
manufacturing of all sorts of fake products in their backyards, while
others engaged in tampering with and adulterating the otherwise Counterfeit
good products from the dark corners of their warehouses. a copy, fake, forgery, fraud, imitation, inferior, impersonate, look-
Unfortunately, these fake products include health and safety alike, pretend i.e. illegal copies or impersonations of the
threatening products such as food, medicine and building materials. real/genuine
While developed countries have put in place the necessary
regulations and effective enforcement mechanisms to prevent entry Inspection
of fake and substandard products into their markets, the reverse is conformity evaluation by observation and judgement accompanied
true for developing countries, where archaic laws and poor as appropriate by measurement, testing or gauging
enforcement mechanisms have turned them into a dumping ground.
27

Quality are very rampant on construction sites including high-rise buildings.


degree to which inherent characteristics fulfils requirements. However, the resources put at the disposal of the responsible
institutions to execute their duties is laughable to say the least. Few
Quality Assurance ill-motivated inspectors with grossly inadequate resources are given
part of quality management focussed on providing confidence that the responsibility of crisscrossing this vast country to ensure that
quality requirements will be fulfilled buildings are constructed to the right standards and that right
materials are placed on the market. The funding does not match the
Standard amount of work. For example, UNBS, which until last year was
document established by consensus and approved by a recognized financed to the tune of US$ 0.8 million annually performs the same
body that provides for common and repeated use, rules, guidelines functions as the Kenya Bureau of Standards (KEBS), which is
or characteristics for activities or their results aimed at the financed to the tune of US$ 7 million annually.
achievement of the optimum degree of order in a given context. (A
standard could be a specification, code of practice or test method) Meanwhile, the dubious business people who manufacture and deal
in substandard building materials are an organised syndicate and
Substandard are willing to invest a lot of money to illegally buy their way into the
not conforming to standards market. Fighting these illegal activities equally requires a lot of
Sub-standard Building Materials: A Challenge for Engineers in resources.
Uganda
2.0 CURRENT PROBLEMS IN THE MARKET:
1.0 INTRODUCTION Substandard building materials in the market include products that
When the Margalla Towers [1] in Islamabad, Pakistan collapsed on contribute to structural strength, electrical materials as well as
8th October 2005 after an earthquake killing more than 40 people appliances, fixtures and fittings. Some of these products are
and injuring many others, a Japanese expert, Dr Yoshiaai Nakano, imported but others are locally manufactured. While some products
head of the Fundamental Engineering Institute of the University of are substandard right from the factories, some products are of
Tokyo, along with other experts, visited the Margalla Towers and quality [4] as they leave the manufacturers premises but are
after investigations, declared that substandard materials were used tampered with in the market place. The Market Surveillance section
in the construction of the towers and were the major cause of the of Uganda National Bureau of Standards, which has been active in
collapse of the towers. The chairman of the Civil Engineering fighting substandard products in the market, albeit with grossly
Department of the University of Engineering and Technology, Taxila, inadequate resources, identified some of the problems with building
reported that the building materials used in the Margalla Towers materials in the market as shown hereafter:
were 50 percent below standard. This is just one case that
demonstrates the danger of using substandard building materials 2.1 Steel products:
for construction. The Ugandan Market continues to be filled with These include reinforcement steel bars, ring wires, profiled
substandard products, among them, building materials. sections, galvanised steel pipes, iron sheets, expanded metal, nails,
Unfortunately, many Ugandans, including engineers, either out of and many others. The problems identified include:
ignorance or to save money are willing to buy these substandard • Under sizing: this includes smaller nominal sizes, (e.g., diameter
building materials. Meanwhile, the standards [2] and regulations of 9.2 mm instead of 10 mm) and being shorter in length e.g., steel
enforcement and market monitoring mechanisms do not seem to be bars of 37ft instead of the standard 40ft)
adequate. The responsible institutions are either trying to intervene • Deliberate over-declaration of size: This has been detected in
with minimal facilitation, or helplessly looking on as matters get out ring wires, for example where R4 (ring wire of 4mm) is sometimes
of hand. declared and sold as R6 (6mm), and R6 declared and sold as R8).
• Wrong chemical composition (e.g., mild steel with carbon
Government has put in place bodies to deal with problems in the content higher that 0.25 %).
construction sector as some examples below indicate: The above problems mean that well designed structures can fail
• The Ministry of Works Housing and Communications (MoWHC) because the contractors use undersized materials mistakenly, or fall
in conjunction with Local Governments - for enforcement of building short of materials quoted in their bills of quantities.
standards and codes,
• The Uganda National Bureau of Standards (UNBS) - for 2.2 Cement:
development and enforcement of product standards including Most of the problems identified with the cement originate from the
building materials, market place whereby cement dealers tamper with good cement in
• The Uganda Institution of Professional Engineers (UIPE) - for order to reap more profits. The problems include:
enforcement of professional ethics in the engineering professionals • Underweight - where unscrupulous dealers deliberately remove
involved in construction. According to the recent report of the some amount of cement from 50 kg bags and leave them with 35
Building Inspection Taskforce [3], poor workmanship, failure to to 45 kg of cement
adhere to the building regulations, and use of unqualified personnel • Adulteration - addition of non-cement materials after removal of
28

some kilos, e.g., addition of sand, ash, clay, etc to restore 2.4.2 Electrical Conduits:
underweight bags to 50 kg Fake conduits litter the market. They are made of recycled High
• Fake tile binders: Cases of counterfeit binders for floor tiles have Density Polyethylene (HDPE) materials (e.g., old jerricans and
also been identified in the market where some of it is illegally basins) that easily catch fire instead of un-plasticised polyvinyl
imported or used tins are filled with fake stuff and resold on the chloride (uPVC) that doesn't catch fire. Ironically, building
market. In both cases, the counterfeit cannot bind the tiles to the technicians prefer the wrong HDPE material because it is more
surfaces. flexible (bends more easily) forgetting that it propagates fire like
fuel. Therefore in cases of short-circuits, where PVC is
The above cement problems lead to wrong concrete mixes and in thermosetting and just gets deformed at the sparking point, HDPE
cases of adulteration substances like clay and ash reduce the catches fire and propagates it.
setting capacity of the cement. All this leads to weak structures.
2.4.3 Lighting bulbs and tubes:
2.3 Others Fake bulbs (incandescent lamps) are being wrapped in paper
(Tools, appliances, fixtures, fasteners and fittings): These include packages of known brands. For example a package of Philips bulbs
door handles, locks, latches, hinges, bolts, screws, tools, measuring when opened shows the actual bulb having a different brand name
tools, and many others. These items are often very weak, break and often with short service life. Problems of fake energy savers are
easily and have a very short lifespan. In most cases, they are often also being reported on the market.
made beautiful to hide the structural/design weaknesses. Most of
them are imported and originate from Asian countries and in 3.0 EFFECTS OF SUBSTANDARD BUILDING MATERIALS
majority of the cases do not include the country of origin on their The effects of substandard building materials are diverse but
labels and instead mention names of countries like "England", "UK", generally fall in the categories below;
"Japan", "Germany", etc but without the words "Made in --- ". Some
may include words like "Design in Germany" or "Components from 3.1 Weak structures - where the required structural strength of a
Japan", etc. structure is not attained leading to collapse of buildings, and other
structures. This often happens after heavy rains or tremors, like the
Unfortunately, our country in most cases lacks testing capacity to Margalla Towers. Substandard electrical materials also cause short
detect these items before they enter the market and many users circuits resulting in fires that raze buildings. This directly endangers
learn of the problems the hard way. the lives of people and their property.

2.4 Electrical Materials: 3.2 Negative impact on the economy - this does not only refer to
These include cables, conduits, fittings (sockets, switches, etc), loss of property when structures collapse or catch fire, but also to
lighting materials (incandescent and fluorescent bulbs and tubes), the loss incurred by construction companies and individuals
appliances (e.g., heaters) and many others. Fake electrical involved in construction projects when their projects fail because the
materials are the main causes of short circuits leading to fires in bills of quantities quoted are undermined by short supply due to
buildings. Some of the identified problems in the market include the underweight, or under-length of materials supplied. It also includes
following: fittings and tools that break easily and must be replaced very often
thus draining the scarce resources.
2.4.1 Electrical Cables/wires:
Problems identified with substandard cables include the following 4.0 CAUSES OF PROLIFERATION OF SUBSTANDARD
(see Table 1): BUILDING MATERIALS ON THE MARKET:
• Fake conductors - where the copper used for conductors in the
cables is impure and is abnormally darker in colour than the 4.1 Low level of awareness:
ordinary pink colour of pure copper. This impure copper has One important cause of the increase in substandard building
abnormally higher resistance thus heating up easily materials on the market is the low levels of awareness amongst
• Undersize conductors - where the sizes of conductors are professionals, government officials and politicians and the general
smaller, e.g., 0.74 mm instead of the standard 0.85mm. This public. After liberalisation of trade in Uganda, in the early nineties,
increases resistance. very little was invested in creating awareness among stakeholders
• Fewer number of strands - where the number of strands in the about the potential abuses that could arise in the liberalised
conductors are fewer that standard, e.g., 33 strands instead of business environment. Low levels of awareness has led to:
50 strands. Again this increases the resistance of the cable and • Engineers and construction firms procuring substandard
heats up quickly. materials either out of ignorance or to make quick money because
• Substandard Insulation (undersize and poor materials) - where the substandard items are much cheaper
the insulation thickness is less than the standard thickness • Legislators not passing stringent laws to deal with the
(manufacturers want to save materials) and the actual material unscrupulous manufacturers and dealers in the substandard
is adulterated, i.e., adulterated PVC. materials
29

4.3 Inadequate enforcement capacity for


standards and regulations:
Another major cause of the influx of
substandard building materials is lack of
capacity to enforce regulations and
standards. While institutions like UNBS and
MoWHC are in place to enforce standards
and codes of practice for building materials,
they suffer from poor facilitation in terms of
transport, basic equipment for conformity
assessment and understaffing. The
institutions need capacity to cover the whole
country in terms of border inspections of
imports, market surveillance to monitor what
is being sold in the market, and inspection
of construction sites to ensure proper
materials are being used.

4.4 Weak Laws


Similarly, the regulatory framework is very
weak with archaic laws and low penalties for
wrongdoers. In 2003, a hardware dealer
who was found selling more than 30 tonnes
of underweight cement was fined only
30,000 Uganda shillings by the magistrates
court [4].
NB: Among samples of imported cables, only Pirelli (No. 9) passed the lab tests. Locally
manufactured brands (No. 10 to 15) passed the lab tests. N/A means not applicable. 5.0 PROPOSED INTERVENTIONS
Table 1: Survey Of The Quality Of Electrical Cables On The Market -Feb 2004 [5] 5.1 Awareness programmes:
These must be organised by institutions like
• Dealers and manufacturers not industries (e.g., plastic pipe manufacturers
UIPE in conjunction with MoWHC and
appreciating the terrible implications of for pressure testing), and at some
UNBS and should target legislators and
substandard building materials that they institutions of learning, e.g., Makerere
policy makers, top government officials,
deal in. University & Kyambogo University, there is
construction firms, manufacturers, dealers
a general lack of essential testing
and all other major stakeholders in the
4.2 Inadequate Technical Capacity: equipment like:
construction industry. These awareness
Another important cause is lack of testing • Universal testing machines for steel and
programmes should underscore the
capacity within the country. Again after other products,
dangers associated with substandard
liberalisation of the economy, not enough • Modern equipment for testing for
building materials and ensure that a united
safeguards were put in place by chemical properties and
front is created to fight the menace.
government by way of adequately composition of products,
regulating the liberalised economy. As a • Electronics testing equipment,
5.2 Procurement:
result, there is general lack of testing • Tyre testing equipment, and many other
Construction firms must learn to purchase
capacity in the country and lack of proper areas. In addition to the limited testing
only quality assured [4] materials, i.e., buy
technical monitoring in crucial areas. capacity, there is general lack of calibration
materials that are certified by competent
Technical capacity in testing (conformity capacity for the available testing equipment.
bodies. Construction companies must learn
assessment) for building materials is not Laboratory test results are useful in as
to invite inspection bodies like UNBS to
given its due attention despite its economic much as you have confidence in their
inspect and certify ordered consignments
and health and safety impact. accuracy, that is where the machines are
before they are accepted for use to ensure
calibrated and the personnel are well
that they conform to purchase
Whereas there is some limited Testing trained. Uganda Lacks calibration capacity
specifications. They may also require
capacity in the country for testing for high pressure testing equipment, tensile
suppliers to have inspection and test reports
engineering materials e.g., at UNBS, testing equipment, time/frequency
to accompany the consignments of
Ministry of Works (Central Material testing measuring equipment, voltage/current
materials being supplied.
laboratory at Kireka), some few local measuring equipment and many others.
30

5.3 Testing and Calibration capacity: time strengthening market surveillance activities that will ensure
Sub-sectors in the building industry should pool resources to buy that even those fake products that slip onto the market are removed
testing equipment. Quite often, the equipment is very expensive to and denied shelf space.
procure and hence requires joint efforts. Such equipment when
secured could for instance be installed at the Ministry of works or at Creation of awareness amongst professionals, government officials
the UNBS laboratories for easy access for use. and the general public will play a vital role, since these people
constitute the buyers. If the buyers can shun these fake and
The relevant players must however be well sensitised to first substandard products, then their market will collapse.
appreciate the importance of the testing equipment. Government Only through corrective effort can substandard materials be
must also come in and equip the responsible bodies with the eliminated from the market.
calibration capacity in terms of equipment and trained manpower.
Policies could also be formulated to encourage the private sector to 7.0 References:
invest in this area and collaborate with UNBS in maintaining [1] Daily Times of Pakistan: "UET Taxila report on Margalla Towers:
traceability of the measurement systems. Substandard materials responsible for collapse", Tuesday,
November 29, 2005
5.4 Weak laws and enforcement of standards and regulations: [2] ISO/IEC Guide 2: 1996(E/F/R): "Standardization and related
Government and the responsible institutions must come up with activities - General vocabulary". A publication of the International
plans and strategies to increase the enforcement capacity of Organization for Standardization (ISO), 1996, Seventh Edition.
standards and building codes and the capacity to monitor both [3] Report of the Building Inspection Taskforce, November 2005 -
imported and locally manufactured building materials. Government Ministry of Works Housing and Communication.
must also address the weak laws that make offenders get away with [4] ISO 9000:2000: "Quality management system - Fundamentals
it. and vocabulary". A publication of the International Organization
for Standardization (ISO), December 2000.
6.0 CURRENT INTERVENTIONS: [5] UNBS Market Surveillance Report: Survey of the Quality of
UNBS, which is the main body responsible for standards, currently Electrical Cables Available on the Market, February 2004
operates a number of programmes to fight substandard products.
These include Market surveillance (codenamed Operation Q), Biography
Imports inspection scheme, Factory inspection, Product Author: Deusdedit Mubangizi
Certification services, Laboratory testing services and development Position: Principal Standards Officer,
of relevant standards. However the capacity is still very small Head of Quality Assurance Division
compared to the market problems mentioned above. Organisation: Uganda National Bureau of Standards (UNBS)
Country: Uganda
Fortunately, Government has promised to increase the funding of Deusdedit Mubangizi is a Principal Standards Officer and Head of
UNBS to enable it expand the above programmes. This, if effected, the Quality Assurance Division at Uganda National Bureau of
is a very welcome step and will increase capacity both in terms of Standards.
national coverage and laboratory capacity. After graduating from Makerere University in 1991 with a degree in
Mechanical Engineering he worked as a researcher on pozzolana
The Ministry of Works Housing and Communications, prompted by cement and later as a lecturer and an Engineer in NYTIL textile
the recent problems in the construction sector and in liaison with factory. As a researcher, he was instrumental in the development
UIPE is strengthening the inspection and monitoring capacity for and introduction of Pozzolana based cements in Uganda.
construction sites. A Committee that was set up by the Minister has
already submitted a report to be used in this regard. However, the In 1999 he joined UNBS where he worked as a Quality Assurance
process needs to be speeded up to ensure that any new building Engineer before being appointed to head the market surveillance
projects are made to comply with all building regulations. programme codenamed "Operation Q". As head of Operation Q, he
was responsible for fighting fake and substandard products from the
7.0 CONCLUSION market and prosecution of offenders. As Head of the Quality
Substandard building materials are a real threat to people's lives Assurance Division, he is a senior manager and member of the
and their properties. Engineers who use the materials have the UNBS management team.
biggest responsibility in fighting substandard materials. The role of
Government is to make effective laws and strengthen the Mr. Mubangizi holds a Master of Science Degree in Sanitary
regulations and standards enforcement mechanisms. The fake and Engineering from IHE Delft in the Netherlands. He holds a number
counterfeit industry is a multibillion-dollar business and fighting it of other professional certificates including a Certificate in Production
requires more resources; more motivated and committed human Engineering from The Polytechnic University, Kanagawa, Japan. He
resource and most importantly collective action. This will deny the is also a quality systems auditor of ISO 9001:2000 quality
fake imported products entry into our markets, while at the same management system.
32

Challenges
of
Energy Supply for
Developing
Countries

Eng Dr Frank B Sebbowa

1. The Importance of Energy in Development


Man is probably the laziest creation walking the planet Earth.
However Man being a creature seeking the most conveniences of
life, has honed the ability to innovate. Thus while other creatures still
depend mostly on their muscles to survive and get whatever little
comfort they can, Man has harnessed both other animals and other
aspects of nature to ensure Man's own needs. The less a
community uses of their own muscles to generate their living needs
the more socio-economically advanced it is judged to be.

Unfortunately Man's lifestyle has a tendency to require an ever-


increasing amount of consumption and hence a need to produce
more of the various items that bring comfort. Man discovered long
ago that producing to meet this consumption required more than
Man's own muscles and as Man's requirements have escalated in
some communities even the added effort from animals could not
suffice. Man has had to use ingenuity and improvisation to harness
nature to meet these needs more efficiently and effectively.

Machinery exploiting naturally occurring resources has been


designed and deployed in the past one and half centuries to meet
Man's production needs and as more of the Man species have
come to exist on planet Earth pressures on production have called
for better and more machinery designs on realizing that the
resources these machines consume when producing for Man are
mainly irreplaceable.

It is now agreed that creation of wealth and hence economic


development is in the hands of those able to use machinery to the
best advantage. With improvement in global transportation
communities that produce the products that Man require get
wealthier than those that must buy for their own consumption.
33

The level of sophistication of the production machinery a community


possesses is now a fair measure of how much comfort and wealth
that community has. Since these machines utilize energy in
production, the energy consumption levels of a community also
defines how socio-economically sophisticated (and advanced in
worldly matters) that community is. This however has in the recent
past been modified somewhat by communities that have advanced
from providing commodities or goods of comfort to those providing
services that Man needs to manipulate its environment. But the
communities providing the most services also live the most
luxurious life with even higher energy demands. The computer, the
new machinery enabling the provision of services is equally energy
hungry and on a more continuous basis than machinery producing
goods.

The computers like most of goods- producing machinery use mostly


energy after it has been converted into electricity from other
naturally occurring forms of energy. This is so because most other
forms of energy are either cumbersome or not so clean to use at the
point of production. Unfortunately there are no known means of
converting energy from one form to another with significant losses.

2. Normal Forms of Electricity Energy Supply


At the beginning of using electricity, and to some limited extent
today in the transportation industry, human muscle or animal
muscles were called in to turn the dynamo to charge batteries on
mopeds that subsequently ride on further uphill or indeed to provide
lighting on the traditional village bicycle. This is a cumbersome way
of generating electricity and the quantities achievable are too small
for most communal purposes.

However the world over the combustion of hydrocarbon-based


compounds (petroleum and gas) provides the larger source of
energy that is converted to electricity for industrial, commercial and
domestic consumption. This ranges from combustion of petrol or
diesel in an internal combustion engine coupled to an alternator that
provides small quantities of electric power for a house or shop to the
huge 1 to 10 MW plants such as those in use by Aggreko
International Projects at Lugogo substation in Kampala. On another
scale combustion of hydrocarbons or other natural materials (coal,
agricultural waste etc) can be used to drives gas or other turbines
to which alternators are coupled to produce electricity. Unfortunately
the naturally occurring feedstock for the combustion processes are
in limited regions of the world and are getting to be in short supply.

Of equal importance in the provision of electricity for world


communities is the conversion of potential energy held in water
falling through large heights onto turbines coupled to alternators
which, provided electricity through various hydro power schemes.
Another hydro-based technology is flow of huge amounts of water
through turbines without large height differences in the so-called
'run-of -the river' hydro schemes. For most developing countries
hydropower has dominated the electricity supply industry for a long
time mainly because of the lower operational costs of the
associated plants using the naturally occurring rivers in most of
these countries. Most of these countries have been happy with
arrangement because their energy requirements until recently have
been fairly low, an indication of low socio-economic development
levels.
34

In the more energy intensive countries of the world the heat energy neighborhoods relative to the developed world. Developed
released from nuclear reactions of various forms of uranium has countries have large research budgets and programs on energy yet
been exploited to generate very vast quantities of electric power the more energy-needy developing countries only lament the
through driving specially designed turbines, which in turn electricity consumption levels of the developed world. The energy efficiency
generating alternators. There dangers associated with technology studies are more focused in the developed capitals of the world
as failures in such systems have led to disasters both in Russia and whereas the developing nations need energy efficiency most.
the United States of America, the world's leading users of this
technology. Solar energy could be more beneficial to many developing countries
stranding the equator. But equatorial countries look to the
To some limited extent there are various forms of renewable energy developed countries far removed from the equator for this research
forms converted to electricity. Prominent among these are wind effort.
farms in Scandinavian countries and solar farms in various parts of
the world. The former systems use wind turbines to drive the 4. Uganda's Energy Supply Challenge
alternators while the latter use concentrators that boil special In general Uganda is starved of all forms of energy. The Ugandan
liquids, which in turn drive turbines. peasant still uses muscle power to till his shamba for food. But the
combination of youth migration to urban centers and the rampaging
3. Electric Energy Sources for Developed and Developing Countries AIDS related deaths of the more young Ugandans (who happen
In the developed world the per capita consumption of electric also to be the most vulnerable to HIV/AIDS) has reduced this
energy is high and the two main sources are combustion (fossil fuel longtime national source of productive energy to much lower levels
and coal) and nuclear. The often dirty and cumbersome conversion than ever before in recorded history.
to electricity takes place in remote and far away places but
transportation over long but fairly efficient transmission networks The countryside is denuded of forests, which hitherto have been the
delivers the energy to the consumption points. With efficient main supply of the biomass-type source energy, which contributes
transmission systems the conversion points can be more or less well over 95% of energy used in the country. Yet both urban and
anywhere. Given the good returns in the business in these rural dwellers depend heavily on either fuel wood or its derivative
developed countries the conversion points or generation stations charcoal for cooking. Government and private effort to replant the
are many and competition ensures that at any one moment in time Ugandan forests, though commendable, is still short of the
the most efficient generation plants supply the transmission network consumption rate.
for supply to consumers. Also the much cleaner and quieter electric
trains and cars have been in regular operation for decades. Uganda with an estimated 4000MW of hydropower potential along
However there is a large fleet of transportation vehicles, which are the White Nile has installed capacity to tap at most 300MW from the
directly dependent on hydrocarbon-based fuels. two hydro generation complexes at Jinja. Of this installed capacity
a three regional drought has ensured that only 80MW to 130 MW
The larger picture in developing countries, Uganda inclusive, is can be safely utilized for Uganda's energy present needs.
often quite different. The majority of the members of the
communities in such countries are still dependent on muscle power It is estimated and forecast that Uganda has useable hydrocarbon
(walk on foot or at best ride a bicycle, use man or at best the oxen deposits around Lake Albert. Exploration effort to-date has not
for tilling the land to plant food and animals are still used for yielded commercially exploitable finds. Yet were the numerous test
rudimental grain milling machinery etc) and use biomass for heating drill wells to yield fruit thermal plants like the Aggreko units at
(for body warmth or cooking food) and lighting the miserable houses Lugogo would be cheap to run on homegrown diesel or whatever
called home. fuel.

However to some extent the booming motor vehicle supply industry 4.1 The Present Supply Shortage
has contributes a large supply on vehicles (trains, buses, trucks, Uganda has traditionally depended on hydro generation from Jinja.
cars and motorcycles) in most developing countries. Most of these Initially the generation complex, Nalubaale, had an installed
vehicles depend directly on hydrocarbon-based fuels for energy. capacity of 150MW, in ten generation units, which was enhanced to
Indeed there are several stand-alone petrol or diesel generators 180MW during the major plant overhaul between 1997 and 1998.
providing energy to small-scale industries. Industrial and This was supposed to be gradually decommissioned and replaced
commercial use electricity is often based on hydro or combustion as from 2004 with the five units 200MW in Kiira power station built
mentioned earlier. However domestic electricity use is still scarce in almost adjacent to the old Nalubaale. However as Kiira units
the developing world, with access rates below 30% on average and became available and due to the increased demand none of the
often below 10% like in Uganda. Where this electricity exists it only Nalubaale units was decommissioned instead a perception
reaches the minority who are urban dwellers leaving out the majority developed that the Kiira units were just additional to the Nalubaale
who live in rural areas. units. Hence the misconception that the two power stations had a
combined operational capacity of 380MW whereas the design
The developed world has a challenge to bring their energy levels to capacity at best could only be 280MW, and that with very good
equitable levels in view of the shrinking supplies in the so-called water injection (good rain) and levels in the lake.
shared global village. However the rest of the world also has a
challenge to carry out research and development in innovative Unfortunately over the past three years the catchment area for the
energy sources some of which are more abundant in their lake has received very poor rains. Some school of thought believes
35

that global warming has also increased the rate of water There are efforts to get some mini-hydro power generation schemes
evaporation from the surface of the lake. The overdrawing of water online within the next two to three years. In particular feasibility
for electricity generation, the reduced inflow of water into the lake studies by SN Power at Waki and Bugoye for 15MW are almost
and the increased evaporation all compounded the water level of complete and it is expected that generation from these two sites will
the lake to a point where the government acted on the only aspect commence early 2008. Although it is early days, the Buseruka
it had control over. On February 6th, 2006 water extraction for gorge hydro plant is expected to yield another 10MW by early 2009.
electricity generation was curtailed by government order to 850
cubic meters per second. This corresponded to a voluntary There are serious developers working on Waste - to - Energy
reduction of 40MW in generation, reducing available generation proposals that convert urban waste to electricity through controlled
capacity for the prevailing lake conditions at Jinja to 135MW. burning of garbage. The estimate for Kampala alone is in excess of
50MW.
Earlier in 2004 government had identified a growing need of
electricity supply (estimated to grow at a rate of 25MW or 8% per The major impact on the electricity supply situation in the country is
annum) that could not be met with the traditional means. Thus an expected to come with firstly the Bujagali 250MW project
Independent Power Producer, Aggreko International Projects of spearheaded by the IPS group. This project is at finance
Dubai had been allowed to enter the supply sector in May 2005 with negotiations among the consortium members and financial close is
50MW of thermal generated electricity. This diesel-based supply expected in October 2006 and possibly earlier. The Engineering
while expensive has continued to play a vital role in sustaining the Procurement and Construction (ECP) contract negotiations are
country's energy supply and guaranteeing continuity with normalcy going well and construction may start almost as soon as financial
of sorts in the Uganda socio-economic system. The load shedding close is reached. The dam and power station construction period is
has inevitably disrupted many socio-economic activities of the agreed at 44 months at worst. This puts Bujagali power supply to
country. Although self-generation through standby generators has consumers at late 2009 early 2010.
increased it is so expensive and overall has only limited effect on
the national picture. The next major impact should be with the coming on board of
Karuma power. Government has called the proposed developers of
When the 135MW of hydro from Jinja and 50MW of thermal from this site for negotiations on the Power Purchase Agreement. The
Aggreko are deployed the measured average power supply intention is fast-tracking this project to attain power generation from
shortage in the country at peak time (6pm to 12 midnight) presently the site around 2011/2012.
(May 2006) stands at 190MW and during the day it stands at 90MW
on average. This is the challenge that the Uganda Electricity Supply Away from the main power grid, the West Nile Rural Electrification
Industry is grappling with. Company, commonly called WENRECo has reached financial close
for the Nyagak 3.5MW hydro plant. The ECP contractor is already
4.2 Mitigating the Uganda Power Supply Challenges on board and construction of this 24-months project could start in
a) Short-term additional Power Supply the last quarter of 2006. Thus improving power supply in the West
The government working with development partners is trying to Nile region.
bring fast-deployment Build Operate Own thermal generation at
least to address the crippling load shedding in the immediate term. c) Long-term Additional Electricity Supply
The International Development Agency (IDA) will support this with a As stated earlier along the Ugandan section of the White Nile alone
substantially amount of long-term soft loan. The government of 4000MW exist and preliminary studies have been carried out
Uganda is making a budget provision of 70 billion shillings to showing that Ayego North and Ayego South can be developed at
mitigate the cost of this thermal. economic cost to supply close to 500MW between them.

Efforts are afoot to get 50MW of additional thermal by January 2007 Presently some Malaysian developers are keenly interested in
with Norwegian support towards mitigating the costs involved. developing the 450MW Kalagala site provided their proposal
Those who can afford and are in need of at least 100kVA generator overcomes the environmental impact concerns of several
sets are already receiving duty exemption on diesel for those stakeholders. The government is carrying serious exploratory
generators as well as other incentives. studies of the geothermal potential in the Semuliki area. The out
come could well lead into developing some extra 100MW from this
The government is working on gaining some energy through resource.
reduced domestic consumption through deployment of compact
florescent light (CFL) bulbs, commonly referred to as energy savers. Under the East African Master Power Plan interconnection of the
By ensuring that most of the incandescent bulbs are replaced with three regional power grids is a priority that could see Uganda in s
low wattage CFL bulbs the pressure on the system can be reduced support system carrying well over 2500MW.
and the peak time demand is lower leading to less load shedding
and hence less public disgust. CONCLUSION
Electricity plays a crucial role in the socio-economic development of
b) Medium-term additional Power supply any country. There are many sources of electricity, some expensive
The 16MW electricity production from sugar cane waste (bagasse) others cheap and yet others dangerous. For Uganda the present
by Kakira Sugar Works (1985) Limited is expected to start by middle electricity shortage is playing havoc with the economy but efforts
of 2007. Plant installation started late last year. short-term and long-term are in place to address the problem.
36

Comparative analysis
of the strength of hand and
machine crushed coarse
aggregates in uganda
Dr. Michael Kyakula & Mr. Samuel Kagwisagye; Civil & Building suitability of these aggregates for use in construction. Presently
Engineering Department, Kyambogo University there is no evidence that their suitability has ever been scientifically
investigated and the construction industry's views may be based on
ABSTRACT perceived opinions. Secondly, if the aggregates are found suitable
Aggregates cover up to 80% of the volume of concrete. Thus their there is need to come up with a cheap and less demanding method
properties have great influence over the nature and strength of of crushing these stones. This paper is a step in addressing the gap
concrete produced. Currently there are two types of coarse in the former endeavor.
aggregates being used for concrete in Uganda. A big percentage is
hand crushed and the rest in machine crushed. Even some Aggregates occupy about 80% of the volume of concrete and are
prestigious projects in Kampala have been observed to use hand responsible for rigidity and dimensional stability of concrete.
crushed aggregates. This study investigated and compared the (Shetty,2001) They also play a big role in determination of the
strength of hand and machine crushed aggregates. Samples of strength of concrete (Neville, 1993). Given that the failure of
coarse aggregates were taken from five quarries around Kampala; building structures is on the increase and all the recent failures
two of these were for machine crushed while three were for hand recorded are for reinforced concrete structures, there is need to
crushed. The aggregates were graded, then tested foe Aggregate investigate the influence of different types of aggregates on the
Crushing Value (ACV), Aggregate Impact Value (AIV), Los Angles strength of concrete. Also there is need for project managers to
Abrasion Value (LAAV), water absorption and Flakiness Index (FI). have a scientific basis for refusing or approving use of aggregates
Then concrete cubes were made from the aggregates from each of on various sites.
the five sites, these were tested for compressive strength. It was
found that both machine and hand crushed aggregates satisfied the In this study coarse aggregates from five sites; Bweya, Muyenga,
mechanical strength requirements for ACV, AIV, LAAV, and FI. The Kigo, Kireka and Nabusugwe were investigated. Aggregates from
compressive strength of hand crushed aggregates was found to be Bweya and Muyenga were machine crushed, while those from Kigo,
slightly lower. Kireka and Nabusugwe were hand crushed. While the sand used in
all cases was from Bwerenga - Entebbe.
INTRODUCTION
About 99% of multi storey buildings currently under construction in The parent rock at Bweya and Muyenga quarries are of granite
Uganda are made of concrete, Mukama (2005). Use of hand- type, confirmed by the geological department (Entebbe). Hand
crushed aggregates is on the increase. It has been noted that even crushed aggregates parent rocks were observed to bear fissures
large prestigious projects in Kampala now use hand-crushed where they can be broken /split, yet they are quite hard. Whereas
aggregates. A large percentage of the local population in villages no confirmation was available from the geological department, they
neighboring Kampala earn their living from producing hand crushed are probably metamorphic rocks that resulted from transformation
aggregates. There are two ways in which Engineers can help these of sedimentary rocks. The research findings reported below were
people in their struggle to alleviate poverty: First is to determine the obtained from field investigations and laboratory tests.
37

Aggregate Crushing Value: (ACV) sample. The water absorption was calculated as:
This gives a relative measure of the resistance of aggregates to
crushing under a gradually applied compressive load. It is the
percentage by weight of the crushed (or finer) material obtained
when the test aggregate are subjected to a specified load under
standardized conditions. The aggregate with lower crushing value The results of measurement of water absorption on the aggregate
indicate a lower crushed fraction under load and thus higher samples from the fives sites are given in Table 3.
strength. The results are given in Table 1
Table 3: Water Absorption (WA) Test Results
Los Angels Abrasion Value (LAAV)
This measures the resistance to abrasion. The abrasive action is
produced by use of steel balls; which are mixed with aggregates
and rotated in a drum a specified number of revolutions (BS. 812).
The lower the value the stronger the aggregates. The results are
given in Table 1. Due to the expense involved from the ACV and
LAAV tests, aggregates from only two sites were considered. Hand crushed aggregates were found to absorb much more water
Nabusugwe have the least values and therefore are stronger than compared to machine crushed aggregates.
Bweya aggregates. However they both fall below permissible limits
and are thus suitable for concrete works. Flakiness Index
Using gauges, which separate the flaky aggregates and expressing
Table 1: Aggregate Crushing Value & Los Angels Abrasion Value their mass as a percentage of the mass of the sample gives the
Test Results flakiness index. Flaky aggregates produce a weaker concrete than
angular particles. The results of the flakiness index test are given in
Table 4

Table 4: Flakiness Index (FI) Test Results

Aggregate Impact Value (AIV)


This is carried out on aggregates passing 14mm sieve and retained
on 10mm sieve, subjected to 15 blows of 14Kg hammer falling
through a height of 380mm. After completion of the blows, the
material passing 2.36mm sieve is expressed as a percentage of the
sample and recorded as Aggregate Impact Value, (AIV). The results
of the test are given in Table 2. The smaller the percentage, the A smaller percentage implies that fewer aggregates are passing
higher the strength. Thus machine-crushed aggregates were found through the slots, thus the sample is less flaky. Hand crushed
to be stronger for the AIV test. However all are within the range of aggregates from Nabusugwe were found to be least flaky, however
specified strength requirements for concrete works. they all fall within the range specified for concrete works.

Table 2: Aggregate Impact Value (AIV) Test Results Grading


Sieve analysis of machine crushed aggregates from Bweya and
Muyenga (size 20mm) revealed that they varied uniformly from
10mm to 37.5mm with about 50% below 20mm. For hand crushed
aggregates from Kigo, Kireka and Nabusugwe, about 15% of the
sample was between 2-10mm, and 85% between 10 to 50mm, with
about 45% below 20mm. Both samples are good for concrete
though the machine crushed aggregates of 20mm size need to be
Water Absorption mixed with about 15% of smaller size aggregates of 5-10mm.
Samples of aggregates of about 2000g from each of five sites were A visual observation of the aggregates revealed that both hand
selected and soaked in water for 24 hours. Their surfaces were crushed and machine crushed aggregates were free from organic
individually dried with a piece of cloth and the weight of each dry but matter, thus this test was deemed unnecessary.
water saturated sample was found. Then they were heated in the
oven for 24 hours. They were removed weighed and again heated Compressive Strength of Concrete
in the oven; their weight was investigated every 3 hours until it A total of 90 concrete cubes were made; 18 cubes were made using
remained constant. This was taken as the dry weight of the aggregates from each of the five sites. The water cement ratio (W/C
38

ratio) used were 0.55 for 9 of the cubes and 0.6 for the other nine. (ACV), Los Angels Abrasion Value, (LAAV), Aggregate Impact
The aim was to determine the effect of increasing the water content Value, (AIV). They also satisfy requirements for the Flakiness Index
on the different types of aggregates. A mix of 1:2:4 by weight (FI). However for the 20mm aggregate considered, it was found that
expected to achieve a characteristic compressive strength of was machine crushed aggregates were in the range 10-37.5mm thus
used. The cement was Ordinary Portland cement, the water source there is need to mix it with at least 15-20% smaller aggregates in
was NW&SC main supply and the fine sand was from Bwerenga, the range 5-10mm size.
Entebbe. The results of the compressive strength test for W/C ratios
of 0.55 and 0.6 are given in Tables 5 and 6 respectively. Hand crushed aggregates were found to absorb and retain more
water, this could account for their compressive strength being lower
Table 5: Compressive Strength of concrete for W/C ratio = 0.55 than those of machine crushed aggregates and even lowering more
when extra water is added.

This could imply that hand crushed aggregates used during the
rainy season and have not been kept in a sheltered shade for a long
time on site need less water compared to machine crushed
aggregates.

REFERENCES
1. Building Research Establishment, Garston, Watford, WD2 75R
Table 6: Compressive Strength of concrete for W/C ratio = 0.60 (1982) "Design of Normal Concrete Mixes"

2. Bloem D. L. and Gaynor R. D. (1963), " Effect of Aggregate


Properties on Strength of Concrete" Journal of American
Concrete Institute Vol 60, No 10

3. Collins l. Fox R. A. (1985) " AGGREGATES, sand gravel and


cruished rock aggregates for construction purposes" The
geological society UK
For a characteristic compressive strength of , standard deviation of
the margin is found to be . Therefore the target mean strength is. 4. Gadi K. O. Turyomurugyendo, (1977) "Evaluation of Muyenga
The target mean strength for concrete made from the different Project Stone Quarry" Geological Survey and Mines department
aggregates and for water to cement ratios of 0.55 and 0.6 are given Report No. GKCT/1/1977
in Tables 6 and 7 respectively.
5. Handoo B. L. and Maha jan V. M. (1992), "Civil engineeering
Looking at Tables 5 , it is seen that for a water cement ratio of 0.55, Materials" Satya Prakashan, New Delhi
concrete made from machine and hand crushed aggregates
satisfied the required target mean strength. (Characteristic 6. Kagwisagye Sam (2005) "Investigation in the effect of Aggregate
compressive strength of ). type and Water content on the strength of Concrete" Final year
Project, Department of Civil & Building Engineeering, Kyambogo
However, the strength of hand-crushed aggregates is found to be University
lower. On increasing the water /cement ratio to 0.6, the strength of
hand crushed aggregates reduced more than that of machine 7. Mubiru Stephen, (1988); "Evaluation of Bweya Project Stione
crushed aggregates, that of Kireka and Nabusugwe dropped below Quarry" Geological Survey and Mines Department Report No.
the target mean strength. 8m/5/1988

This could be due to the fact that hand crushed aggregates tend to 8. Neville A. . (1993) " Properties of Concrete" Longman Group, Uk
keep more moisture than the machine crushed aggregates as Limited
illustrated in Table 3. Therefore when a concrete is made, they need
less water than the machine crushed aggregates to reach a 9. Shetty, M. S. (2001), "Concrete Technology, Theory and
saturated state, thus if the same quantity of water is used, their Practice", Ram Najar, New Delhi.
strength will be lower.

CONCLUSION
It has been shown that the machine and hand crushed aggregates
considered satisfy strength properties of Aggregate Crushing Value,
40

Brigade, MoWHC, Red Cross and private contractors. Due to


Bwebajja building Government concern coupled with public outcry, Government set up
a nine-person technical committee to establish the cause of the
accident and make recommendations. See ref. [1] for the full report.
accident: lessons learnt Fig. 1 shows a section of the collapsed building while rescue efforts
were still taking place.

J. A. Mwakali* 2.0 THE ACCIDENT INVESTIGATION COMMITTEE


The following committee, consisting of people with varied
ABSTRACT professions, was instituted to investigate the accident and make
The collapse in 2004 of one of the buildings at the proposed hotel recommendations.
complex at Bwebajja on Entebbe Road in which several people
were killed and others injured was one of the worst construction- Name Affiliation
related accidents in recent times in Uganda. Eng. Dr. Jackson
Mwakali (Chairman) Associate Professor and Specialist in
A committee of inquiry constituted by Government unearthed some Structural Engineering Head, Department of
disturbing facts, including non-observance of professional ethics Civil Engineering, Makerere University
and use of informal arrangements for the construction of a large, Arch. Joel Kateregga
high-value and complex project. (Vice Chairman) President, Uganda Society of Architects
Vice Chairman, Architects Registration Board
A number of recommendations affecting that particular building and Ketrah K. Katunguka
project, and also covering regulation of the construction industry in (Member) Principal State Attorney, Ministry of Justice and
general were made. Construction at the site was subsequently Constitutional Affairs
suspended pending further investigations and institution of proper Eng Ssebbugga-Kimeze
mechanisms to ensure safe and sound construction not only on the (Member/Secretary) Chief Materials Engineer, Ministry of Works,
Bwebajja building site but throughout the country. Housing and Communications Member,
Engineers Registration Board
Keywords: Accident; Building; Bwebajja; Civil; Collapse; Arch Assumputa Naggenda
Construction; Formal construction; Hazard; Health; Informal Musana (Member) Lecturer, Department of Architecture Makerere
construction; Infrastructure; Injury; Labour, Legislation. University Member, Architects Registration
Board
1.0 INTRODUCTION Mr. Emmanuel Male
On 1st September 2004 between 0900 and 1030hrs at Bwebajja (Member) Chief Quantity Surveyor, Ministry of Works,
village, Ssisa Sub-county, Busiro County in Wakiso District at the Housing and Communications
site of J&M Airport Road Hotel Apartments & Leisure Centre project, Mr. Assuman Mugenyi
a building under construction, which had reached third level, (Member) Assistant Commissioner of Police Spokesman,
suddenly collapsed, resulting into the death of eleven workers. Uganda Police Force
Twenty-six others were injured and admitted in various hospitals. Mr. Mesilamu Oloka
The matter was reported to Police, Wakiso District Local (Member) General Secretary, Building Workers Union
Government and Ministry of Works, Housing and Communications Member, Central Governing Council, National
(MoWHC). Soon after, rescue work commenced involving Fire Organisation of Trade Unions
Dr. L.A. Abongomera
(Member) Commissioner, Occupational Health and
Safety Ministry of Gender, Labour and Social
Development

3.0 METHODOLOGY
The following methodology was adopted by the committee to guide
its investigations.
• Established rules of procedure
• Carried out on-spot inquiries.
• Made a close visual inspection of the collapsed and standing
structures.
• Established the typology of buildings and configurations on the
Fig. 1. Section of the collapsed building as rescue operations were site, the type of structure that collapsed, mode of failure of the
going on.
41

• Spacious gardens
• Conference halls with 4500 seats
• 2 outdoor swimming pools and 9-hole golf course
• Landscape with water falls, fountains
• Helipad
• Animal Park.

Fig. 3. Artistic Master Plan of the project

Fig. 2 is a picture of the committee members talking to rescue


workers at the building site in the immediate aftermath of the
accident.
structure, any visible signs of distress of the structure, and
quality of construction.
• Identified specific areas of investigation.
• Identified sources of information, namely, representatives of
statutory and regulatory bodies responsible for building
construction, documents/literature, construction materials
samples and laboratory tests, site observations and
photographs.
• Collected data using questionnaires and interviews.
• Studied post mortem reports and Police Form 3 (PF3).
• Interviewed the employees responsible for the design,
construction and supervision of the buildings, the casual
workers, the survivors, the Proprietors of the project, those
involved in the search and rescue, and members of the public.
• Studied all available drawings, design calculations and other
technical documents pertaining to the project.
• Obtained information from practicing professionals in the
construction industry.
• Identified sampling points for concrete core extraction, rebound
hammer testing, and trial pit excavation.
• Established compliance with professional registration
requirements.
• Formulated data recording and analysis tools. 4.2 The project progress
• Analysed all the gathered data and information. At the time of the accident, construction work was at an advanced
• Determined the cause of failure of the collapsed building. stage, some of the buildings had already been roofed and others
• Studied relevant laws. were nearing that stage. The ground had been levelled and
• Made recommendations on the Bwebajja project and the terraced. Landscaping was in progress. Processing of orders for
building construction industry as a whole. sanitary and electrical fittings, doors, windows, ironmongery,
equipment and furniture was in progress.
4.0 KEY FINDINGS
4.1 The project concept 4.3 The collapsed building
The concept was an extensive 5-star hotel and leisure complex on The building that collapsed was part of the hotel and leisure
50 acres of land (see Fig. 3). It had magnificent architectural and complex. The building had a central core with an atrium (void) that
investment ideas, with the following facilities: let in natural lighting from above. The building was supposed to
• Fitness centre with sauna, jacuzzi, steam bath, massage, beauty have five storeys when completed. It had four wings, the biggest of
salon, boutique, restaurants, and night clubs which collapsed. The four wings had rooms with balconies of semi-
• 400 state-of-the-art hotel rooms and suites circular shapes. The wing that collapsed was located on the south
• World class shopping facility eastern side (Fig. 4). It was at a lower level with a steep slope to
• 7-storeyed block for 30 apartments (6 single, 24 double) the eastern side of the site.
• 30 luxury Rondavel cottages
42

Fig. 4. A computer-generated 3-D impression of the building portion 4.6 Structural design and materials
that collapsed • The collapsed structure was a framed multi-storey in-situ RC
building.
• The structural framing (columns, beams and slabs) had been
constructed up to three suspended floors and shuttering was
being fixed to receive the 4th suspended floor slab.
• The columns were under-designed (both in terms of size and
reinforcement)
• The slabs and beams were adequately designed.
• The column bases were adequately sized.
• The masons interpreted a mix ratio of, for example, 1:2:4 to
mean "one bag of cement to two wheelbarrows of sand to four
wheelbarrows of stone aggregate".
• The quality of the basic materials (cement, steel & aggregates)
was good and conforming to best practices. However, the
4.4 Architectural and planning issues concrete produced was poor (7 to16MPa) because of low
• There were no approved architectural and structural drawings for cement content and poor compaction (Fig. 5).
the collapsed building. The drawings that were being used • There were no quality control activities on site. Basic and
during construction showed a very complex building. fundamental tests like cube compressive strength and slump
• There were no project scheme design options. were never performed on concrete.
• There was no site plan that specified what was being covered in
the whole project apart from an artistic impression of various 4.7 Construction procedures
buildings and their location on the site. The structural framing was constructed up to the 3rd floor before the
• The architectural plans did not meet acceptable standards of shuttering was struck out. This meant that the concrete was allowed
design and detail. sufficient time to attain its 28-day strength.
• Very close to the building, a road had been cut into the ground.
• There were no construction drawings, specifications, bills of The structure would have manifested its deficiencies much earlier
quantities, window and door schedules, among other details. had the shuttering and props been removed just after 28 days. By
• No professional architect or engineer was responsible for the then, the weight being borne by the columns would not have been
design and supervision of the building. The so-called engineers as much, and the failures would be less sudden, hence allowing
on site were technicians and artisans. There was no qualified workers to escape. In addition, there would have been an
building contractor for the project. opportunity to re-evaluate the integrity of the structure before it
• The estimated total project cost was US$ 30 million. The failed.
architect was offered Shs 15 million for the design of the first four
buildings (apartment block, health club, shopping complex, and 4.8 Legal matters
the cottages). There was no written contract. • The collapsed building was unlawfully constructed without
approved plans contrary to section 71 of the Public Health Act.
4.5 Mode of structural failure • There were insurance policies for 115 employees.
• The structure collapsed suddenly and without warning, allowing • Employment of a minor (<18 years) contravened section 50 of
no time for the workers to escape or notice the source of failure. the Employment Act.
This is indicative of brittle failure. The failure occurred when the • The site supervisor was negligent contrary to the Penal Code
workers were removing the props and shuttering that supported Act.
the first floor slab to leave room for erection of infill walls. This
implies at the time of failure there was insufficient support for the
suspended floors. The suddenness of collapse supports the
hypothesis that the columns were far too weak to support the
medium-rise structure.
• There was no sign of vertical settlement, tilting or horizontal
movement in the sampled column bases, hence ruling out
foundation failure as the source of building collapse.
• At the time of collapse there was negligible live (imposed) load
on the structure. Neither seismic (earthquake) activity nor strong
winds were reported in the area on that day. The building
therefore collapsed under its own weight. Fig. 5. Very poor concrete in column (segregation of aggregates
and honeycombing)
43

4.9 Occupational safety and health (OSH), and labour issues • The local authority did not review and approve the designs, or
• The following positive points were noted: many employees, inspect and monitor the construction, hence missed the
dangerous spots guarded, first aid facility, standby vehicle to opportunity to detect the deficiencies that led to the collapse.
transport workers in case of accidents, cheap meals, drinking • The informal project management set-up, including recruitment
and washing water and other sanitary conveniences, women and labour contracting, meant that even professionals would not
employed in non-manual work, good wages. have participated in key decision-making.
• Some survivors did not receive sufficient treatment or lacked • Use of direct labour made the proprietors responsible for the
funds to see qualified medical personnel. quality of work.
• Most of the survivors and relatives of the dead were neither • The basic construction materials (cement, aggregate, steel, etc.)
aware of the procedure, nor had means of processing claims, for used were of good quality, and so did not, on their own, cause
compensation. the collapse.
• Most workers had no safety gear; few brought theirs. • Poor enforcement of labour and other laws meant that
• No health and safety committee at the site. occupational safety and health issues, the law against
• Most workers had no formal appointment, although records were employment of minors and other employment requirements were
kept for purposes of payment. minimally observed.
• Casual workers had no employment cards. • Laws impacting on the construction industry, specifically the
• No pre-employment examination of workers. Factories Act, do not adequately address private sector issues.
• Long working hours (0800 to 1845 Monday to Saturday). • The laws governing the practice of architecture and engineering
are such that non-registered professionals in those fields cannot
4.10 Policy issues be disciplined by the statutory bodies.
• The Wakiso District Engineer's office had no capacity to process • Acute lack of manpower and logistics in Wakiso District means
and approve building plans, inspect and monitor the building that they cannot effectively monitor the rapidly growing
construction activities, or enforce building rules and regulations. construction activities in the district.
It is the same in other local authorities. • Uganda has acute lack of capacity for search and rescue
• There is an acute lack of capacity for search and rescue operations in emergency cases, hence there are likely to be high
operations in emergency cases in the country. fatality rates in case of disasters.
• Current law does not effectively regulate building construction.
• Factories Act covers building construction for Government, but is 6.0 THE CAUSE OF THE ACCIDENT
silent on private sector construction works. Much as many other things had gone wrong in the design and
• The Engineers and Architects Registration Acts do not cover the construction process of the collapsed building, especially the
disciplining of unregistered practitioners. absence of approved plans, the root cause of the collapse of the
• The public is not aware of the importance of using qualified building was weak reinforced concrete columns that were
persons, and the requirements for the development of buildings undersized, had insufficient steel reinforcement and were made of
for public use. poor concrete due to wrong mix proportions and poor construction
• The Public Health Act is not comprehensive enough to address practices.
the OSH issues.
• Most workers don't know their rights and role of trade unions. The building was being supported jointly by the weak columns and
• There is no mechanism for registration of workers on the wooden props nearly equally. That is why the props were too
construction sites by Local Councils. hard to remove, thus the sudden collapse of the building once they
were all struck out.
5.0 CONCLUSIONS
• Standard project design process was not followed, thereby 7.0 RECOMMENDATIONS
denying the project the critical technical review and analysis. In 7.1 For the proprietors
particular, the absence of a structural engineer resulted in • Immediate suspension of construction of the affected building
underdesigned columns, thus the collapse. • Engagement of qualified and experienced professionals to
• Lack of appropriate construction supervision meant that there assess and see how best to salvage the affected building.
was no proper interpretation of drawings and specifications • The rest of the buildings in the complex to be subjected to
concerning, in particular, the mix ratios, resulting into weak thorough assessments to restore public confidence in their
concrete, thus the collapse. safety.
• Non-use of experienced contractors resulting in poor • Compensation in respect of the dead and the injured, including
construction practices, such as inadequate concrete compaction provision of medical care.
and curing, led to poor joints and unstable structure. • The Proprietors to be cautioned against using informal methods
• Unnecessary delay in removing the shuttering and props created to implement such a big project intended for public use targeting
temporary support to an already weak and overloaded structure, many people from all walks of life, including VIPs.
leading to sudden failure as soon as they were removed. • Engagement of qualified experienced professionals to take full
44

charge of the whole project. contract.


• There should be strict compliance with the Workers' 5. Engineers and architects should charge what they are worth, not
Compensation Act and the Employment Act. what the client can afford - cheap is not always cheap!
• The Proprietors, having assumed the role of Contractor, should 6. The proposed revision of Engineers Registration Act should be
further be investigated for purposes of prosecution. expedited.
• Investigation of site supervisor for purposes of prosecution. 7. Engineers and architects should be wary of endorsing drawings
• The Proprietors should be reprimanded for failure to ensure that of somebody else's designs.
plans were approved before starting construction. 8. A lesson from Turkey [2]: Building construction supervision by an
"expert", namely the design engineer, in addition to the
7.2 For Local Authorities contractor, site engineer and building supervision firm. Even fees
• The District Engineer's office in Wakiso should be facilitated in for design and construction supervision are prescribed by law as
terms of both logistics and staffing if it is to cope with the fast ranging from 4 to 8% of the estimated cost of the building. No
growing construction activities. occupation permit is granted by the urban authorities unless it is
• Wakiso, other districts and urban authorities, having limited confirmed that construction has conformed to actual design. The
capacity to process and approve building plans, inspect and construction supervision firm is responsible for offsetting any
monitor constructions, should consider contracting out some of losses, including those from natural disasters, that may arise in
the above tasks. the first ten years after occupation. For this reason firms must
• The requirement for issuance of occupation permits for both new purchase insurance for each job they supervise. In addition,
and existing buildings for public use should be strictly enforced. construction supervision firms are classified into three groups in
order of reduced responsibility and manpower requirements.
7.3 General These firms must be owned by a majority of engineers or
• The architect who took on such a complex project without any architects.
formal agreement, should be admonished by the Uganda 9. A lesson from Taiwan [3]: Only structural engineers may design
Society of Architects for flouting the engagement procedure. building structures without a height limitation. General civil
• The proposed Building Control Bill should be quickly passed to engineers are limited to 36m height. The design of any building
curtail informal construction, which has led to deaths and injuries with a roof height more than 50m must undergo a rigorous peer
of workers. review process (normally lasting 5 to 8 weeks) where a
• The Factories Act should be amended to include construction committee of at least 5 experts (3 majoring in theory of
and engineering works initiated by and for the private sector. structures, 1 in foundation engineering, and 1 in construction
• The Engineers and Architects Registration Acts should be methods) critique and approve the designs.
amended to provide for disciplinary action against trained 10. An engineer must aim to learn how a structure might behave
engineers and architects, who practise but are not registered. and not be satisfied with a quick but poorly understood solution.
• Need to sensitise the public on importance of using qualified Confidence develops over time [4]. Skempton [5] once said,
persons & the requirements for development of buildings for "Optimism and overconfidence may impress one's clients, but
public use. they have no influence on the great forces of nature."
• The proposed OSH Bill should be considered urgently to
compliment the Public Health Act. REFERENCES
• Need to sensitise workers, especially casual labourers, about [1] Bwebajja Building Accident Investigation Committee (2004).
their rights and the role of Trade Unions. Bwebajja Building Accident Report. Ministry of Works, Housing
• There should be a policy for registration of workers on and Communications, Kampala
construction sites by the area Local Councils.
• Build capacity to respond to national emergencies. [2] Gülkan, P. (2002). Recent structural revisions in Turkey to
mitigate disasters. Quoted in Earthquake Hazard Centre
8.0 LESSONS LEARNT Newsletter, Vol. 2, No. 1, Wellington, New Zealand, p. 5.
1. Need to put in place quality management systems (such as ISO
9000 series) in project design and implementation. [3] Sheu, M. et al. (2002). High-rise building structures in Taiwan.
2. Need to observe proper procurement procedures, even in Abstracts, Structural Engineers World Congress, Yokohama,
private developments, to ensure right contractors are hired - Japan, pp. 63-89.
cheap is not always cheap!
3. It is high time that engineers and architects claimed their rightful [4] Skempton, Alec (1961). Presidential address. Quoted in New
role in society, even if it means exerting civil pressure on powers Civil Engineer, No. 99, pp. 19.
that be. Only they have the technical capacity to superintend
over building construction. They should learn from the lawyers [5] Harvey, Bill (2002). Arch bridge assessment: an issue of
who discipline with ruthlessness pretenders within their ranks. confidence. The Structural Engineer, Vol. 80, No. 5, pp. 13-14.
4. Engineers and architects should not do work without a written
45

Biographies

Sooma Ayub, CEng.,MIEE(UK).,MUIPE.,REng.(U). James moses omara-ogwang bsc (eng), r eng,


Sooma Ayub is a Member of Uganda Institution of muipe, miee.
Professional Engineers and a Registered Engineer with Nominated uipe vice president (electrical) for
the Engineers Registration Board of Uganda. 2006/2007. Has served many years in uipe as council
member and on the membership, education and
He is also a member of the Institution of Electrical training committee, and the publications and library
Engineers (UK) and a registered Chartered Engineer committee. Has held positions on the kampala branch
with the Engineering council of UK. He is the Chairman executive as well.
of the National Technology Conference steering
committee 2006. Sooma holds a Bachelor of Has 15 years experience working in the electricity
Engineering specialized in Electrical Engineering and sector in various capacities. Started in uganda
Automation from Tsinghua University, Beijing, China electricity board (ueb) as a graduate engineer and rose
and a Masters degree in Management studies to the rank of senior control engineer. After brake up of
specialized in Management from Uganda Management ueb, was absorbed in uganda electricity transmission
Institute. company limited (uetcl) at same rank. Had a brief stint
with uganda electricity distribution company limited
He holds a wealth of experience in Airport development (uedcl) as principal protection engineer before joining
and procedures, project management and electricity regulatory authority (era) as compliance
implementation, security systems/equipment, master engineer. Has been with era for 4 years to date and is
plan developments, energy management including currently also holding the position of acting manager
energy audit and surveys, power system engineering, technical regulation. Is 41 years old and married with
Airport Electrical systems and design, Generators and children
building electro-mechanical services. He currently
works with the Civil Aviation Authority Uganda. James Moses Omara-Ogwang
Compliance Engineer
46

Winfred Naluyinda Daudi Mugisa


Is a member of Uganda Institution of Professional Engineers and a Is a member of the Institute of Professional Engineers. He is the
registered Engineer with the Engineers Registration Board of chairman of the Technology House Development committee.
Uganda. She is the Chairperson of the Finance and Administration
Committee 2006 Mugisa holds a Bachelors of Science in Civil Engineering of the
University of Nairobi and a Masters of Science in Civil and structural
Naluyinda holds a Bachelor of Science in Engineering specializing Engineering of the University of Sheffield.
in Mechanical Engineering from Makerere University, Kampala
Uganda. She is currently pursuing a Masters of Engineering degree He holds a wealth of experience in the training of students aspiring
at Makerere. to become Technicians, Technologists and Engineers in the field of
structural analysis and design and construction materials. He has
She has experience in designing Vehicle/Plant maintenance worked with various consultants and contractors on a part time
management systems, fleet management and inventory control, basis.
vehicle plant inspection for valuation, production workshops
management with a bias in machine shops, welding and fabrication,
foundry shops and wood workshops. She currently works with the
Ministry of works, Housing and Communications, mechanical
services as acting Engineer in charge of central mechanical
workshops.
47

Edward Kasule Musisi Peter Balimunsi


Edward Kasule Musisi is a member of the Uganda Institution of Peter Balimunsi is a member of the Uganda Institution of
Professional Engineers (UIPE) and a Registered Engineer with Professional Engineers and a Registered Engineer with Uganda
Engineers Registration Board of Uganda. He is the outgoing Vice Engineers Registration Board. He is the current Honorary Treasurer
President, Electrical Division, UIPE a position he has held for two of UIPE.
consecutive Council Years.
Eng. Balimunsi holds Bachelor of Science in Engineering
Mr Musisi holds a Bachelor of Engineering (Electrical) from (Electrical) from Makerere University, a Masters in Development
Makerere University Kampala and has extensive training in Studies from University College Dublin in Ireland, a Master of
Telecommunications: microwave transmission, Telecommunications Science in Development Finance from University of London, and a
Master Plan, Radio Frequency Spectrum Management, Postgraduate Diploma in Economics from University of London.
Satellite Communications, Switching, mobile communications
He has significant experience in national and sectoral development
He has a wealth of experience on the local and international scene policy analysis, project management including identification,
in telecommunications operations consulting on policy, regulatory, appraisal, procurement management for works and services,
licensing and management. He is a founding partner and currently contract management, institutional development, and teaching. He
the Managing Director of Data Fundi (U) Ltd a successful ICT has held various positions of responsibility including: Project
Consultancy and Project Management Firm Engineer, Area Manager, and currently is the Project Manager
responsible for major infrastructural development projects in
National Water and Sewerage Corporation.
48

ENG. NKYA KIIZA ENG. KARUMA KAGYINA


Eng. Nkya Kiiza is a Member of Uganda Institution of Professional Eng. Karuma Kagyina went to Nyakasura School. He holds an
Engineers and a Registered Engineers with Engineers Registration Honours Bachelor of Science Degree in Civil Engineering from the
Board of Uganda. He is the Honorary Secretary of the Institution. University of Nairobi.

Kiiza holds a Bachelors degree in Mechanical Engineering from He has a wealth of experience in structural engineering design,
Makerere University and a Post Graduate Diploma in Human design of site and services schemes, design of highways, site
Resource Management from Uganda Management Institute. supervision, contract management project formation and
management.
He holds a wealth of experience in Maintenance Management of
vehicles and plants and Training of staff. He currently works as a After many years in private practice, he worked with Kampala City
Principal in charge of the Ministry of Works Training Centre situated Council as Deputy City Engineer and Surveyor, the Ministry of Local
at Kyambogo where the Institution Secretariat is housed. Government as Chief Engineer. Currently he is the Assistant
Commissioner in the Ministry of Works, Housing and
Communications in charge of District, Urban and Community
Access Roads.

Eng. Karuma Kagyina is a Member of the Uganda Institution of


Professional Engineers (UIPE), Member of the Institution of
Engineers Kenya (MIEK), Associate Member of the Institution of
civil Engineers (AMICE) and is a Registered Engineer with both
Uganda and Kenya Engineers Registration Boards. He is currently
the President of the Uganda Institution of Professional Engineers.