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# HIGH VOLTAGE d.c.

TRANSMISSION 119

(i) The above expression of Id holds good only for 3-phase symmetrical voltages. A shunt
fault say a line to line fault will not only reduce the commutating voltage but also
increase or decrease the available commutation angle as shown in Fig. 5.16.
(ii) In case of a dip in voltage on the a.c. side, the rate of change of current Id may be very
large despite the fact that large smoothing reactors have been incorporated in the
system.
The constant extinction angle controller consists of a separate computer for each group
of thyristors connected to the same phase. This is desired as the voltage of different phases
become unbalanced during an asymmetrical fault.
Each computer continuously computes and provides an output signal when the correct
instant for firing a thyristor has arrived for safe commutation. The computer has to monitor
the following quantities:
(i) The amplitude of the commutating voltage which is the voltage between two phases,
the phase on which the conducting thyristor is connected and the phase on which the
next thyristor to fire is connected. This voltage is responsible for circulating commu-
tating current when the two thyristors are conducting simultaneously.
(ii) The phase of the commutating voltage.
(iii) The magnitude of the direct current.
(iv) The rate of change of the direct current.

## Constant Current Controller performs the following operations:

(i) Measures the system current Id.
(ii) Compares it with a reference current Ids.
(iii) Computes (Ids Id) and amplifies the error signal (Ids Id).
(iv) The output error signal controls in case of rectifier and in case of inverter in
proper direction to reduce the error.
If the measured current is more than the reference, must be increased in case of
rectifier to decrease the open circuit voltage of the rectifier. The difference between the open
circuit voltage of the rectifier and the inverter is thereby decreased and the current Id is
decreased proportionally.
However, in case of an inverter, if the measured current is more than the reference
current, the open circuit voltage of the inverter must be increased instead of being decreased
as in a rectifier in order to decrease the difference of the open circuit voltages. This refers,
however, to the absolute value of the inverter voltage. If we consider the inverter voltage to be
negative, which is usual if the same converter sometimes rectifies and at other times inverts,
the algebraic value of inverter voltage must be decreased as in a rectifier and to accomplish
this, must be increased, as in a rectifier. The graph cos vs in the range 0 is
monotonic where the algebraic value of cos increases with decrease in i.e., the algebraic
value of open circuit voltage Vo cos increases with decrease in . This means that the same
constant current controller can be used for a given converter without change of connections
during both rectification and inversion.