NGUY

ˆ
E
˜
N THUY

THANH
B
`
AI T
ˆ
A
.
P
TO
´
AN CAO C
ˆ
A
´
P
Tˆa
.
p 3
Ph´ep t´ınh t´ıch phˆ an. L´ y thuyˆe
´
t chuˆo
˜
i.
Phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh vi phˆ an
NH
`
A XU
ˆ
A
´
T BA

N DA
.
I HO
.
C QU
ˆ
O
´
C GIA H
`
A N
ˆ
O
.
I
Mu
.
c lu
.
c
10 T´ıch phˆan bˆa
´
t di
.
nh 4
10.1 C´ac phu
.
o
.
ng ph´ap t´ınh t´ıch phˆan . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
10.1.1 Nguyˆen h`am v`a t´ıch phˆan bˆa´t di
.
nh . . . . . . . 4
10.1.2 Phu
.
o
.
ng ph´ap dˆo

i biˆe
´
n . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
10.1.3 Phu
.
o
.
ng ph´ap t´ıch phˆan t` u
.
ng phˆa
`
n . . . . . . . 21
10.2 C´ac l´o
.
p h`am kha’ t´ıch trong l´o
.
p c´ac h`am so
.
cˆa´p . . . . 30
10.2.1 T´ıch phˆan c´ac h`am h˜ u
.
u ty’ . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
10.2.2 T´ıch phˆan mˆo
.
t sˆo´ h`am vˆo ty’ do
.
n gia’ n . . . . . 37
10.2.3 T´ıch phˆan c´ac h`am lu
.
o
.
.
ng gi´ac . . . . . . . . . . 48
11 T´ıch phˆan x´ac di
.
nh Riemann 57
11.1 H`am kha’ t´ıch Riemann v`a t´ıch phˆan x´ac di
.
nh . . . . . 58
11.1.1 D
-
i
.
nh ngh˜ıa . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
11.1.2 D
-
iˆe
`
u kiˆe
.
n dˆe

h`am kha’ t´ıch . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
11.1.3 C´ ac t´ınh chˆa´t co
.
ba’ n cu’ a t´ıch phˆan x´ac di
.
nh . . 59
11.2 Phu
.
o
.
ng ph´ap t´ınh t´ıch phˆan x´ac di
.
nh . . . . . . . . . 61
11.3 Mˆo
.
t sˆo´ ´ u
.
ng du
.
ng cu’ a t´ıch phˆan x´ac di
.
nh . . . . . . . . 78
11.3.1 Diˆe
.
n t´ıch h`ınh ph˘a

ng v`a thˆe

t´ıch vˆa
.
t thˆe

. . . . 78
11.3.2 T´ınh dˆo
.
d`ai cung v`a diˆe
.
n t´ıch m˘a
.
t tr`on xoay . . 89
11.4 T´ıch phˆan suy rˆo
.
ng . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98
11.4.1 T´ıch phˆan suy rˆ o
.
ng cˆa
.
n vˆo ha
.
n . . . . . . . . . 98
11.4.2 T´ıch phˆan suy rˆo
.
ng cu’ a h`am khˆong bi
.
ch˘a
.
n . . 107
2 MU
.
C LU
.
C
12 T´ıch phˆan h`am nhiˆe
`
u biˆe
´
n 117
12.1 T´ıch phˆan 2-l´o
.
p . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118
12.1.1 Tru
.
`o
.
ng ho
.
.
p miˆe
`
n ch˜ u
.
nhˆa
.
t . . . . . . . . . . . 118
12.1.2 Tru
.
`o
.
ng ho
.
.
p miˆe
`
n cong . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118
12.1.3 Mˆo
.
t v`ai ´ u
.
ng du
.
ng trong h`ınh ho
.
c . . . . . . . . 121
12.2 T´ıch phˆan 3-l´o
.
p . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133
12.2.1 Tru
.
`o
.
ng ho
.
.
p miˆe
`
n h`ınh hˆo
.
p . . . . . . . . . . . 133
12.2.2 Tru
.
`o
.
ng ho
.
.
p miˆe
`
n cong . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134
12.2.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136
12.2.4 Nhˆ a
.
n x´et chung . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136
12.3 T´ıch phˆan du
.
`o
.
ng . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 144
12.3.1 C´ ac di
.
nh ngh˜ıa co
.
ba’ n . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 144
12.3.2 T´ınh t´ıch phˆan du
.
`o
.
ng . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146
12.4 T´ıch phˆan m˘a
.
t . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 158
12.4.1 C´ ac di
.
nh ngh˜ıa co
.
ba’ n . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 158
12.4.2 Phu
.
o
.
ng ph´ap t´ınh t´ıch phˆan m˘a
.
t . . . . . . . . 160
12.4.3 Cˆ ong th´ u
.
c Gauss-Ostrogradski . . . . . . . . . 162
12.4.4 Cˆ ong th´ u
.
c Stokes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 162
13 L´ y thuyˆe
´
t chuˆo
˜
i 177
13.1 Chuˆo
˜
i sˆo´ du
.
o
.
ng . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 178
13.1.1 C´ ac di
.
nh ngh˜ıa co
.
ba’ n . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 178
13.1.2 Chuˆo
˜
i sˆo´ du
.
o
.
ng . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 179
13.2 Chuˆo
˜
i hˆo
.
i tu
.
tuyˆe
.
t dˆo´i v`a hˆo
.
i tu
.
khˆong tuyˆe
.
t dˆo´i . . . 191
13.2.1 C´ ac di
.
nh ngh˜ıa co
.
ba’ n . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 191
13.2.2 Chuˆo
˜
i dan dˆa´u v`a dˆa´u hiˆe
.
u Leibnitz . . . . . . 192
13.3 Chuˆo
˜
i l˜ uy th` u
.
a . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 199
13.3.1 C´ ac di
.
nh ngh˜ıa co
.
ba’ n . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 199
13.3.2 D
-
iˆe
`
u kiˆe
.
n khai triˆe

n v`a phu
.
o
.
ng ph´ap khai triˆe

n 201
13.4 Chuˆo
˜
i Fourier . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 211
13.4.1 C´ ac di
.
nh ngh˜ıa co
.
ba’ n . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 211
MU
.
C LU
.
C 3
13.4.2 Dˆ a´u hiˆe
.
u du’ vˆe
`
su
.
.
hˆo
.
i tu
.
cu’ a chuˆo
˜
i Fourier . . . 212
14 Phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh vi phˆan 224
14.1 Phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh vi phˆan cˆ a´p 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 225
14.1.1 Phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh t´ach biˆe
´
n . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 226
14.1.2 Phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh d˘ a

ng cˆa´p . . . . . . . . . . . . . 231
14.1.3 Phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh tuyˆe
´
n t´ınh . . . . . . . . . . . . . 237
14.1.4 Phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh Bernoulli . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 244
14.1.5 Phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh vi phˆan to`an phˆa
`
n . . . . . . . . 247
14.1.6 Phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh Lagrange v`a phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh Clairaut255
14.2 Phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh vi phˆan cˆ a´p cao . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 259
14.2.1 C´ ac phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh cho ph´ep ha
.
thˆa´p cˆa´p . . . . 260
14.2.2 Phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh vi phˆan tuyˆe
´
n t´ınh cˆa´p 2 v´o
.
i hˆe
.
sˆo´ h˘a
`
ng . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 264
14.2.3 Phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh vi phˆan tuyˆe
´
n t´ınh thuˆa
`
n nhˆa´t
cˆa´p nnn (ptvptn cˆa´p nnn) v´o
.
i hˆe
.
sˆo´ h˘a
`
ng . . . . . . 273
14.3 Hˆe
.
phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh vi phˆan tuyˆe
´
n t´ınh cˆ a´p 1 v´o
.
i hˆe
.
sˆo´ h˘a
`
ng290
15 Kh´ai niˆe
.
m vˆe
`
phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh vi phˆan da
.
o h`am riˆeng 304
15.1 Phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh vi phˆan cˆ a´p 1 tuyˆe
´
n t´ınh dˆo´i v´o
.
i c´ac da
.
o
h`am riˆeng . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 306
15.2 Gia’ i phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh da
.
o h`am riˆeng cˆa´p 2 do
.
n gia’ n nhˆa´t 310
15.3 C´ac phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh vˆa
.
t l´ y to´an co
.
ba’ n . . . . . . . . . . 313
15.3.1 Phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh truyˆe
`
n s´ong . . . . . . . . . . . . 314
15.3.2 Phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh truyˆe
`
n nhiˆe
.
t . . . . . . . . . . . . 317
15.3.3 Phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh Laplace . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 320
T`ai liˆe
.
u tham kha’ o . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 327
Chu
.
o
.
ng 10
T´ıch phˆan bˆa
´
t di
.
nh
10.1 C´ac phu
.
o
.
ng ph´ap t´ınh t´ıch phˆan . . . . . . 4
10.1.1 Nguyˆen h`am v`a t´ıch phˆan bˆa´t di
.
nh . . . . . 4
10.1.2 Phu
.
o
.
ng ph´ap dˆo

i biˆe
´
n . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
10.1.3 Phu
.
o
.
ng ph´ap t´ıch phˆan t` u
.
ng phˆa
`
n . . . . . 21
10.2 C´ac l´o
.
p h`am kha’ t´ıch trong l´o
.
p c´ac h`am
so
.
cˆa´p . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
10.2.1 T´ıch phˆan c´ac h`am h˜ u
.
u ty’ . . . . . . . . . 30
10.2.2 T´ıch phˆan mˆo
.
t sˆo´ h`am vˆo ty’ do
.
n gia’ n . . . 37
10.2.3 T´ıch phˆan c´ac h`am lu
.
o
.
.
ng gi´ac . . . . . . . 48
10.1 C´ac phu
.
o
.
ng ph´ap t´ınh t´ıch phˆan
10.1.1 Nguyˆen h`am v`a t´ıch phˆan bˆa
´
t di
.
nh
D
-
i
.
nh ngh˜ıa 10.1.1. H`am F(x) du
.
o
.
.
c go
.
i l`a nguyˆen h`am cu’ a h`am
f(x) trˆen khoa’ ng n`ao d´o nˆe
´
u F(x) liˆen tu
.
c trˆen khoa’ ng d´o v`a kha’ vi
10.1. C´ ac phu
.
o
.
ng ph´ap t´ınh t´ıch phˆan 5
ta
.
i mˆ o
˜
i diˆe

m trong cu’ a khoa’ ng v`a F

(x) = f(x).
D
-
i
.
nh l´ y 10.1.1. (vˆe
`
su
.
.
tˆo
`
n ta
.
i nguyˆen h`am) Mo
.
i h` am liˆen tu
.
c trˆen
doa
.
n [a, b] dˆe
`
u c´o nguyˆen h`am trˆen khoa’ ng (a, b).
D
-
i
.
nh l´ y 10.1.2. C´ac nguyˆen h`am bˆ a´t k`y cu’ a c` ung mˆo
.
t h`am l`a chı ’
kh´ac nhau bo
.
’ i mˆo
.
t h˘a
`
ng sˆo´ cˆo
.
ng.
Kh´ac v´o
.
i da
.
o h`am, nguyˆen h`am cu’ a h`am so
.
cˆa´p khˆong pha’ i bao
gi`o
.
c˜ ung l`a h`am so
.
cˆa´p. Ch˘a

ng ha
.
n, nguyˆen h`am cu’ a c´ac h`am e
−x
2
,
cos(x
2
), sin(x
2
),
1
lnx
,
cos x
x
,
sin x
x
,... l`a nh˜ u
.
ng h`am khˆong so
.
cˆa´p.
D
-
i
.
nh ngh˜ıa 10.1.2. Tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p mo
.
i nguyˆen h`am cu’ a h`am f(x) trˆen
khoa’ ng (a, b) du
.
o
.
.
c go
.
i l`a t´ıch phˆan bˆa´t di
.
nh cu’ a h`am f(x) trˆen khoa’ ng
(a, b) v` a du
.
o
.
.
c k´ y hiˆe
.
u l`a

f(x)dx.
Nˆe
´
u F(x) l`a mˆo
.
t trong c´ac nguyˆen h`am cu’ a h`am f(x) trˆen khoa’ ng
(a, b) th`ı theo di
.
nh l´ y 10.1.2

f(x)dx = F(x) +C, C ∈ R
trong d´o C l`a h˘a
`
ng sˆo´ t` uy ´ y v`a d˘a

ng th´ u
.
c cˆ a
`
n hiˆe

u l`a d˘a

ng th´ u
.
c gi˜ u
.
a
hai tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p.
C´ac t´ınh chˆa´t co
.
ba’ n cu’ a t´ıch phˆan bˆa´t di
.
nh:
1) d

f(x)dx

= f(x)dx.
2)

f(x)dx

= f(x).
3)

df(x) =

f

(x)dx = f(x) +C.
T` u
.
di
.
nh ngh˜ıa t´ıch phˆan bˆa´t di
.
nh r´ ut ra ba’ ng c´ac t´ıch phˆan co
.
ba’ n (thu
.
`o
.
ng du
.
o
.
.
c go
.
i l`a t´ıch phˆan ba’ ng) sau dˆay:
6 Chu
.
o
.
ng 10. T´ıch phˆan bˆa´t di
.
nh
I.

0.dx = C.
II.

1dx = x +C.
III.

x
α
dx =
x
α+1
α + 1
+C, α = −1
IV.

dx
x
= ln[x[ +C, x = 0.
V.

a
x
dx =
a
x
lna
+C (0 < a = 1);

e
x
dx = e
x
+C.
VI.

sinxdx = −cos x +C.
VII.

cos xdx = sinx +C.
VIII.

dx
cos
2
x
= tgx +C, x =
π
2
+nπ, n ∈ Z.
IX.

dx
sin
2
x
= −cotgx +C, x = nπ, n ∈ Z.
X.

dx

1 −x
2
=

arc sinx +C,
−arc cos x +C
−1 < x < 1.
XI.

dx
1 +x
2
=

arctgx +C,
−arccotgx +C.
XII.

dx

x
2
±1
= ln[x +

x
2
±1[ +C
(trong tru
.
`o
.
ng ho
.
.
p dˆa´u tr` u
.
th`ı x < −1 ho˘a
.
c x > 1).
XIII.

dx
1 −x
2
=
1
2
ln

1 +x
1 −x

+C, [x[ = 1.
C´ac quy t˘a
´
c t´ınh t´ıch phˆan bˆa´t di
.
nh:
10.1. C´ ac phu
.
o
.
ng ph´ap t´ınh t´ıch phˆan 7
1)

kf(x)dx = k

f(x)dx, k = 0.
2)

[f(x) ±g(x)]dx =

f(x)dx ±

g(x)dx.
3) Nˆe
´
u

f(x)dx = F(x) + C v`a u = ϕ(x) kha’ vi liˆen tu
.
c th`ı

f(u)du = F(u) +C.
C
´
AC V
´
I DU
.
V´ı du
.
1. Ch´ u
.
ng minh r˘a
`
ng h`am y = signx c´o nguyˆen h`am trˆen
khoa’ ng bˆa´t k` y khˆong ch´ u
.
a diˆe

m x = 0 v`a khˆong c´o nguyˆen h`am trˆen
mo
.
i khoa’ ng ch´ u
.
a diˆe

m x = 0.
Gia’ i. 1) Trˆen khoa’ ng bˆa´t k` y khˆong ch´ u
.
a diˆe

mx = 0 h`am y = signx
l`a h˘a
`
ng sˆo´. Ch˘ a

ng ha
.
n v´o
.
i mo
.
i khoa’ ng (a, b), 0 < a < b ta c´o signx = 1
v`a do d´o mo
.
i nguyˆen h`am cu’ a n´ o trˆen (a, b) c´ o da
.
ng
F(x) = x +C, C ∈ R.
2) Ta x´et khoa’ ng (a, b) m` a a < 0 < b. Trˆen khoa’ ng (a, 0) mo
.
i
nguyˆen h`am cu’ a signx c´o da
.
ng F(x) = −x+C
1
c`on trˆen khoa’ ng (0, b)
nguyˆen h`am c´o da
.
ng F(x) = x + C
2
. V´o
.
i mo
.
i c´ach cho
.
n h˘a
`
ng sˆo´ C
1
v`a C
2
ta thu du
.
o
.
.
c h`am [trˆen (a, b)] khˆong c´o da
.
o h`am ta
.
i diˆe

m x = 0.
Nˆe
´
u ta cho
.
n C = C
1
= C
2
th`ı thu du
.
o
.
.
c h`am liˆen tu
.
c y = [x[ + C
nhu
.
ng khˆong kha’ vi ta
.
i diˆe

m x = 0. T` u
.
d´o, theo di
.
nh ngh˜ıa 1 h`am
signx khˆong c´o nguyˆen h`am trˆen (a, b), a < 0 < b.
V´ı du
.
2. T`ım nguyˆen h`am cu’ a h`am f(x) = e
|x|
trˆen to`an tru
.
c sˆo´.
Gia’ i. V´o
.
i x 0 ta c´o e
|x|
= e
x
v`a do d´o trong miˆe
`
n x > 0 mˆo
.
t
trong c´ac nguyˆen h`am l`a e
x
. Khi x < 0 ta c´o e
|x|
= e
−x
v`a do vˆa
.
y
trong miˆe
`
n x < 0 mˆo
.
t trong c´ ac nguyˆen h`am l`a −e
−x
+ C v´o
.
i h˘a
`
ng
sˆo´ C bˆa´t k` y.
Theo di
.
nh ngh˜ıa, nguyˆen h`am cu’ a h`am e
|x|
pha’ i liˆen tu
.
c nˆen n´o
8 Chu
.
o
.
ng 10. T´ıch phˆan bˆa´t di
.
nh
pha’ i tho’a m˜an diˆe
`
u kiˆe
.
n
lim
x→0+0
e
x
= lim
x→0−0
(−e
−x
+C)
t´ u
.
c l`a 1 = −1 +C ⇒C = 2.
Nhu
.
vˆa
.
y
F(x) =

e
x
nˆe
´
u x > 0,
1 nˆe
´
u x = 0,
−e
−x
+ 2 nˆe
´
u x < 0
l`a h`am liˆen tu
.
c trˆen to`an tru
.
c sˆo´. Ta ch´ u
.
ng minh r˘a
`
ng F(x) l`a nguyˆen
h`am cu’ a h`am e
|x|
trˆen to`an tru
.
c sˆo´. Thˆ a
.
t vˆa
.
y, v´o
.
i x > 0 ta c´ o
F

(x) = e
x
= e
|x|
, v´o
.
i x < 0 th`ı F

(x) = e
−x
= e
|x|
. Ta c`on cˆa
`
n pha’ i
ch´ u
.
ng minh r˘a
`
ng F

(0) = e
0
= 1. Ta c´ o
F

+
(0) = lim
x→0+0
F(x) −F(0)
x
= lim
x→0+0
e
x
−1
x
= 1,
F


(0) = lim
x→0−0
F(x) −F(0)
x
= lim
x→0−0
−e
−x
+ 2 −1
x
= 1.
Nhu
.
vˆa
.
y F

+
(0) = F


(0) = F

(0) = 1 = e
|x|
. T` u
.
d´o c´o thˆe

viˆe
´
t:

e
|x|
dx = F(x) +C =

e
x
+C, x < 0
−e
−x
+ 2 +C, x < 0.
V´ı du
.
3. T`ım nguyˆen h`am c´ o dˆo
`
thi
.
qua diˆe

m (−2, 2) dˆo´i v´ o
.
i h`am
f(x) =
1
x
, x ∈ (−∞, 0).
Gia’ i. V`ı (ln[x[)

=
1
x
nˆen ln[x[ l`a mˆo
.
t trong c´ ac nguyˆen h`am cu’ a
h`am f(x) =
1
x
. Do vˆ a
.
y, nguyˆen h`am cu’ a f l`a h`am F(x) = ln[x[ +C,
C ∈ R. H˘ a
`
ng sˆo´ C du
.
o
.
.
c x´ac di
.
nh t` u
.
diˆe
`
u kiˆe
.
n F(−2) = 2, t´ u
.
c l`a
ln2 +C = 2 ⇒C = 2 −ln2. Nhu
.
vˆa
.
y
F(x) = ln[x[ + 2 −ln2 = ln

x
2

+ 2.
10.1. C´ ac phu
.
o
.
ng ph´ap t´ınh t´ıch phˆan 9
V´ı du
.
4. T´ınh c´ac t´ıch phˆan sau dˆay:
1)

2
x+1
−5
x−1
10
x
dx, 2)

2x + 3
3x + 2
dx.
Gia’ i. 1) Ta c´ o
I =

2
2
x
10
x

5
x
5 10
x

dx =

2

1
5

x

1
5

1
2

x

dx
= 2

1
5

x
dx −
1
5

1
2

x
dx
= 2

1
5

x
ln

1
5


1
5

1
2

x
ln
1
2
+C
= −
2
5
x
ln5
+
1
5 2
x
ln2
+C.
2)
I =

2

x +
3
2

3

x +
2
3

dx =
2
3

x +
2
3

+
5
6

x +
2
3

dx
=
2
3
x +
5
9
ln

x +
2
3

+C.
V´ı du
.
5. T´ınh c´ac t´ıch phˆan sau dˆay:
1)

tg
2
xdx, 2)

1 + cos
2
x
1 + cos 2x
dx, 3)


1 −sin 2xdx.
Gia’ i. 1)

tg
2
xdx =

sin
2
x
cos
2
x
dx =

1 −cos
2
x
cos
2
x
dx
=

dx
cos
2
x

dx = tgx −x +C.
10 Chu
.
o
.
ng 10. T´ıch phˆan bˆa´t di
.
nh
2)

1 + cos
2
x
1 + cos 2x
dx =

1 + cos
2
x
2 cos
2
x
dx =
1
2

dx
cos
2
x
+

dx

=
1
2
(tgx +x) +C.
3)


1 −sin2xdx =

sin
2
x −2 sin xcos x + cos
2
xdx
=

(sinx −cos x)
2
dx =

[ sinx −cos x[dx
= (sinx + cos x)sign(cos x −sin x) +C.
B
`
AI T
ˆ
A
.
P
B˘a
`
ng c´ac ph´ep biˆe
´
n dˆo

i dˆo
`
ng nhˆa´t, h˜ay du
.
a c´ac t´ıch phˆan d˜a cho
vˆe
`
t´ıch phˆan ba’ ng v`a t´ınh c´ ac t´ıch phˆan d´o
1
1.

dx
x
4
−1
. (DS.
1
4
ln

x −1
x + 1


1
2
arctgx)
2.

1 + 2x
2
x
2
(1 +x
2
)
dx. (DS. arctgx −
1
x
)
3.


x
2
+ 1 +

1 −x
2

1 −x
4
dx. (DS. arc sin x + ln[x +

1 +x
2
[)
4.


x
2
+ 1 −

1 −x
2

x
4
−1
dx. (DS. ln[x +

x
2
−1[ −ln[x +

x
2
+ 1[)
5.


x
4
+x
−4
+ 2
x
3
dx. (DS. ln[x[ −
1
4x
4
)
6.

2
3x
−1
e
x
−1
dx. (DS.
e
2x
2
+e
x
+ 1)
1
Dˆe

cho go
.
n, trong c´ac “D´ap sˆo´” cu’ a chu
.
o
.
ng n`ay ch´ ung tˆoi bo’ qua khˆong viˆe
´
t
c´ac h˘a
`
ng sˆo´ cˆo
.
ng C.
10.1. C´ ac phu
.
o
.
ng ph´ap t´ınh t´ıch phˆan 11
7.

2
2x
−1

2
x
dx. (DS.
2
ln2

2
3x
2
3
+ 2

x
2

)
8.

dx
x(2 + ln
2
x)
. (DS.
1

2
arctg
lnx

2
)
9.
3

ln
2
x
x
dx. (DS.
3
5
ln
5/3
x)
10.

e
x
+e
2x
1 −e
x
dx. (DS. −e
x
−2ln[e
x
−1[)
11.

e
x
dx
1 +e
x
. (DS. ln(1 +e
x
))
12.

sin
2
x
2
dx. (DS.
1
2
x −
sin x
2
)
13.

cotg
2
xdx. (DS. −x −cotgx)
14.


1 + sin2xdx, x ∈

0,
π
2

. (DS. −cos x + sinx)
15.

e
cosx
sinxdx. (DS. −e
cos x
)
16.

e
x
cos e
x
dx. (DS. sine
x
)
17.

1
1 + cos x
dx. (DS. tg
x
2
)
18.

dx
sinx + cos x
. (DS.
1

2
ln

tg

x
2
+
π
8

)
19.

1 + cos x
(x + sin x)
3
dx. (DS. −
2
2(x + sinx)
2
)
20.

sin2x

1 −4 sin
2
x
dx. (DS. −
1
2

1 −4 sin
2
x)
21.

sinx

2 −sin
2
x
dx. (DS. −ln[ cos x +

1 + cos
2
x[)
12 Chu
.
o
.
ng 10. T´ıch phˆan bˆa´t di
.
nh
22.

sinxcos x

3 −sin
4
x
dx. (DS.
1
2
arc sin

sin
2
x

3

)
23.

arccotg3x
1 + 9x
2
dx. (DS. −
1
6
arccotg
2
3x)
24.

x +

arctg2x
1 + 4x
2
dx. (DS.
1
8
ln(1 + 4x
2
) +
1
3
arctg
3/2
2x)
25.

arc sinx −arc cos x

1 −x
2
dx. (DS.
1
2
(arc sin
2
x + arc cos
2
x))
26.

x + arc sin
3
2x

1 −4x
2
dx. (DS. −
1
4

1 −4x
2
+
1
8
arc sin
4
2x)
27.

x + arc cos
3/2
x

1 −x
2
dx. (DS. −

1 −x
2

2
5
arc cos
5/2
x)
28.

x[x[dx. (DS.
[x[
3
3
)
29.

(2x −3)[x −2[dx.
(DS. F(x) =


2
3
x
3
+
7
2
x
2
−6x +C, x < 2
2
3
x
3

7
2
x
2
+ 6x +C, x 2
)
30.

f(x)dx, f(x) =

1 −x
2
, [x[ 1,
1 −[x[, [x[ > 1.
(DS. F(x) =

x −
x
3
3
+C nˆe
´
u [x[ 1
x −
x[x[
2
+
1
6
signx +C nˆe
´
u[x[ > 1
)
10.1.2 Phu
.
o
.
ng ph´ap dˆo

i biˆe
´
n
D
-
i
.
nh l´ y. Gia’ su
.
’ :
10.1. C´ ac phu
.
o
.
ng ph´ap t´ınh t´ıch phˆan 13
1) H`am x = ϕ(t) x´ac di
.
nh v`a kha’ vi trˆen khoa’ ng T v´o
.
i tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p gi´ a
tri
.
l`a khoa’ ng X.
2) H`am y = f(x) x´ac di
.
nh v`a c´ o nguyˆen h`am F(x) trˆen khoa’ ng X.
Khi d´o h`am F(ϕ(t)) l`a nguyˆen h` am cu’ a h`am f(ϕ(t))ϕ

(t) trˆen
khoa’ ng T.
T` u
.
di
.
nh l´ y 10.1.1 suy r˘a
`
ng

f(ϕ(t))ϕ

(t)dt = F(ϕ(t)) +C. (10.1)
V`ı
F(ϕ(t)) +C = (F(x) +C)

x=ϕ(t)
=

f(x)dx

x=ϕ(t)
cho nˆen d˘a

ng th´ u
.
c (10.1) c´o thˆe

viˆe
´
t du
.
´o
.
i da
.
ng

f(x)dx

x=ϕ(t)
=

f(ϕ(t))ϕ

(t)dt. (10.2)
D˘a

ng th´ u
.
c (10.2) du
.
o
.
.
c go
.
i l`a cˆ ong th´ u
.
c dˆo

i biˆe
´
n trong t´ıch phˆan
bˆa´t di
.
nh.
Nˆe
´
u h`am x = ϕ(t) c´o h`am ngu
.
o
.
.
c t = ϕ
−1
(x) th`ı t` u
.
(10.2) thu
du
.
o
.
.
c

f(x)dx =

f(ϕ(t))ϕ

(t)dt

t=ϕ
−1
(x)
. (10.3)
Ta nˆeu mˆo
.
t v`ai v´ı du
.
vˆe
`
ph´ep dˆo

i biˆe
´
n.
i) Nˆe
´
u biˆe

u th´ u
.
c du
.
´o
.
i dˆa´u t´ıch phˆan c´o ch´ u
.
a c˘an

a
2
−x
2
, a > 0
th`ı su
.
’ du
.
ng ph´ep dˆo

i biˆe
´
n x = a sint, t ∈


π
2
,
π
2

.
ii) Nˆe
´
u biˆe

u th´ u
.
c du
.
´o
.
i dˆa´u t´ıch phˆan c´o ch´ u
.
a c˘an

x
2
−a
2
, a > 0
th`ı d` ung ph´ep dˆo

i biˆe
´
n x =
a
cos t
, 0 < t <
π
2
ho˘a
.
c x = acht.
iii) Nˆe
´
u h`am du
.
´o
.
i dˆa´u t´ıch phˆan ch´ u
.
a c˘an th´ u
.
c

a
2
+x
2
, a > 0
th`ı c´ o thˆe

d˘a
.
t x = atgt, t ∈


π
2
,
π
2

ho˘a
.
c x = asht.
iv) Nˆe
´
u h`am du
.
´o
.
i dˆa´u t´ıch phˆan l`a f(x) = R(e
x
, e
2x
, . . . .e
nx
) th`ı
c´o thˆe

d˘a
.
t t = e
x
(o
.
’ dˆay R l`a h`am h˜ u
.
u ty’ ).
14 Chu
.
o
.
ng 10. T´ıch phˆan bˆa´t di
.
nh
C
´
AC V
´
I DU
.
V´ı du
.
1. T´ınh

dx
cos x
.
Gia’ i. Ta c´o

dx
cos x
=

cos xdx
1 −sin
2
x
(d˘a
.
t t = sinx, dt = cos xdx)
=

dt
1 −t
2
=
1
2
ln

1 +t
1 −t

+C = ln

tg

x
2
+
π
4

+C.
V´ı du
.
2. T´ınh I =

x
3
dx
x
8
−2
.
Gia’ i. ta c´o
I =

1
4
d(x
4
)
x
8
−2
=


2
4
d

x
4

2

−2

1 −

x
4

2

2

D˘a
.
t t =
x
4

2
ta thu du
.
o
.
.
c
I = −

2
8
ln


2 +x
4

2 −x
4

+C.
V´ı du
.
3. T´ınh I =

x
2
dx

(x
2
+a
2
)
3

Gia’ i. D˘a
.
t x(t) = atgt ⇒dx =
adt
cos
2
t
. Do d´o
I =

a
3
tg
2
t cos
3
tdt
a
3
cos
2
t
=

sin
2
t
cos t
dt =

dt
cos t

cos tdt
= ln

tg

t
2
+
π
4

−sin t +C.
V`ı t = arctg
x
a
nˆen
I = ln

tg

1
2
arctg
x
a
+
π
4

−sin

arctg
x
a

+C
= −
x

x
2
+a
2
+ ln[x +

x
2
+a
2
[ +C.
10.1. C´ ac phu
.
o
.
ng ph´ap t´ınh t´ıch phˆan 15
Thˆa
.
t vˆa
.
y, v`ı sinα = cos α tgα nˆen dˆe
˜
d`ang thˆa´y r˘a
`
ng
sin

arctg
x
a

=
x

x
2
+a
2

Tiˆe
´
p theo ta c´ o
sin

1
2
arctg
x
a
+
π
4

cos

1
2
arctg
x
a
+
π
4

=
1 −cos

arctg
x
a
+
π
2

sin

arctg
x
a
+
π
2
=
1 + sin

arctg
x
a

−cos

arctg
x
a

=
x +

a
2
+x
2
a
v`a t` u
.
d´o suy ra diˆe
`
u pha’ i ch´ u
.
ng minh.
V´ı du
.
4. T´ınh I =


a
2
+x
2
dx.
Gia’ i. D˘a
.
t x = asht. Khi d´o
I =

a
2
(1 + sh
2
t)achtdt = a
2

ch
2
tdt
= a
2

ch2t + 1
2
dt =
a
2
2

1
2
sh2t +t

+C
=
a
2
2
(sht cht +t) +C.
V`ı cht =

1 + sh
2
t =

1 +
x
2
a
2
. e
t
= sht + cht =
x +

a
2
+x
2
a
nˆen
t = ln

x +

a
2
+x
2
a

v`a do d´o


a
2
+x
2
dx =
x
2

a
2
+x
2
+
a
2
2
ln[x +

a
2
+x
2
[ +C.
V´ı du
.
5. T´ınh
1) I
1
=

x
2
+ 1

x
6
−7x
4
+x
2
dx, 2) I
2
=

3x + 4

−x
2
+ 6x −8
dx.
16 Chu
.
o
.
ng 10. T´ıch phˆan bˆa´t di
.
nh
Gia’ i. 1) Ta c´ o
I
1
=

1 +
1
x
2

x
2
−7 +
1
x
2
dx =

d

x −
1
x

x −
1
x

2
−5
=

dt

t
2
−5
= ln[t +

t
2
−5[ +C = ln

x −
1
x
+

x
2
−7 +
1
x
2

+C.
2) Ta viˆe
´
t biˆe

u th´ u
.
c du
.
´o
.
i dˆa´u t´ıch phˆan du
.
´o
.
i da
.
ng
f(x) = −
3
2

−2x + 6

−x
2
+ 6x −8
+ 13
1

−x
2
+ 6x −8
v`a thu du
.
o
.
.
c
I
2
=

f(x)dx
= −
3
2

(−x
2
+ 6x −8)

1
2
d(−x
2
+ 6x −8) + 13

d(x −3)

1 −(x −3)
2
= −3

−x
2
+ 6x −8 + 13 arc sin(x −3) +C.
V´ı du
.
6. T´ınh
1)

dx
sinx
, 2) I
2
=

sinxcos
3
x
1 + cos
2
x
dx.
Gia’ i
1) C´ach I. Ta c´ o

dx
sinx
=

sinx
sin
2
x
dx =

d(cos x)
cos
2
x −1
=
1
2
ln
1 −cos x
1 + cos x
+C.
C´ach II.

dx
sinx
=

d

x
2

sin
x
2
cos
x
2
=

d

x
2

tg
x
2
cos
2
x
2
=

d

tg
x
2

tg
x
2
= ln

tg
x
2

+C.
10.1. C´ ac phu
.
o
.
ng ph´ap t´ınh t´ıch phˆan 17
2) Ta c´ o
I
2
=

sinxcos x[(cos
2
x + 1) −1]
1 + cos
2
x
dx.
Ta d˘a
.
t t = 1 + cos
2
x. T` u
.
d´o dt = −2 cos xsin xdx. Do d´o
I
2
= −
1
2

t −1
t
dt = −
t
2
+ ln[t[ +C,
trong d´o t = 1 + cos
2
x.
V´ı du
.
7. T´ınh
1) I
1
=

e
x
dx

e
2x
+ 5
, 2) I
2
=

e
x
+ 1
e
x
−1
dx.
Gia’ i
1) D˘a
.
t e
x
= t. Ta c´o e
x
dx = dt v`a
I
1
=

dt

t
2
+ 5
= ln[t +

t
2
+ 5[ +C = ln[e
x
+

e
2x
+ 5[ +C.
2) Tu
.
o
.
ng tu
.
.
, d˘a
.
t e
x
= t, e
x
dx = dt, dx =
dt
t
v`a thu du
.
o
.
.
c
I
2
=

t + 1
t −1
dt
t
=

2dt
t −1

dt
t
= 2ln[t −1[ −ln[t[ +C
= 2ln[e
x
−1[ −lne
x
+c
= ln(e
x
−1)
2
−x +C.
B
`
AI T
ˆ
A
.
P
T´ınh c´ac t´ıch phˆan:
1.

e
2x
4

e
x
+ 1
dx. (DS.
4
21
(3e
x
−4)
4

(e
x
+ 1)
3
)
Chı ’ dˆa
˜
n. D˘a
.
t e
x
+ 1 = t
4
.
18 Chu
.
o
.
ng 10. T´ıch phˆan bˆa´t di
.
nh
2.

dx

e
x
+ 1
. (DS. ln


1 +e
x
−1

1 +e
x
+ 1

)
3.

e
2x
e
x
−1
dx. (DS. e
x
+ ln[e
x
−1[)
4.


1 + lnx
x
dx. (DS.
2
3

(1 + lnx)
3
)
5.


1 + lnx
xlnx
dx.
(DS. 2

1 + lnx −ln[lnx[ + 2ln[

1 + lnx −1[)
6.

dx
e
x/2
+e
x
. (DS. −x −2e

x
2
+ 2ln(1 +e
x
2
))
7.

arctg

x

x
dx
1 +x
. (DS. (arctg

x)
2
)
8.


e
3x
+e
2x
dx. (DS.
2
3
(e
x
+ 1)
3/2
)
9.

e
2x
2
+2x−1
(2x + 1)dx. (DS.
1
2
e
2x
2
+2x−1
)
10.

dx

e
x
−1
. (DS. 2arctg

e
x
−1)
11.

e
2x
dx

e
4x
+ 1
. (DS.
1
2
ln(e
2x
+

e
4x
+ 1))
12.

2
x
dx

1 −4
x
. (DS.
arc sin2
x
ln2
)
13.

dx
1 +

x + 1
. (DS. 2[

x + 1 −ln(1 +

x + 1)])
Chı ’ dˆa
˜
n. D˘a
.
t x + 1 = t
2
.
14.

x + 1
x

x −2
dx. (DS. 2

x −2 +

2arctg

x −2
2
)
15.

dx

ax +b +m
. (DS.
2
a

ax +b −mln[

ax +b +m[

)
10.1. C´ ac phu
.
o
.
ng ph´ap t´ınh t´ıch phˆan 19
16.

dx
3

x(
3

x −1)
. (DS. 3
3

x + 3ln[
3

x −1[)
17.

dx
(1 −x
2
)
3/2
. (DS. tg(arc sinx))
Chı ’ dˆa
˜
n. D˘a
.
t x = sint, t ∈


π
2
,
π
2

)
18.

dx
(x
2
+a
2
)
3/2
. (DS.
1
a
2
sin

arctg
x
a

)
Chı ’ dˆa
˜
n. D˘a
.
t x = atgt, t ∈


π
2
,
π
2

.
19.

dx
(x
2
−1)
3/2
. (DS. −
1
cos t
, t = arc sin
1
x
)
Chı ’ dˆa
˜
n. D˘a
.
t x =
1
sint
, −
π
2
< t < 0, 0 < t <
π
2
.
20.


a
2
−x
2
dx. (DS.
a
2
2
arc sin
x
a
+
x

a
2
−x
2
2
)
Chı ’ dˆa
˜
n. D˘a
.
t x = a sint.
21.


a
2
+x
2
dx. (DS.
x
2

a
2
+x
2
+
a
2
2
ln[x +

a
2
+x
2
[)
Chı ’ dˆa
˜
n. D˘a
.
t x = asht.
22.

x
2

a
2
+x
2
dx. (DS.
1
2

x

a
2
+x
2
−a
2
ln(x +

a
2
+x
2
)

)
23.

dx
x
2

x
2
+a
2
. (DS. −

x
2
+a
2
a
2
x
)
Chı ’ dˆa
˜
n. D˘a
.
t x =
1
t
ho˘a
.
c x = atgt, ho˘a
.
c x = asht.
24.

x
2
dx

a
2
−x
2
. (DS.
a
2
2
arc sin
x
a

x
a

a
2
−x
2
)
Chı ’ dˆa
˜
n. D˘a
.
t x = a sint.
25.

dx
x

x
2
−a
2
. (DS. −
1
a
arc sin
a
x
)
20 Chu
.
o
.
ng 10. T´ıch phˆan bˆa´t di
.
nh
Chı ’ dˆa
˜
n. D˘a
.
t x =
1
t
, ho˘a
.
c x =
a
cos t
ho˘a
.
c x = acht.
26.


1 −x
2
x
2
dx. (DS. −

1 −x
2
x
−arc sinx)
27.

dx

(a
2
+x
2
)
3
. (DS.
x
a
2

x
2
+a
2
)
28.

dx
x
2

x
2
−9
. (DS.

x
2
−9
9x
)
29.

dx

(x
2
−a
2
)
3
. (DS. −
x
a
2

x
2
−a
2
)
30.

x
2

a
2
−x
2
dx.
(DS. −
x
4
(a
2
−x
2
)
3/2
+
a
2
8
x

x
2
−a
2
+
a
4
8
arc sin
x
a
)
31.

a +x
a −x
dx. (DS. −

a
2
−x
2
+ arc sin
x
a
)
Chı ’ dˆa
˜
n. D˘a
.
t x = a cos 2t.
32.

x −a
x +a
dx.
(DS.

x
2
−a
2
−2aln(

x −a +

x +a) nˆe
´
u x > a,


x
2
−a
2
+ 2aln(

−x +a +

−x −a) nˆe
´
u x < −a)
Chı ’ dˆa
˜
n. D˘a
.
t x =
a
cos 2t
.
33.

x −1
x + 1
dx
x
2
. (DS. arc cos
1
x


x
2
−1
x
)
Chı ’ dˆa
˜
n. D˘a
.
t x =
1
t
.
34.

dx

x −x
2
. (DS. 2arc sin

x)
10.1. C´ ac phu
.
o
.
ng ph´ap t´ınh t´ıch phˆan 21
Chı ’ dˆa
˜
n. D˘a
.
t x = sin
2
t.
35.


x
2
+ 1
x
dx. (DS.

x
2
+ 1 −ln

1 +

x
2
+ 1
x

)
36.

x
3
dx

2 −x
2
. (DS. −
x
2
3

2 −x
2

4
3

2 −x
2
)
37.

(9 −x
2
)
2
x
6
dx. (DS. −

(9 −x
2
)
5
45x
5
)
38.

x
2
dx

x
2
−a
2
. (DS.
x
2

x
2
−a
2
+
a
2
2
ln[x +

x
2
−a
2
[)
39.

(x + 1)dx
x(1 +xe
x
)
. (DS. ln

xe
x
1 +xe
x

)
Chı ’ dˆa
˜
n. Nhˆan tu
.
’ sˆo´ v`a mˆa
˜
u sˆo´ v´o
.
i e
x
rˆo
`
i d˘a
.
t xe
x
= t.
40.

dx
(x
2
+a
2
)
2
. (DS.
1
2a
3

arctg
x
a
+
ax
x
2
+a
2

)
Chı ’ dˆa
˜
n. D˘a
.
t x = atgt.
10.1.3 Phu
.
o
.
ng ph´ap t´ıch phˆan t` u
.
ng phˆa
`
n
Phu
.
o
.
ng ph´ap t´ıch phˆan t` u
.
ng phˆa
`
n du
.
.
a trˆen di
.
nh l´ y sau dˆay.
D
-
i
.
nh l´ y. Gia’ su
.
’ trˆen khoa’ ng D c´ac h` am u(x) v` a v(x) kha’ vi v`a h`am
v(x)u

(x) c´o nguyˆen h`am. Khi d´o h`am u(x)v

(x) c´o nguyˆen h`am trˆen
D v`a

u(x)v

(x)dx = u(x)v(x) −

v(x)u

(x)dx. (10.4)
Cˆong th´ u
.
c (10.4) du
.
o
.
.
c go
.
i l`a cˆong th´ u
.
c t´ınh t´ıch phˆan t` u
.
ng phˆa
`
n.
V`ı u

(x)dx = du v`a v

(x)dx = dv nˆen (10.4) c´o thˆe

viˆe
´
t du
.
´o
.
i da
.
ng

udv = uv −

vdu. (10.4*)
Thu
.
.
c tˆe
´
cho thˆa´y r˘a
`
ng phˆa
`
n l´o
.
n c´ ac t´ıch phˆan t´ınh du
.
o
.
.
c b˘a
`
ng
ph´ep t´ıch phˆan t` u
.
ng phˆa
`
n c´o thˆe

phˆan th`anh ba nh´om sau dˆay.
22 Chu
.
o
.
ng 10. T´ıch phˆan bˆa´t di
.
nh
Nh´om I gˆo
`
m nh˜ u
.
ng t´ıch phˆan m`a h`am du
.
´o
.
i dˆa´u t´ıch phˆan c´o ch´ u
.
a
th` u
.
a sˆo´ l`a mˆo
.
t trong c´ac h`am sau dˆay: lnx, arc sinx, arc cos x, arctgx,
(arctgx)
2
, (arc cos x)
2
, lnϕ(x), arc sin ϕ(x),...
Dˆe

t´ınh c´ ac t´ıch phˆan n`ay ta ´ap du
.
ng cˆong th´ u
.
c (10.4*) b˘a
`
ng c´ach
d˘a
.
t u(x) b˘a
`
ng mˆo
.
t trong c´ac h`am d˜a chı ’ ra c`on dv l`a phˆa
`
n c`on la
.
i cu’ a
biˆe

u th´ u
.
c du
.
´o
.
i dˆa´u t´ıch phˆan.
Nh´om II gˆo
`
m nh˜ u
.
ng t´ıch phˆan m`a biˆe

u th´ u
.
c du
.
´o
.
i dˆa´u t´ıch phˆan
c´o da
.
ng P(x)e
ax
, P(x) cos bx, P(x) sin bx trong d´o P(x) l`a da th´ u
.
c, a,
b l`a h˘a
`
ng sˆo´.
Dˆe

t´ınh c´ac t´ıch phˆan n`ay ta ´ap du
.
ng (10.4*) b˘a
`
ng c´ach d˘a
.
t u(x) =
P(x), dv l`a phˆa
`
n c`on la
.
i cu’ a biˆe

u th´ u
.
c du
.
´o
.
i dˆa´u t´ıch phˆan. Sau mˆo
˜
i
lˆa
`
n t´ıch phˆan t` u
.
ng phˆa
`
n bˆa
.
c cu’ a da th´ u
.
c s˜e gia’ m mˆo
.
t do
.
n vi
.
.
Nh´om III gˆo
`
m nh˜ u
.
ng t´ıch phˆan m`a h`am du
.
´o
.
i dˆa´u t´ıch phˆan c´ o
da
.
ng: e
ax
sinbx, e
ax
cos bx, sin(lnx), cos(lnx),... Sau hai lˆa
`
n t´ıch phˆan
t` u
.
ng phˆa
`
n ta la
.
i thu du
.
o
.
.
c t´ıch phˆan ban dˆa
`
u v´o
.
i hˆe
.
sˆo´ n`ao d´o. D´o l`a
phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh tuyˆe
´
n t´ınh v´o
.
i ˆa

n l`a t´ıch phˆan cˆ a
`
n t´ınh.
Du
.
o
.
ng nhiˆen l`a ba nh´om v` u
.
a nˆeu khˆong v´et hˆe
´
t mo
.
i t´ıch phˆan
t´ınh du
.
o
.
.
c b˘a
`
ng t´ıch phˆan t` u
.
ng phˆa
`
n (xem v´ı du
.
6).
Nhˆa
.
n x´et. Nh`o
.
c´ac phu
.
o
.
ng ph´ap dˆo

i biˆe
´
n v`a t´ıch phˆan t` u
.
ng phˆa
`
n
ta ch´ u
.
ng minh du
.
o
.
.
c c´ ac cˆong th´ u
.
c thu
.
`o
.
ng hay su
.
’ du
.
ng sau dˆay:
1)

dx
x
2
+a
2
=
1
a
arctg
x
a
+C, a = 0.
2)

dx
a
2
−x
2
=
1
2a
ln

a +x
a −x

+C, a = 0.
3)

dx

a
2
−x
2
= arc sin
x
a
+C, a = 0.
4)

dx

x
2
±a
2
= ln[x +

x
2
±a
2
[ +C.
10.1. C´ ac phu
.
o
.
ng ph´ap t´ınh t´ıch phˆan 23
C
´
AC V
´
I DU
.
V´ı du
.
1. T´ınh t´ıch phˆan I =


xarctg

xdx.
Gia’ i. T´ıch phˆan d˜a cho thuˆo
.
c nh´om I. Ta d˘a
.
t
u(x) = arctg

x,
dv =

xdx.
Khi d´o du =
1
1 +x

dx
2

x
, v =
2
3
x
3
2
. Do d´o
I =
2
3
x
3
2
arctg

x −
1
3

x
1 +x
dx
=
2
3
x
3
2
arctg

x −
1
3

1 −
1
1 +x

dx
=
2
3
x
3
2
arctg

x −
1
3
(x −ln[1 +x[) +C.
V´ı du
.
2. T´ınh I =

arc cos
2
xdx.
Gia’ i. Gia’ su
.
’ u = arc cos
2
x, dv = dx. Khi d´o
du = −
2arc cos x

1 −x
2
dx, v = x.
Theo (10.4*) ta c´o
I = xarc cos
2
x + 2

xarc cos x

1 −x
2
dx.
Dˆe

t´ınh t´ıch phˆan o
.
’ vˆe
´
pha’ i d˘a

ng th´ u
.
c thu du
.
o
.
.
c ta d˘a
.
t u =
arc cos x, dv =
xdx

1 −x
2
. Khi d´o
du = −
dx

1 −x
2
, v = −

d(

1 −x
2
) = −

1 −x
2
+C
1
v`a ta chı ’ cˆa
`
n lˆa´y v = −

1 −x
2
:

xarc cos x

21 −x
2
dx = −

1 −x
2
arc cos x −

dx
= −

1 −x
2
arc cos x −x +C
2
.
24 Chu
.
o
.
ng 10. T´ıch phˆan bˆa´t di
.
nh
Cuˆo´i c` ung ta thu du
.
o
.
.
c
I = xarc cos
2
x −2

1 −x
2
arc cos x −2x +C.
V´ı du
.
3. T´ınh I =

x
2
sin3xdx.
Gia’ i. T´ıch phˆan d˜a cho thuˆo
.
c nh´om II. Ta d˘a
.
t
u(x) = x
2
,
dv = sin3xdx.
Khi d´o du = 2xdx, v = −
1
3
cos 3x v`a
I = −
1
3
x
2
cos 3x +
2
3

xcos 3xdx = −
1
3
x
2
cos 3x +
2
3
I
1
.
Ta cˆ a
`
n t´ınh I
1
. D˘a
.
t u = x, dv = cos 3xdx. Khi d´o du = 1dx,
v =
1
3
sin3x. T` u
.
d´o
I = −
1
3
x
2
cos 3x +
2
3

1
3
xsin3x −
1
3

sin3xdx

= −
1
3
x
2
cos 3x +
2
9
xsin3x +
2
27
cos 3x +C.
Nhˆa
.
n x´et. Nˆe
´
u d˘a
.
t u = sin 3x, dv = x
2
dx th`ı lˆa
`
n t´ıch phˆan t` u
.
ng
phˆa
`
n th´ u
.
nhˆa´t khˆong du
.
a dˆe
´
n t´ıch phˆan do
.
n gia’ n ho
.
n.
V´ı du
.
4. T´ınh I =

e
ax
cos bx; a, b = 0.
Gia’ i. Dˆay l`a t´ıch phˆan thuˆo
.
c nh´om III. Ta d˘a
.
t u = e
ax
, dv =
cos bxdx. Khi d´o du = ae
ax
dx, v =
1
b
sinbx v`a
I =
1
b
e
ax
sinbx −
a
b

e
ax
sinbxdx =
1
b
e
ax
sinbx −
a
b
I
1
.
Dˆe

t´ınh I
1
ta d˘a
.
t u = e
ax
, dv = sinbxdx. Khi d´o du = ae
ax
dx,
v = −
1
b
cos bx v`a
I
1
= −
1
b
e
ax
cos bx +
a
b

e
ax
cos bxdx.
10.1. C´ ac phu
.
o
.
ng ph´ap t´ınh t´ıch phˆan 25
Thˆe
´
I
1
v`ao biˆe

u th´ u
.
c dˆo´i v´o
.
i I ta thu du
.
o
.
.
c

e
ax
cos bxdx =
1
b
e
ax
sinbx +
a
b
2
cos bx −
a
2
b
2

e
ax
cos bxdx.
Nhu
.
vˆa
.
y sau hai lˆa
`
n t´ıch phˆan t` u
.
ng phˆa
`
n ta thu du
.
o
.
.
c phu
.
o
.
ng
tr`ınh tuyˆe
´
n t´ınh v´o
.
i ˆa

n l`a I. Gia’ i phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh thu du
.
o
.
.
c ta c´o

e
ax
cos bxdx = e
ax
a cos bx +b sinbx
a
2
+b
2
+C.
V´ı du
.
5. T´ınh I =

sin(ln x)dx.
Gia’ i. D˘a
.
t u = sin(lnx), dv = dx. Khi d´o du =
1
x
cos(lnx)dx,
v = x. Ta thu du
.
o
.
.
c
I = xsin(lnx) −

cos(lnx)dx = xsin(lnx) −I
1
.
Dˆe

t´ınh I
1
ta la
.
i d˘a
.
t u = cos(lnx), dv = dx. Khi d´o du =

1
x
sin(lnx)dx, v = x v`a
I
1
= xcos(lnx) +

sin(lnx)dx.
Thay I
1
v`ao biˆe

u th´ u
.
c dˆo´i v´o
.
i I thu du
.
o
.
.
c phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh
I = x(sinlnx −cos lnx) −I
v`a t` u
.
d´o
I =
x
2
(sin lnx −cos lnx) +C.
Nhˆa
.
n x´et. Trong c´ ac v´ı du
.
trˆen dˆay ta d˜a thˆa´y r˘a
`
ng t` u
.
vi phˆan d˜a
biˆe
´
t dv h`am v(x) x´ac di
.
nh khˆong do
.
n tri
.
. Tuy nhiˆen trong cˆ ong th´ u
.
c
(10.4) v`a (10.4*) ta c´o thˆe

cho
.
n v l`a h`am bˆa´t k` y v´o
.
i vi phˆan d˜a cho
dv.
26 Chu
.
o
.
ng 10. T´ıch phˆan bˆa´t di
.
nh
V´ı du
.
6. T´ınh
1) I =

xdx
sin
2
x
; 2) I
n
=

dx
(x
2
+a
2
)
n
, n ∈ N.
Gia’ i. 1) R˜ o r`ang t´ıch phˆan n`ay khˆong thuˆo
.
c bˆa´t c´ u
.
nh´om n`ao
trong ba nh´om d˜a nˆeu. Thˆe
´
nhu
.
ng b˘a
`
ng c´ach d˘a
.
t u = x, dv =
dx
sin
2
x
v`a ´ap du
.
ng cˆong th´ u
.
c t´ıch phˆan t` u
.
ng phˆa
`
n ta c´ o
I = −xcotgx +

cotgxdx = −xcotgx +

cos x
sinx
dx
= −xcotgx +

d(sinx)
sin x
= −xcotgx + ln[ sinx[ +C.
2) T´ıch phˆan I
n
du
.
o
.
.
c biˆe

u diˆe
˜
n du
.
´o
.
i da
.
ng
I
n
=
1
a
2

x
2
+a
2
−x
2
(x
2
+a
2
)
n
dx =
1
a
2

dx
(x
2
+a
2
)
n−1

x
2
dx
(x
2
+a
2
)
n

=
1
a
2
I
n−1

1
2a
2

x
2xdx
(x
2
+a
2
)
n

Ta t´ınh t´ıch phˆan o
.
’ vˆe
´
pha’ i b˘a
`
ng phu
.
o
.
ng ph´ap t´ıch phˆan t` u
.
ng
phˆa
`
n. D˘a
.
t u = x, dv =
2xdx
(x
2
+a
2
)
n
=
d(x
2
+a
2
)
(x
2
+a
2
)
n
. Khi d´o du = dx,
v = −
1
(n −1)(x
2
+a
2
)
n−1
v`a
1
2a
2

x
2xdx
(x
2
+a
2
)
n
=
−x
2a
2
(n −1)(x
2
+a
2
)
n−1
+
1
2a
2
(n −1)
I
n−1
T` u
.
d´o suy r˘a
`
ng
I
n
=
1
a
2
I
n−1
+
x
2a
2
(n −1)(x
2
+a
2
)
n−1

1
2a
2
(n −1)
I
n−1
hay l`a
I
n
=
x
2a
2
(n −1)(x
2
+a
2
)
n−1
+
2n −3
2a
2
(n −1)
I
n−1
. (*)
10.1. C´ ac phu
.
o
.
ng ph´ap t´ınh t´ıch phˆan 27
Ta nhˆa
.
n x´et r˘a
`
ng t´ıch phˆan I
n
khˆong thuˆo
.
c bˆa´t c´ u
.
nh´om n`ao trong
ba nh´om d˜a chı ’ ra.
Khi n = 1 ta c´o
I
1
=

dx
x
2
+a
2
=
1
a
arctg
x
a
+C.
´
Ap du
.
ng cˆong th´ u
.
c truy hˆo
`
i (*) ta c´o thˆe

t´ınh I
2
qua I
1
rˆo
`
i I
3
qua
I
2
,...
V´ı du
.
7. T´ınh I =

xe
ax
cos bxdx.
Gia’ i. D˘a
.
t u = x, dv = e
ax
cos bxdx. Khi d´o du = dx,
v = e
ax
a cos bx +b sinbx
a
2
+b
2
(xem v´ı du
.
4). Nhu
.
vˆa
.
y
I = xe
ax
a cos bx +b sin bx
a
2
+b
2

1
a
2
+b
2

e
ax
(a cos bx +b sin bx)dx
= xe
ax
a cos bx +b sin bx
a
2
+b
2

a
a
2
+b
2

e
ax
cos bxdx

b
a
2
+b
2

e
ax
sinbxdx.
T´ıch phˆan th´ u
.
nhˆa´t o
.
’ vˆe
´
pha’ i du
.
o
.
.
c t´ınh trong v´ı du
.
4, t´ıch phˆan
th´ u
.
hai du
.
o
.
.
c t´ınh tu
.
o
.
ng tu
.
.
v`a b˘a
`
ng

e
ax
sinbxdx = e
ax
a sinbx −b cos bx
a
2
+b
2

Thay c´ ac kˆe
´
t qua’ thu du
.
o
.
.
c v`ao biˆe

u th´ u
.
c dˆo´i v´o
.
i I ta c´o
I =
e
ax
a
2
+b
2

x −
a
a
2
+b
2

(a cos bx +b sinbx)

b
a
2
+b
2
(a sin bx −b cos bx)

+C
B
`
AI T
ˆ
A
.
P
28 Chu
.
o
.
ng 10. T´ıch phˆan bˆa´t di
.
nh
1.

x2
x
dx. (DS.
2
x
(xln2 −1)
ln
2
2
)
2.

x
2
e
−x
dx. (DS. −x
2
e
−x
−2xe
−x
−2e
−x
)
3.

x
3
e
−x
2
dx. (DS. −
1
2
(x
2
+ 1)e
−x
2
)
4.

(x
3
+x)e
5x
dx. (DS.
1
5
e
5x

x
3

3
5
x
2
+
31
25
x −
31
125

)
5.

arc sinxdx. (DS. xarc sinx +

1 −x
2
)
6.

xarc sin xdx. (DS.
1
4
(2x
2
−1)arc sinx +
1
4
x

1 −x
2
)
7.

x
2
arc sin2xdx. (DS.
x
3
3
arc sin2x +
2x
2
+ 1
36

1 −4x
2
)
8.

arctgxdx. (DS. xarctgx −
1
2
ln(1 +x
2
))
9.

arctg

xdx. (DS. (1 +x)arctg

x −

x)
10.

x
3
arctgxdx. (DS.
x
4
−1
4
arctgx −
x
3
12
+
x
4
)
11.

(arctgx)
2
xdx. (DS.
x
2
+ 1
2
(arctgx)
2
−xarctgx +
1
2
ln(1 +x
2
))
12.

(arc sinx)
2
dx. (DS. x(arc sinx)
2
+ 2arc sinx

1 −x
2
−2x)
13.

arc sinx

x + 1
dx. (DS. 2

x + 1arc sinx + 4

1 −x)
14.

arc sinx
x
2
dx. (DS. −
arc sinx
x
−ln

1 +

1 −x
2
x

)
15.

xarctgx

1 +x
2
dx. (DS.

1 +x
2
arcrgx −ln(x +

1 +x
2
))
10.1. C´ ac phu
.
o
.
ng ph´ap t´ınh t´ıch phˆan 29
16.

arc sin

x

1 −x
dx. (DS. 2(

x −

1 −xarc sin

x))
17.

lnxdx. (DS. x(lnx −1))
18.


xln
2
xdx. (DS.
2
3
x
3/2

ln
2
x −
4
3
lnx +
8
9

)
19.

ln(x +

16 +x
2
)dsx. (DS. xln(x +

16 +x
2
) −

16 +x
2
)
20.

xln(x +

1 +x
2
)

1 +x
2
dx. (DS.

1 +x
2
ln(x +

1 +x
2
) −x)
21.

sinxln(tgx)dx. (DS. ln

tg
x
2

−cos xln(tgx))
22.

x
2
ln(1 +x)dx. (DS.
(x
3
+ 1) ln(x + 1)
3

x
3
9
+
x
2
6

x
3
)
23.

x
2
sin 2xdx. (DS.
1 −2x
2
4
cos 2x +
x
2
sin2x)
24.

x
3
cos(2x
2
)dx. (DS.
1
8
(2x
2
sin2x
2
+ cos 2x
2
))
25.

e
x
sinxdx. (DS.
e
x
(sinx −cos x)
2
)
26.

3
x
cos xdx. (DS.
sinx + (ln3) cos x
1 + ln
2
3
3
x
)
27.

e
3x
(sin2x −cos 2x)dx. (DS.
e
3x
13
(sin2x −5 cos 2x))
28.

xe
2x
sin5xdx.
(DS.
e
2x
29

2x +
21
29

sin5x +

−5x +
20
29

cos 5x

)
29.

x
2
e
x
sinxdx. (DS.
1
2

(x
2
−1) sin x −(x −1)
2
cos x

e
x
)
30 Chu
.
o
.
ng 10. T´ıch phˆan bˆa´t di
.
nh
30.

x
2
e
x
cos xdx. (DS.
(x −1)
2
sinx + (x
2
−1) cos x
2
e
x
)
31.

x
2
sin(lnx)dx. (DS.
[3 sinx(lnx) −cos(lnx)]x
3
10
)
32. T`ım cˆong th´ u
.
c truy hˆo
`
i dˆo´i v´o
.
i mˆo
˜
i t´ıch phˆan I
n
du
.
o
.
.
c cho du
.
´o
.
i
dˆay:
1) I
n
=

x
n
e
ax
dx, a = 0. (DS. I
n
=
1
a
x
n
e
ax

n
a
I
n−1
)
2) I
n
=

ln
n
xdx. (DS. I
n
= xln
n
x −nI
n−1
)
3) I
n
=

x
α
ln
n
xdx, α = −1. (DS. I
n
=
x
α+1
ln
n
x
α + 1

n
α + 1
I
n−1
)
4) I
n
=

x
n
dx

x
2
+a
, n > 2. (DS. I
n
=
x
n−1

x
2
+a
n

n −1
n
aI
n−2
)
5) I
n
=

sin
n
xdx, n > 2. (DS. I
n
= −
cos xsin
n−1
x
n
+
n −1
n
I
n−2
)
6) I
n
=

cos
n
xdx, n > 2. (DS. I
n
=
sin xcos
n−1
x
n
+
n −1
n
I
n−2
)
7) I
n
=

dx
cos
n
x
, n > 2. (DS. I
n
=
sinx
(n −1) cos
n−1
x
+
n −2
n −1
I
n−2
)
10.2 C´ac l´o
.
p h`am kha

t´ıch trong l´o
.
p c´ac
h` am so
.
cˆa
´
p
10.2.1 T´ıch phˆan c´ac h`am h˜ u
.
u ty’
1) Phu
.
o
.
ng ph´ap hˆe
.
sˆo´ bˆa´t di
.
nh. H`am da
.
ng
R(x) =
P
m
(x)
Q
n
(x)
10.2. C´ ac l´o
.
p h`am kha’ t´ıch trong l´o
.
p c´ac h`am so
.
cˆa´p 31
trong d´o P
m
(x) l`a da th´ u
.
c bˆa
.
c m, Q
n
(x) l`a da th´ u
.
c bˆa
.
c n du
.
o
.
.
c go
.
i l`a
h`am h˜ u
.
u ty’ (hay phˆan th´ u
.
c h˜ u
.
u ty’ ). Nˆe
´
u m n th`ı P
m
(x)/Q
n
(x)
du
.
o
.
.
c go
.
i l`a phˆan th´ u
.
c h˜ u
.
u ty’ khˆong thu
.
.
c su
.
.
; nˆe
´
u m < n th`ı
P
m
(x)/Q
n
(x) du
.
o
.
.
c go
.
i l`a phˆan th´ u
.
c h˜ u
.
u ty’ thu
.
.
c su
.
.
.
Nˆe
´
u R(x) l`a phˆan th´ u
.
c h˜ u
.
u ty’ khˆong thu
.
.
c su
.
.
th`ı nh`o
.
ph´ep chia
da th´ u
.
c ta c´o thˆe

t´ach phˆa
`
n nguyˆen W(x) l`a da th´ u
.
c sao cho
R(x) =
P
m
(x)
Q
n
(x)
= W(x) +
P
k
(x)
Q
n
(x)
(10.5)
trong d´o k < n v`a W(x) l`a da th´ u
.
c bˆa
.
c m−n.
T` u
.
(10.5) suy r˘a
`
ng viˆe
.
c t´ınh t´ıch phˆan phˆan th´ u
.
c h˜ u
.
u ty’ khˆong
thu
.
.
c su
.
.
du
.
o
.
.
c quy vˆe
`
t´ınh t´ıch phˆan phˆan th´ u
.
c h˜ u
.
u ty’ thu
.
.
c su
.
.
v`a t´ıch
phˆan mˆo
.
t da th´ u
.
c.
D
-
i
.
nh l´ y 10.2.1. Gia’ su
.
’ P
m
(x)/Q
n
(x) l` a phˆan th´ u
.
c h˜ u
.
u ty’ thu
.
.
c su
.
.
v`a
Q(x) = (x −a)
α
(x −b)
β
(x
2
+px +q)
γ
(x
2
+rx +s)
δ
trong d´o a, . . . , b l`a c´ac nghiˆe
.
m thu
.
.
c, x
2
+ px + q, . . . , x
2
+ rx + s l`a
nh˜ u
.
ng tam th´ u
.
c bˆa
.
c hai khˆong c´ o nghiˆe
.
m thu
.
.
c. Khi d´o
P(x)
Q(x)
=
A
α
(x −a)
α
+ +
A
1
x −a
+ +
B
β
(x −b)
β
+
B
β−1
(x −b)
β−1
+ +
+
B
1
x −b
+
M
γ
x +N
γ
(x
2
+px +q)
γ
+ +
M
1
x +N
1
x
2
+px +q
+ +
+
K
δ
x +L
δ
(x
2
+rx +s)
δ
+ +
K
1
x +L
1
x
2
+rx +s
, (10.6)
trong d´o A
i
, B
i
, M
i
, N
i
, K
i
v`a L
i
l` a c´ac sˆ o´ thu
.
.
c.
C´ac phˆan th´ u
.
c o
.
’ vˆe
´
pha’ i cu’ a (10.6) du
.
o
.
.
c go
.
i l`a c´ac phˆan th´ u
.
c do
.
n
gia’ n hay c´ac phˆan th´ u
.
c co
.
ba’ n v`a d˘a

ng th´ u
.
c (10.6) du
.
o
.
.
c go
.
i l`a khai
triˆe

n phˆan th´ u
.
c h˜ u
.
u ty’ thu
.
.
c su
.
.
P(x)/Q(x) th`anh tˆo

ng c´ac phˆan th´ u
.
c
co
.
ba’ n v´o
.
i hˆe
.
sˆo´ thu
.
.
c.
Dˆe

t´ınh c´ ac hˆe
.
sˆo´ A
i
, B
i
, . . . , K
i
, L
i
ta c´o thˆe

´ap du
.
ng
32 Chu
.
o
.
ng 10. T´ıch phˆan bˆa´t di
.
nh
Phu
.
o
.
ng ph´ap I. Quy dˆo
`
ng mˆa
˜
u sˆo´ d˘a

ng th´ u
.
c (10.6) v`a sau d´o cˆan
b˘a
`
ng c´ac hˆe
.
sˆo´ cu’ a l˜ uy th` u
.
a c` ung bˆa
.
c cu’ a biˆe
´
n x v`a di dˆe
´
n hˆe
.
phu
.
o
.
ng
tr`ınh dˆe

x´ac di
.
nh A
i
, . . . , L
i
(phu
.
o
.
ng ph´ap hˆe
.
sˆo´ bˆa´t di
.
nh).
Phu
.
o
.
ng ph´ap II. C´ ac hˆe
.
sˆo´ A
i
, . . . , L
i
c˜ ung c´o thˆe

x´ac di
.
nh b˘a
`
ng
c´ach thay x trong (10.6) (ho˘a
.
c d˘a

ng th´ u
.
c tu
.
o
.
ng du
.
o
.
ng v´o
.
i (10.6)) bo
.
’ i
c´ac sˆo´ du
.
o
.
.
c cho
.
n mˆo
.
t c´ ach th´ıch ho
.
.
p.
T` u
.
(10.6) ta c´o
D
-
i
.
nh l´ y 10.2.2. T´ıch phˆan bˆa´t di
.
nh cu’ a mo
.
i h` am h˜ u
.
u ty’ dˆe
`
u biˆe

u
diˆe
˜
n du
.
o
.
.
c qua c´ac h`am so
.
cˆa´p m`a cu
.
thˆe

l`a qua c´ ac h`am h˜ u
.
u ty’ , h`am
lˆogarit v` a h`am arctang.
C
´
AC V
´
I DU
.
V´ı du
.
1. T´ınh I =

xdx
(x −1)(x + 1)
2
Gia’ i. Ta c´o
x
(x −1)(x + 1)
2
=
A
x −1
+
B
1
x + 1
+
B
2
(x + 1)
2
T` u
.
d´o suy r˘a
`
ng
x = A(x + 1)
2
+B
1
(x −1)(x + 1) +B
2
(x −1). (10.7)
Ta x´ac di
.
nh c´ac hˆe
.
sˆo´ A, B
1
, B
2
b˘a
`
ng c´ac phu
.
o
.
ng ph´ap sau dˆay.
Phu
.
o
.
ng ph´ap I. Viˆe
´
t d˘a

ng th´ u
.
c (10.7) du
.
´o
.
i da
.
ng
x ≡ (A+B
1
)x
2
+ (2A+B
2
)x + (A−B
1
−B
2
).
Cˆan b˘a
`
ng c´ac hˆe
.
sˆo´ cu’ a l˜ uy th` u
.
a c` ung bˆa
.
c cu’ a x ta thu du
.
o
.
.
c

A+B
1
= 0
2A+B
2
= 1
A−B
1
−B
2
= 0.
T` u
.
d´o A =
1
4
, B
1
= −
1
4
, B
2
=
1
2
.
10.2. C´ ac l´o
.
p h`am kha’ t´ıch trong l´o
.
p c´ac h`am so
.
cˆa´p 33
Phu
.
o
.
ng ph´ap II. Thay x = 1 v`ao (10.7) ta c´ o 1 = A 4 ⇒A =
1
4
.
Tiˆe
´
p theo, thay x = −1 v`ao (10.7) ta thu du
.
o
.
.
c: −1 = −B
2
2 hay
l`a B
2
=
1
2
. Dˆe

t`ım B
1
ta thˆe
´
gi´a tri
.
x = 0 v`ao (10.7) v`a thu du
.
o
.
.
c
0 = A−B
1
−B
2
hay l`a B
1
= A−B
2
= −
1
4
.
Do d´o
I =
1
4

dx
x −1

1
4

dx
x + 1
+
1
2

dx
(x + 1)
2
= −
1
2(x + 1)
+
1
4
ln

x −1
x + 1

+C.
V´ı du
.
2. T´ınh I =

3x + 1
x(1 +x
2
)
2
dx.
Gia’ i. Khai triˆe

n h`am du
.
´o
.
i dˆa´u t´ıch phˆan th`anh tˆo

ng c´ac phˆan
th´ u
.
c co
.
ba’ n
3x + 1
x(1 +x
2
)
2
=
A
x
+
Bx +C
1 +x
2
+
Dx +F
(1 +x
2
)
2
T` u
.
d´o
3x + 1 ≡ (A+B)x
4
+Cx
3
+ (2A+B +D)x
2
+ (C +F)x +A.
Cˆan b˘a
`
ng c´ac hˆe
.
sˆo´ cu’ a c´ac l˜ uy th` u
.
a c` ung bˆa
.
c cu’ a x ta thu du
.
o
.
.
c

A+B = 0
C = 0
2A+B +D = 0 ⇒A = 1, B = −1, C = 0, D = −1, F = 3
C +F = 3
A = 1.
T` u
.
d´o suy r˘a
`
ng
I =

dx
x

xdx
1 +x
2

xdx
(1 +x
2
)
2
+ 3

dx
(1 +x
2
)
2
= ln[x[ −
1
2
ln(1 +x
2
) −
1
2
(1 +x
2
)
−2
d(1 +x
2
) + 3

dx
(1 +x
2
)
2
= ln[x[ −
1
2
ln(1 +x
2
) +
1
2(1 +x
2
)
+ 3I
2
.
34 Chu
.
o
.
ng 10. T´ıch phˆan bˆa´t di
.
nh
Ta t´ınh I
2
=

dx
(1 +x
2
)
2
b˘a
`
ng cˆong th´ u
.
c truy hˆo
`
i thu du
.
o
.
.
c trong
10.1. Ta c´ o
I
2
=
1
2

x
1 +x
2
+
1
2
I
1
=
x
2(1 +x
2
)
+
1
2

dx
1 +x
2
=
x
2(1 +x
2
)
+
1
2
arctgx +C.
Cuˆo´i c` ung ta thu du
.
o
.
.
c
I = ln[x[ −
1
2
ln(1 +x
2
) +
3x + 1
2(1 +x
2
)
+
3
2
arctgx +C.
B
`
AI T
ˆ
A
.
P
T´ınh c´ac t´ıch phˆan (1-12)
1.

xdx
(x + 1)(x + 2)(x −3)
.
(DS.
1
4
ln[x + 1[ −
2
5
ln[x + 2[ +
3
20
[x −3[)
2.

2x
4
+ 5x
2
−2
2x
3
−x −1
dx.
DS.
x
2
2
+ ln[x −1[ + ln(2x
2
+ 2x + 1) + arctg(2x + 1))
3.

2x
3
+x
2
+ 5x + 1
(x
2
+ 3)(x
2
−x + 1)
dx.
DS.
1

3
arctg
x

3
+ ln(x
2
−x + 1) +
2

3
arctg
2x −1

3
)
4.

x
4
+x
2
+ 1
x(x −2)(x + 2)
dx.
(DS.
x
2
2

1
4
ln[x[ +
21
8
ln[x −2[ +
21
8
ln[x + 2[)
10.2. C´ ac l´o
.
p h`am kha’ t´ıch trong l´o
.
p c´ac h`am so
.
cˆa´p 35
5.

dx
x(x −1)(x
2
−x + 1)
2
.
(DS. ln

x −1
x


10
3

3
arctg
2x −1

3

1
3
2x −1
x
2
−x + 1
)
6.

x
4
−x
2
+ 1
(x
2
−1)(x
2
+ 4)(x
2
−2)
dx.
(DS. −
1
10
ln

x −1
x + 1

+
7
20
arctg
x
2
+
1
4

2
ln

x −

2
x +

2

)
7.

3x
2
+ 5x + 12
(x
2
+ 3)(x
2
+ 1)
dx.
(DS. −
5
4
ln(x
2
+ 3) −

3
2
arctg
x

3
+
5
4
ln(x
2
+ 1) +
9
2
arctgx)
8.

(x
4
+ 1)dx
x
5
+x
4
−x
3
−x
2
.
(DS. ln[x[ +
1
x
+
1
2
ln[x −1[ −
1
2
ln[x + 1[ +
1
x + 1
)
9.

x
3
+x + 1
x
4
−1
dx.
(DS.
3
4
ln[x −1[ +
1
4
ln[x + 1[ −
1
2
arctgx)
10.

x
4
1 −x
4
dx.
(DS. −x + ln

x + 1
x −1

+
1
2
arctgx)
11.

3x + 5
(x
2
+ 2x + 2)
2
dx.
(DS.
2x −1
2(x
2
+ 2x + 2)
+ arctg(x + 1))
36 Chu
.
o
.
ng 10. T´ıch phˆan bˆa´t di
.
nh
12.

x
4
−2x
2
+ 2
(x
2
−2x + 2)
2
dx.
(DS. x +
3 −x
x
2
−2x + 2
+ 2 ln(x
2
−2x + 2) + arctg(x −1))
13.

x
2
+ 2x + 7
(x −2)(x
2
+ 1)
3
dx.
(DS.
3
5
ln[x
2
−2[ −
3
10
ln[x
2
+ 1[ +
1 −x
x
2
+ 1

11
5
arctgx)
14.

x
2
(x + 2)
2
(x + 1)
dx.
(DS.
4
x + 2
+ ln[x + 1[)
15.

x
2
+ 1
(x −1)
3
(x + 3)
dx.
(DS. −
1
4(x −1)
2

3
8(x −1)
+
5
32
ln

x −1
x + 3

)
16.

dx
x
5
−x
2
(DS.
1
x
+
1
6
ln
(x −1)
2
x
2
+x + 1
+
1

3
arctg
2x + 1

3
)
17.

3x
2
+ 8
x
3
+ 4x
2
+ 4x
dx.
(DS. 2 ln[x[ + ln[x + 2[ +
10
x + 2
)
18.

2x
5
+ 6x
3
+ 1
x
4
+ 3x
2
dx.
(DS. x
2

1
3x

1
3

3
arctg
x

3
)
10.2. C´ ac l´o
.
p h`am kha’ t´ıch trong l´o
.
p c´ac h`am so
.
cˆa´p 37
19.

x
3
+ 4x
2
−2x + 1
x
4
+x
dx.
(DS. ln
[x[(x
2
−x + 1)
(x + 1)
2
+
2

3
arctg
2x −1

3
)
20.

x
3
−3
x
4
+ 10x
2
+ 25
dx.
(DS.
1
2
ln(x
2
+ 5) +
25 −3x
10(x
2
+ 5)

3
10

5
arctg
x

5
)
Chı ’ dˆa
˜
n. x
4
+ 10x
2
+ 25 = (x
2
+ 5)
2
.
10.2.2 T´ıch phˆan mˆ o
.
t sˆo
´
h`am vˆ o ty’ do
.
n gia’ n
Mˆo
.
t sˆo´ t´ıch phˆan h`am vˆo ty’ thu
.
`o
.
ng g˘a
.
p c´o thˆe

t´ınh du
.
o
.
.
c b˘a
`
ng phu
.
o
.
ng
ph´ap h˜ u
.
u ty’ h´oa h`am du
.
´o
.
i dˆa´u t´ıch phˆan. Nˆo
.
i dung cu’ a phu
.
o
.
ng ph´ap
n`ay l`a t`ım mˆo
.
t ph´ep biˆe
´
n dˆo

i du
.
a t´ıch phˆan d˜a cho cu’ a h`am vˆo ty’ vˆe
`
t´ıch phˆan h`am h˜ u
.
u ty’ . Trong tiˆe
´
t n`ay ta tr`ınh b`ay nh˜ u
.
ng ph´ep dˆo

i
biˆe
´
n cho ph´ep h˜ u
.
u ty’ h´oa dˆo´i v´o
.
i mˆo
.
t sˆo´ l´o
.
p h`am vˆo ty’ quan tro
.
ng
nhˆa´t. Ta quy u
.
´o
.
c k´ y hiˆe
.
u R(x
1
, x
2
, . . . ) hay r(x
1
, x
2
, . . . ) l`a h`am h˜ u
.
u
ty’ dˆo´i v´o
.
i mˆo
˜
i biˆe
´
n x
1
, x
2
, . . . , x
n
.
I. T´ıch phˆan c´ac h`am vˆ o ty’ phˆan tuyˆe
´
n t´ınh. T´ıch phˆan da
.
ng

R

x,

ax +b
cx +d

p
1
, . . . ,

ax +b
cx +d

pn

dx (10.8)
trong d´o n ∈ N; p
1
, . . . , p
n
∈ Q; a, b, c ∈ R; ad − bc = 0 du
.
o
.
.
c h˜ u
.
u ty’
h´oa nh`o
.
ph´ep dˆo

i biˆe
´
n
ax +b
cx +d
= t
m
o
.
’ dˆay m l`a mˆa
˜
u sˆo´ chung cu’ a c´ac sˆo´ h˜ u
.
u ty’ p
1
, . . . , p
n
.
II. T´ıch phˆan da
.
ng

R(x,

ax
2
+bx +c)dx, a = 0, b
2
−4ac = 0 (10.9)
38 Chu
.
o
.
ng 10. T´ıch phˆan bˆa´t di
.
nh
c´o thˆe

h˜ u
.
u ty’ h´oa nh`o
.
ph´ep thˆe
´
Euler:
(i)

ax
2
+bx +c = ±

ax ±t, nˆe
´
u a > 0;
(ii)

ax
2
+bx +c = ±xt ±

c, nˆe
´
u c > 0;
(iii)

ax
2
+bx +c = ±(x −x
1
)t

ax
2
+bx +c = ±(x −x
2
)t
trong d´o x
1
v`a x
2
l`a c´ac nghiˆe
.
m thu
.
.
c kh´ac nhau cu’ a tam th´ u
.
c bˆa
.
c hai
ax
2
+ nbx + c. (Dˆa´u o
.
’ c´ac vˆe
´
pha’ i cu’ a d˘a

ng th´ u
.
c c´o thˆe

lˆa´y theo tˆo

ho
.
.
p t` uy ´ y).
III. T´ıch phˆan cu’ a vi phˆan nhi
.
th´ u
.
c. D´o l`a nh˜ u
.
ng t´ıch phˆan da
.
ng

x
m
(ax
n
+b)
p
dx (10.10)
trong d´o a, b ∈ R, m, n, p ∈ Q v`a a = 0, b = 0, n = 0, p = 0; biˆe

u th´ u
.
c
x
m
(zx
n
+b)
p
du
.
o
.
.
c go
.
i l`a vi phˆan nhi
.
th´ u
.
c.
T´ıch phˆan vi phˆan nhi
.
th´ u
.
c (10.10) du
.
a du
.
o
.
.
c vˆe
`
t´ıch phˆan h`am
h˜ u
.
u ty’ trong ba tru
.
`o
.
ng ho
.
.
p sau dˆay:
1) p l`a sˆo´ nguyˆen,
2)
m+ 1
n
l`a sˆo´ nguyˆen,
3)
m+ 1
n
+p l`a sˆo´ nguyˆen.
D
-
i
.
nh l´ y (Trebu
.
s´ep). T´ıch phˆan vi phˆ an nhi
.
th´ u
.
c (10.10) biˆe

u diˆe
˜
n
du
.
o
.
.
c du
.
´o
.
i da
.
ng h˜ u
.
u ha
.
n nh` o
.
c´ ac h`am so
.
cˆa´p (t´ u
.
c l`a du
.
a du
.
o
.
.
c vˆe
`
t´ıch phˆan h`am h˜ u
.
u ty’ hay h˜ u
.
u ty’ h´oa du
.
o
.
.
c) khi v` a chı ’ khi ´ıt nhˆa´t mˆo
.
t
trong ba sˆo´ p,
m+ 1
n
,
m+ 1
n
+p l`a sˆo´ nguyˆen.
1) Nˆe
´
u p l`a sˆo´ nguyˆen th`ı ph´ep h˜ u
.
u ty’ h´oa s˜e l`a
x = t
N
trong d´o N l`a mˆa
˜
u sˆo´ chung cu’ a c´ac phˆan th´ u
.
c m v`a n.
2) Nˆe
´
u
m+ 1
n
l`a sˆo´ nguyˆen th`ı d˘a
.
t
ax
n
+b = t
M
10.2. C´ ac l´o
.
p h`am kha’ t´ıch trong l´o
.
p c´ac h`am so
.
cˆa´p 39
trong d´o M l`a mˆa
˜
u sˆo´ cu’ a p.
3) Nˆe
´
u
m+ 1
n
+p l`a sˆo´ nguyˆen th`ı d˘a
.
t
a +bx
−n
= t
M
trong d´o M l`a mˆa
˜
u sˆo´ cu’ a p.
C
´
AC V
´
I DU
.
V´ı du
.
1. T´ınh
1) I
1
=

x +
3

x
2
+
6

x
x(1 +
3

x)
dx, 2) I
2
=

dx
3

(2 +x)(2 −x)
5

Gia’ i. 1) T´ıch phˆan d˜a cho c´o da
.
ng I, trong d´o p
1
= 1, p
2
=
1
3
,
p
3
=
1
6
. Mˆa
˜
u sˆo´ chung cu’ a p
1
, p
2
, p
3
l`a m = 6. Do d´o ta d˘a
.
t x = t
6
.
Khi d´o:
I = 6

t
6
+t
4
+t
t
6
(1 +t
2
)
t
5
dt = 6

t
5
+t
3
+ 1
1 +t
2
dt
= 6

t
3
dt + 6

dt
1 +t
2
=
3
2
3

x
2
+ 6arctg
6

x +C.
2) B˘a
`
ng ph´ep biˆe
´
n dˆo

i so
.
cˆa´p ta c´ o
I
2
=

3

2 −x
2 +x
dx
(2 −x)
2

D´o l`a t´ıch phˆan da
.
ng I. Ta d˘a
.
t
2 −x
2 +x
= t
3
v`a thu du
.
o
.
.
c
x = 2
1 −t
3
1 +t
3
, dx = −12
t
2
dt
(1 +t
3
)
2

40 Chu
.
o
.
ng 10. T´ıch phˆan bˆa´t di
.
nh
T` u
.
d´o
I
2
= −12

t
3
(t
3
+ 1)
2
dt
16t
6
(t
3
+ 1)
2
= −
3
4

dt
t
3
=
3
8
3

2 +x
2 −x

2
+C.
V´ı du
.
2. T´ınh c´ac t´ıch phˆan
1) I
1
=

dx
x

x
2
+x + 1
, 2) I
2
=

dx
(x −2)

−x
2
+ 4x −3
,
3) I
3
=

dx
(x + 1)

1 +x −x
2
,
Gia’ i. 1) T´ıch phˆan I
1
l`a t´ıch phˆan da
.
ng II v`a a = 1 > 0 nˆen ta su
.

du
.
ng ph´ep thˆe
´
Euler (i)

x
2
+x + 1 = x +t, x
2
+x + 1 = x
2
+ 2tx +t
2
x =
t
2
−1
1 −2t
,

x
2
+x + 1 = x +t =
−t
2
+t −1
1 −2t
dx =
2(−t
2
+t −1)
(1 −2t)
2
dt.
T` u
.
d´o
I
1
= 2

dt
t
2
−1
= ln

1 −t
1 +t

+C = ln

1 +x −

x
2
+x + 1
1 −x +

x
2
+x + 1

+C.
2) Dˆo´i v´o
.
i t´ıch phˆan I
2
(da
.
ng II) ta c´o
−x
2
+ 4x −3 = −(x −1)(x −3)
v`a do d´o ta su
.
’ du
.
ng ph´ep thˆe
´
Euler (iii):

−x
2
+ 4x −3 = t(x −1).
Khi d´o
−(x −1)(x −3) = t
2
(x −1)
2
, −(x −3) = t
2
(x −1), t =

3 −x
x −1
,
x =
t
2
+ 3
t
2
+ 1
,

−x
2
+ 4x −3 = t(x −1) =
2t
t
2
+ 1
dx =
−4tdt
(t
2
+ 1)
2
10.2. C´ ac l´o
.
p h`am kha’ t´ıch trong l´o
.
p c´ac h`am so
.
cˆa´p 41
v`a thu du
.
o
.
.
c
I
2
= 2

dt
t
2
−1
= ln

1 −t
1 +t

+C = ln


x −1 −

3 −x

x −1 +

3 −x

+C.
3) Dˆo´i v´o
.
i t´ıch phˆan I
3
(da
.
ng III) ta c´o C = 1 > 0. Ta su
.
’ du
.
ng
ph´ep thˆe
´
Euler (ii) v`a

1 +x −x
2
= tx −1, 1 +x −x
2
= t
2
x
2
−2tx + 1,
x =
2t + 1
t
2
+ 1
,

1 +x −x
2
= tx −1 =
t
2
+t −1
t
2
+ 1
,
t =
1 +

1 +x −x
2
x
, dx =
−2(t
2
+t −1)
(t
2
+ 1)
2

Do d´o
I
3
= −2

dt
t
2
+ 2t + 2
= −2

d(t + 1)
1 + (t + 1)
2
= −2arctg(t + 1) +C
= −2arctg
1 +x +

1 +x −x
2
x
+C.
V´ı du
.
3. T´ınh c´ac t´ıch phˆan
1) I
1
=

x
(1 +
3

x)
2
dx, x 0; 2) I
2
=


x

4

1 −
1

x
3

dx;
3) I
3
=

dx
x
2
3

(1 +x
3
)
5

Gia’ i. 1) Ta c´ o
I
1
=

x
1
2

1 +x
1
3

−2
dx,
trong d´o m =
1
2
, n =
1
3
, p = −2, mˆa
˜
u sˆo´ chung cu’ a m v`a n b˘a
`
ng 6.
V`ı p = −2 l`a sˆo´ nguyˆen, ta ´ap du
.
ng ph´ep dˆo

i biˆe
´
n x = t
6
v`a thu du
.
o
.
.
c
I
1
= 6

t
8
(1 +t
2
)
2
dt = 6

t
4
−2t
2
+ 3 −
4t
2
+ 3
(1 +t
2
)
2

dt
=
6
5
t
5
−4t
3
+ 18t −18

dt
1 +t
2
−6

t
2
(1 +t
2
)
2
dt.
42 Chu
.
o
.
ng 10. T´ıch phˆan bˆa´t di
.
nh
V`ı

t
2
dt
(1 +t
2
)
2
= −
1
2

td

1
1 +t
2

= −
t
2(1 +t
2
)
+
1
2
arctgt
nˆen cuˆo´i c` ung ta thu du
.
o
.
.
c
I
1
=
6
5
x
5/6
−4x
1/2
+ 18x
1/6
+
3x
1/6
1 +x
1/3
−21arctgx
1/6
+C.
2) Ta viˆe
´
t I
2
du
.
´o
.
i da
.
ng
I
2
=

x
1
2

1 −x

3
2
1
4
dx.
O
.

dˆay m =
1
2
, n = −
3
2
, p =
1
4
v`a
m+ 1
n
= −1 l`a sˆo´ nguyˆen v`a ta
c´o tru
.
`o
.
ng ho
.
.
p th´ u
.
hai. Ta su
.
’ du
.
ng ph´ep dˆo

i biˆe
´
n
1 −
1

x
3
= t
4
.
Khi d´o x = (1 −t
4
)

2
3
, dx =
8
3
(1 −t
4
)

5
3
t
3
dt v`a do vˆa
.
y
I
2
=
8
3

t
4
(1 −t
4
)
2
dt =
2
3

td

1
1 −t
4

=
2
3

t
1 −t
4

dt
1 −t
2

=
2t
3(1 −t
4
)

1
3

1
1 −t
2
+
1
1 +t
2

dt
=
2t
3(1 −t
4
)

1
6
ln

1 +t
1 −t


1
3
arctgt +C,
trong d´o t =

1 −x
−3/2

1/4
.
3) Ta viˆe
´
t I
3
du
.
´o
.
i da
.
ng
I
3
=

x
−2
(1 +x
3
)

5
3
dx.
O
.

dˆay m = −2, n = 3, p = −
5
3
v`a
m+ 1
n
+p = −2 l`a sˆo´ nguyˆen.
Do vˆa
.
y ta c´ o tru
.
`o
.
ng ho
.
.
p th´ u
.
ba. Ta thu
.
.
c hiˆe
.
n ph´ep dˆo

i biˆe
´
n
1 +x
−3
= t
3
⇒1 +x
3
= t
3
x
3
.
10.2. C´ ac l´o
.
p h`am kha’ t´ıch trong l´o
.
p c´ac h`am so
.
cˆa´p 43
T` u
.
d´o
x
3
=
1
t
3
−1
, 1 +x
3
=
t
3
t
3
−1
, x = (t
3
−1)

1
3
dx = −t
2
(t
3
−1)

4
3
dt, x
−2
= (t
3
−1)
2
3
.
Do vˆa
.
y
I
3
= −

(t
3
−1)
2/3

t
3
t
3
−1

−5/3
t
2
(t
3
−1)

4
3
dt =

1 −t
3
t
3
dt
=

t
−3
dt −

dt =
t
−2
−2
−t +C = C −
1 + 2t
3
2t
3
= C −
2 + 3x
3
2x
3

(1 +x
3
)
2

44 Chu
.
o
.
ng 10. T´ıch phˆan bˆa´t di
.
nh
B
`
AI T
ˆ
A
.
P
T´ınh c´ac t´ıch phˆan (1-15)
1.

dx

2x −1 −
3

2x −1
.
(DS. u
3
+
3
2
u
2
+ 3u + 3 ln [u −1[, u
6
= 2x −1)
2.

xdx
(3x −1)

3x −1
.
(DS.
2
9
3x −2

3x −1
)
3.

1 −x
1 +x
dx
x
.
(DS.
1 −

1 −x
2
x
−arc sinx)
4.

3

x + 1
x −1
dx
x + 1
.
(DS. −
1
2
ln
(1 −t)
2
1 +t +t
2
+

3arctg
2t + 1

3
, t =
3

x + 1
x −1
)
5.


x + 1 −

x −1

x + 1 +

x −1
dx.
(DS.
1
2
(x
2
−x

x
2
−1 + ln[x +

x
2
−1[)
6.

xdx

x + 1 −
3

x + 1
.
(DS. 6

1
9
u
9
+
1
8
u
8
+
1
7
u
7
+
1
6
u
6
+
1
5
u
5
+
1
4
u
4

, u
6
= x + 1)
10.2. C´ ac l´o
.
p h`am kha’ t´ıch trong l´o
.
p c´ac h`am so
.
cˆa´p 45
7.

(x −2)

1 +x
1 −x
dx.
(DS.

1 −
1
2
x


1 −x
2

3
2
arc sinx)
8.

3

x + 1
x −1
dx
(x −1)
3
.
(DS.
3
16
3

x + 1
x −1

4

3
28
3

x + 1
x −1

3
)
9.

dx

(x −1)
3
(x −2)
. (DS. 2

x −2
x −1
)
Chı ’ dˆa
˜
n. Viˆe
´
t

(x −1)
3
(x −2) = (x − 1)(x − 2)

x −1
x −2
, d˘a
.
t
t =

x −1
x −2
.
10.

dx
3

(x −1)
2
(x + 1)
.
(DS.
1
2
ln
u
2
+u + 1
u
2
−2u + 1


3arctg
2u + 1

3
, u
3
=
x + 1
x −1
)
11.

dx
3

(x + 1)
2
(x −1)
4
. (DS.
3
2
3

1 +x
x −1
)
12.

dx
4

(x −1)
3
(x + 2)
5
. (DS.
4
3
4

x −1
x + 2
)
13.

dx
3

(x −1)
7
(x + 1)
2
. (DS.
3
16
3x −5
x −1
3

x + 1
x −1
)
14.

dx
6

(x −7)
7
(x −5)
5
. (DS. −3
6

x −5
x −7
)
15.

dx
n

(x −a)
n+1
(x −b)
n−1
, a = b. (DS.
n
b −a
n

x −b
x −a
)
46 Chu
.
o
.
ng 10. T´ıch phˆan bˆa´t di
.
nh
16.


x + 1 −

x −1

x + 1 +

x −1
dx.
(DS.
x
2
3

x

x
2
−1
2
+
1
2
ln[x +

x
2
−1[)
Su
.
’ du
.
ng c´ac ph´ep thˆe
´
Euler dˆe

t´ınh c´ ac t´ıch phˆan sau dˆay (17-22)
17.

dx
x

x
2
+x + 1
. (DS. ln

1 +x −

x
2
+x + 1
1 −x +

x
2
+x + 1

)
18.

dx
(x −2)

−x
2
+ 4x −3
. (DS. ln


x −1 −

3 −x

x −1 +

3 −x

)
19.

dx
(x + 1)

1 +x −x
2
. (DS. −2arctg
1 +x +

1 +x −x
2
x
)
20.

dx
(x −1)

x
2
+x + 1
.
(DS.

3
3
ln

x −1
3 + 3x + 2

3(x
2
+x + 1)

)
21.

(x −1)dx
(x
2
+ 2x)

x
2
+ 2x
. (DS.
1 + 2x

x
2
+ 2x
)
22.

5x + 4

x
2
+ 2x + 5
dx.
(DS. 5

x
2
+ 2x + 5 −ln

x + 1 +

x
2
+ 2x + 5

)
Chı ’ dˆa
˜
n. C´o thˆe

dˆo

i biˆe
´
n t =
1
2
(x
2
+ 2x + 5)

= x + 1.
T´ınh c´ac t´ıch phˆan cu’ a vi phˆan nhi
.
th´ u
.
c
23.

x

1
3
(1 −x
1/6
)
−1
dx. (DS. 6x
1
6
+ 3x
1
3
+ 2x
1
2
+ 6 ln

x
1
6
−1

)
24.

x

2
3
(1 +x
1
3
)
−3
dx. (DS. −
3
2
(1 +x
1
3
)
−2
)
25.

x

1
2
(1 +x
1
4
)
−10
dx. (DS.
4
9
(1 +x
1
4
)
−9

1
2
(1 +x
1
4
)
−8
)
10.2. C´ ac l´o
.
p h`am kha’ t´ıch trong l´o
.
p c´ac h`am so
.
cˆa´p 47
26.

x

1 +
3

x
2
dx. (DS. 3

t
5
5

2t
3
3
+t

, t =

1 +x
2/3
)
27.

x
3
(1 + 2x
2
)

2
3
dx. (DS.
x
2
+ 1
2

2x
2
+ 1
)
28.

dx
x
4

1 +x
2
. (DS.
1
3
x
−3
(2x
2
−1)

x
2
+ 1)
29.

dx
x
2
(1 +x
3
)
5/3
. (DS. −
1
8
x
−1
(3x + 4)(2 +x
3
)

2
3
)
30.

dx

x
3
3

1 +
4

x
3
. (DS. −2
3

(x

3
4
+ 1)
2
)
31.

dx
3

x
2
(
3

x + 1)
3
. (DS. −
3
2(
3

x + 1)
2
)
32.

3

x

3

x + 1
dx.
(DS. 6

u
7
7

3
5
u
5
+u
3
−u
2
, u
2
=
3

x + 1

)
33.

dx
x
6

x
2
−1
.
(DS.
u
5
5

2u
3
3
+u, u =

1 −x
−2
)
34.

dx
x
3

1 +x
5
.
(DS.
1
10
ln

u
2
−2u + 1
u
2
+u + 1

+

3
5
arctg
2u + 1

3
, u
3
= 1 +x
5
)
35.

x
7

1 +x
2
dx.
(DS.
u
9
9

3u
7
7
+
3u
5
5

u
3
3
, u
2
= 1 +x
2
)
48 Chu
.
o
.
ng 10. T´ıch phˆan bˆa´t di
.
nh
36.

dx
3

1 +x
3
.
(DS.
1
6
ln

u
2
+u + 1
u
2
−2u + 1


1

3
arctg
2u + 1

3
, u
3
= 1 +x
−3
)
37.

dx
4

1 +x
4
.
(DS.
1
4
ln

u + 1
u −1


1
2
arctgu, u
4
= 1 +x
−4
)
38.

3

x −x
3
dx.
(DS.
u
2(u
3
+ 1)

1
12
ln
u
2
+ 2u + 1
u
2
−u + 1

1
2

3
arctg
2u −1

3
, u
3
= x
−2
−1)
10.2.3 T´ıch phˆan c´ac h`am lu
.
o
.
.
ng gi´ac
I. T´ıch phˆan da
.
ng

R(sinx, cos x)dx (10.11)
trong d´o R(u, v) l`a h`am h˜ u
.
u ty’ cu’ a c´ac biˆe
´
n u b`a v luˆon luˆon c´o thˆe

h˜ u
.
u ty’ h´oa du
.
o
.
.
c nh`o
.
ph´ep dˆo

i biˆe
´
n t = tg
x
2
, x ∈ (−π, π). T` u
.
d´o
sinx =
2t
1 +t
2
, cos x =
1 −t
2
1 +t
2
, dx =
2dt
1 +t
2

Nhu
.
o
.
.
c diˆe

m cu’ a ph´ep h˜ u
.
u ty’ h´oa n`ay l`a n´o thu
.
`o
.
ng du
.
a dˆe
´
n nh˜ u
.
ng
t´ınh to´an rˆa´t ph´ u
.
c ta
.
p.
V`ı vˆa
.
y, trong nhiˆe
`
u tru
.
`o
.
ng ho
.
.
p ph´ep h˜ u
.
u ty’ h´oa c´ o thˆe

thu
.
.
c hiˆe
.
n
du
.
o
.
.
c nh`o
.
nh˜ u
.
ng ph´ep dˆo

i biˆe
´
n kh´ac.
II. Nˆe
´
u R(−sin x, cos x) = −R(sinx, cos x) th`ı su
.
’ du
.
ng ph´ep dˆo

i
biˆe
´
n
t = cos x, x ∈ (0, π)
10.2. C´ ac l´o
.
p h`am kha’ t´ıch trong l´o
.
p c´ac h`am so
.
cˆa´p 49
v`a l´ uc d´o
dx = −
dt

1 −t
2
III. Nˆe
´
u R(sin x, −cos x) = −R(sinx, cos x) th`ı su
.
’ du
.
ng ph´ep dˆo

i
biˆe
´
n
t = sinx, dx =
dt

1 −t
2
, x ∈


π
2
,
π
2

.
IV. Nˆe
´
u R(−sinx, −cos x) = R(sinx, cos x) th`ı ph´ep h˜ u
.
u ty’ h´oa
s˜e l`a t = tgx, x ∈


π
2
,
π
2

:
sinx =
t

1 +t
2
, cos x =
1

1 +t
2
, x = arctgt, dx =
dt
1 +t
2

V. Tru
.
`o
.
ng ho
.
.
p riˆeng cu’ a t´ıch phˆan da
.
ng (10.11) l`a t´ıch phˆan

sin
m
xcos
n
xdx, m, n ∈ Z (10.12)
(i) Nˆe
´
u sˆo´ m le’ th`ı d˘a
.
t t = cos x, nˆe
´
u n le’ th`ı d˘a
.
t sinx = t.
(ii) Nˆe
´
u m v`a n l`a nh˜ u
.
ng sˆo´ ch˘a
˜
n khˆong ˆam th`ı tˆo´t ho
.
n hˆe
´
t l`a thay
sin
2
x v` a cos
2
x theo c´ac cˆong th´ u
.
c
sin
2
x =
1
2
(1 −cos 2x), cos
2
x =
1
2
(1 + cos 2x).
(iii) Nˆe
´
u m v`a n ch˘a
˜
n, trong d´o c´o mˆo
.
t sˆo´ ˆam th`ı ph´ep dˆo

i biˆe
´
n s˜e
l`a tgx = t hay cotgx = t.
(iv) Nˆe
´
u m + n = −2k, k ∈ N th`ı viˆe
´
t biˆe

u th´ u
.
c du
.
´o
.
i dˆa´u t´ıch
phˆan bo
.
’ i da
.
ng phˆan th´ u
.
c v`a t´ach cos
2
x (ho˘a
.
c sin
2
x) ra kho’i mˆa
˜
u sˆo´.
Biˆe

u th´ u
.
c
dx
cos
2
x
(ho˘a
.
c
dx
sin
2
x
) du
.
o
.
.
c thay bo
.
’ i d(tgx) (ho˘a
.
c d(cotgx))
v`a ´ap du
.
ng ph´ep dˆo

i biˆe
´
n t = tgx (ho˘a
.
c t = cotgx).
VI. T´ıch phˆan da
.
ng

sin
α
xcos
β
xdx, α, β ∈ Q. (10.13)
50 Chu
.
o
.
ng 10. T´ıch phˆan bˆa´t di
.
nh
B˘a
`
ng ph´ep dˆo

i biˆe
´
n sin
2
x = t ta thu du
.
o
.
.
c
I =
1
2

t
α−1
2
(1 −t)
β−1
2
dt
v`a b`ai to´an du
.
o
.
.
c quy vˆe
`
t´ıch phˆan cu’ a vi phˆan nhi
.
th´ u
.
c.
C
´
AC V
´
I DU
.
V´ı du
.
1. T´ınh t´ıch phˆ an
I =

dx
3 sinx + 4 cos x + 5
Gia’ i. D˘a
.
t t = tg
x
2
, x ∈ (−π, π). Khi d´o
I = 2

dt
t
2
+ 6t + 9
= 2

(t + 3)
−2
dt
= −
2
t + 3
+C = −
2
3 + tg
x
2
+C.
V´ı du
.
2. T´ınh
J =

dx
(3 + cos 5x) sin5x
Gia’ i. D˘a
.
t 5x = t. Ta thu du
.
o
.
.
c
J =
1
5

dt
(3 + cos t) sint
v`a (tru
.
`o
.
ng ho
.
.
p II) do d´o b˘a
`
ng c´ach d˘a
.
t ph´ep dˆo

i biˆe
´
n z = cos t ta c´o
J =
1
5

dz
(z + 3)(z
2
−1)
=
1
5

A
z −1
+
B
z −1
+
C
z + 3

dz
=
1
5

1
8(z −1)

1
4(z + 1)
+
1
8(z + 3)

dz
=
1
5

1
8
ln[z −1[ −
1
4
ln[z + 1[ +
1
8
ln[z + 3[

+C
=
1
40
ln

(z −1)(z + 3)
(z + 1)
2

+C
=
1
40
ln

cos
2
x + 2 cos 5x −3
(cos 5x + 1)
2

+C.
10.2. C´ ac l´o
.
p h`am kha’ t´ıch trong l´o
.
p c´ac h`am so
.
cˆa´p 51
V´ı du
.
3. T´ınh
J =

2 sinx + 3 cos x
sin
2
xcos x + 9 cos
3
x
dx
Gia’ i. H`am du
.
´o
.
i dˆa´u t´ıch phˆan c´ o t´ınh chˆa´t l`a
R(−sinx, −cos x) = R(sin x, cos x).
Do d´o ta su
.
’ du
.
ng ph´ep dˆo

i biˆe
´
n t = tgx, x ∈


π
2
,
π
2

. Chia tu
.
’ sˆo´
v`a mˆa
˜
u sˆo´ cu’ a biˆe

u th´ u
.
c du
.
´o
.
i dˆ a´u t´ıch phˆan cho cos
3
x ta c´o
J =

2tgx + 3
tg
2
x + 9
d(tgx) =

2t + 3
t
2
+ 9
dt
= ln(t
2
+ 9) + arctg

t
3

+C
= ln(tg
2
x + 9) + arctg

tgx
3

+C.
V´ı du
.
4. T´ınh
J =

dx
sin
6
x + cos
6
x
Gia’ i.
´
Ap du
.
ng cˆong th´ u
.
c
cos
2
x =
1
2
(1 + cos 2x), sin
2
x =
1
2
(1 −sin2x)
ta thu du
.
o
.
.
c
cos
6
x + sin
6
x =
1
4
(1 + 3 cos
2
2x).
D˘a
.
t t = tg2x, ta t`ım du
.
o
.
.
c
J =

4dx
1 + 3 cos
2
2x
= 2

dt
t
2
+ 4
= arctg
t
2
+C = arctg
tg2x
2
+C.
52 Chu
.
o
.
ng 10. T´ıch phˆan bˆa´t di
.
nh
V´ı du
.
5. T´ınh
J =

sin
3
2
xcos
1
2
xdx.
Gia’ i. D˘a
.
t z = sin
2
x ta thu du
.
o
.
.
c
J =
1
2

z
1/4
(1 −z)

1
4
dx.
D´o l`a t´ıch phˆan cu’ a vi phˆan nhi
.
th´ u
.
c v`a
m+ 1
n
+p =
1
4
+ 1
1

1
4
= 1.
Do vˆa
.
y ta thu
.
.
c hiˆe
.
n ph´ep dˆo

i biˆe
´
n
1
z
−1 = t
4
, −
dz
z
2
= 4t
3
dt, z
2
=
1
(t
4
+ 1)
2
v`a do d´o
J = −2

t
2
(t
4
+ 1)
2
dt.
D˘a
.
t t =
1
y
ta thu du
.
o
.
.
c
J = 2

y
4
(1 +y
4
)
2
dy.
Thu
.
.
c hiˆe
.
n ph´ep t´ıch phˆan t` u
.
ng phˆa
`
n b˘a
`
ng c´ach d˘a
.
t
u = y, dv =
y
3
(1 +y
4
)
2
dy ⇒du = dy, v = −
1
4(1 +y
2
)
ta thu du
.
o
.
.
c
J = 2


y
4(1 +y
4
)
+
1
4

dy
1 +y
4

= −
y
2(1 +y
4
)
+
1
2
J
1
.
10.2. C´ ac l´o
.
p h`am kha’ t´ıch trong l´o
.
p c´ac h`am so
.
cˆa´p 53
Dˆe

t´ınh J
1
ta biˆe

u diˆe
˜
n tu
.
’ sˆo´ cu’ a biˆe

u th´ u
.
c du
.
´o
.
i dˆa´u t´ıch phˆan
nhu
.
sau:
1 =
1
2

(y
2
+ 1) −(y
2
−1)

v`a khi d´o
J
1
=
1
2

y
2
+ 1
y
4
+ 1
dy −
1
2

y
2
−1
y
4
+ 1
dy
=
1
2

1 +
1
y
2

dy
y
2
+
1
y
2

1
2

1 −
1
y
2

dy
y
2
+
1
y
2
=
1
2

d

y +
1
y

y −
1
y

2
+ 2

1
2

d

y +
1
y

y +
1
y

2
−2
=
1
2

2
arctg
y −
1
y

2

1
4

2
ln

y +
1
y


2
yb +
1
y
+

2

+C.
Cuˆo´i c` ung ta thu du
.
o
.
.
c
J = −
y
2(1 +y
4
)
+
1
4

2
arctg
y −
1
4

2

1
8

2
ln

y +
1
y


2
y +
1
y
+

2

+C
trong d´o
y =
1
t
, t =
4

1
z
−1 , z = sin
2
x.
B
`
AI T
ˆ
A
.
P
T´ınh c´ac t´ıch phˆan b˘a
`
ng c´ach su
.
’ du
.
ng c´ac cˆ ong th´ u
.
c lu
.
o
.
.
ng gi´ac
dˆe

biˆe
´
n dˆo

i h`am du
.
´o
.
i dˆa´u t´ıch phˆan.
54 Chu
.
o
.
ng 10. T´ıch phˆan bˆa´t di
.
nh
1.

sin
3
xdx. (DS. −cos x +
cos
3
x
3
)
2.

cos
4
xdx. (DS.
3x
8
+
sin2x
4
+
sin4x
32
)
3.

sin
5
xdx. (DS.
2
3
cos
3
x −
cos
5
x
5
−cos x)
4.

cos
7
xdx. (DS. sinx −sin
3
x +
3 sin
5
x
5

sin
7
x
7
)
5.

cos
2
xsin
2
xdx. (DS.
x
8

sin4x
32
)
6.

sin
3
xcos
2
xdx. (DS.
cos
5
x
5

cos
3
x
3
)
7.

cos
3
xsin
5
xdx. (DS.
sin
6
x
6

sin
8
x
8
)
8.

dx
sin 2x
. (DS.
1
2
ln[tgx[)
9.

dx
cos
x
3
. (DS. 3 ln

tg

π
4
+
x
6

)
10.

sin x + cos x
sin2x
dx. (DS.
1
2

ln

tg
x
2

+ ln

tg

π
4
+
x
2

)
11.

sin
2
x
cos
6
x
dx. (DS.
tg
5
x
5
+
tg
3
x
3
)
Chı ’ dˆa
˜
n. D˘a
.
t t = tgx.
12.

sin3xcos xdx. (DS. −
1
8
(cos 4x + 2 cos 2x))
13.

sin
x
3
cos
2x
3
dx. (DS.
3
2
cos
x
3

1
2
cos x)
14.

cos
3
x
sin
2
x
dx. (DS. −
1
sinx
−sinx)
15.

sin
3
x
cos
2
x
dx. (DS.
1
cos x
+ cos x)
10.2. C´ ac l´o
.
p h`am kha’ t´ıch trong l´o
.
p c´ac h`am so
.
cˆa´p 55
16.

cos
3
x
sin
5
x
dx. (DS. −
cotg
4
x
4
)
17.

sin
5
x
cos
3
x
dx. (DS.
1
2 cos
2
x
+ 2 ln [ cos x[ −
cos
2
x
2
)
18.

tg
5
xdx. (DS.
tg
4
x
4

tg
2
x
2
−ln[ cos x[)
Trong c´ ac b`ai to´an sau dˆay h˜ay ´ap du
.
ng ph´ep dˆo

i biˆe
´
n
t = tg
x
2
, sin x =
2t
1 +t
2
, cos x =
1 −t
2
1 +t
2
, x = 2arctgt, dx =
2dt
1 +t
2
19.

dx
3 + 5 cos x
. (DS.
1
4
ln

2 + tg
x
2
2 −tg
x
2

)
20.

dx
sinx + cos x
. (DS.
1

2
ln

tg

x
2
+
π
8

)
21.

3 sin x + 2 cos x
2 sin x + 3 cos x
dx.
(DS.
1
13
(12x −5 ln [2tgx + 3[ −5 ln [ cos x[)
22.

dx
1 + sinx + cos x
. (DS. ln

1 + tg
x
2

)
23.

dx
(2 −sinx)(3 −sinx)
.
(DS.
2

3
arctg
2tg
x
2
−1

3

1

2
arctg
3tg
x
2
−1
2

2
)
T´ınh c´ac t´ıch phˆan da
.
ng

sin
m
xcos
n
xdx, m, n ∈ N.
24.

sin
3
xcos
5
xdx. (DS.
1
8
cos
8
x −
1
6
cos
6
x)
56 Chu
.
o
.
ng 10. T´ıch phˆan bˆa´t di
.
nh
25.

sin
2
xcos
4
xdx. (DS.
1
16

x −
1
4
sin 4x +
1
3
sin
2
2x

)
26.

sin
4
xcos
6
xdx.
(DS.
1
2
11
sin 8x −
1
2
8
sin4x +
1
5 2
6
sin
5
2x +
3
2
8
x)
27.

sin
4
xcos
2
xdx. (DS.
x
16

sin4x
64

sin
2
2x
48
)
28.

sin
4
xcos
5
xdx. (DS.
1
5
sin
5
x −
2
7
sin
7
x +
1
9
sin
9
x)
29.

sin
6
xcos
3
xdx. (DS.
1
7
sin
7
x −
1
9
sin
9
x)
T´ınh c´ac t´ıch phˆan da
.
ng

sin
α
xcos
β
xdx, α, β ∈ Q.
30.

sin
3
x
cos x
3

cos x
dx. (DS.
3
5
cos x
3

cos
2
x +
3
3

cos x
)
Chı ’ dˆa
˜
n. D˘a
.
t t = cos x.
31.

dx
3

sin
11
xcos x
. (DS. −
3(1 + 4tg
2
x)
8tg
2
x
3

tg
2
x
)
Chı ’ dˆa
˜
n. D˘a
.
t t = tgx.
32.

sin
3
x
3

cos
2
x
dx. (DS. 3
3

cos x

1
7
cos
2
x −1

)
33.

3

cos
2
xsin
3
xdx. (DS. −
3
5
cos
5/3
x +
3
11
cos
11
3
x)
34.

dx
4

sin
3
xcos
5
x
. (DS. 4
4

tgx)
35.

sin
3
x
5

cos x
dx. (DS.
5
14
cos
14
5
x −
5
4
cos
4
5
x)
Chu
.
o
.
ng 11
T´ıch phˆan x´ac di
.
nh Riemann
11.1 H`am kha’ t´ıch Riemann v`a t´ıch phˆan x´ac
di
.
nh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
11.1.1 D
-
i
.
nh ngh˜ıa . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
11.1.2 D
-
iˆe `u kiˆe
.
n dˆe

h`am kha’ t´ıch . . . . . . . . . . 59
11.1.3 C´ac t´ınh chˆa´t co
.
ba’ n cu’ a t´ıch phˆan x´ac di
.
nh 59
11.2 Phu
.
o
.
ng ph´ap t´ınh t´ıch phˆan x´ac di
.
nh . . . 61
11.3 Mˆo
.
t sˆo´ ´ u
.
ng du
.
ng cu’ a t´ıch phˆan x´ac di
.
nh . 78
11.3.1 Diˆe
.
n t´ıch h`ınh ph˘a

ng v`a thˆe

t´ıch vˆa
.
t thˆe

. . 78
11.3.2 T´ınh dˆo
.
d`ai cung v`a diˆe
.
n t´ıch m˘a
.
t tr`on xoay 89
11.4 T´ıch phˆan suy rˆo
.
ng . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98
11.4.1 T´ıch phˆan suy rˆo
.
ng cˆa
.
n vˆo ha
.
n . . . . . . . 98
11.4.2 T´ıch phˆan suy rˆo
.
ng cu’ a h`am khˆong bi
.
ch˘a
.
n 107
58 Chu
.
o
.
ng 11. T´ıch phˆan x´ac di
.
nh Riemann
11.1 H`am kha

t´ıch Riemann v`a t´ıch phˆan
x´ac di
.
nh
11.1.1 D
-
i
.
nh ngh˜ıa
Gia’ su
.
’ h`am f(x) x´ac di
.
nh v`a bi
.
ch˘a
.
n trˆen doa
.
n [a, b]. Tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p h˜ u
.
u
ha
.
n diˆe

m
¸
x
k
¸
n
k=0
:
a = x
0
< x
1
< x
2
< < x
n−1
< x
n
= b
du
.
o
.
.
c go
.
i l`a ph´ep phˆan hoa
.
ch doa
.
n [a, b] v`a du
.
o
.
.
c k´ y hiˆe
.
u l`a T[a, b] hay
do
.
n gia’ n l`a T.
D
-
i
.
nh ngh˜ıa 11.1.1. Gia’ su
.
’ [a, b] ⊂ R, T[a, b] = ¦a = x
0
< x
1
<
< x
n
= b¦ l`a ph´ep phˆan hoa
.
ch doa
.
n [a, b]. Trˆen mˆo
˜
i doa
.
n [x
j−1
, x
j
],
j = 1, . . . , n ta cho
.
n mˆo
.
t c´ ach t` uy ´ y diˆe

m ξ
j
v`a lˆa
.
p tˆo

ng
S(f, T, ξ) =
n
¸
j=1
f(ξ
j
)∆x
j
, ∆x
j
= x
j
−x
j−1
go
.
i l`a tˆo

ng t´ıch phˆan (Riemann) cu’ a h`am f(x) theo doa
.
n [a, b] tu
.
o
.
ng
´ u
.
ng v´o
.
i ph´ep phˆan hoa
.
ch T v`a c´ach cho
.
n diˆe

m ξ
j
, j = 1, n. Nˆe
´
u gi´o
.
i
ha
.
n
lim
d(T)→0
S(f, T, ξ) = lim
d(T)→0
n
¸
j=1
f(ξ
j
)∆x
j
(11.1)
tˆo
`
n ta
.
i h˜ u
.
u ha
.
n khˆong phu
.
thuˆo
.
c v`ao ph´ep phˆan hoa
.
ch T v`a c´ach
cho
.
n c´ac diˆe

m ξ
j
, j = 1, n th`ı gi´o
.
i ha
.
n d´o du
.
o
.
.
c go
.
i l`a t´ıch phˆan x´ac
di
.
nh cu’ a h`am f(x).
Tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p mo
.
i h`am kha’ t´ıch Riemann trˆen doa
.
n [a, b] du
.
o
.
.
c k´ y hiˆe
.
u
l`a 1[a, b].
11.1. H` am kha’ t´ıch Riemann v`a t´ıch phˆan x´ac di
.
nh 59
11.1.2 D
-
iˆe
`
u kiˆe
.
n dˆe

h`am kha’ t´ıch
D
-
i
.
nh l´ y 11.1.1. Nˆe
´
u h`am f(x) liˆen tu
.
c trˆen doa
.
n [a, b] th`ı f ∈ 1[a, b].
Hˆe
.
qua’ . Mo
.
i h`am so
.
cˆa´p dˆe
`
u kha’ t´ıch trˆen doa
.
n bˆ a´t k`y n˘a
`
m tro
.
n
trong tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p x´ac di
.
nh cu’ a n´o.
D
-
i
.
nh l´ y 11.1.2. Gia’ su
.
’ f : [a, b] → R l` a h`am bi
.
ch˘a
.
n v`a E ⊂ [a, b]
l`a tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p c´ac diˆe

m gi´an doa
.
n cu’ a n´ o. H` am f(x) kha’ t´ıch Riemann
trˆen doa
.
n [a, b] khi v`a chı ’ khi tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p E c´ o dˆ o
.
do - khˆong, t´ u
.
c l`a E
tho’a m˜an diˆe
`
u kiˆe
.
n: ∀ε > 0, tˆo
`
n ta
.
i hˆe
.
dˆe
´
m du
.
o
.
.
c (hay h˜ u
.
u ha
.
n) c´ ac
khoa’ ng (a
i
, b
i
) sao cho
E ⊂

¸
i=1
(a
i
, b
i
),

¸
i=1
(b
i
−a
i
) = lim
N→∞
N
¸
i=1
(b
i
−a
i
) < ε.
Nˆe
´
u c´ ac diˆe
`
u kiˆe
.
n cu’ a di
.
nh l´ y 11.1.2 (go
.
i l`a tiˆeu chuˆa

n kha’ t´ıch
Lo
.
be (Lebesgue)) du
.
o
.
.
c tho’a m˜an th`ı gi´a tri
.
cu’ a t´ıch phˆan
b

a
f(x)dx
khˆong phu
.
thuˆo
.
c v`ao gi´a tri
.
cu’ a h`am f(x) ta
.
i c´ac diˆe

m gi´an doa
.
n v`a
ta
.
i c´ac diˆe

m d´o h`am f(x) du
.
o
.
.
c bˆo

sung mˆo
.
t c´ ach t` uy ´ y nhu
.
ng pha’ i
ba’ o to`an t´ınh bi
.
ch˘a
.
n cu’ a h`am trˆen [a, b].
11.1.3 C´ac t´ınh chˆa
´
t co
.
ba’ n cu’ a t´ıch phˆan x´ac
di
.
nh
1)
a

a
f(x)dx = 0.
2)
b

a
f(x)dx = −
a

b
f(x)dx.
3) Nˆe
´
u f, g ∈ 1[a, b] v`a α, β ∈ R th`ı αf +βg ∈ 1[a, b].
60 Chu
.
o
.
ng 11. T´ıch phˆan x´ac di
.
nh Riemann
4) Nˆe
´
u f ∈ 1[a, b] th`ı [f(x)[ ∈ 1[a, b] v`a

b

a
f(x)dx

b

a
[f(x)[dx, a < b.
5) Nˆe
´
u f, g ∈ 1[a, b] th`ı f(x)g(x) ∈ 1[a, b].
6) Nˆe
´
u fg ∈ T[a, b] v`a ]c, d] ⊂ [a, b] th`ı f(x)g(x) ∈ 1[c, d].
7) Nˆe
´
u f ∈ 1[a, c], f ∈ 1[c, b] th`ı f ∈ 1[a, b], trong d´o diˆe

m c c´o
thˆe

s˘a
´
p xˆe
´
p t` uy ´ y so v´o
.
i c´ac diˆe

m a v`a b.
Trong c´ ac t´ınh chˆa´t sau dˆay ta luˆon luˆon xem a < b.
8) Nˆe
´
u f ∈ 1[a, b] v`a f 0 th`ı
b

a
f(x)dx 0.
9) Nˆe
´
u f, g ∈ 1[a, b] v`a f(x) g(x) ∀x ∈ [a, b] th`ı
b

a
f(x)dx
b

a
g(x)dx.
10) Nˆe
´
u f ∈ ([a, b], f(x) 0, f(x) ≡ 0 trˆen [a, b] th`ı ∃K > 0 sao
cho
b

a
f(x)dx K.
11) Nˆe
´
u f, g ∈ 1[a, b], g(x) 0 trˆen [a, b].
M = sup
[a,b]
f(x), m = inf
[a,b]
f(x)
th`ı
m
b

a
g(x)dx
b

a
f(x)g(x)dx ≤ M
b

a
g(x)dx.
11.2. Phu
.
o
.
ng ph´ap t´ınh t´ıch phˆan x´ac di
.
nh 61
11.2 Phu
.
o
.
ng ph´ap t´ınh t´ıch phˆan x´ac
di
.
nh
Gia’ su
.
’ h`am f(x) kha’ t´ıch trˆen doa
.
n [a, b]. H` am
F(x) =
x

a
f(x)dt, a x b
du
.
o
.
.
c go
.
i l`a t´ıch phˆan v´o
.
i cˆa
.
n trˆen biˆe
´
n thiˆen.
D
-
i
.
nh l´ y 11.2.1. H`am f(x) liˆen tu
.
c trˆen doa
.
n [a, b] l` a c´o nguyˆen h`am
trˆen doa
.
n d´o. Mˆo
.
t trong c´ac nguyˆen h`am cu’ a h`am f(x) l` a h`am
F(x) =
x

a
f(t)dt. (11.2)
T´ıch phˆan v´o
.
i cˆa
.
n trˆen biˆe
´
n thiˆen du
.
o
.
.
c x´ac di
.
nh dˆo´i v´o
.
i mo
.
i h`am
f(x) kha’ t´ıch trˆen [a, b]. Tuy nhiˆen, dˆe

h`amF(x) da
.
ng (11.2) l`a nguyˆen
h`am cu’ a f(x) diˆe
`
u cˆo´t yˆe
´
u l`a f(x) pha’ i liˆen tu
.
c.
Sau dˆay l`a di
.
nh ngh˜ıa mo
.
’ rˆo
.
ng vˆe
`
nguyˆen h`am.
D
-
i
.
nh ngh˜ıa 11.2.1. H`am F(x) du
.
o
.
.
c go
.
i l`a nguyˆen h`am cu’ a h`am
f(x) trˆen doa
.
n [a, b] nˆe
´
u
1) F(x) liˆen tu
.
c trˆen [a, b].
2) F

(x) = f(x) ta
.
i c´ac diˆe

m liˆen tu
.
c cu’ a f(x).
Nhˆa
.
n x´et. H`am liˆen tu
.
c trˆen doa
.
n [a, b] l`a tru
.
`o
.
ng ho
.
.
p riˆeng cu’ a
h`am liˆen tu
.
c t` u
.
ng doa
.
n. Do d´o dˆo´i v´o
.
i h`am liˆen tu
.
c di
.
nh ngh˜ıa 11.2.1
vˆe
`
nguyˆen h`am l`a tr` ung v´o
.
i di
.
nh ngh˜ıa c˜ u tru
.
´o
.
c dˆay v`ı F

(x) = f(x)
∀x ∈ [a, b] v`a t´ınh liˆen tu
.
c cu’ a F(x) du
.
o
.
.
c suy ra t` u
.
t´ınh kha’ vi.
D
-
i
.
nh l´ y 11.2.2. H`am f(x) liˆen tu
.
c t` u
.
ng doa
.
n trˆen [a, b] l`a c´o nguyˆen
h`am trˆen [a, b] theo ngh˜ıa cu’ a di
.
nh ngh˜ıa mo
.
’ rˆo
.
ng. Mˆ o
.
t trong c´ ac
62 Chu
.
o
.
ng 11. T´ıch phˆan x´ac di
.
nh Riemann
nguyˆen h`am l`a
F(x) =
x

a
f(t)dt.
D
-
i
.
nh l´ y 11.2.3. (Newton-Leibniz) Dˆ o´i v´ o
.
i h` am liˆen tu
.
c t` u
.
ng doa
.
n
trˆen [a, b] ta c´o cˆong th´ u
.
c Newton-Leibniz:
b

a
f(x)dx = F(b) −F(a) (11.3)
trong d´o F(x) l`a nguyˆen h`am cu’ a f(x) trˆen [a, b] v´ o
.
i ngh˜ıa mo
.
’ rˆo
.
ng.
D
-
i
.
nh l´ y 11.2.4 (Phu
.
o
.
ng ph´ap dˆo

i biˆe
´
n) Gia’ su
.
’ :
(i) f(x) x´ac di
.
nh v`a liˆen tu
.
c trˆen [a, b],
(ii) x = g(t) x´ac di
.
nh v`a liˆen tu
.
c c` ung v´ o
.
i da
.
o h`am cu’ a n´ o trˆen
doa
.
n [α, β], trong d´o g(α) = a, g(β) = b v`a a g(t) b.
Khi d´o
b

a
f(x)dx =
β

α
f(g(t))g

(t)dt. (11.4)
D
-
i
.
nh l´ y 11.2.5 (Phu
.
o
.
ng ph´ap t´ıch phˆan t` u
.
ng phˆa
`
n). Nˆe
´
u f(x) v` a
g(x) c´o da
.
o h`am liˆen tu
.
c trˆen [a, b] th`ı
b

a
f(x)g

(x)dx = f(x)g(x)

b
a

b

a
f

(x)g(x)dx. (11.5)
C
´
AC V
´
I DU
.
V´ı du
.
1. Ch´ u
.
ng to’ r˘a
`
ng trˆen doa
.
n [−1, 1] h`am
f(x) = signx =

1 v´o
.
i x > 0,
0 v´o
.
i x = 0, x ∈ [−1, 1]
−1 v´o
.
i x < 0
11.2. Phu
.
o
.
ng ph´ap t´ınh t´ıch phˆan x´ac di
.
nh 63
a) kha’ t´ıch, b) khˆong c´ o nguyˆen h`am, c) c´o nguyˆen h`am mo
.
’ rˆo
.
ng.
Gia’ i. a) H`am f(x) kha’ t´ıch v`ı n´o l`a h`am liˆen tu
.
c t` u
.
ng doa
.
n.
b) Ta ch´ u
.
ng minh h`am f(x) khˆong c´o nguyˆen h`am theo ngh˜ıa c˜ u.
Thˆa
.
t vˆa
.
y mo
.
i h`am da
.
ng
F(x) =

−x +C
1
khi x < 0
x +C
2
khi x 0
dˆe
`
u c´o da
.
o h`am b˘a
`
ng signx ∀x = 0, trong d´o C
1
v`a C
2
l`a c´ac sˆo´ t` uy
´ y. Tuy nhiˆen, thˆa
.
m ch´ı h`am “tˆo´t nhˆa´t” trong sˆo´ c´ac h`am n`ay
F(x) = [x[ +C
(nˆe
´
u C
1
= C
2
= C) c˜ ung khˆong c´o da
.
o h`am ta
.
i diˆe

m x = 0. Do d´o
h`am signx (v`a do d´o mo
.
i h`am liˆen tu
.
c t` u
.
ng doa
.
n) khˆong c´ o da
.
o h`am
trˆen khoa’ ng bˆa´t k` y ch´ u
.
a diˆe

m gi´an doa
.
n.
c) Trˆen doa
.
n [−1, 1] h`am signx c´o nguyˆen h`am mo
.
’ rˆo
.
ng l`a h`am
F(x) = [x[ v`ı n´o liˆen tu
.
c trˆen doa
.
n [−1, 1] v`a F

(x) = f(x) khi x = 0.

V´ı du
.
2. T´ınh
a

0

a
2
−x
2
dx, a > 0.
Gia’ i. D˘a
.
t x = a sint. Nˆe
´
u t cha
.
y hˆe
´
t doa
.
n

0,
π
2

th`ı x cha
.
y hˆe
´
t
doa
.
n [0, a]. Do d´o
a

0

a
2
−x
2
dx =
π/2

0
a
2
cos
2
tdt = a
2
π/2

0
1 + cos 2t
2
dt
=
a
2
2
π/2

0
dt +
a
2
2
π/2

0
cos 2tdt =
a
2
π
4

V´ı du
.
3. T´ınh t´ıch phˆan
I =

2/2

0

1 +x
1 −x
dx.
64 Chu
.
o
.
ng 11. T´ıch phˆan x´ac di
.
nh Riemann
Gia’ i. Ta thu
.
.
c hiˆe
.
n ph´ep dˆo

i biˆe
´
n x = cos t. Ph´ep dˆo

i biˆe
´
n n`ay
tho’a m˜an c´ac diˆe
`
u kiˆe
.
n sau:
(1) x = ϕ(t) = cos t liˆen tu
.
c ∀t ∈ R
(2) Khi t biˆe
´
n thiˆen trˆen doa
.
n

π
4
,
π
4

th`ı x cha
.
y hˆe
´
t doa
.
n

0,

2
2

.
(3) ϕ

π
4

=

2
2
, ϕ

π
2

= 0.
(4) ϕ

(t) = −sint liˆen tu
.
c ∀t ∈

π
4
,
π
2

.
Nhu
.
vˆa
.
y ph´ep dˆo

i biˆe
´
n tho’a m˜an di
.
nh l´ y 11.2.4 v`a do d´o
x = cos t, dx = −sin tdt,
ϕ

π
2

= 0, ϕ

π
4

=

2
2

Nhu
.
vˆa
.
y
I =
π
4


π
2
cotg
t
2
(−sin t)dt =
π
2

π
4
(1 + cos t)dt
=

t + sin t

π/2
π/4
=
π
4
+ 1 −

2
2
.
V´ı du
.
4. T´ınh t´ıch phˆ an
I =

3/2

1/2
dx
x

1 −x
2

Gia’ i. Ta thu
.
.
c hiˆe
.
n ph´ep dˆo

i biˆe
´
n
x = sint ⇒dx = cos tdt
v`a biˆe

u th´ u
.
c du
.
´o
.
i dˆa´u t´ıch phˆan c´ o da
.
ng
cos tdt
sint

cos
2
t
=

dt
sint
nˆe
´
u cos t > 0,

dt
sint
nˆe
´
u cos t < 0.
11.2. Phu
.
o
.
ng ph´ap t´ınh t´ıch phˆan x´ac di
.
nh 65
C´ac cˆa
.
n α v`a β cu’ a t´ıch phˆan theo t du
.
o
.
.
c x´ac di
.
nh bo
.
’ i
1
2
= sint ⇒α =
π
6
,

3
2
= sint ⇒β =
π
3

(Ta c˜ ung c´o thˆe

lˆa´y α
1
=

6
v`a β
1
=

3
). Trong ca’ hai tru
.
`o
.
ng ho
.
.
p
biˆe
´
n x = sint dˆe
`
u cha
.
y hˆe
´
t doa
.
n [a, b] =

1
2
,

3
2

. Ta s˜e thˆa´y kˆe
´
t qua’
t´ıch phˆan l`a nhu
.
nhau. Thˆa
.
t vˆa
.
y trong tru
.
`o
.
ng ho
.
.
p th´ u
.
nhˆa´t ta c´ o
cos t > 0 v`a
I =
π/3

π/6
dt
sint
= lntg
t
2
π/3

π/6
= ln
2 +

3
3

Trong tru
.
`o
.
ng ho
.
.
p th´ u
.
hai t ∈


6
,

3

ta c´o cos t < 0 v`a
I = −
2π/3

5π/6
dt
sint
= −lntg
t
2

2π/3
5π/6
= ln
2 +

3
3

V´ı du
.
5. T´ınh t´ıch phˆan
I =
π/3

0
xsinx
cos
2
x
dx.
Gia’ i. Ta t´ınh b˘a
`
ng phu
.
o
.
ng ph´ap t´ıch phˆan t` u
.
ng phˆa
`
n.
D˘a
.
t
u = x ⇒du = dx,
dv =
sin xdx
cos
2
x
⇒v =
1
cos x

66 Chu
.
o
.
ng 11. T´ıch phˆan x´ac di
.
nh Riemann
Do d´o
I = x
1
cos x

π/3
0

π/3

0
dx
cos x
=
π
3 cos
π
3
−lntg

x
2
+
π
4

π/3
0
=

3
−lntg

π
6
+
π
4

+ lntg
π
4
=

3
−lntg

12

V´ı du
.
6. T´ınh t´ıch phˆ an
I =
1

0
x
2
(1 −x)
3
dx.
Gia’ i. Ta d˘a
.
t
u = x
2
, dv = (1 −x)
3
dx ⇒
du = 2xdx, v = −
(1 −x)
4
4

Do d´o
I = −x
2
(1 −x)
4
4

1
0
+
1

0
2x
(1 −x)
4
4
dx
. .. .
I
1
= 0 +I
1
.
T´ınh I
1
. T´ıch phˆan t` u
.
ng phˆa
`
n I
1
ta c´o
I
1
=
1
2
1

0
x(1 −x)
4
dx = −
1
2
x
(1 −x)
5
5

1
0
+
1
2
1

0
(1 −x)
5
5
dx
= 0 −
1
10
(1 −x)
6
6

1
0
=
1
60
⇒I =
1
60

V´ı du
.
7.
´
Ap du
.
ng cˆong th´ u
.
c Newton-Leibnitz dˆe

t´ınh t´ıch phˆan
1) I
1
=
100π

0

1 −cos 2xdx, 2) I
2
=
1

0
e
x
arc sin(e
−x
)dx.
11.2. Phu
.
o
.
ng ph´ap t´ınh t´ıch phˆan x´ac di
.
nh 67
Gia’ i. Ta c´o

1 −cos 2x =

2[ sinx[. Do d´o
100π

0

1 −cos 2xdx =

2
100π

0
[ sinx[dx
=

2

π

0
sin xdx −

π
sin xdx +


sinxdx −. . .
+ +
100π

99π
sinxdx

= −

2[2 + 2 + + 2] = 200

2.
2) Thu
.
.
c hiˆe
.
n ph´ep dˆo

i biˆe
´
n t = e
−x
, sau d´o ´ap du
.
ng phu
.
o
.
ng ph´ap
t´ıch phˆ an t` u
.
ng phˆa
`
n. Ta c´o

e
x
arc sin(e
−x
)dx = −

arc sin t
t
2
dt
=
1
t
arc sint −

dt
t

1 −t
2
=
1
t
arc sint +I
1
.
I
1
= −

dt
t

1 −t
2
=

d

1
t

1
t

2
−1
= ln

1
t
+

1
t
2
−1

+C.
Do d´o

e
x
arc sine
−x
dx =
arc sint
t
+ ln

1
t
+

1
t
2
−1

+C
= e
x
arc sine
−x
+ ln(e
x
+

e
2x
−1) +C
Nguyˆen h`am v` u
.
a thu du
.
o
.
.
c c´o gi´o
.
i ha
.
n h˜ u
.
u ha
.
n ta
.
i diˆe

m x = 0. do
d´o theo cˆong th´ u
.
c (11.3) ta c´o
1

0
e
x
arc sine
−x
dx = earc sine
−1

π
2
+ ln(e +

e
2
−1).
68 Chu
.
o
.
ng 11. T´ıch phˆan x´ac di
.
nh Riemann
V´ı du
.
8. T´ınh t´ıch phˆan Dirichlet
π/2

0
sin(2n −1)x
sinx
dx, n ∈ N.
Gia’ i. Ta c´o cˆong th´ u
.
c
1
2
+
n−1
¸
k=1
cos 2kx =
sin(2n −1)x
2 sin x

T` u
.
d´o v`a lu
.
u ´ y r˘a
`
ng
π/2

0
cos 2kxdx = 0, k = 1, 2, . . . , n −1 ta c´o
π/2

0
sin(2n −1)x
sin x
dx =
π
2

B
`
AI T
ˆ
A
.
P
T´ınh c´ac t´ıch phˆan sau dˆay b˘a
`
ng phu
.
o
.
ng ph´ap dˆo

i biˆe
´
n (1-14).
1.
5

0
xdx

1 + 3x
. (DS. 4)
2.
ln3

ln2
dx
e
x
−e
−x
. (DS.
ln
3
2
2
)
3.

3

1
(x
3
+ 1)dx
x
2

4 −x
2
. (DS.
7
2

3
−1). D˘a
.
t x = 2 sin t.
4.
π/2

0
dx
2 + cos x
. (DS.
π
3

3
)
11.2. Phu
.
o
.
ng ph´ap t´ınh t´ıch phˆan x´ac di
.
nh 69
5.
1

0
x
2
dx
(x + 1)
4
. (DS.
1
24
)
6.
ln2

0

e
x
−1dx. (DS.
4 −π
2
)
7.

7


3
x
3
dx
3

(x
2
+ 1)
2
. (DS. 3)
Chı ’ dˆa
˜
n. D˘a
.
t t = x
2
+ 1.
8.
e

1
4

1 + lnx
x
dx. (DS. 0, 8(2
4

2 −1))
Chı ’ dˆa
˜
n. D˘a
.
t t = 1 + lnx.
9.
+

3

−3
x
2

9 −x
2
dx. (DS.
81π
8
)
chı’ dˆa
˜
n. D˘a
.
t x = 3 cos t.
10.
3

0

x
6 −x
dx. (DS.
3(π −2)
2
)
Chı ’ dˆa
˜
n. D˘a
.
t x = 6 sin
2
t.
11.
π

0
sin
6
x
2
dx. (DS.

16
)
Chı ’ dˆa
˜
n. D˘a
.
t x = 2t.
12.
π/4

0
cos
7
2xdx. (DS.
8
35
)
Chı ’ dˆa
˜
n. D˘a
.
t x =
t
2
70 Chu
.
o
.
ng 11. T´ıch phˆan x´ac di
.
nh Riemann
13.

2/2

0

1 +x
1 −x
dx. (DS.
π
4
+ 1 −

2
2
)
Chı ’ dˆa
˜
n. D˘a
.
t x = cos t.
14.
29

3
3

(x −2)
2
3 +
3

(x −2)
2
dx. (DS. 8 +
3

3
2
π)
T´ınh c´ ac t´ıch phˆan sau dˆay b˘a
`
ng phu
.
o
.
ng ph´ap t´ıch phˆan t` u
.
ng
phˆa
`
n (15-32).
15.
1

0
x
3
arctgxdx. (DS.
1
6
)
16.
e

1/e
[ lnx[dx. (DS. 2(1 −1/e))
17.
π

0
e
x
sinxdx. (DS.
1
2
(e
π
+ 1))
18.
1

0
x
3
e
2x
dx. (DS.
e
2
+ 3
8
)
19.
1

0
arc sinx

1 +x
dx. (DS. π

2 −4)
20.
π/4

0
ln(1 + tgx)dx. (DS.
π ln2
8
)
21.
π/b

0
e
ax
sin bxdx. (DS.
b
a
2
+b
2

e
πa
b
+ 1

)
22.
1

0
e
−x
ln(e
x
+ 1)dx. (DS. −
1 +e
e
ln(e + 1) + 2 ln 2 + 1)
11.2. Phu
.
o
.
ng ph´ap t´ınh t´ıch phˆan x´ac di
.
nh 71
23.
π/2

0
sin2x arctg(sinx)dx. (DS.
π
2
−1)
24.
2

1
sin(lnx)dx. (DS. sin(ln2) −cos(ln2) +
1
2
)
25.
π

0
x
3
sin xdx. (DS. π
3
−6π)
26.
2

1
xlog
2
xdx. (DS. 2 −
3
4 ln 2
)
27.
a

7

0
x
3
3

a
2
+x
2
dx. (DS.
141a
3 3

a
20
)
28.
a

0

a
2
−x
2
dx. (DS.
πa
2
4
)
29.
π/2

π/6
x + sin x
1 + cos x
dx. (DS.
π
6
(1 +

3))
30.
π/2

0
sin
m
xcos(m+ 2)xdx. (DS. −
cos

2
m+ 1
)
31.
π/2

0
cos
m
xcos(m+ 2)xdx. (DS. 0)
32.
π/2

0
cos xcos 2nxdx. (DS.
π
4n
(−1)
n−1
)
72 Chu
.
o
.
ng 11. T´ıch phˆan x´ac di
.
nh Riemann
33. T´ınh
2

0
f(x)dx, trong d´o
f(x) =

x
2
khi 0 x 1
2 −x khi 1 x 2
b˘a
`
ng hai phu
.
o
.
ng ph´ap; a) su
.
’ du
.
ng nguyˆen h`am cu’ a f(x) trˆen doa
.
n
[0, 2]; b) chia doa
.
n [0, 2] th`anh hai doa
.
n [0, 1] v`a [1, 2]. (DS.
5
6
)
34. Ch´ u
.
ng minh r˘a
`
ng nˆe
´
u f(x) liˆen tu
.
c trˆen doa
.
n [−, ] th`ı
(i)


f(x)dx = 2

0
f(x)dx khi f(x) l`a h`am ch˘a
˜
n;
(ii)


f(x)dx = 0 khi f(x) l`a h`am le’.
35. Ch´ u
.
ng minh r˘a
`
ng ∀m, n ∈ Z c´ac d˘a

ng th´ u
.
c sau dˆay du
.
o
.
.
c tho’a
m˜an:
(i)
π

−π
sin mxcos nxdx = 0.
(ii)
π

−π
cos mxcos nxdx = 0, m = n.
(iii)
π

−π
sin mxsinnxdx = 0, m = n.
36. Ch´ u
.
ng minh d˘a

ng th´ u
.
c
b

a
f(x)dx =
b

a
f(a +b −x)dx.
Chı ’ dˆa
˜
n. D˘a
.
t x = a +b −t.
11.2. Phu
.
o
.
ng ph´ap t´ınh t´ıch phˆan x´ac di
.
nh 73
37. Ch´ u
.
ng minh d˘a

ng th´ u
.
c
π/2

0
f(cos x)dx =
π/2

0
f(sinx)dx.
Chı ’ dˆa
˜
n. D˘a
.
t t =
π
2
−x.
38. Ch´ u
.
ng minh r˘a
`
ng nˆe
´
u f(x) liˆen tu
.
c khi x 0 th`ı
a

0
x
3
f(x
2
)dx =
1
2
a
2

0
xf(x)dx.
39. Ch´ u
.
ng minh r˘a
`
ng nˆe
´
u f(t) l`a h`am le’ th`ı
x

a
f(t)dt l`a h`am ch˘a
˜
n,
t´ u
.
c l` a
−x

a
f(t)dt =
x

a
f(t)dt.
Chı ’ dˆa
˜
n. D˘a
.
t t = −x v`a biˆe

u diˆe
˜
n
−x

−a
f(t)dt =
a

−a
+
−x

a
v`a su
.
’ du
.
ng t´ınh ch˘a
˜
n le’ cu’ a h`am f.
T´ınh c´ac t´ıch phˆan sau dˆay (40-65) b˘a
`
ng c´ach ´ap du
.
ng cˆong th´ u
.
c
Newton-Leibnitz.
40.
5

0
xdx

1 + 3x
. (DS. 4)
41.
ln3

ln2
dx
e
x
−e
−x
. (DS.
ln1, 5
2
)
74 Chu
.
o
.
ng 11. T´ıch phˆan x´ac di
.
nh Riemann
42.

3

0
(x
3
+ 1)dx
x
2

4 −x
2
. (DS.
7
2

3
−1)
43.
π/2

0
dx
2 + cos x
. (DS.
π
3

3
)
44.
ln2

0

e
x
−1dx. (DS.
4 −π
2
)
45.

7


3
x
3
dx
3

(x
2
+ 1)
2
. (DS. 3)
46.
e

1
4

1 + lnx
x
dx. (DS. 0, 8(2
4

2 −1))
47.
3

−3
x
2

9 −x
2
dx. (DS.
81π
8
)
48.
3

0

x
6 −x
dx. (DS.
3(π −2)
2
)
Chı ’ dˆa
˜
n. D˘a
.
t x = 6 sin
2
t.
49.
4

3
x
2
+ 3
x −2
dx. (DS.
11
2
+ 7ln2)
50.
−1

−2
x + 1
x
2
(x −1)
dx. (DS. 2 ln
4
3

1
2
)
51.
1

0
(x
2
+ 3x)dx
(x + 1)(x
2
+ 1)
. (DS.
π
4
)
11.2. Phu
.
o
.
ng ph´ap t´ınh t´ıch phˆan x´ac di
.
nh 75
52.
1

0
dx

x
2
+ 2x + 2
. (DS. ln
2 +

5
1 +

2
)
53.
4

0
dx
1 +

2x + 1
. (DS. 2 −ln2)
54.
2

1
e
1
x
x
3
dx. (DS.
1
2
(e −e
1
4
))
55.
e

1
dx
x(1 + ln
2
x)
. (DS.
π
4
)
56.
e

1
cos(lnx)
x
dx. (DS. sin 1)
57.
1

0
xe
−x
dx. (DS. 1 −
2
e
)
58.
π/3

π/4
xdx
sin
2
x
. (DS.
π(9 −4

3)
36
)
59.
3

1
lnxdx. (DS. 3 ln3 −2)
60.
2

1
xlnxdx. (DS. 2 ln 2 −
3
4
)
61.
1/2

0
arc sinxdx. (DS.
π
12
+

3
2
−1)
62.
π

0
x
3
sin xdx. (DS. π
3
−6π)
76 Chu
.
o
.
ng 11. T´ıch phˆan x´ac di
.
nh Riemann
63.
π/2

0
e
2x
cos xdx. (DS.
e
π
−2
5
)
64.
2

0
[1 −x[dx. (DS. 1)
65.
b

a
[x[
x
dx. (DS. [b[ −[a[)
T´ınh c´ac t´ıch phˆan sau dˆay
66.
a/b

0
dx
a
2
+b
2
x
=
π
4ab
67.
1

0
x
2
dx

4 + 2x
=
9
5

6 −
64
15
68.
2

0
dx
x
2
+ 5x + 4
=
1
3
ln
5
4
69.
1

0
dx
x
2
−x + 1
=

3

3
70.
1

0
(x
2
+ 1)
x
4
+x
2
+ 1
dx =
π
2

2
71.
pi/2

0
dx
1 + cos x
= 1
72.
1

0

x
2
+ 1dx =
1

2
+
1
2
ln(1 +

2)
11.2. Phu
.
o
.
ng ph´ap t´ınh t´ıch phˆan x´ac di
.
nh 77
73.
1

0

1 −
3

x
2

3/2
dx =

32
D˘a
.
t x = sin
3
ϕ.
74.
a

0
x
2

a −x
a +x
dx =

π
4

2
3

a
2
, a > 0.
D˘a
.
t x = a cos ϕ.
75.
2a

0

2ax −x
2
dx =
πa
2
2
D˘a
.
t x = 2a sin
2
ϕ.
76.
1

0
ln(1 +x)
1 +x
2
dx =
π
8
ln2.
Chı ’ dˆa
˜
n. D˘a
.
t x = tgt rˆo
`
i ´ap du
.
ng cˆong th´ u
.
c
sint + cos t =

2 cos

π
4
−t

77.
π

0
xsin x
1 + cos
2
x
dx =
π
2
4
Chı ’ dˆa
˜
n. Biˆe

u diˆe
˜
n
π

0
=
π/2

0
+
π

π/2
rˆo
`
i thu
.
.
c hiˆe
.
n ph´ep dˆo

i biˆe
´
n trong
t´ıch phˆ an t` u
.
π/2 dˆe
´
n π.
78.
π

−π
3

sinxdx = 0
79.
π

−π
e
x
2
sinxdx = 0
78 Chu
.
o
.
ng 11. T´ıch phˆan x´ac di
.
nh Riemann
80.
π/2

−π/2
(cos
2
x +x
2
sinx)dx =
π
2
81.
1

−1
(e
x
+e
−x
)tgxdx = 0
82.
pi/2

0
sinxsin2x sin3xdx =
1
6
83.
e

1/e
[ lnx[dx = 2(1 −e
−1
)
84.
π

0
e
x
cos
2
xdx =
3
5
(e
π
−1)
85.
e

1
(1 + lnx)
2
dx = 2e −1
Chı ’ dˆa
˜
n. T´ıch phˆan t` u
.
ng phˆa
`
n.
11.3 Mˆo
.
t sˆo
´
´ u
.
ng du
.
ng cu

a t´ıch phˆan x´ac
di
.
nh
11.3.1 Diˆe
.
n t´ıch h`ınh ph˘a

ng v`a thˆe

t´ıch vˆa
.
t thˆe

1 Diˆe
.
n t´ıch h`ınh ph˘a

ng
1
+
. Diˆe
.
n t´ıch h`ınh thang cong D gi´o
.
i ha
.
n bo
.
’ i du
.
`o
.
ng cong L c´o
phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh y = f(x), f(x) 0 ∀x ∈ [a, b] v` a c´ac du
.
`o
.
ng th˘a

ng
11.3. Mˆo
.
t sˆo´ ´ u
.
ng du
.
ng cu’ a t´ıch phˆan x´ac di
.
nh 79
x = a, x = b v`a tru
.
c Ox du
.
o
.
.
c t´ınh theo cˆ ong th´ u
.
c
S
D
=
b

a
f(x)dx. (11.6)
Nˆe
´
u f(x) 0 ∀x ∈ [a, b] th`ı
S
D
= −
b

a
f(x)dx (11.6*)
Nˆe
´
u d´ay h`ınh thang cong n˘a
`
m trˆen tru
.
c Oy th`ı
S
D
=
d

c
g(y)dy, x = g(y), y ∈ [c, d].
2
+
Nˆe
´
u du
.
`o
.
ng cong L du
.
o
.
.
c cho bo
.
’ i phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh tham sˆo´x = ϕ(t),
y = ψ(t), t ∈ [α, β] th`ı
S
D
=
β

α
ψ(t)ϕ

(t)dt. (11.7)
3
+
Diˆe
.
n t´ıch cu’ a h`ınh qua
.
t gi´o
.
i ha
.
n bo
.
’ i du
.
`o
.
ng cong cho du
.
´o
.
i da
.
ng
to
.
a dˆo
.
cu
.
.
c ρ = f(ϕ) v` a c´ac tia ϕ = ϕ
0
v`a ϕ = ϕ
1
du
.
o
.
.
c t´ınh theo cˆong
th´ u
.
c
S
Q
=
1
2
ϕ
1

ϕ
0
[f(ϕ)]
2
dϕ. (11.8)
4
+
Nˆe
´
u miˆe
`
n D = ¦(x, y) : a x b; f
1
(x) y f
2
(x)¦ th`ı
S
D
=
b

a
[f
2
(x) −f
1
(x)]dx. (11.9)
80 Chu
.
o
.
ng 11. T´ıch phˆan x´ac di
.
nh Riemann
2. Thˆe

t´ıch vˆa
.
t thˆe

1
+
Nˆe
´
u biˆe
´
t du
.
o
.
.
c diˆe
.
n t´ıch S(x) cu’ a thiˆe
´
t diˆe
.
n ta
.
o nˆen bo
.
’ i vˆa
.
t thˆe

v`a m˘a
.
t ph˘a

ng vuˆong g´ oc v´o
.
i tru
.
c Ox ta
.
i diˆe

m c´o ho`anh dˆo
.
x th`ı khi
x thay dˆo

i mˆo
.
t da
.
i lu
.
o
.
.
ng b˘a
`
ng dx th`ı vi phˆan cu’ a thˆe

t´ıch b˘a
`
ng
dv = S(x)dx,
v`a thˆe

t´ıch to`an vˆ a
.
t thˆe

du
.
o
.
.
c t´ınh theo cˆ ong th´ u
.
c
V =
b

a
S(x)dx (11.10)
trong d´o [a, b] l`a h`ınh chiˆe
´
u vuˆong g´oc cu’ a vˆa
.
t thˆe

lˆen tru
.
c Ox.
2
+
Nˆe
´
u vˆa
.
t thˆe

du
.
o
.
.
c ta
.
o nˆen do ph´ep quay h`ınh thang cong gi´o
.
i
ha
.
n bo
.
’ i du
.
`o
.
ng cong y = f(x), f(x) 0 ∀x ∈ [a, b], tru
.
c Ox v`a c´ac
du
.
`o
.
ng th˘a

ng x = a, x = b xung quanh tru
.
c Ox th`ı diˆe
.
n t´ıch vˆa
.
t thˆe

tr`on xoay d´o du
.
o
.
.
c t´ınh theo cˆ ong th´ u
.
c
V
x
= π
b

a
[f(x)]
2
dx. (11.11)
Nˆe
´
u quay h`ınh thang cong xung quanh tru
.
c Oy th`ı vˆa
.
t tr`on xoay
thu du
.
o
.
.
c c´ o thˆe

t´ıch
V
y
= π
d

c
[x(y)]
2
dy, x = x(y); [c, d] = pr
Oy
V. (11.12)
3
+
Nˆe
´
u h`am y = f(x) du
.
o
.
.
c cho bo
.
’ i c´ac phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh tham sˆo´
x = x(t)
y = y(t), t ∈ [α, β]
11.3. Mˆo
.
t sˆo´ ´ u
.
ng du
.
ng cu’ a t´ıch phˆan x´ac di
.
nh 81
tho’a m˜an nh˜ u
.
ng diˆe
`
u kiˆe
.
n n`ao d´o th`ı thˆe

t´ıch vˆa
.
t thˆe

ta
.
o nˆen bo
.
’ i
ph´ep quay h`ınh thang cong xung quanh tru
.
c Ox b˘a
`
ng
V
x
= π
β

α
y
2
(t)x

(t)dt (11.13)
4
+
Nˆe
´
u h`ınh thang cong du
.
o
.
.
c gi´o
.
i ha
.
n bo
.
’ i c´ ac du
.
`o
.
ng cong 0
y
1
(x) y
2
(x) ∀x ∈ [a, b], trong d´o y
1
(x) v`a y
2
(x) liˆen tu
.
c trˆen [a, b]
th`ı thˆe

t´ıch vˆa
.
t thˆe

ta
.
o nˆen do ph´ep quay h`ınh thang d´o xung quanh
tru
.
c Ox b˘a
`
ng
V
x
= π
b

a

(y
2
(x))
2
−(y
1
(x))
2

dx. (11.14)
5
+
Dˆo´i v´o
.
i vˆa
.
t thˆe

thu du
.
o
.
.
c bo
.
’ i ph´ep quay h`ınh thang cong xung
quanh tru
.
c Oy v`a tho’a m˜an mˆo
.
t sˆo´ diˆe
`
u kiˆe
.
n tu
.
o
.
ng tu
.
.
ta c´o
V
y
= π
β

α
x
2
(t)y

(t)dt (11.15)
V
y
= π
d

c

(x
2
(y))
2
−(x
1
(y))
2

dy. (11.16)
C
´
AC V
´
I DU
.
V´ı du
.
1. T`ım diˆe
.
n t´ıch h`ınh ph˘a

ng gi´o
.
i ha
.
n bo
.
’ i du
.
`o
.
ng astroid
x = a cos
3
t, y = a sin
3
t.
Gia’ i.
´
Ap du
.
ng cˆong th´ u
.
c (11.7). V`ı du
.
`o
.
ng astroid dˆo´i x´ u
.
ng qua
82 Chu
.
o
.
ng 11. T´ıch phˆan x´ac di
.
nh Riemann
c´ac tru
.
c to
.
a dˆo
.
(h˜ay v˜e h`ınh !) nˆen
S = 4S
1
= 4
0

π/2
a sin
3
t 3a cos
2
t(−sint)dt
= 12a
2
π/2

0
sin
4
t cos
2
tdt
=
3
2
a
2
π/2

0
(1 −cos 2t)(1 −cos
2
2t)dt
=
3πa
3
8

V´ı du
.
2. Trˆen hypecbon x
2
− y
2
= a
2
cho diˆe

m M(x
0
, y
0
) x
0
> 0,
y
0
> 0. T´ınh diˆe
.
n t´ıch h`ınh ph˘a

ng gi´o
.
i ha
.
n bo
.
’ i tru
.
c Ox, hypecbˆon v`a
tia OM.
Gia’ i. Ta chuyˆe

n sang to
.
a dˆo
.
cu
.
.
c theo cˆong th´ u
.
c x = r cos ϕ,
y = r sinϕ. Khi d´o phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh hypecbˆon c´ o da
.
ng
r
2
=
a
2
cos
2
ϕ −sin
2
ϕ
=
a
2
cos 2ϕ

D˘a
.
t tgα =
y
0
x
0
v`a lu
.
u ´ y r˘a
`
ng x
2
0
−y
2
0
= a
2
ta thu du
.
o
.
.
c
S =
1
2
α

0
r
2
dϕ =
a
2
2
α

0

cos 2ϕ
=
a
2
4
ln
1 + tgα
1 −tgα
=
a
2
4
ln
(x
0
+y
0
)
2
a
2
=
a
2
2
ln
x
0
+y
0
a

O
.

dˆay ta d˜a su
.
’ du
.
ng cˆong th´ u
.
c

dt
cos t
= ln

tg

t
2
+
π
4

+C.
11.3. Mˆo
.
t sˆo´ ´ u
.
ng du
.
ng cu’ a t´ıch phˆan x´ac di
.
nh 83
V´ı du
.
3. T´ınh diˆe
.
n t´ıch h`ınh ph˘a

ng gi´o
.
i ha
.
n bo
.
’ i c´ac du
.
`o
.
ng c´ o phu
.
o
.
ng
tr`ınh x
2
+y
2
= 2y, x
2
+y
2
= 4y; y = x v`a y = −x.
Gia’ i. Du
.
a phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh du
.
`o
.
ng tr`on vˆe
`
da
.
ng ch´ınh t˘a
´
c ta c´o:
x
2
+ (y −1)
2
= 1 v`a x
2
+ (y −2)
2
= 4. D´o l`a hai du
.
`o
.
ng tr`on tiˆe
´
p x´ uc
trong ta
.
i tiˆe
´
p diˆe

m O(0, 0). T` u
.
d´o miˆe
`
n ph˘a

ng D gi´o
.
i ha
.
n bo
.
’ i c´ ac
du
.
`o
.
ng d˜a cho dˆo´i x´ u
.
ng qua tru
.
c Oy. L`o
.
i gia’ i s˜e du
.
o
.
.
c do
.
n gia’ n ho
.
n
nˆe
´
u ta chuyˆe

n sang to
.
a dˆo
.
cu
.
.
c (v´o
.
i tru
.
c cu
.
.
c tr` ung v´o
.
i hu
.
´o
.
ng du
.
o
.
ng
cu’ a tru
.
c ho`anh):
x = r cos ϕ
y = r sinϕ

x
2
+y
2
= 2y ⇒r = 2 sinϕ,
x
2
+y
2
= 4y ⇒r = 4 sinϕ,
v`a
D =

(r, ϕ) :
π
4
ϕ

4
; 2 sinϕ r 4 sinϕ
¸
.
K´ y hiˆe
.
u S

l`a diˆe
.
n t´ıch phˆa
`
n h`ınh tr`on gi´o
.
i ha
.
n bo
.
’ i du
.
`o
.
ng tr`on x
2
+
y
2
= 4y (t´ u
.
c l`a r = 4 sin ϕ) v`a hai tia ϕ =
π
4
v`a ϕ =

4
; S l`a diˆe
.
n
t´ıch phˆ an h`ınh tr`on gi´o
.
i ha
.
n bo
.
’ i x
2
+ y
2
= 2y (t´ u
.
c l`a r = 2 sin ϕ) v`a
hai tia d˜a nˆeu. Khi d´o
S
D
= S

−S = 2

1
2
π/2

π/4
(4 sinϕ)
2
dϕ −
1
2
π/2

π/4
(2 sinϕ)
2

= 12
π/2

π/4
sin
2
ϕdϕ =

2
+ 3.
V´ı du
.
4. T´ınh thˆe

t´ıch vˆa
.
t tr`on xoay ta
.
o nˆen do ph´ep quay h`ınh
thang cong gi´o
.
i ha
.
n bo
.
’ i c´ac du
.
`o
.
ng y = ±b,
x
2
a
2

y
2
b
2
= 1 xung quanh
tru
.
c Oy.
Gia’ i. Do t´ınh dˆo´i x´ u
.
ng cu’ a vˆa
.
t tr`on xoay dˆo´i v´o
.
i m˘a
.
t ph˘a

ng xOz
(ba
.
n do
.
c h˜ay tu
.
.
v˜e h`ınh) ta chı ’ cˆa
`
n t´ınh nu
.
’ a bˆen pha’ i m˘a
.
t ph˘a

ng xOz
84 Chu
.
o
.
ng 11. T´ıch phˆan x´ac di
.
nh Riemann
l`a du’ . Ta c´o
V = 2V
1
= 2π
b

0
x
2
dy = 2πa
2
b

0

1 +
y
2
b
2

dy
= 2πa
2

y +
y
3
3b
2

b
0
=
8
3
πa
2
b.
V´ı du
.
5. T´ınh thˆe

t´ıch vˆa
.
t thˆe

lˆa
.
p nˆen do quay astroid x = a cos
3
t,
y = a sin
3
t, 0 t 2π xung quanh tru
.
c Ox.
Gia’ i. Du
.
`o
.
ng astroid dˆo´i x´ u
.
ng dˆo´i v´o
.
i c´ac tru
.
c Ox v`a Oy. Do d´o
V
x
= π
a

−a
y
2
dx = 2π
a

0
y
2
dx
y
2
= a
2
sin
6
t, dx = −3a cos
2
t sintdt
t =
π
2
khi x = 0, t = 0 khi x = a.
Do d´o
V = 2π
a

0
y
2
dx = −6a
3
π
0

π/2
sin
6
t cos
2
t sintdt
= 6a
3
π
0

π/2
(1 −cos
2
t)
3
cos
2
t(−sintdt)
= 6a
3
π
0

π/2
(cos
2
t −3 cos
4
t + 3 cos
6
t −cos
8
t)(d(cos t)
= =
32
105
πa
3
.
V´ı du
.
6. T´ınh thˆe

t´ıch vˆa
.
t thˆe

gi´o
.
i ha
.
n bo
.
’ i hypecboloid mˆo
.
t tˆa
`
ng
x
2
a
2
+
y
2
b
2

z
2
c
2
= 1
11.3. Mˆo
.
t sˆo´ ´ u
.
ng du
.
ng cu’ a t´ıch phˆan x´ac di
.
nh 85
v`a c´ac m˘a
.
t ph˘a

ng z = 0, z = h (h > 0).
Gia’ i. Ta s˜e ´ap du
.
ng cˆong th´ u
.
c (11.10), trong d´o ta x´et c´ac thiˆe
´
t
diˆe
.
n ta
.
o nˆen bo
.
’ i c´ac m˘a
.
t ph˘a

ng vuˆong g´oc v´o
.
i tru
.
c Oz. Khi d´o (11.10)
c´o da
.
ng
V =
h

0
S(z)dz,
trong d´o S(z) l`a diˆe
.
n t´ıch cu’ a thiˆe
´
t diˆe
.
n phu
.
thuˆo
.
c v`ao z. Khi c˘ a
´
t vˆ a
.
t
thˆe

bo
.
’ i m˘a
.
t ph˘a

ng z = const ta thu du
.
o
.
.
c elip v´o
.
i phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh
x
2
a
2
+
y
2
b
2
= 1 +
z
2
c
2
z = const

x
2
a
2

1 +
z
2
c
2

+
y
2
b
2

1 +
z
2
c
2

= 1
z = const
T` u
.
d´o suy r˘a
`
ng
a
1
=

a
2

1 +
z
2
c
2

, b
1
=

b
2

1 +
z
2
c
2

l`a c´ac b´an tru
.
c cu’ a elip. Nhu
.
ng ta biˆe
´
t r˘a
`
ng diˆe
.
n t´ıch h`ınh elip v´o
.
i
b´an tru
.
c a
1
, b
1
l`a πa
1
b
1
(c´o thˆe

t´ınh b˘a
`
ng cˆong th´ u
.
c (11.7) dˆo´i v´o
.
i elip
c´o phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh tham sˆo´ x = a
1
cos t, y = b
1
sin t, t ∈ [0, 2π]).
Nhu
.
vˆa
.
y
S(z) = πab

1 +
z
2
c
2

, z ∈ [0, h].
T` u
.
d´o theo cˆong th´ u
.
c (11.10) ta c´ o
V =
h

0
πab

1 +
z
2
c
2

dz = πabh

1 +
h
2
3c
2

.
V´ı du
.
7. T´ınh thˆe

t´ıch vˆa
.
t thˆe

thu du
.
o
.
.
c bo
.
’ i ph´ep quay h`ınh ph˘a

ng
gi´o
.
i ha
.
n bo
.
’ i du
.
`o
.
ng y = 4 − x
2
v`a y = 0 xung quanh du
.
`o
.
ng th˘a

ng
x = 3 (h˜ay v˜e h`ınh).
86 Chu
.
o
.
ng 11. T´ıch phˆan x´ac di
.
nh Riemann
Gia’ i. Vˆa
.
t tr`on xoay thu du
.
o
.
.
c c´o t´ınh chˆa´t l`a mo
.
i thiˆe
´
t diˆe
.
n ta
.
o
bo
.
’ i m˘a
.
t ph˘a

ng vuˆong g´ oc v´o
.
i tru
.
c quay dˆe
`
u l`a v`anh tr`on gi´o
.
i ha
.
n bo
.
’ i
c´ac du
.
`o
.
ng tr`on dˆo
`
ng tˆam. X´et thiˆe
´
t diˆe
.
n c´ach gˆo´c to
.
a dˆo
.
khoa’ ng b˘a
`
ng
y (0 y 4). Ta c´o
S = πR
2
−πr
2
= π[(3 +x)
2
−(3 −x)
2
] = 12πx = 12π

4 −y
v`ı x l`a ho`anh dˆo
.
cu’ a diˆe

m trˆen parabˆon d˜a cho. Khi y thay dˆo

i da
.
i
lu
.
o
.
.
ng dy th`ı vi phˆan thˆe

t´ıch
dv = S(y)dy = 12π

4 −ydy.
Do d´o thˆe

t´ıch to`an vˆa
.
t b˘a
`
ng
V = 12π
4

0

4 −ydy = 8π(4 −y)
3/2

0
4
= 64π.
V´ı du
.
8. T`ım thˆe

t´ıch vˆa
.
t thˆe

gi´o
.
i ha
.
n bo
.
’ i c´ac m˘a
.
t x
2
+ y
2
= R
2
;
y = 0, z = 0,
x
R
+
z
h
−1 = 0,
x
R

z
h
−1 = 0.
Gia’ i. Do t´ınh dˆo´i x´ u
.
ng (h˜ay v˜e h`ınh) cu’ a vˆa
.
t thˆe

dˆo´i v´o
.
i m˘a
.
t
ph˘a

ng x = 0 nˆen ta chı ’ cˆa
`
n t´ınh thˆe

t´ıch phˆa
`
n n˘a
`
m trong g´oc phˆa
`
n
t´am th´ u
.
nhˆa´t. Mo
.
i thiˆe
´
t diˆe
.
n ta
.
o nˆen bo
.
’ i c´ac m˘a
.
t ph˘a

ng ⊥ Ox dˆe
`
u
l`a h`ınh ch˜ u
.
nhˆa
.
t ABCD v´o
.
i OA = x. Khi d´o
S(x) = S
ABCD
= AB AD =
h
R
(R −x)

R
2
−x
2
.
T` u
.
d´o thu du
.
o
.
.
c
V = 2
R

0
S(x)dx = 2
h
R
R

0
(R −x)

R
2
−x
2
dx (d˘a
.
t x = Rsint)
= 2hR
2
π/2

0
(1 −sint) cos
2
tdt =
hR
2
(3π −4)
6

11.3. Mˆo
.
t sˆo´ ´ u
.
ng du
.
ng cu’ a t´ıch phˆan x´ac di
.
nh 87
B
`
AI T
ˆ
A
.
P
Trong c´ac b`ai to´an sau dˆay (1-17) t´ınh diˆe
.
n t´ıch c´ac h`ınh ph˘a

ng
gi´o
.
i ha
.
n bo
.
’ i c´ac du
.
`o
.
ng d˜a chı ’ ra.
1. y = 6x −x
2
−7, y = x −3. (DS.
9
2
)
2. y = 6x −x
2
, y = 0. (DS. 36)
3. 4y = 8x −x
2
, 4y = x + 6. (DS. 5
5
24
)
4. y = 4 −x
2
, y = x
2
−2x. (DS. 9)
5. 6x = y
3
−16y, 24x = y
3
−16y. (DS. 16)
6. y = 1 −e
x
, x = 2, y = 0. (DS. e
2
−3)
7. y = x
2
−6x + 10, y = 6x −x
2
; x = −1. (DS. 21
1
3
)
8. y = arc sin x, y = ±
π
2
, x = 0. (DS. 2)
9. y = e
x
, y = e
−x
, x = 1. (DS.
(e −1)
2
e
)
10. y
2
= 2px, x
2
= 2py. (DS.
4
3
p
2
)
11. x
2
+y
2
+ 6x −2y + 8 = 0, y = x
2
+ 6x + 10
(DS. S
1
=
3π + 2
6
, S
2
=
9π −2
6
)
12. x = a(t −sint), y = a(1 −cos t), t ∈ [0, 2π]. (DS. 3πa
2
)
Chı ’ dˆa
˜
n. Dˆay l`a phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh tham sˆo´ cu’ a du
.
`o
.
ng xycloid.
13. x = a cos
3
t, y = a sin
3
t, t ∈ [0, 2π]. (DS.
3πa
2
8
)
14. x = a cos t, y = b sin t, t ∈ [0, 2π]. (DS. πab)
15. Du
.
`o
.
ng lemniscate Bernoulli ρ
2
= a
2
cos 2ϕ. (DS. a
2
)
16. Du
.
`o
.
ng h`ınh tim (Cacdioid) ρ = a(1 + cos ϕ).
(DS.
3πa
2
2
)
88 Chu
.
o
.
ng 11. T´ıch phˆan x´ac di
.
nh Riemann
17

C´ac du
.
`o
.
ng tr`on ρ = 2

3a cos ϕ, ρ = 2a sinϕ.
(DS. a
2

5
6
π −

3

)
Trong c´ ac b`ai to´an sau (18-22) h˜ay t´ınh thˆe

t´ıch vˆa
.
t thˆe

theo diˆe
.
n
t´ıch c´ac thiˆe
´
t diˆe
.
n song song.
18. Thˆe

t´ıch h`ınh elipxoid
x
2
a
2
+
y
3
b
2
+
z
2
c
2
= 1. (DS.
4
3
πabc)
19. Thˆe

t´ıch vˆa
.
t thˆe

gi´o
.
i ha
.
n bo
.
’ i m˘a
.
t tru
.
x
2
+y
2
= a
2
, y
2
+z
2
= a
2
.
(DS.
16
3
a
3
)
Chı ’ dˆa
˜
n. Do t´ınh dˆo´i x´ u
.
ng, chı ’ cˆa
`
n t´ınh thˆe

t´ıch mˆo
.
t phˆa
`
n t´am
vˆa
.
t thˆe

v´o
.
i x > 0, y > 0, z > 0 l`a du’ . C´ o thˆe

lˆa´y c´ac thiˆe
´
t diˆe
.
n song
song v´o
.
i m˘a
.
t ph˘a

ng xOz. D´o l`a c´ac h`ınh vuˆong.
20. Thˆe

t´ıch vˆa
.
t thˆe

h`ınh n´on v´o
.
i b´an k´ınh d´ay R v`a chiˆe
`
u cao h.
(DS.
πR
2
h
3
)
Chı ’ dˆa
˜
n. Di
.
ch chuyˆe

n h`ınh n´on vˆe
`
vi
.
tr´ı v´o
.
i dı ’nh ta
.
i gˆo´c to
.
a dˆo
.
v`a tru
.
c dˆo´i x´ u
.
ng l`a Ox. Thiˆe
´
t diˆe
.
n cˆa
`
n t`ım l`a h`ınh tr`on v´o
.
i b´an k´ınh
r(x) =
R
x
x (?).
21. Thˆe

t´ıch vˆa
.
t thˆe

gi´o
.
i ha
.
n bo
.
’ i c´ac m˘a
.
t n´on
(z −2)
2
=
x
2
3
+
y
2
2
v`a m˘a
.
t ph˘a

ng z = 0.
(DS.


6
3
)
22. Thˆe

t´ıch vˆa
.
t thˆe

gi´ o
.
i ha
.
n bo
.
’ i m˘a
.
t tru
.
partabolic z = 4 −y
2
, c´ac
m˘a
.
t ph˘a

ng to
.
a dˆo
.
v`a m˘a
.
t ph˘a

ng x = a. (DS.
16a
3
)
Trong c´ ac b`ai to´an sau dˆay (23-34) h˜ay t´ınh thˆe

t´ıch cu’ a vˆa
.
t tr`on
xoay thu du
.
o
.
.
c bo
.
’ i ph´ep quay h`ınh ph˘a

ng D gi´o
.
i ha
.
n bo
.
’ i du
.
`o
.
ng (c´ac
du
.
`o
.
ng) cho tru
.
´o
.
c xung quanh tru
.
c cho tru
.
´o
.
c
23. D : y
2
= 2px, x = a; xung quanh tru
.
c Ox. (DS. πpa
2
)
11.3. Mˆo
.
t sˆo´ ´ u
.
ng du
.
ng cu’ a t´ıch phˆan x´ac di
.
nh 89
24. D :
x
2
a
2
+
y
2
b
2
1 (b < a) xung quanh tru
.
c Oy. (DS.

3
a
2
b)
25. D :
x
2
a
2
+
y
2
b
2
1 (b < a) xung quanh tru
.
c Ox. (DS.

3
ab
2
)
26. D : 2y = x
2
; 2x+2y −3 = 0 xung quanh tru
.
c Ox. (DS. 18
2
15
π)
27. D : x
2
+y
2
= 1; x +y = 1 xung quanh tru
.
c Ox. (DS.
π
3
)
28. D : x
2
+y
2
= 4, x = −1, x = 1, y > 0 xung quanh tru
.
c Ox.
(DS. 8π)
29. D : y = sinx, 0 x π, y = 0 xung quanh tru
.
c Ox. (DS.
π
2
2
)
30. D :
x
2
a
2

y
2
b
2
= 1, y = 0, y = b xung quanh tru
.
c Oy. (DS.
4
3
πa
2
b)
31. D : y
2
+x −4 = 0, x = 0 xung quanh tru
.
c Oy. (DS. 34
2
15
π)
32. D : xy = 4, y = 0, x = 1, x = 4 xung quanh tru
.
c Ox. (DS. 12π)
33. D : x
2
+ (y −b)
2
R
2
(0 < R b) xung quanh tru
.
c Ox.
(DS. 2π
2
bR
2
)
Chı ’ dˆa
˜
n. H`ınh tr`on D c´o thˆe

xem nhu
.
hiˆe
.
u cu’ a hai thang cong
D
1
=
¸
(x, y) : −R x R, 0 y −

R
2
−x
2
¸
v`a
D
2
=
¸
(x, y) : −R x R, 0 y +

R
2
−x
2
¸
.
34

. D =
¸
(x, y) : 0 y

R
2
−x
2
¸
xung quanh du
.
`o
.
ng th˘a

ng
y = R.
(DS.
3π −4
3
πR
3
)
Chı ’ dˆa
˜
n. Chuyˆe

n gˆo´c to
.
a dˆo
.
vˆe
`
diˆe

m (0, R).
11.3.2 T´ınh dˆo
.
d`ai cung v`a diˆe
.
n t´ıch m˘a
.
t tr`on
xoay
1
+
Nˆe
´
u du
.
`o
.
ng cong L(A, B) du
.
o
.
.
c cho bo
.
’ i phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh y = y(x),
x ∈ [a, b] (hay x = g(y)) ho˘a
.
c bo
.
’ i c´ac phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh tham sˆo´ x = ϕ(t),
90 Chu
.
o
.
ng 11. T´ıch phˆan x´ac di
.
nh Riemann
y = ψ(t) th`ı vi phˆan dˆo
.
d`ai cung du
.
o
.
.
c biˆe

u diˆe
˜
n bo
.
’ i cˆong th´ u
.
c
d =

1 + (y

x
)
2
dx =

1 + (x

y
)
2
dy =

x

t
2
+y

t
2
dt (11.17)
v`a dˆo
.
d`ai cu’ a du
.
`o
.
ng cong L(A, B) du
.
o
.
.
c t´ınh bo
.
’ i cˆong th´ u
.
c
(A, B) =
x
B
=b

x
A
=a

1 + (y

)
2
dx =
y
B

y
A

1 + (x

y
)
2
dy
=
t
B

t
A

x

t
2
+y

t
2
dt. (11.18)
Nˆe
´
u du
.
`o
.
ng cong du
.
o
.
.
c cho bo
.
’ i phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh trong to
.
a dˆo
.
cu
.
.
c ρ = ρ(ϕ)
th`ı
d =

ρ
2
+

ρ

ϕ

2

v`a
(A, B) =
ϕ
B

ϕ
A

ρ
2
+

ρ

ϕ

2
dϕ. (11.19)
2
+
Nˆe
´
u m˘ a
.
t σ thu du
.
o
.
.
c do quay du
.
`o
.
ng cong cho trˆen [a, b] bo
.
’ i
h`am khˆong ˆam y = f(x) 0 xung quanh tru
.
c Ox th`ı vi phˆan diˆe
.
n
t´ıch m˘a
.
t
ds = 2π
y + (y +dy)
2
d = π(2y +dy)d ≈ 2πyd
v`a diˆe
.
n t´ıch m˘a
.
t tr`on xoay du
.
o
.
.
c t´ınh theo cˆ ong th´ u
.
c
S
x
= 2π
b

a
f(x)

1 + (f

x
)
2
dx. (11.20)
11.3. Mˆo
.
t sˆo´ ´ u
.
ng du
.
ng cu’ a t´ıch phˆan x´ac di
.
nh 91
Nˆe
´
u quay du
.
`o
.
ng cong L(A, B) xung quanh tru
.
c Oy th`ı ds ≈ 2πx(y)d
v`a
S
y
= 2π
y
B

y
A
x(y)

1 + (x

y
)
2
dy. (11.21)
Nˆe
´
u du
.
`o
.
ng cong L(A, B) du
.
o
.
.
c cho bo
.
’ i phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh tham sˆo´ x = ϕ(t),
y = ψ(t) 0 (t ∈ [α, β]) th`ı
S
x
= 2π
β

α
ψ(t)

ϕ

2

2
dt. (11.22)
Tu
.
o
.
ng tu
.
.
ta c´ o
S
y
= 2π
β

α
ϕ(t)

ϕ

2

2
dt, ϕ(t) 0. (11.23)
C
´
AC V
´
I DU
.
V´ı du
.
1. T´ınh dˆo
.
d`ai du
.
`o
.
ng tr`on b´an k´ınh R.
Gia’ i. Ta c´ o thˆe

xem du
.
`o
.
ng tr`on d˜a cho c´o tˆam ta
.
i gˆ o´c to
.
a dˆo
.
.
Phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh du
.
`o
.
ng tr`on du
.
´o
.
i da
.
ng tham sˆo´ c´o da
.
ng x = Rcos t,
y = Rsint, t ∈ [0, 2π]. Ta chı ’ cˆa
`
n t´ınh dˆo
.
d`ai cu’ a mˆo
.
t phˆa
`
n tu
.
du
.
`o
.
ng
tr`on ´ u
.
ng v´o
.
i 0 t
π
2
l`a du’ . Theo cˆong th´ u
.
c (11.18) ta c´ o
= 4
π/2

0

(−Rsint)
2
+ (Rcos t)
2
dt = 4Rt

π/2
0
= 2πR.
V´ı du
.
2. T´ınh dˆo
.
d`ai cu’ a v`ong th´ u
.
nhˆa´t cu’ a du
.
`o
.
ng xo˘a
´
n ˆo´c
Archimedes ρ = aϕ.
Gia’ i. Theo di
.
nh ngh˜ıa, du
.
`o
.
ng xo˘a
´
n ˆo´c Archimedes l`a du
.
`o
.
ng cong
ph˘a

ng va
.
ch nˆen bo
.
’ i mˆo
.
t diˆe

m chuyˆe

n dˆo
.
ng dˆe
`
u theo mˆo
.
t tia xuˆa´t ph´at
92 Chu
.
o
.
ng 11. T´ıch phˆan x´ac di
.
nh Riemann
t` u
.
gˆo´c-cu
.
.
c m`a tia n`ay la
.
i quay xung quanh gˆo´c cu
.
.
c v´o
.
i vˆa
.
n tˆo´c g´oc
cˆo´ di
.
nh. V` ong th´ u
.
nhˆa´t cu’ a du
.
`o
.
ng xo˘a
´
n ˆo´c Archimedes du
.
o
.
.
c ta
.
o nˆen
khi g´oc cu
.
.
c ϕ biˆe
´
n thiˆen t` u
.
0 dˆe
´
n 2π. Do d´o theo cˆong th´ u
.
c (11.19)
ta c´o
=

0

a
2
ϕ
2
+a
2
dϕ = a

0

ϕ
2
+ 1dϕ.
T´ıch phˆan t` u
.
ng phˆa
`
n b˘ a
`
ng c´ach d˘a
.
t u =

ϕ
2
+ 1, dv = dϕ ta c´o
= a

ϕ

ϕ
2
+ 1


0

0
ϕ
2

ϕ
2
+ 1

= a

ϕ

ϕ
2
+ 1


0

0
ϕ
2
+ 1 −1

ϕ
2
+ 1

= a

1
2
ϕ

ϕ
2
+ 1 +
1
2
ln(ϕ +

ϕ
2
+ 1)


0
= a

π


2
+ 1 +
1
2

2π +


2
+ 1

.
V´ı du
.
3. T´ınh diˆe
.
n t´ıch m˘a
.
t cˆ a
`
u b´an k´ınh R.
Gia’ i. C´o thˆe

xem m˘a
.
t cˆ a
`
u c´o tˆam ta
.
i gˆo´c to
.
a dˆo
.
v`a thu du
.
o
.
.
c bo
.
’ i
ph´ep quay nu
.
’ a du
.
`o
.
ng tr`on y =

R
2
−x
2
xung quanh tru
.
c Ox.
Phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh du
.
`o
.
ng tr`on c´o da
.
ng x
2
+ y
2
= R
2
. Do d´o y

=

x

R
2
−x
2
. Theo cˆong th´ u
.
c (11.20) ta c´ o
S
x
= 2π
R

−R

R
2
−x
2

1 +
x
2
R
2
−x
2
dx = 2π
R

−R

R
2
−x
2
+x
2
dx
= 2πRx

R
−R
= 4πR
2
.
V´ı du
.
4. T´ınh diˆe
.
n t´ıch m˘a
.
t ta
.
o nˆen bo
.
’ i ph´ep quay du
.
`o
.
ng lemniscat
ρ = a

cos 2ϕ xung quanh tru
.
c cu
.
.
c.
11.3. Mˆo
.
t sˆo´ ´ u
.
ng du
.
ng cu’ a t´ıch phˆan x´ac di
.
nh 93
Gia’ i. Biˆe
´
n ρ chı ’ nhˆa
.
n gi´a tri
.
thu
.
.
c khi cos 2ϕ 0 t´ u
.
c l`a khi
−π/4 ϕ π/4 (nh´anh bˆen pha’ i) hay khi 3π/4 ϕ 5π/4 (nh´anh
bˆen tr´ai). Vi phˆan cung cu’ a lemniscat b˘a
`
ng
d =

ρ
2

2
dϕ =

a
2
cos 2ϕ + (−
a sin2ϕ

cos 2ϕ

2

=
adϕ

cos 2ϕ

Ngo` ai ra y = ρ sin ϕ = a

cos 2ϕ sinϕ. T` u
.
d´o diˆe
.
n t´ıch cˆa
`
n t`ım b˘a
`
ng
hai lˆa
`
n diˆe
.
n t´ıch cu’ a m˘a
.
t thu du
.
o
.
.
c bo
.
’ i ph´ep quay nh´anh pha’ i. Do d´o
theo (11.20)
S = 2 2π
π/4

0
yds = 4π
π/4

0
a

cos 2ϕ sinϕ adϕ

cos 2ϕ
= 4π
π/4

0
a
2
sinϕdϕ = 2πa
2
(2 −

2).
V´ı du
.
5. T`ım diˆe
.
n t´ıch m˘a
.
t ta
.
o nˆen bo
.
’ i ph´ep quay cung parabˆon
y =
x
2
2
, 0 x

3 xung quanh tru
.
c Oy.
Gia’ i. Ta c´ o x =

2y, x

=
1

2y
. Do d´o, ´ap du
.
ng cˆ ong th´ u
.
c
(11.18) ta thu du
.
o
.
.
c
S = 2π
3/2

0

2y

1 +
1
2y
dy = 2π
3/2

0

2y + 1dy
= 2π
(2y + 1)
3/2
3

3/2
0
=
14π
3

V´ı du
.
6. T`ım diˆe
.
n t´ıch m˘a
.
t ta
.
o nˆen bo
.
’ i ph´ep quay elip x
2
+4y
2
= 26
xung quanh: a) tru
.
c Ox; b) tru
.
c Oy.
Gia’ i. Nu
.
’ a trˆen cu’ a elip d˜a cho c´o thˆe

xem nhu
.
dˆo
`
thi
.
cu’ a h`am
y =
1
2

36 −x
2
; −6 x 6. H`am n`ay khˆong c´o da
.
o h`am khi x = ±6,
94 Chu
.
o
.
ng 11. T´ıch phˆan x´ac di
.
nh Riemann
c`on trˆen khoa’ ng (−6, 6) da
.
o h`am khˆong bi
.
ch˘a
.
n. Do vˆa
.
y khˆong thˆe

t´ınh b˘a
`
ng cˆong th´ u
.
c (11.20) trong to
.
a dˆo
.
Dˆe
`
c´ac du
.
o
.
.
c.
Dˆe

kh˘a
´
c phu
.
c kh´o kh˘an d´o, ta d` ung ph´ep tham sˆo´ h´oa du
.
`o
.
ng elip:
x = 6 cos t, y = 3 sin t, 0 t 2π.
1
+
Ph´ep quay xung quanh tru
.
c Ox. Ta x´et nu
.
’ a trˆen cu’ a elip tu
.
o
.
ng
´ u
.
ng v´o
.
i 0 t π. Theo cˆong th´ u
.
c (11.22) du
.
´o
.
i da
.
ng tham sˆo´ ta c´o
S
x
= 2π
π

0
3 sin t

36 sin
2
t + 9 cos
2
tdt.
D˘a
.
t cos t =
2

3
sinϕ ta c´o
S
x
= 24


π/3

−π/3
cos
2
ϕdϕ = 2

3π(4π + 3

3).
2
+
Ph´ep quay xung quanh tru
.
c Oy. Ta x´et nu
.
’ a bˆen pha’ i cu’ a elip
(tu
.
o
.
ng ´ u
.
ng v´o
.
i t ∈


π
2
,
π
2

. Tu
.
o
.
ng tu
.
.
nhu
.
trˆen ta ´ap du
.
ng (11.23)
v`a thu du
.
o
.
.
c
S
y
= 2π
π/2

−π/2
6 cos t

36 sin
2
t + 9 cos
2
tdt

D˘a
.
t sint =
1

3
shϕ

= 24


arcsh

3

−arcsh

3
ch
2
ϕdϕ = 24

2

3 + ln(2 +

3)

.
B
`
AI T
ˆ
A
.
P
T´ınh dˆo
.
d`ai cung cu’ a du
.
`o
.
ng cong
1. y = x
3/2
t` u
.
x = 0 dˆe
´
n x = 4. (DS.
8
27
(10

10 −1))
11.3. Mˆo
.
t sˆo´ ´ u
.
ng du
.
ng cu’ a t´ıch phˆan x´ac di
.
nh 95
2. y = x
2
−1 t` u
.
x = −1 dˆe
´
n x = 1. (DS.

5 +
1
2
ln(2 +

5))
3. y =
a
2

e
x/a
+e
−x/a

t` u
.
x = 0 dˆe
´
n x = a. (DS.
a(e
2
−1)
2e
)
4. y = lncos x t` u
.
x = 0 dˆe
´
n x =
π
6
. (DS.
1
2
ln3)
5. y = lnsinx t` u
.
x =
π
3
dˆe
´
n x =

3
. (DS. ln3)
6. x = e
t
sint, y = e
t
cos t, 0 t
π
2
. (DS.

2(e
π/2
−1))
7. x = a(t −sint), y = a(1 −cos t); 0 t 2π. (DS. 8a)
8. x = a cos
3
t, y = a sin
3
t; 0 t 2π. (DS. 6a)
Chı ’ dˆa
˜
n. V`ı

x

t
2
+y

t
2
=
3a
1
[ sin2t[ v`a h`am [ sin 2t[ c´o chu k` y π/2
nˆen = 4
π/2

0
d.
9. x = e
t
cos t, y = e
t
sint t` u
.
t = 0 dˆe
´
n t = lnπ. (DS.

2(π −1))
10. x = 8 sint + 6 cos t, y = 6 sin t −8 cos t t` u
.
t = 0 dˆe
´
n t =
π
2
. (DS.
5π)
11. ρ = ae

(du
.
`o
.
ng xo˘a
´
n ˆo´c lˆoga) t` u
.
θ = 0 dˆe
´
n θ = T.
(DS.
a
k

1 +k
2
(e
kT
−1))
12. ρ = a(1 −cos ϕ), a > 0, 0 ϕ 2π (du
.
`o
.
ng h`ınh tim). (DS. 8a)
13

. ρϕ = 1 t` u
.
diˆe

m A

2,
1
2

dˆe
´
n diˆe

m B

1
2
, 2

- du
.
`o
.
ng xo˘a
´
n ˆo´c
hypecbon.
(DS.

5
2
+ ln
3 +

5
2
)
T´ınh diˆe
.
n t´ıch c´ ac m˘a
.
t tr`on xoay thu du
.
o
.
.
c khi quay cung du
.
`o
.
ng
cong hay du
.
`o
.
ng cong xung quanh tru
.
c cho tru
.
´o
.
c.
14. Cung cu’ a du
.
`o
.
ng y = x
3
t` u
.
x = −
2
3
dˆe
´
n x =
2
3
xung quang tru
.
c
Ox.
96 Chu
.
o
.
ng 11. T´ıch phˆan x´ac di
.
nh Riemann
(DS.

27

125
27
−1

)
15. Du
.
`o
.
ng x = a cos
3
t, y = a sin
3
t xung quanh tru
.
c Ox.
(DS.
12
5
πa
2
)
16.
x
2
a
2
+
y
2
b
2
= 1, a > b xung quanh tru
.
c Ox.
(DS. 2πb

b +
a
ε
arc sinε

, ε l`a tˆam sai cu’ a elip)
Chı ’ dˆa
˜
n. Da
.
o h`am hai vˆe
´
phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh elip rˆo
`
i r´ ut ra yy

=

bx
2
a
2
, c` on biˆe

u th´ u
.
c du
.
´o
.
i dˆa´u t´ıch phˆan du
.
o
.
.
c viˆe
´
t y

1 +y

2
dx =

y
2
+ (yy

)
3
dx.
17. Cung du
.
`o
.
ng tr`on x
2
+ (y − b)
2
= R (khˆong c˘a
´
t tru
.
c Oy) t` u
.
y
1
dˆe
´
n y
2
xung quanh tru
.
c Oy. (DS. 2πR(y
2
−y
1
))
Chı ’ dˆa
˜
n. M˘a
.
t thu du
.
o
.
.
c l`a d´o
.
i cˆa
`
u.
18. y = sinx t` u
.
x = 0 dˆe
´
n x = π xung quanh tru
.
c Ox.
(DS. 2π

2 + ln(1 +

2)

)
19. y =
x
3
3
t` u
.
x = −2 dˆe
´
n x = 2 xung quanh tru
.
c Ox.
(DS.
34

17 −2
9
π)
20. Cung bˆen tr´ai du
.
`o
.
ng th˘a

ng x = 2 cu’ a du
.
`o
.
ng cong y
2
= 4 + x,
xung quanh tru
.
c Ox. (DS.
62π
3
)
21. y =
a
2

e
x/a
+e
−x/a

t` u
.
x = 0 dˆe
´
n x = a (a > 0).
(DS.
πa
2
4
(e
2
+ 4 −e
−2
))
22. y
2
= 4x t` u
.
x = 0 dˆe
´
n x = 3, xung quanh tru
.
c Ox. (DS.
56π
3
)
23. x = e
t
sint, y = e
t
cos t t` u
.
t = 0 dˆe
´
n t =
π
2
, xung quanh tru
.
c Ox.
(DS.


2
5
(e
π
−2))
11.3. Mˆo
.
t sˆo´ ´ u
.
ng du
.
ng cu’ a t´ıch phˆan x´ac di
.
nh 97
24. x = a cos
3
t, y = a sin
3
t, 0 t 2π; quay xung quanh tru
.
c Ox.
(DS.
12
5
πa
2
)
Chı ’ dˆa
˜
n. V`ı du
.
`o
.
ng cong c´o t´ınh dˆo´i x´ u
.
ng qua c´ac tru
.
c to
.
a dˆo
.
nˆen
chı ’ cˆa
`
n t´ınh diˆe
.
n t´ıch ta
.
o nˆen bo
.
’ i mˆo
.
t phˆa
`
n tu
.
du
.
`o
.
ng thuˆo
.
c g´oc I
quay xung quanh tru
.
c Ox.
25. x = t − sin t, y = 1 − cos t (diˆe
.
n t´ıch du
.
o
.
.
c ta
.
o th`anh khi quay
mˆo
.
t cung); xung quanh tru
.
c Ox.
(DS.
64π
3
)
26. y = sin2x t` u
.
x = 0 dˆe
´
n x =
π
2
; xung quanh tru
.
c Ox.
(DS.
π
2

2

5 + ln(

5 + 2)

)
27. 3x
2
+ 4y
2
= 12; xung quanh tru
.
c Oy. (DS. 2π(4 + 3 ln 3))
28. x
2
= y + 4, y = 2; xung quanh tru
.
c Oy. (DS.
62π
3
)
29. Cung cu’ a du
.
`o
.
ng tr`on x
2
+y
2
= 4 (y > 0) gi˜ u
.
a hai diˆe

m c´o ho`anh
dˆo
.
x = −1 v`a x = 1; xung quanh tru
.
c Ox. (DS. 8π)
30. Du
.
`o
.
ng h`ınh tim (cacdiod) ρ = a(1 + cos ϕ); quay xung quanh
tru
.
c cu
.
.
c.
(DS.
32πa
2
5
)
31. Du
.
` o
.
ng tr`on ρ = 2r sin ϕ; quay xung quanh tru
.
c cu
.
.
c. (DS. 4π
2
r
2
)
32. Cung

AB cu’ a du
.
`o
.
ng xicloid x = a(t − sint), y = a(1 − cos t);
quay xung quanh du
.
`o
.
ng th˘a

ng y = a. (DS. 16

2
πa
2
3
)
Chı ’ dˆa
˜
n.
´
Ap du
.
ng cˆong th´ u
.
c
S = 2π

π/2
2(y(t) −a)

x

t
2
+y

t
2
dt.
98 Chu
.
o
.
ng 11. T´ıch phˆan x´ac di
.
nh Riemann
11.4 T´ıch phˆan suy rˆo
.
ng
11.4.1 T´ıch phˆan suy rˆo
.
ng cˆa
.
n vˆ o ha
.
n
1. Gia’ su
.
’ h`am f(x) x´ac di
.
nh ∀x a v`a kha’ t´ıch trˆen mo
.
i doa
.
n [a, b].
Nˆe
´
u tˆo
`
n ta
.
i gi´o
.
i ha
.
n h˜ u
.
u ha
.
n
lim
b→+∞
b

a
f(x)dx (11.24)
th`ı gi´o
.
i ha
.
n d´o du
.
o
.
.
c go
.
i l`a t´ıch phˆan suy rˆo
.
ng cu’ a h`am f(x) trˆen
khoa’ ng [a, +∞) v` a k´ y hiˆe
.
u l`a
+∞

a
f(x)dx.
Trong tru
.
`o
.
ng ho
.
.
p n`ay ngu
.
`o
.
i ta c`on n´oi r˘a
`
ng t´ıch phˆan suy rˆo
.
ng
(11.24) hˆo
.
i tu
.
v`a h`am f(x) kha’ t´ıch theo ngh˜ıa suy rˆo
.
ng trˆen khoa’ ng
[a, +∞). Nˆe
´
u gi´o
.
i ha
.
n (11.24) khˆong tˆo
`
n ta
.
i th`ı t´ıch phˆan
+∞

a
f(x)dx
du
.
o
.
.
c go
.
i l`a t´ıch phˆan phˆan k` y v`a h`am f(x) khˆong kha’ t´ıch theo ngh˜ıa
suy rˆo
.
ng trˆen [a, +∞).
Tu
.
o
.
ng tu
.
.
nhu
.
trˆen, theo di
.
nh ngh˜ıa
b

−∞
f(x)dx = lim
a→−∞
b

a
f(x)dx (11.25)
+∞

−∞
f(x)dx =
c

−∞
f(x)dx +
+∞

c
f(x)dx, c ∈ R. (11.26)
2. C´ac cˆong th´ u
.
c co
.
ba’ n dˆo
´
i v´o
.
i t´ıch phˆan suy rˆo
.
ng
1) T´ınh tuyˆe
´
n t´ınh. Nˆe
´
u c´ ac t´ıch phˆan suy rˆo
.
ng
+∞

a
f(x)dx v`a
+∞

a
g(x)dx hˆo
.
i tu
.
∀α, β ∈ R th`ı t´ıch phˆan
+∞

a
(αf(x) +βg(x))dx hˆo
.
i tu
.
11.4. T´ıch phˆan suy rˆo
.
ng 99
v`a
+∞

a
(αf(x) +βg(x))dx = α
+∞

a
f(x)dx +β
+∞

a
g(x)dx.
2) Cˆong th´ u
.
c Newton-Leibnitz. Nˆe
´
u trˆen khoa’ ng [a, +∞) h`am f(x)
liˆen tu
.
c v`a F(x), x ∈ [a, +∞) l`a nguyˆen h`am n`ao d´o cu’ a n´o th`ı
+∞

a
f(x)dx = F(x)

+∞
a
= F(+∞) −F(a)
trong d´o F(+∞) = lim
x→+∞
F(x).
3) Cˆong th´ u
.
c dˆo

i biˆe
´
n. Gia’ su
.
’ f(x), x ∈ [a, +∞) l`a h`am liˆen tu
.
c,
ϕ(t), t ∈ [α, β] l`a kha’ vi liˆen tu
.
c v`a a = ϕ(α) ϕ(t) < lim
t→β−0
ϕ(t) =
+∞. Khi d´o:
+∞

a
f(x)dx =
β

α
f(ϕ(t))ϕ

(t)dt. (11.27)
4) Cˆong th´ u
.
c t´ıch phˆan t` u
.
ng phˆa
`
n. Nˆe
´
u u(x) v`a v(x), x ∈ [a, +∞)
l`a nh˜ u
.
ng h`am kha’ vi liˆen tu
.
c v`a lim
x→+∞
(uv) tˆo
`
n ta
.
i th`ı:
+∞

a
udv = uv

+∞
a

+∞

a
vdu (11.28)
trong d´o uv

+∞
a
= lim
x→+∞
(uv) −u(a)v(a).
3. C´ac diˆe
`
u kiˆe
.
n hˆo
.
i tu
.
1) Tiˆeu chuˆ a

n Cauchy. T´ıch phˆan
+∞

a
f(x)dx hˆo
.
i tu
.
khi v`a chı ’ khi
∀ε > 0, ∃b = b(ε) a sao cho ∀b
1
> b v`a ∀b
2
> b ta c´o:

b
2

b
1
f(x)dx

< ε.
100 Chu
.
o
.
ng 11. T´ıch phˆan x´ac di
.
nh Riemann
2) Dˆa´u hiˆe
.
u so s´anh I. Gia’ su
.
’ g(x) f(x) 0 ∀x a v`a f(x),
g(x) kha’ t´ıch trˆen mo
.
i doa
.
n [a, b], b < +∞. Khi d´o:
(i) Nˆe
´
u t´ıch phˆan
+∞

a
g(x)dx hˆo
.
i tu
.
th`ı t´ıch phˆan
+∞

a
f(x)dx hˆo
.
i tu
.
.
(ii) Nˆe
´
u t´ıch phˆan
+∞

a
f(x)dx phˆan k` y th`ı t´ıch phˆan
+∞

a
g(x)dx phˆan
k` y.
3) Dˆa´u hiˆe
.
u so s´ anh II. Gia’ su
.
’ f(x) 0, g(x) > 0 ∀x a v`a
lim
x→+∞
f(x)
g(x)
= λ.
Khi d´o:
(i) Nˆe
´
u 0 < λ < +∞ th`ı c´ac t´ıch phˆan
+∞

a
f(x)dx v`a
+∞

a
g(x)dx
dˆo
`
ng th`o
.
i hˆo
.
i tu
.
ho˘a
.
c dˆ o
`
ng th`o
.
i phˆan k` y.
(ii) Nˆe
´
u λ = 0 v` a t´ıch phˆan
+∞

a
g(x)dx hˆo
.
i tu
.
th`ı t´ıch phˆan
+∞

a
f(x)dx hˆo
.
i tu
.
.
(iii) Nˆe
´
u λ = +∞ v`a t´ıch phˆan
+∞

a
f(x)dx hˆo
.
i tu
.
th`ı t´ıch phˆan
+∞

a
g(x)dx hˆo
.
i tu
.
.
Dˆe

so s´anh ta thu
.
`o
.
ng su
.
’ du
.
ng t´ıch phˆan
+∞

a
dx
x
α

`
hˆo
.
i tu
.
nˆe
´
u α > 1,
phˆan k` y nˆe
´
u α 1.
(11.29)
11.4. T´ıch phˆan suy rˆo
.
ng 101
D
-
i
.
nh ngh˜ıa. T´ıch phˆan
+∞

a
f(x)dx du
.
o
.
.
c go
.
i l`a hˆo
.
i tu
.
tuyˆe
.
t dˆo´i nˆe
´
u
t´ıch phˆan
+∞

a
[f(x)[dx hˆo
.
i tu
.
v`a du
.
o
.
.
c go
.
i l`a hˆo
.
i tu
.
c´o diˆe
`
u kiˆe
.
n nˆe
´
u
t´ıch phˆan
+∞

a
f(x)dx hˆo
.
i tu
.
nhu
.
ng t´ıch phˆan
+∞

a
[f(x)[dx phˆan k` y.
Mo
.
i t´ıch phˆan hˆo
.
i tu
.
tuyˆe
.
t dˆ o´i dˆe
`
u hˆo
.
i tu
.
.
3) T` u
.
dˆa´u hiˆe
.
u so s´anh II v`a (11.29) r´ ut ra
Dˆa´u hiˆe
.
u thu
.
.
c h`anh. Nˆe
´
u khi x → +∞ h`am du
.
o
.
ng f(x) l`a vˆo
c` ung b´e cˆa´p α > 0 so v´o
.
i
1
x
th`ı
(i) t´ıch phˆan
+∞

a
f(x)dx hˆo
.
i tu
.
khi α > 1;
(ii) t´ıch phˆan
+∞

a
f(x)dx phˆan k` y khi α 1.
C
´
AC V
´
I DU
.
V´ı du
.
1. T´ınh t´ıch phˆan
I =
+∞

2
dx
x
2

x
2
−1

Gia’ i. Theo di
.
nh ngh˜ıa ta c´ o
+∞

2
dx
x
2

x
2
−1
= lim
b→+∞
b

2
dx
x
2

x
2
−1

D˘a
.
t x =
1
t
, ta thu du
.
o
.
.
c
102 Chu
.
o
.
ng 11. T´ıch phˆan x´ac di
.
nh Riemann
I(b) =
b

2
dx
x
2

x
2
−1
=
1/b

1/2
−dt
t
2

1
t
2

1
t
2
−1
= −
1/b

1/2
tdt

1 −t
2
=

1 −t
2

1/b
1/2
=

1 −
1
b
2

1 −
1
4
.
T` u
.
d´o suy r˘a
`
ng I = lim
b→+∞
I(b) =
2 −

3
2
. Nhu
.
vˆa
.
y t´ıch phˆan d˜a cho
hˆo
.
i tu
.
.
V´ı du
.
2. Kha’ o s´at su
.
.
hˆo
.
i tu
.
cu’ a t´ıch phˆan
+∞

1
2x
2
+ 1
x
3
+ 3x + 4
dx.
Gia’ i. H`am du
.
´o
.
i dˆa´u t´ıch phˆan > 0 ∀x 1. Ta c´o
f(x) =
2x
2
+ 1
x
3
+ 3x + 4
=
2 +
1
x
2
x +
3
x
+
4
x
2

V´o
.
i x du’ l´o
.
n h`am f(x) c´o d´ang diˆe
.
u nhu
.
2
x
. Do d´o ta lˆa´y h`am
ϕ(x) =
1
x
dˆe

so s´anh v`a c´o
lim
x→+∞
f(x)
ϕ(x)
= lim
x→+∞
(2x
2
+ 1)x
x
2
+ 3x + 4
= 2 = 0.
V`ı t´ıch phˆan

1
dx
x
phˆan k` y nˆen theo dˆa´u hiˆe
.
u so s´anh II t´ıch phˆan d˜a
cho phˆan k` y.
V´ı du
.
3. Kha’ o s´at su
.
.
hˆo
.
i tu
.
cu’ a t´ıch phˆan

2
dx
3

x
3
−12

11.4. T´ıch phˆan suy rˆo
.
ng 103
Gia’ i. Ta c´o bˆa´t d˘a

ng th´ u
.
c
1
3

x
3
−1
>
1
x
khi x > 2.
Nhu
.
ng t´ıch phˆan

2
dx
x
phˆan k` y, do d´o theo dˆa´u hiˆe
.
u so s´anh I t´ıch
phˆan d˜ a cho phˆan k` y.
V´ı du
.
4. Kha’ o s´at su
.
.
hˆo
.
i tu
.
v`a d˘a
.
c t´ınh hˆo
.
i tu
.
cu’ a t´ıch phˆan
+∞

1
sinx
x
dx.
Gia’ i. Dˆa
`
u tiˆen ta t´ıch phˆan t` u
.
ng phˆa
`
n mˆo
.
t c´ ach h`ınh th´ u
.
c
+∞

1
sin x
x
dx = −
cos x
x

+∞
1

+∞

1
cos x
x
2
dx = cos 1 −
+∞

1
cos x
x
2
dx.
(11.30)
T´ıch phˆan
+∞

1
cos x
x
2
dx hˆo
.
i tu
.
tuyˆe
.
t dˆo´i, do d´o n´o hˆo
.
i tu
.
. Nhu
.
vˆa
.
y
ca’ hai sˆo´ ha
.
ng o
.
’ vˆe
´
pha’ i (11.30) h˜ u
.
u ha
.
n. T` u
.
d´o suy ra ph´ep t´ıch
phˆan t` u
.
ng phˆa
`
n d˜a thu
.
.
c hiˆe
.
n l`a ho
.
.
p l´ y v`a vˆe
´
tr´ai cu’ a (11.30) l`a t´ıch
phˆan hˆo
.
i tu
.
.
Ta x´et su
.
.
hˆo
.
i tu
.
tuyˆe
.
t dˆo´i. Ta c´o
[ sinx[ sin
2
x =
1 −cos 2x
2
v`a do vˆa
.
y ∀b > 1 ta c´ o
b

1
[ sin x[
x
dx
1
2
b

1
dx
x

1
2
b

1
cos 2x
x
dx. (11.31)
104 Chu
.
o
.
ng 11. T´ıch phˆan x´ac di
.
nh Riemann
T´ıch phˆan th´ u
.
nhˆa´t o
.
’ vˆe
´
pha’ i cu’ a (11.31) phˆan k` y. T´ıch phˆan th´ u
.
hai o
.
’ vˆe
´
pha’ i d´o hˆo
.
i tu
.
(diˆe
`
u d´o du
.
o
.
.
c suy ra b˘a
`
ng c´ach t´ıch phˆan t` u
.
ng
phˆa
`
n nhu
.
(11.30)). Qua gi´ o
.
i ha
.
n (11.31) khi b → +∞ ta c´ o vˆe
´
pha’ i
cu’ a (11.31) dˆa
`
n dˆe
´
n ∞ v`a do d´o t´ıch phˆan vˆe
´
tr´ai cu’ a (11.31) phˆan
k` y, t´ u
.
c l`a t´ıch phˆan d˜a cho hˆo
.
i tu
.
c´o diˆe
`
u kiˆe
.
n (khˆong tuyˆe
.
t dˆo´i).
B
`
AI T
ˆ
A
.
P
T´ınh c´ac t´ıch phˆan suy rˆo
.
ng cˆa
.
n vˆo ha
.
n
1.

0
xe
−x
2
dx (DS.
1
2
)
2.

0
dx
x

x
2
−1
. (DS.
π
6
)
3.

0
dx
(x
2
+ 1)
2
. (DS.
π −2
8
)
4.

0
xsin xdx. (DS. Phˆan k` y)
5.

−∞
2xdx
x
2
+ 1
. (DS. Phˆan k` y)
6.

0
e
−x
sinxdx. (DS.
1
2
)
7.
+∞

2

1
x
2
−1
+
2
(x + 1)
2

dx. (DS.
2
3
+
1
2
ln3)
8.
+∞

−∞
dx
x
2
+ 4x + 9
. (DS.
π

5
5
)
11.4. T´ıch phˆan suy rˆo
.
ng 105
9.
+∞


2
xdx
(x
2
+ 1)
3
. (DS.
1
36
). Chı ’ dˆa
˜
n. D˘a
.
t x =

t.
10.
+∞

1
dx
x

x
2
+x + 1
. (DS. ln

1 +
2

3

). Chı ’ dˆa
˜
n. D˘a
.
t x =
1
t
.
11.
+∞

1
arctgx
x
2
dx. (DS.
π
4
+
ln2
2
)
12.
+∞

3
2x + 5
x
2
+ 3x −10
dx. (DS. Phˆan k` y)
13.

0
e
−ax
sinbxdx, a > 0. (DS.
b
a
2
+b
2
)
14.
+∞

0
e
−ax
cos bxdx, a > 0. (DS.
a
a
2
+b
2
)
Kha’ o s´at su
.
.
hˆo
.
i tu
.
cu’ a c´ac t´ıch phˆan suy rˆo
.
ng cˆa
.
n vˆo ha
.
n
15.

1
e
−x
x
dx. (DS. Hˆo
.
i tu
.
)
Chı ’ dˆa
˜
n.
´
Ap du
.
ng bˆa´t d˘a

ng th´ u
.
c
e
−x
x
e
−x
∀x 1.
16.
+∞

2
xdx

x
4
+ 1
. (DS. Phˆan k` y)
Chı ’ dˆa
˜
n.
´
Ap du
.
ng bˆa´t d˘a

ng th´ u
.
c
x

x
4
+ 1
>
x

x
4
+x
4
∀x 2.
17.
+∞

1
sin
2
3x
3

x
4
+ 1
dx. (DS. Hˆo
.
i tu
.
)
106 Chu
.
o
.
ng 11. T´ıch phˆan x´ac di
.
nh Riemann
18.
+∞

1
dx

4x + lnx
. (DS. Phˆan k` y)
19.
+∞

1
ln

1 +
1
x

x
α
dx. (DS. Hˆo
.
i tu
.
nˆe
´
u α > 0)
20.
+∞

0
xdx
3

x
5
+ 2
. (DS. Hˆo
.
i tu
.
)
21.
+∞

1
cos 5x −cos 7x
x
2
dx. (DS. Hˆo
.
i tu
.
)
22.
+∞

0
xdx
3

1 +x
7
. (DS. Hˆo
.
i tu
.
)
23.
+∞

0

x + 1
1 + 2

x +x
2
dx. (DS. Hˆo
.
i tu
.
)
24.

1
1

x
(e
1/x
−1)dx. (DS. Hˆo
.
i tu
.
)
25.

1
x +

x + 1
x
2
+ 2
5

x
4
+ 1
dx. (DS. Phˆan k` y)
26.

3
dx

x(x −1)(x −2)
. (DS. Hˆo
.
i tu
.
)
27

.

0
(3x
4
−x
2
)e
−x
2
dx. (DS. Hˆo
.
i tu
.
)
Chı ’ dˆa
˜
n. So s´anh v´ o
.
i t´ıch phˆan hˆo
.
i tu
.
+∞

0
e

x
2
2
dx (ta
.
i sao ?) v`a ´ap
du
.
ng dˆa´u hiˆe
.
u so s´anh II.
11.4. T´ıch phˆan suy rˆo
.
ng 107
28

.
+∞

5
ln(x −2)
x
5
+x
2
+ 1
dx. (DS. Hˆo
.
i tu
.
)
Chı ’ dˆa
˜
n.
´
Ap du
.
nng hˆe
.
th´ u
.
c
lim
t→+∞
lnt
t
α
= 0 ∀α > 0 ⇒ lim
x→+∞
ln(x −2)
x
α
= 0 ∀α > 0.
T` u
.
d´o so s´anh t´ıch phˆan d˜a cho v´o
.
i t´ıch phˆan hˆo
.
i tu
.
+∞

5
dx
x
α
, α > 1.
Tiˆe
´
p dˆe
´
n ´ap du
.
ng dˆa´u hiˆe
.
u so s´anh II.
11.4.2 T´ıch phˆan suy rˆo
.
ng cu’ a h`am khˆ ong bi
.
ch˘a
.
n
1. Gia’ su
.
’ h`am f(x) x´ac di
.
nh trˆen khoa’ ng [a, b) v`a kha’ t´ıch trˆen mo
.
i
doa
.
n [a, ξ], ξ < b. Nˆe
´
u tˆo
`
n ta
.
i gi´o
.
i ha
.
n h˜ u
.
u ha
.
n
lim
ξ→b−0
ξ

0
f(x)dx (11.32)
th`ı gi´o
.
i ha
.
n d´o du
.
o
.
.
c go
.
i l`a t´ıch phˆan suy rˆo
.
ng cu’ a h`am f(x) trˆen [a, b)
v`a k´ y hiˆe
.
u l`a:
b

a
f(x)dx. (11.33)
Trong tru
.
`o
.
ng ho
.
.
p n`ay t´ıch phˆan suy rˆo
.
ng (11.33) du
.
o
.
.
c go
.
i l`a t´ıch
phˆan hˆo
.
i tu
.
. Nˆe
´
u gi´ o
.
i ha
.
n (11.32) khˆong tˆo
`
n ta
.
i th`ı t´ıch phˆan suy
rˆo
.
ng (11.33) phˆan k` y.
Di
.
nh ngh˜ıa t´ıch phˆan suy rˆo
.
ng cu’ a h`am f(x) x´ac di
.
nh trˆen khoa’ ng
(a, b] du
.
o
.
.
c ph´at biˆe

u tu
.
o
.
ng tu
.
.
.
Nˆe
´
u h`am f(x) kha’ t´ıch theo ngh˜ıa suy rˆo
.
ng trˆen c´ ac khoa’ ng [a, c)
v`a (c, b] th`ı h`am du
.
o
.
.
c go
.
i l`a h`am kha’ t´ıch theo ngh˜ıa suy rˆo
.
ng trˆen
108 Chu
.
o
.
ng 11. T´ıch phˆan x´ac di
.
nh Riemann
doa
.
n [a, b] v`a trong tru
.
`o
.
ng ho
.
.
p n`ay t´ıch phˆan suy rˆo
.
ng du
.
o
.
.
c x´ac di
.
nh
bo
.
’ i d˘a

ng th´ u
.
c:
b

a
f(x)dx =
c

a
f(x)dx +
b

c
f(x)dx.
2. C´ac cˆong th´ u
.
c co
.
ba’ n
1) Nˆe
´
u c´ac t´ıch phˆan
b

a
f(x)dx v`a
b

a
g(x)dx hˆo
.
i tu
.
th`ı ∀α, β ∈ R
ta c´o t´ıch phˆan
b

a
[αf(x) +βg(x)]dx hˆo
.
i tu
.
v`a
b

a
[αf(x) +βg(x)]dx = α
b

a
f(x)dx +β
b

a
g(x)dx.
2) Cˆong th´ u
.
c Newton-Leibnitz. Nˆe
´
u h`am f(x), x ∈ [a, b) liˆen tu
.
c
v`a F(x) l`a mˆo
.
t nguyˆen h`am n`ao d´o cu’ a f trˆen [a, b) th`ı:
b

a
f(x)dx = F(x)

b−0
a
= F(b −0) −F(a),
F(b −0) = lim
x→b−0
F(x).
3) Cˆ ong th´ u
.
c dˆo

i biˆe
´
n. Gia’ su
.
’ f(x) liˆen tu
.
c trˆen [a, b) c` on ϕ(t),
t ∈ [α, β) kha’ vi liˆen tu
.
c v`a a = ϕ(α) ϕ(t) < lim
t→β−0
ϕ(t) = b. Khi
d´o:
b

a
f(x)dx =
β

α
f[ϕ(t)]ϕ

(t)dt.
11.4. T´ıch phˆan suy rˆo
.
ng 109
4) Cˆong th´ u
.
c t´ıch phˆan t` u
.
ng phˆa
`
n. Gia’ su
.
’ u(x), x ∈ [a, b) v`a v(x),
x ∈ [a, b) l`a nh˜ u
.
ng h`am kha’ vi liˆen tu
.
c v`a lim
x→b−0
(uv) tˆo
`
n ta
.
i. Khi d´o;
b

a
udv = uv

b
a

b

a
vdu
uv

b
a
= lim
x→b−0
(uv) −u(a)v(a).
3. C´ac diˆe
`
u kiˆe
.
n hˆo
.
i tu
.
1) Tiˆeu chuˆa

n Cauchy. Gia’ su
.
’ h`am f(x) x´ac di
.
nh trˆen khoa’ ng
[a, b), kha’ t´ıch theo ngh˜ıa thˆong thu
.
`o
.
ng trˆen mo
.
i doa
.
n [a, ξ], ξ < b
v`a khˆong bi
.
ch˘a
.
n trong lˆan cˆa
.
n bˆen tr´ai cu’ a diˆe

m x = b. Khi d´o
t´ıch phˆan
b

a
f(x)dx hˆo
.
i tu
.
khi v`a chı ’ khi ∀ε > 0, ∃η ∈ [a, b) sao cho
∀η
1
, η
2
∈ (η, b) th`ı

η
2

η
1
f(x)dx

< ε.
2) Dˆa´u hiˆe
.
u so s´anh I. Gia’ su
.
’ g(x) f(x) 0 trˆen khoa’ ng [a, b)
v`a kha’ t´ıch trˆen mˆo
˜
i doa
.
n con [a, ξ], ξ < b. Khi d´o:
(i) Nˆe
´
u t´ıch phˆan
b

a
g(x)dx hˆo
.
i tu
.
th`ı t´ıch phˆan
b

a
f(x)dx hˆo
.
i tu
.
.
(ii) Nˆe
´
u t´ıch phˆan
b

a
f(x)dx phˆan k` y th`ı t´ıch phˆan
b

a
g(x)dx phˆan
k` y.
3) Dˆa´u hiˆe
.
u so s´ anh II. Gia’ su
.
’ f(x) 0, g(x) > 0, x ∈ [a, b) v` a
lim
x→b−0
f(x)
g(x)
= λ.
Khi d´o:
110 Chu
.
o
.
ng 11. T´ıch phˆan x´ac di
.
nh Riemann
(i) Nˆe
´
u 0 < λ < +∞th`ı c´ac t´ıch phˆan
b

a
f(x)dx v`a
b

a
g(x)dx dˆo
`
ng
th`o
.
i hˆo
.
i tu
.
ho˘a
.
c dˆo
`
ng th`o
.
i phˆan k` y.
(ii) Nˆe
´
u λ = 0 v`a t´ıch phˆan
b

a
g(x)dx hˆo
.
i tu
.
th`ı t´ıch phˆan
b

a
f(x)dx
hˆo
.
i tu
.
.
(iii) Nˆe
´
u λ = +∞ v`a t´ıch phˆan
b

a
f(x)dx hˆo
.
i tu
.
th`ı t´ıch phˆan
b

a
g(x)dx hˆo
.
i tu
.
.
Dˆe

so s´anh ta thu
.
`o
.
ng su
.
’ du
.
ng t´ıch phˆan:
b

a
dx
(b −x)
α

`
hˆo
.
i tu
.
nˆe
´
u α < 1
phˆan k` y nˆe
´
u α 1
ho˘a
.
c
b

a
dx
(x −a)
α

`
hˆo
.
i tu
.
nˆe
´
u α < 1
phˆan k` y nˆe
´
u α 1.
D
-
i
.
nh ngh˜ıa. T´ıch phˆan
b

a
f(x)dx du
.
o
.
.
c go
.
i l`a hˆo
.
i tu
.
tuyˆe
.
t dˆo´i nˆe
´
u
t´ıch phˆan
b

a
[f(x)[dx hˆo
.
i tu
.
v`a du
.
o
.
.
c go
.
i l`a hˆo
.
i tu
.
c´o diˆe
`
u kiˆe
.
n nˆe
´
u t´ıch
phˆan
b

a
f(x)dx hˆo
.
i tu
.
nhu
.
ng
b

a
[f(x)[dx phˆan k` y.
4) Tu
.
o
.
ng tu
.
.
nhu
.
trong 11.4.1 ta c´o
11.4. T´ıch phˆan suy rˆo
.
ng 111
Dˆa´u hiˆe
.
u thu
.
.
c h`anh. Nˆe
´
u khi x → b − 0 h`am f(x) 0 x´ac di
.
nh
v`a liˆen tu
.
c trong [a, b) l`a vˆo c` ung l´o
.
n cˆa´p α so v´o
.
i
1
b −x
th`ı
(i) t´ıch phˆan
b

a
f(x)dx hˆo
.
i tu
.
khi α < 1;
(ii) t´ıch phˆan
b

a
f(x)dx phˆan k` y khi α 1.
C
´
AC V
´
I DU
.
V´ı du
.
1. X´et t´ıch phˆan
1

0
dx

1 −x
2
.
Gia’ i. H`am f(x) =
1

1 −x
2
liˆen tu
.
c v`a do d´o n´o kha’ t´ıch trˆen mo
.
i
doa
.
n [0, 1 −ε], ε > 0, nhu
.
ng khi x →1 −0 th`ı f(x) →+∞. Ta c´o
lim
ε→0
1−ε

0
dx

1 −x
2
= lim
ε→0
arc sin(1 −ε) = asrc sin1 =
π
2

Nhu
.
vˆa
.
y t´ıch phˆan d˜a cho hˆo
.
i tu
.
.
V´ı du
.
2. Kha’ o s´at su
.
.
hˆo
.
i tu
.
cu’ a t´ıch phˆan
1

0

xdx

1 −x
4

Gia’ i. H`am du
.
´o
.
i dˆa´u t´ıch phˆan c´o gi´an doa
.
n vˆo c` ung ta
.
i diˆe

m
x = 1. Ta c´ o

x

1 −x
4

1

1 −x
∀x ∈ [0, 1).
Nhu
.
ng t´ıch phˆan
1

0
dx

1 −x
hˆo
.
i tu
.
, nˆen theo dˆa´u hiˆe
.
u so s´anh I
t´ıch phˆ an d˜a cho hˆo
.
i tu
.
.
112 Chu
.
o
.
ng 11. T´ıch phˆan x´ac di
.
nh Riemann
V´ı du
.
3. Kha’ o s´at su
.
.
hˆo
.
i tu
.
cu’ a t´ıch phˆan
1

0
dx
e
x
−cos x

Gia’ i. O
.

dˆay h`am du
.
´o
.
i dˆa´u t´ıch phˆan c´ o gi´ an doa
.
n vˆo c` ung ta
.
i
diˆe

m x = 0. Khi x ∈ (0, 1] ta c´ o
1
e
x
−cos x

1
xe
v`ı r˘a
`
ng xe e
x
−cos x (ta
.
i sao ?). Nhu
.
ng t´ıch phˆan
1

0
1
xe
dx phˆan k` y
nˆen t´ıch phˆan d˜a cho phˆan k` y.
V´ı du
.
4. Kha’ o s´at su
.
.
hˆo
.
i tu
.
cu’ a t´ıch phˆan
+∞

0
arctgx
x
α
dx, α 0.
Gia’ i. Ta chia khoa’ ng lˆa´y t´ıch phˆan l`am hai sao cho khoa’ ng th´ u
.
nhˆa´t h`am c´ o bˆa´t thu
.
`o
.
ng ta
.
i diˆe

m x = 0. Ch˘a

ng ha
.
n ta chia th`anh hai
nu
.
’ a khoa’ ng (0, 1] v`a [1, +∞). Khi d´o ta c´ o
+∞

0
arctgx
x
α
dx =
1

0
arctgx
x
α
dx +
+∞

0
arctgx
x
α
dx. (11.34)
Dˆa
`
u tiˆen x´et t´ıch phˆan
1

0
arctgx
x
α
dx, Ta c´ o
f(x) =
arctgx
x
α

(x→0)
x
x
α
=
1
x
α−1
= ϕ(x)
11.4. T´ıch phˆan suy rˆo
.
ng 113
T´ıch phˆan
1

0
ϕ(x)dx hˆo
.
i tu
.
khi α − 1 < 1 ⇒ α < 2. Do d´o t´ıch
phˆan
1

0
f(x)dx c˜ ung hˆo
.
i tu
.
khi α < 2 theo dˆa´u hiˆe
.
u so s´anh II.
X´et t´ıch phˆan

1
f(x)dx.
´
Ap du
.
ng dˆa´u hiˆe
.
u so s´anh II trong 1

ta
d˘a
.
t ϕ(x) =
1
x
α
v`a c´o
lim
x→+∞
f(x)
ϕ(x)
= lim
x→+∞
x
α
arctgx
x
α
=
π
2

V`ı t´ıch phˆan

0
dx
x
α
hˆo
.
i tu
.
khi α > 1 nˆen v´o
.
i α > 1 t´ıch phˆan du
.
o
.
.
c
x´et hˆo
.
i tu
.
. Nhu
.
vˆa
.
y ca’ hai t´ıch phˆan o
.
’ vˆe
´
pha’ i (11.34) chı ’ hˆo
.
i tu
.
khi
1 < α < 2.
D´o ch´ınh l`a diˆe
`
u kiˆe
.
n hˆo
.
i tu
.
cu’ a t´ıch phˆan d˜a cho.
V´ı du
.
5. Kha’ o s´at su
.
.
hˆo
.
i tu
.
cu’ a t´ıch phˆan
1

0
ln(1 +
3

x
2
)

xsin

x
dx.
Gia’ i. H`am du
.
´o
.
i dˆa´u t´ıch phˆ an khˆong bi
.
ch˘a
.
n trong lˆan cˆa
.
n pha’ i
cu’ a diˆe

m x = 0. Khi x →0 + 0 ta c´o
ln(1 +
3

x
2
)

xsin

x

(x→0+0)
3

x
2
x
=
1
3

x
= ϕ(x).
V`ı t´ıch phˆan
1

0
dx
3

x
hˆo
.
i tu
.
nˆen theo dˆa´u hiˆe
.
u so s´anh II, t´ıch phˆan
d˜a cho hˆo
.
i tu
.
.
114 Chu
.
o
.
ng 11. T´ıch phˆan x´ac di
.
nh Riemann
B
`
AI T
ˆ
A
.
P
T´ınh c´ac t´ıch phˆan suy rˆo
.
ng sau.
1.
6

2
dx
3

(4 −x)
2
. (DS. 6
3

2)
2.
2

0
dx
3

(x −1)
2
. (DS. 6)
3.
e

1
dx
xlnx
. (DS. Phˆan k` y)
4.
2

0
dx
x
2
−4x + 3
. (DS. Phˆan k` y)
5.
1

0
xlnxdx. (DS. −0, 25)
6.
3

2
xdx
4

x
2
−4
. (DS.
2
3
4

125)
7.
2

0
dx
(x −1)
2
. (DS. Phˆan k` y)
8.
2

−2
xdx
x
2
−1
. (DS. Phˆan k` y)
9.
2

0
x
3
dx

4 −x
2
. (DS.
16
3
). Chı ’ dˆa
˜
n. D˘a
.
t x = 2 sint.
10.
0

−1
e
1/x
x
3
dx. (DS. −
2
e
)
11.4. T´ıch phˆan suy rˆo
.
ng 115
11.
1

0
e
1/x
x
3
dx. (DS. Phˆan k` y)
12.
1

0
dx

x(1 −x)
. (DS. π)
13.
b

a
dx

(x −a)(b −x)
; a < b. (DS. π)
14.
1

0
xln
2
xdx. (DS.
1
4
)
Kha’ o s´at su
.
.
hˆo
.
i tu
.
cu’ a c´ac t´ıch phˆan suy rˆo
.
ng sau dˆay.
15.
1

0
cos
2
x
3

1 −x
2
dx. (DS. Hˆo
.
i tu
.
)
16.
1

0
ln(1 +
3

x
e
sinx
−1
dx. (DS. Hˆo
.
i tu
.
)
17.
1

0
dx
e

x
−1
. (DS. Hˆo
.
i tu
.
)
18.
1

0

xdx
e
sinx
−1
. (DS. Hˆo
.
i tu
.
)
19.
1

0
x
2
dx
3

(1 −x
2
)
5
. (DS. Phˆan k` y)
20.
1

0
x
3
dx
3

(1 −x
2
)
5
. (DS. Phˆan k` y)
116 Chu
.
o
.
ng 11. T´ıch phˆan x´ac di
.
nh Riemann
21.
1

0
dx
e
x
−cos x
. (DS. Phˆan k` y)
22.
π/4

0
ln(sin2x)
5

x
dx. (DS. Hˆo
.
i tu
.
)
23.
1

0
lnx

x
dx. (DS. Hˆo
.
i tu
.
)
Chı ’ dˆa
˜
n. Su
.
’ du
.
ng hˆe
.
th´ u
.
c lim
x→0+0
x
α
lnx = 0 ∀α > 0 ⇒ c´o thˆe

lˆa´y
α =
1
4
ch˘a

ng ha
.
n ⇒
[lnx[

x
<
1
x
3/4
.
24.
1

0
sin x
x
2
dx. (DS. Phˆan k` y)
25.
2

0
dx

x −x
3
. (DS. Hˆo
.
i tu
.
)
26.
2

1
(x −2)
x
2
−3x
2
+ 4
dx. (DS. Phˆan k` y)
27.
1

0
dx

x(e
x
−e
−x
)
. (DS. Hˆo
.
i tu
.
)
28.
2

0

16 +x
4
16 −x
4
dx. (DS. Hˆo
.
i tu
.
)
29.
1

0

e
x
−1
sinx
dx. (DS. Hˆo
.
i tu
.
)
30.
1

0
3

ln(1 +x)
1 −cos x
dx. (DS. Phˆan k` y)
Chu
.
o
.
ng 12
T´ıch phˆan h`am nhiˆe
`
u biˆe
´
n
12.1 T´ıch phˆan 2-l´o
.
p . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118
12.1.1 Tru
.
`o
.
ng ho
.
.
p miˆe `n ch˜ u
.
nhˆa
.
t . . . . . . . . . 118
12.1.2 Tru
.
`o
.
ng ho
.
.
p miˆe `n cong . . . . . . . . . . . . 118
12.1.3 Mˆo
.
t v`ai ´ u
.
ng du
.
ng trong h`ınh ho
.
c . . . . . . 121
12.2 T´ıch phˆan 3-l´o
.
p . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133
12.2.1 Tru
.
`o
.
ng ho
.
.
p miˆe `n h`ınh hˆo
.
p . . . . . . . . . 133
12.2.2 Tru
.
`o
.
ng ho
.
.
p miˆe `n cong . . . . . . . . . . . . 134
12.2.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136
12.2.4 Nhˆa
.
n x´et chung . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136
12.3 T´ıch phˆan du
.
`o
.
ng . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 144
12.3.1 C´ac di
.
nh ngh˜ıa co
.
ba’ n . . . . . . . . . . . . 144
12.3.2 T´ınh t´ıch phˆan du
.
`o
.
ng . . . . . . . . . . . . 146
12.4 T´ıch phˆan m˘a
.
t . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 158
12.4.1 C´ac di
.
nh ngh˜ıa co
.
ba’ n . . . . . . . . . . . . 158
12.4.2 Phu
.
o
.
ng ph´ap t´ınh t´ıch phˆan m˘a
.
t . . . . . . 160
118 Chu
.
o
.
ng 12. T´ıch phˆan h`am nhiˆe
`
u biˆe
´
n
12.4.3 Cˆong th´ u
.
c Gauss-Ostrogradski . . . . . . . 162
12.4.4 Cˆong th´ u
.
c Stokes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 162
12.1 T´ıch phˆan 2-l´o
.
p
12.1.1 Tru
.
`o
.
ng ho
.
.
p miˆe
`
n ch˜ u
.
nhˆa
.
t
Gia’ su
.

D = [a, b] [c, d] = ¦(x, y) : a x b, c y d¦
v`a h`am f(x, y) liˆen tu
.
c trong miˆe
`
n D. Khi d´o t´ıch phˆan 2-l´o
.
p cu’ a
h`am f(x, y) theo miˆe
`
n ch˜ u
.
nhˆa
.
t
D = ¦(x, y) : a x b; c y d¦
du
.
o
.
.
c t´ınh theo cˆ ong th´ u
.
c

D
f(M)dxdy =
b

a
dx
d

c
f(M)dy; (12.1)

D
f(M)dxdy =
d

c
dy
b

a
f(M)dx, M = (x, y). (12.2)
Trong (12.1): dˆa
`
u tiˆen t´ınh t´ıch phˆan trong I(x) theo y xem x l`a h˘a
`
ng
sˆo´, sau d´o t´ıch phˆan kˆe
´
t qua’ thu du
.
o
.
.
c I(x) theo x. Dˆo´i v´o
.
i (12.2) ta
c˜ ung tiˆe
´
n h`anh tu
.
o
.
.
ng tu
.
.
nhu
.
ng theo th´ u
.
tu
.
.
ngu
.
o
.
.
c la
.
i.
12.1.2 Tru
.
`o
.
ng ho
.
.
p miˆe
`
n cong
Gia’ su
.
’ h`am f(x, y) liˆen tu
.
c trong miˆe
`
n bi
.
ch˘a
.
n
D = ¦(x, y) : a x b; ϕ
1
(x) y ϕ
2
(x)¦
12.1. T´ıch phˆan 2-l´o
.
p 119
trong d´o y = ϕ
1
(x) l`a biˆen du
.
´o
.
i, y = ϕ
2
(x) l`a biˆen trˆen, ho˘ a
.
c
D = ¦(x, y) : c y d; g
1
(y) x g
2
(y)¦
trong d´o x = g
1
(y) l`a biˆen tr´ai c` on x = g
2
(y) l`a biˆen pha’ i, o
.
’ dˆay
ta luˆon gia’ thiˆe
´
t c´ ac h`am ϕ
1
, ϕ
2
, g
1
, g
2
dˆe
`
u liˆen tu
.
c trong c´ ac khoa’ ng
tu
.
o
.
ng ´ u
.
ng. Khi d´o t´ıch phˆan 2-l´o
.
p theo miˆe
`
n D luˆon luˆon tˆo
`
n ta
.
i.
Dˆe

t´ınh t´ıch phˆan 2-l´o
.
p ta c´o thˆe

´ap du
.
ng mˆo
.
t trong hai phu
.
o
.
ng
ph´ap sau.
1
+
Phu
.
o
.
ng ph´ap Fubini du
.
.
a trˆen di
.
nh l´ y Fubini vˆe
`
viˆe
.
c du
.
a t´ıch
phˆan 2-l´o
.
p vˆe
`
t´ıch phˆan l˘a
.
p. Phu
.
o
.
ng ph´ap n`ay cho ph´ep ta du
.
a t´ıch
phˆan 2-l´o
.
p vˆe
`
t´ıch phˆan l˘a
.
p theo hai th´ u
.
tu
.
.
kh´ac nhau:

D
f(M)dxdy =
b

a

ϕ
2
(x)

ϕ
1
(x)
f(M)dy

dx =
b

a
dx
ϕ
2
(x)

ϕ
1
(x)
f(M)dy, (12.3)

D
f(M)dxdy =
d

c

g
2
(y)

g
1
(y)
f(M)dx

dy =
d

c
dy
g
2
(y)

g
1
(y)
f(M)dx. (12.4)
T` u
.
(12.3) v`a (12.4) suy r˘a
`
ng cˆa
.
n cu’ a c´ac t´ıch phˆan trong biˆe
´
n thiˆen
v`a phu
.
thuˆo
.
c v`ao biˆe
´
n m`a khi t´ınh t´ıch phˆan trong, n´ o du
.
o
.
.
c xem l` a
khˆong dˆo

i. Cˆa
.
n cu’ a t´ıch phˆan ngo`ai luˆ on luˆon l` a h˘ a
`
ng sˆ o´.
Nˆe
´
u trong cˆong th´ u
.
c (12.3) (tu
.
o
.
ng ´ u
.
ng: (12.4)) phˆa
`
n biˆen du
.
´o
.
i
hay phˆ a
`
n biˆen trˆen (tu
.
o
.
ng ´ u
.
ng: phˆa
`
n biˆen tr´ai hay pha’ i) gˆ o
`
m t` u
.
mˆo
.
t
sˆo´ phˆa
`
n v`a mˆo
˜
i phˆa
`
n c´o phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh riˆeng th`ı miˆe
`
n D cˆa
`
n chia th`anh
nh˜ u
.
ng miˆe
`
n con bo
.
’ i c´ac du
.
`o
.
ng th˘a

ng song song v´o
.
i tru
.
c Oy (tu
.
o
.
ng
´ u
.
ng: song song v´o
.
i tru
.
c Ox) sao cho mˆo
˜
i miˆe
`
n con d´o c´ac phˆa
`
n biˆen
du
.
´o
.
i hay trˆen (tu
.
o
.
ng ´ u
.
ng: phˆa
`
n biˆen tr´ai, pha’ i) dˆe
`
u chı ’ du
.
o
.
.
c biˆe

u
diˆe
˜
n bo
.
’ i mˆo
.
t phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh.
2
+
Phu
.
o
.
ng ph´ap dˆo

i biˆe
´
n. Ph´ep dˆo

i biˆe
´
n trong t´ıch phˆan 2-l´o
.
p
du
.
o
.
.
c thu
.
.
c hiˆe
.
n theo cˆong th´ u
.
c

D
f(M)dxdy =

D

f[ϕ(u, v), ψ(u, v)]

D(x, y)
D(u, v)

dudv (12.5)
120 Chu
.
o
.
ng 12. T´ıch phˆan h`am nhiˆe
`
u biˆe
´
n
trong d´o D

l`a miˆe
`
n biˆe
´
n thiˆen cu’ a to
.
a dˆo
.
cong (u, v) tu
.
o
.
ng ´ u
.
ng
khi c´ ac diˆe

m (x, y) biˆe
´
n thiˆen trong D: x = ϕ(u, v), y = ψ(u, v);
(u, v) ∈ D

, (x, y) ∈ D; c`on
J =
D(x, y)
D(u, v)
=

∂x
∂u
∂x
∂v
∂y
∂u
∂y
∂v

= 0 (12.6)
l`a Jacobiˆen cu’ a c´ac h`am x = ϕ(u, v), y = ψ(u, v).
To
.
a dˆo
.
cong thu
.
`o
.
ng d` ung ho
.
n ca’ l`a to
.
a dˆo
.
cu
.
.
c (r, ϕ). Ch´ ung
liˆen hˆe
.
v´o
.
i to
.
a dˆo
.
Dˆecac bo
.
’ i c´ ac hˆe
.
th´ u
.
c x = r cos ϕ, y = r sinϕ,
0 r < +∞, 0 ϕ < 2π. T` u
.
(12.6) suy ra J = r v`a trong to
.
a dˆo
.
cu
.
.
c (12.5) c´o da
.
ng

D
f(M)dxdy =

D

f(r cos ϕ, r sinϕ)rdrdϕ. (12.7)
K´ y hiˆe
.
u vˆe
´
pha’ i cu’ a (12.7) l`a I(D

). C´ o c´ac tru
.
`o
.
ng ho
.
.
p cu
.
thˆe

sau
dˆay.
(i) Nˆe
´
u cu
.
.
c cu’ a hˆe
.
to
.
a dˆo
.
cu
.
.
c n˘a
`
m ngo`ai D th`ı
I(D

) =
ϕ
2

ϕ
1

r
2
(ϕ)

r
1
(ϕ)
f(r cos ϕ, r sinϕ)rdr. (12.8)
(ii) Nˆe
´
u cu
.
.
c n˘a
`
m trong D v`a mˆo
˜
i tia di ra t` u
.
cu
.
.
c c˘a
´
t biˆen ∂D
khˆong qu´a mˆo
.
t diˆe

m th`ı
I(D

) =

0

r(ϕ)

0
f(r cos ϕ, r sinϕ)rdr. (12.9)
(iii) Nˆe
´
u cu
.
.
c n˘a
`
m trˆen biˆen ∂D cu’ a D th`ı
I(D

) =
ϕ
2

ϕ
1

r(ϕ)

0
f(r cos ϕ, r sinϕ)rdr. (12.10)
12.1. T´ıch phˆan 2-l´o
.
p 121
12.1.3 Mˆo
.
t v`ai ´ u
.
ng du
.
ng trong h`ınh ho
.
c
1
+
Diˆe
.
n t´ıch S
D
cu’ a miˆe
`
n ph˘ a

ng D du
.
o
.
.
c t´ınh theo cˆ ong th´ u
.
c
S
D
=

D
dxdy ⇒S
D
=

D

rdrdϕ. (12.11)
2
+
Thˆe

t´ıch vˆa
.
t thˆe

h`ınh tru
.
th˘a

ng d´ u
.
ng c´o d´ay l`a miˆe
`
n D (thuˆo
.
c
m˘a
.
t ph˘a

ng Oxy) v`a gi´ o
.
i ha
.
n ph´ıa trˆen bo
.
’ i m˘a
.
t z = f(x, y) > 0 du
.
o
.
.
c
t´ınh theo cˆ ong th´ u
.
c
V =

D
f(x, y)dxdy. (12.12)
3
+
Nˆe
´
u m˘a
.
t (σ) du
.
o
.
.
c cho bo
.
’ i phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh z = f(x, y) th`ı diˆe
.
n
t´ıch cu’ a n´o du
.
o
.
.
c biˆe

u diˆe
˜
n bo
.
’ i t´ıch phˆan 2-l´o
.
p
S
σ
=

D(x,y)

1 + (f

x
)
2
+ (f

y
)
2
dxdy, (12.13)
trong d´o D(x, y) l`a h`ınh chiˆe
´
u vuˆong g´oc cu’ a m˘a
.
t (σ) lˆen m˘a
.
t ph˘a

ng
to
.
a dˆo
.
Oxy.
C
´
AC V
´
I DU
.
V´ı du
.
1. T´ınh t´ıch phˆan

D
xydxdy, D = ¦(x, y) : 1 x 2; 1 y 2¦.
Gia’ i. Theo cˆong th´ u
.
c (12.2):

D
xydxdy =
2

1
dy
2

1
xydx.
122 Chu
.
o
.
ng 12. T´ıch phˆan h`am nhiˆe
`
u biˆe
´
n
T´ınh t´ıch phˆan trong (xem y l`a khˆong dˆo

i) ta c´o
I(x) =
2

1
xydx = y
x
2
2

2
1
= 2y −
1
2
y.
Bˆay gi` o
.
t´ınh t´ıch phˆan ngo`ai:

D
xydxdy =
2

1

2y −
1
2
y

dy =
9
4

V´ı du
.
2. T´ınh t´ıch phˆan

D
xydxdy nˆe
´
u D du
.
o
.
.
c gi´o
.
i ha
.
n bo
.
’ i c´ac
du
.
`o
.
ng cong y = x −4, y
2
= 2x.
Gia’ i. B˘a
`
ng c´ach du
.
.
ng c´ac du
.
`o
.
ng gi˜ u
.
a c´ac giao diˆe

m A(8, 4) v`a
B(2, −2) cu’ a ch´ ung, ba
.
n do
.
c s˜e thu du
.
o
.
.
c miˆe
`
n lˆa´y t´ıch phˆan D.
Nˆe
´
u dˆa
`
u tiˆen lˆa´y t´ıch phˆan theo x v`a tiˆe
´
p dˆe
´
n lˆa´y t´ıch phˆan theo
y th`ı t´ıch phˆan theo miˆe
`
n D du
.
o
.
.
c biˆe

u diˆe
˜
n bo
.
’ i mˆo
.
t t´ıch phˆan bˆo
.
i
I =

D
xydxdy =
4

−2
ydy
y
4

y
2
/2
xdx,
trong d´o doa
.
n [−2, 4] l`a h`ınh chiˆe
´
u cu’ a miˆe
`
n D lˆen tru
.
c Oy. T` u
.
d´o
I =
4

−2
y

x
2
2

y
4
y
2
/2

dy =
1
2
4

−2
y

(y + 4)
2

y
4
4

dy = 90.
Nˆe
´
u t´ınh t´ıch phˆan theo th´ u
.
tu
.
.
kh´ac: dˆa
`
u tiˆen theo y, sau d´o theo
x th`ı cˆ a
`
n chia miˆe
`
n D th`anh hai miˆe
`
n con bo
.
’ i du
.
`o
.
ng th˘a

ng qua B v`a
song song v´o
.
i tru
.
c Oy v`a thu du
.
o
.
.
c
I =

D
1
+

D
2
=
2

0
xdx

2x



2x
ydy +
8

2
xdx

2x

x−4
ydy
=
2

0
xdx 0 +
8

2
x

y
2
2


2x
x−4

dx = 90.
12.1. T´ıch phˆan 2-l´o
.
p 123
Nhu
.
vˆa
.
y t´ıch phˆan 2-l´o
.
p d˜a cho khˆ ong phu
.
thuˆo
.
c th´ u
.
tu
.
.
t´ınh t´ıch
phˆan. Do vˆa
.
y, cˆa
`
n cho
.
n mˆo
.
t th´ u
.
tu
.
.
t´ıch phˆan dˆe

khˆong pha’ i chia
miˆe
`
n.
V´ı du
.
3. T´ınh t´ıch phˆan

D
(y − x)dxdy. trong d´o miˆe
`
n D du
.
o
.
.
c
gi´o
.
i ha
.
n bo
.
’ i c´ac du
.
`o
.
ng th˘a

ng y = x + 1, y = x − 3, y = −
1
3
x +
7
3
,
y = −
1
3
x + 5.
Gia’ i. Dˆe

tr´anh su
.
.
ph´ u
.
c ta
.
p, ta su
.
’ du
.
ng ph´ep dˆo

i biˆe
´
n u = −y −x;
v = y +
1
3
x v`a ´ap du
.
ng cˆong th´ u
.
c (12.5). Qua ph´ep dˆo

i biˆe
´
n d˜a cho
.
n,
du
.
`o
.
ng th˘a

ng y = x + 1 biˆe
´
n th`anh du
.
`o
.
ng th˘a

ng u = 1; c`on y = x −3
biˆe
´
n th`anh u = −3 trong m˘a
.
t ph˘a

ng Ouv; tu
.
o
.
ng tu
.
.
, c´ac du
.
`o
.
ng th˘a

ng
y = −
1
3
x+
7
3
, y = −
1
3
x+5 biˆe
´
n th`anh c´ac du
.
`o
.
ng th˘a

ng v =
7
3
, v = 5.
Do d´o miˆe
`
n D

tro
.
’ th`anh miˆe
`
n D

= [−3, 1]

7
3
, 5

. Dˆe
˜
d`ang thˆa´y
r˘a
`
ng
D(x, y)
D(u, v)
= −
3
4
. Do d´o theo cˆong th´ u
.
c (12.5):

D
(y −x)dxdy =

D

1
4
u +
3
4
v


3
4
u +
3
4
v

3
4
dudv
=

D

3
4
ududv =
5

7/3
dv
4

−3
3
4
udu = −8.
Nhˆa
.
n x´et. Ph´ep dˆo

i biˆe
´
n trong t´ıch phˆan hai l´o
.
p nh˘a
`
m mu
.
c d´ıch
do
.
n gia’ n h´oa miˆe
`
n lˆa´y t´ıch phˆan. C´o thˆe

l´ uc d´o h`am du
.
´o
.
i dˆa´u t´ıch
phˆan tro
.
’ nˆen ph´ u
.
c ta
.
p ho
.
n.
V´ı du
.
4. T´ınh t´ıch phˆan

D
(x
2
+y
2
)dxdy, trong d´o D l`a h`ınh tr`on
gi´o
.
i ha
.
n bo
.
’ i du
.
`o
.
ng tr`on x
2
+y
2
= 2x.
Gia’ i. Ta chuyˆe

n sang to
.
a dˆo
.
cu
.
.
c v`a ´ap du
.
ng cˆong th´ u
.
c (12.7).
Cˆong th´ u
.
c liˆen hˆe
.
(x, y) v´o
.
i to
.
a dˆo
.
cu
.
.
c (r, ϕ) v´ o
.
i cu
.
.
c ta
.
i diˆe

m O(0, 0)
124 Chu
.
o
.
ng 12. T´ıch phˆan h`am nhiˆe
`
u biˆe
´
n
c´o da
.
ng
x = r cos ϕ, y = r sinϕ. (12.14)
Thˆe
´
(12.14) v`ao phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh du
.
`o
.
ng tr`on ta thu du
.
o
.
.
c r
2
= 2r cos ϕ ⇒
r = 0 ho˘a
.
c r = 2 cos ϕ (dˆay l`a phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh du
.
`o
.
ng tr`on trong to
.
a dˆo
.
cu
.
.
c). Khi d´o
D

=

(r, ϕ) : −
π
2
ϕ
π
2
, 0 r 2 cos ϕ
¸
T` u
.
d´o thu du
.
o
.
.
c
I =

D
(x
2
+y
2
)dxdy =

D

r
3
drdϕ =
π/2

−π/2

2 cos ϕ

0
r
3
dr
=
π/2

−π/2

r
4
4

2 cos ϕ
0

dϕ = 4
π/2

−π/2
cos
4
ϕfϕ =

2

Nhˆa
.
n x´et. Nˆe
´
u lˆa´y cu
.
.
c ta
.
i tˆam h`ınh tr`on th`ı
x −1 = r cos ϕ
y = r sinϕ
D

=
¸
(r, ϕ) : 0 r 1, 0 ϕ 2π¦
v`a do x
2
+y
2
= 1 + 2r cos ϕ +r
2
nˆen
I =

D

r(1 + 2r cos ϕ +r
2
)drdϕ
=

0

1

0
(r + 2r
2
cos ϕ +r
3
)dr =

2

V´ı du
.
5. T´ınh thˆe

t´ıch vˆa
.
t thˆe

T gi´o
.
i ha
.
n bo
.
’ i paraboloid z = x
2
+y
2
,
m˘a
.
t tru
.
y = x
2
v`a c´ac m˘a
.
t ph˘a

ng y = 1, z = 0.
12.1. T´ıch phˆan 2-l´o
.
p 125
Gia’ i. H`ınh chiˆe
´
u cu’ a vˆa
.
t thˆe

T lˆen m˘a
.
t ph˘a

ng Oxy l`a
D(x, y) =

(x, y) : −1 x 1, x
2
y 1
¸
.
Do d´o ´ap du
.
ng (12.12) ta c´o
V (T) =

D(x,y)
zdxdy =

D(x,y)
(x
2
+y
2
)dxdy =
1

−1
dx
1

x
2
(x
2
+y
2
)dy
=
1

−1

x
2
y +
y
3
3

1
x
2

dx =
88
105

V´ı du
.
6. T`ım diˆe
.
n t´ıch m˘a
.
t cˆ a
`
u b´an k´ınh R v´o
.
i tˆam ta
.
i gˆo´c to
.
a dˆo
.
.
Gia’ i. Phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh m˘a
.
t cˆ a
`
u d˜a cho c´ o da
.
ng
x
2
+y
2
+z
2
= R
2
.
Do d´o phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh nu
.
’ a trˆen m˘ a
.
t cˆ a
`
u l`a
z =

R
2
−x
2
−y
2
.
Do t´ınh dˆo´i x´ u
.
ng nˆen ta chı ’ t´ınh diˆe
.
n t´ıch nu
.
’ a trˆen l`a du’ . Ta c´o
ds =

1 + z

x
2
+z

y
2
dxdy =
Rdxdy

R
2
−x
2
−y
2

Miˆe
`
n lˆa´y t´ıch phˆan D(x, y) = ¦(x, y) : x
2
+y
2
R
2
¦. Do d´o
S = 2

D(x,y)
R

R
2
−x
2
−y
2
dxdy =

x = r cos ϕ
y = r sinϕ
J = r

= 2R

0

R

0
rdr

R
2
−r
2
= 4πR



R
2
−r
2

R
0

= 4πR
2
.
126 Chu
.
o
.
ng 12. T´ıch phˆan h`am nhiˆe
`
u biˆe
´
n
V´ı du
.
7. T´ınh diˆe
.
n t´ıch phˆa
`
n m˘a
.
t tru
.
x
2
= 2z gi´o
.
i ha
.
n bo
.
’ i giao
tuyˆe
´
n cu’ a m˘a
.
t tru
.
d´o v´o
.
i c´ac m˘a
.
t ph˘a

ng x−2y = 0, y = 2x, x = 2

2.
Gia’ i. Dˆe
˜
thˆa´y r˘a
`
ng h`ınh chiˆe
´
u cu’ a phˆa
`
n m˘a
.
t d˜a nˆeu l`a tam gi´ac
v´o
.
i c´ac ca
.
nh n˘a
`
m trˆen giao tuyˆe
´
n cu’ a m˘a
.
t ph˘a

ng Oxy v´o
.
i c´ac m˘a
.
t
ph˘a

ng d˜a cho.
T` u
.
phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh m˘ a
.
t tru
.
ta c´o z =
x
2
2
, do vˆa
.
y
∂z
∂x
= x,
∂z
∂y
= 0 →dS =

1 +x
2
dxdy.
T` u
.
d´o suy r˘a
`
ng
S =
2

2

0

1 +x
2
dx
2x

x/2
dy =
3
2
2

2

0
x

1 +x
2
dx = 13.
B
`
AI T
ˆ
A
.
P
T`ım cˆa
.
n cu’ a t´ıch phˆan hai l´o
.
p

D
f(x, y)dxdy theo miˆe
`
n D gi´o
.
i
ha
.
n bo
.
’ i c´ac du
.
`o
.
ng d˜a chı ’ ra . (Dˆe

ng˘a
´
n go
.
n ta k´ y hiˆe
.
u f(x, y) = f(−)).
1. x = 3, x = 5, 3x −2y + 4 = 0, 3x −2y + 1 = 0.
(DS.
5

3
dx
3x+4
5

3x+1
5
f(−)dy)
2. x = 0, y = 0, x +y = 2
(DS.
2

0
dx
2−x

0
f(−)dy)
12.1. T´ıch phˆan 2-l´o
.
p 127
3. x
2
+y
2
1, x 0, y 0.
(DS.
1

0
dx

1−x
2

0
f(−)dy)
4. x +y 1, x −y 1, x 0.
(DS.
1

0
dx
1−x

x−1
f(−)dy)
5. y x
2
, y 4 −x
2
.
(DS.

2



2
dx
4−x
2

x
2
f(−)dy)
6.
x
2
4
+
y
2
9
1.
(DS.
+2

−2
dx
3
2

4−x
2


3
2

4−x
2
f(−)dy)
7. y = x
2
, y =

x.
(DS.
1

0
dx

x

x
2
f(−)dy)
8. y = x, y = 2x, x +y = 6.
(DS.
2

0
dx
2x

x
f(−)dy +
3

2
dx
6−x

x
f(−)dy)
Thay dˆo

i th´ u
.
tu
.
.
t´ıch phˆan trong c´ac t´ıch phˆan
128 Chu
.
o
.
ng 12. T´ıch phˆan h`am nhiˆe
`
u biˆe
´
n
9.
4

0
dy
4

y
f(−)dx. (DS.
4

2
dx
x

2
f(−)dy)
10.
0

−1
dx

1−x
2

x+1
f(−)dy. (DS.
1

0
dy
y−1



1−y
2
f(−)dx)
11.
1

0
dx
2−x
2

x
f(−)dy. (DS.
1

0
dy
y

0
fdx +
2

1
dy

2−y

0
fdx)
12.
2

1
dy
y

1/y
fdx. (DS.
1

1/2
dx
2

1/x
fdy +
2

1
dx
2

x
fdy)
T´ınh c´ac t´ıch phˆan l˘a
.
p sau
13.
1

0
dx
2x

x
(x −y + 1)dy. (DS.
1
3
)
14.
4

−2
dy
y

0
y
3
x
2
+y
2
dx. (DS. 6π)
15.
0

2
dy
y
2

0
(x + 2y)dx. (DS. −11, 2)
16.
5

0
dx
5−x

0

4 +x +ydy. (DS.
506
15
)
17.
4

3
dx
2

1
dy
(x +y)
2
. (DS.
25
24
)
18.
a

0
dx
2

ax

−2

ax
(x
2
+y
2
)dy. (DS.
344
105
a
4
)
12.1. T´ıch phˆan 2-l´o
.
p 129
19.

0

a

a sinϕ
rdr. (DS.
πa
2
2
)
20

.
1

0
dx

1−x
2

0

1 −x
2
−y
2
dy. (DS.
π
6
)
T´ınh c´ac t´ıch phˆan 2-l´o
.
p theo c´ac h`ınh ch˜ u
.
nhˆa
.
t d˜a chı ’ ra.
21.

D
(x +y
2
)dxdy; 2 x 3, 1 y 2. (DS. 4
5
6
)
22.

D
(x
2
+y)dxdy; 1 x 2, 0 y 1. (DS. 2
5
6
)
23.

D
(x
2
+y
2
)dxdy; 0 x 1, 0 y 1. (DS.
2
3
)
24.

D
3y
2
dxdy
1 +x
2
; 0 x 1, 0 y 1. (DS.
π
4
)
25.

D
sin(x +y)dxdy; 0 x
π
2
, 0 y
π
2
. (DS. 2)
26.

D
xe
xy
dxdy; 0 x 1, −1 y 0. (DS.
1
e
)
27.

D
dxdy
(x −y)
2
; 1 x 2, 3 y 4. (DS. ln
4
3
)
T´ınh c´ac t´ıch phˆan 2-l´o
.
p theo miˆe
`
n D gi´o
.
i ha
.
n c´ac du
.
`o
.
ng d˜a chı ’
ra
28.

D
xydxdy; y = 0, y = x, x = 1. (DS.
1
8
)
29.

D
xydxdy; y = x
2
, x = y
2
. (DS.
1
12
)
130 Chu
.
o
.
ng 12. T´ıch phˆan h`am nhiˆe
`
u biˆe
´
n
30.

D
xdxdy; y = x
3
, x +y = 2, x = 0. (DS.
7
15
)
31.

D
xdxdy; xy = 6, x +y −7 = 0. (DS. 20
5
6
)
32.

D
y
2
xdxdy; x
2
+y
2
= 4, x +y −2 = 0. (DS. 1
3
5
)
33.

D
(x +y)dxdy; 0 y π, 0 x siny. (DS.

4
)
34.

D
sin(x +y)dxdy; x = y, x +y =
π
2
, y = 0. (DS.
1
2
)
35.

D
e
−y
2
dxdy; D l`a tam gi´ ac v´o
.
i dı ’nh O(0, 0), B(0, 1), A(1, 1).
(DS. −
1
2e
+
1
2
)
36.

D
xydxdy; D l`a h`ınh elip 4x
2
+y
2
4. (DS. 0)
37.

D
x
2
ydxdy; y = 0, y =

2ax −x
2
. (DS.
4a
5
5
)
38.

D
xdxdy
x
2
+y
2
; y = x, x = 2, x = 2y. (DS.
π
2
−2arctg
1
2
)
39.

D

x +ydxdy; x = 0, y = 0, x +y = 1. (DS.
2
5
)
40.

D
(x −y)dxdy; y = 2 −x
2
, y = 2x −1. (DS. 4
4
15
)
41.

D
(x + 2y)dxdy; y = x, y = 2x, x = 2, x = 3. (DS. 25
1
3
)
12.1. T´ıch phˆan 2-l´o
.
p 131
42.

D
xdxdy; x = 2 + sin y, x = 0, y = 0, y = 2π. (DS.

2
)
43.

D
xydxdy; (x −2)
2
+y
2
= 1. (DS.
4
3
)
44.

D
dxdy

2a −x
; D l`a h`ınh tr`on b´an k´ınh a n˘a
`
m trong g´oc vuˆong I
v`a tiˆe
´
p x´ uc v´o
.
i c´ac tru
.
c to
.
a dˆo
.
. (DS.
8
3
a

2a)
45.

D
ydxdy; x = R(t −sint), y = R(1−cos t), 0 t 2π (l`a miˆe
`
n
gi´o
.
i ha
.
n bo
.
’ i v`om cu’ a xicloid.) (DS.
5
2
πR
3
)
Chı ’ dˆa
˜
n.

D
ydxdy =
2πR

0
dx
y=f(x)

0
ydy
Chuyˆe

n sang to
.
a dˆo
.
cu
.
.
c v`a t´ınh t´ıch phˆan trong to
.
a dˆo
.
m´o
.
i
46.

D
(x
2
+y
2
)dxdy; D : x
2
+y
2
R
2
, y 0. (DS.
πR
4
4
)
47.

D
e
x
2
+y
2
dxdy; D : x
2
+y
2
1, x 0, y 0. (DS.
π
4
(e −1))
48.

D
e
x
2
+y
2
dxdy; D : x
2
+y
2
R
2
. (DS. 2π(e
R
2
−1))
49.

D

1 −x
2
−y
2
dxdy; D : x
2
+y
2
x. (DS.
1
4

π −
4
3

)
50.

D

1 −x
2
−y
2
1 +x
2
+y
2
dxdy; D : x
2
+y
2
1, x 0, y 0.
(DS.
π(π −2)
2
)
132 Chu
.
o
.
ng 12. T´ıch phˆan h`am nhiˆe
`
u biˆe
´
n
51.

D
ln(x
2
+y
2
)
x
2
+y
2
dxdy; D : 1 x
2
+y
2
e. (DS. 2π)
52.

D
(x
2
+y
2
)dxdy; D gi´o
.
i ha
.
n bo
.
’ i c´ac du
.
`o
.
ng tr`on
x
2
+y
2
+ 2x −1 = 0, x
2
+y
2
+ 2x = 0. (DS.

2
)
Chı ’ dˆa
˜
n. D˘a
.
t x −1 = r cos ϕ, y = r sinϕ.
T´ınh thˆe

t´ıch cu’ a vˆ a
.
t thˆe

gi´o
.
i ha
.
n bo
.
’ i c´ac m˘a
.
t d˜a chı ’ ra.
53. x = 0, y = 0, z = 0, x +y +z = 1. (DS.
1
6
)
54. x = 0, y = 0, z = 0, x +y = 1, z = x
2
+y
2
. (DS.
1
6
)
55. z = x
2
+y
2
, y = x
2
, y = 1, z = 0. (DS.
88
105
)
56. z =

x
2
+y
2
, x
2
+y
2
= a
2
, z = 0. (DS.
2
3
πa
3
)
57. z = x
2
+y
2
, x
2
+y
2
= a
2
, z = 0. (DS.
πa
4
2
)
58. z = x, x
2
+y
2
= a
2
, z = 0. (DS.
4a
3
3
)
59. z = 4 −x
2
−y
2
, x = ±1, y = ±1. (DS. 13
1
3
)
60. 2 −x −y −2z = 0, y = x
2
, y = x. (DS.
11
120
)
61. x
2
+y
2
= 4x, z = x, z = 2x. (DS. 4π)
T´ınh diˆe
.
n t´ıch c´ac phˆa
`
n m˘a
.
t d˜a chı ’ ra.
62. Phˆa
`
n m˘a
.
t ph˘a

ng 6x + 3y + 2z = 12 n˘a
`
m trong g´oc phˆa
`
n t´am I.
(DS. 14)
63. Phˆa
`
n m˘a
.
t ph˘a

ng x +y +z = 2a n˘a
`
m trong m˘a
.
t tru
.
x
2
+y
2
= a
2
.
(DS. 2a
2

3)
12.2. T´ıch phˆan 3-l´o
.
p 133
64. Phˆa
`
n m˘a
.
t paraboloid z = x
2
+y
2
n˘a
`
m trong m˘a
.
t tru
.
x
2
+y
2
= 4.
(DS.
π
6
(17

17 −1))
65. Phˆa
`
n m˘a
.
t 2z = x
2
+y
2
n˘a
`
m trong m˘a
.
t tru
.
x
2
+y
2
= 1.
(DS.
2
3
(2

2 −1)π)
66. Phˆa
`
n m˘a
.
t n´on z =

x
2
+y
2
n˘a
`
m trong m˘a
.
t tru
.
x
2
+y
2
= a
2
.
(DS. πa
2

2)
67. Phˆa
`
n m˘a
.
t cˆa
`
u x
2
+y
2
+z
2
= R
2
n˘a
`
m trong m˘a
.
t tru
.
x
2
+y
2
= Rx.
(DS. 2R
2
(π −2))
68. Phˆa
`
n m˘a
.
t n´on z
2
= x
2
+y
2
n˘a
`
m trong m˘a
.
t tru
.
x
2
+y
2
= 2x.
(DS. 2

2π)
69. Phˆ a
`
n m˘a
.
t tru
.
z
2
= 4x n˘a
`
m trong g´oc phˆa
`
n t´am th´ u I v`a gi´ o
.
i ha
.
n
bo
.
’ i m˘a
.
t tru
.
y
2
= 4x v`a m˘a
.
t ph˘a

ng x = 1. (DS.
4
3
(2

2 −1))
70. Phˆ a
`
n m˘a
.
t cˆ a
`
u x
2
+y
2
+z
2
= R
2
n˘a
`
m trong m˘a
.
t tru
.
x
2
+y
2
= a
2
(a R). (DS. 4πa(a −

a
2
−R
2
))
12.2 T´ıch phˆan 3-l´o
.
p
12.2.1 Tru
.
`o
.
ng ho
.
.
p miˆe
`
n h`ınh hˆo
.
p
Gia’ su
.
’ miˆe
`
n D ⊂ R
3
:
D = [a, b] [c, d] [e, g] = ¦(x, y, z) : a x b, c y d, e z g¦
v`a h`am f(x, y, z) liˆen tu
.
c trong D. Khi d´o t´ıch phˆan 3-l´o
.
p cu’ a h`am
f(x, y, z) theo miˆe
`
n D du
.
o
.
.
c t´ınh theo cˆ ong th´ u
.
c

D
f(x, y, z)dxdydz =
b

a

d

c

g

e
f(x, y, z)dz

dy
¸
dx
=
b

a
dx
d

c
dy
g

e
f(M)dx. (12.15)
134 Chu
.
o
.
ng 12. T´ıch phˆan h`am nhiˆe
`
u biˆe
´
n
T` u
.
(12.15) suy ra c´ac giai doa
.
n t´ınh t´ıch phˆan 3-l´o
.
p:
(i) Dˆa
`
u tiˆen t´ınh I(x, y) =
g

e
f(M)dz;
(ii) Tiˆe
´
p theo t´ınh I(x) =
d

c
I(x, y)dy;
(iii) Sau c` ung t´ınh t´ıch phˆan I =
b

a
I(x)dx.
Nˆe
´
u t´ıch phˆan (12.15) du
.
o
.
.
c t´ınh theo th´ u
.
tu
.
.
kh´ac th`ı c´ac giai doa
.
n
t´ınh vˆa
˜
n tu
.
o
.
ng tu
.
.
: dˆa
`
u tiˆen t´ınh t´ıch phˆan trong, tiˆe
´
p dˆe
´
n t´ınh t´ıch
phˆan gi˜ u
.
a v`a sau c` ung l`a t´ınh t´ıch phˆan ngo`ai.
12.2.2 Tru
.
`o
.
ng ho
.
.
p miˆe
`
n cong
1
+
Gia’ su
.
’ h`am f(M) liˆen tu
.
c trong miˆe
`
n bi
.
ch˘a
.
n
D =
¸
(x, y, z) : a x b, ϕ
1
(x) y ϕ
2
(x), g
1
(x, y) z g
2
(x, y)
¸
.
Khi d´o t´ıch phˆan 3-l´o
.
p cu’ a h`am f(M) theo miˆe
`
n D du
.
o
.
.
c t´ınh theo
cˆong th´ u
.
c

D
f(M)dxdydz =
b

a

ϕ
2
(x)

ϕ
1
(x)

g
2
(x,y)

g
1
(x,y)
f(M)dx

dy
¸
dx (12.16)
ho˘a
.
c

D
f(M)dxdydz =

D(x,y)
dxdy
g
2
(x,y)

g
1
(x,y)
f(M)dz, (12.17)
trong d´o D(x, y) l`a h`ınh chiˆe
´
u vuˆong g´oc cu’ a D lˆen m˘a
.
t ph˘a

ng Oxy.
Viˆe
.
c t´ınh t´ıch phˆan 3-l´o
.
p du
.
o
.
.
c quy vˆe
`
t´ınh liˆen tiˆe
´
p ba t´ıch phˆan thˆong
12.2. T´ıch phˆan 3-l´o
.
p 135
thu
.
`o
.
ng theo (12.16) t` u
.
t´ıch phˆ an trong, tiˆe
´
p dˆe
´
n t´ıch phˆan gi˜ u
.
a v`a
sau c` ung l`a t´ınh t´ıch phˆan ngo`ai. Khi t´ınh t´ıch phˆan 3-l´o
.
p theo cˆong
th´ u
.
c (12.17): dˆa
`
u tiˆen t´ınh t´ıch phˆan trong v`a sau d´o c´o thˆe

t´ınh t´ıch
phˆan 2-l´o
.
p theo miˆe
`
n D(x, y) theo c´ ac phu
.
o
.
ng ph´ap d˜a c´o trong 12.1.
2
+
Phu
.
o
.
ng ph´ap dˆo

i biˆe
´
n. Ph´ep dˆo

i biˆe
´
n trong t´ıch phˆan 3-l´o
.
p
du
.
o
.
.
c tiˆe
´
n h`anh theo cˆong th´ u
.
c

D
f(M)dxdydz =

D

f

ϕ(u, v, w), ψ(u, v, w), χ(u, v, w)

D(x, y, z)
D(u, v, w)

dudvdw, (12.18)
trong d´o D

l`a miˆe
`
n biˆe
´
n thiˆen cu’ a to
.
a dˆo
.
cong u, v, w tu
.
o
.
ng ´ u
.
ng khi
c´ac diˆe

m (x, y, z) biˆe
´
n thiˆen trong D: x = ϕ(u, v, w), y = ψ(u, v, w),
z = χ(u, v, w),
D(x, y, z)
D(u, v, w)
l`a Jacobiˆen cu’ a c´ac h`am ϕ, ψ, χ
J =
D(x, y, z)
D(u, v, w)
=

∂ϕ
∂u
∂ϕ
∂v
∂ϕ
∂w
∂ψ
∂u
∂ψ
∂v
∂ψ
∂w
∂χ
∂u
∂χ
∂v
∂χ
∂w

= 0. (12.19)
Tru
.
`o
.
ng ho
.
.
p d˘a
.
c biˆe
.
t cu’ a to
.
a dˆo
.
cong l`a to
.
a dˆo
.
tru
.
v`a to
.
a dˆo
.
cˆa
`
u.
(i) Bu
.
´o
.
c chuyˆe

n t` u
.
to
.
a dˆo
.
Dˆec´ ac sang to
.
a dˆo
.
tru
.
(r, ϕ, z) du
.
o
.
.
c thu
.
.
c
hiˆe
.
n theo c´ ac hˆe
.
th´ u
.
c x = r cos ϕ, y = r sinϕ, z = z; 0 r < +∞,
0 ϕ < 2π, −∞ < z < +∞. T` u
.
(12.19) suy ra J = r v`a trong to
.
a
dˆo
.
tru
.
ta c´o

D
f(M)dxdydz =

D

f

r cos ϕ, r sinϕ, z

rdrdϕdz, (12.20)
trong d´o D

l`a miˆe
`
n biˆe
´
n thiˆen cu’ a to
.
a dˆo
.
tru
.
tu
.
o
.
ng ´ u
.
ng khi diˆe

m
(x, y, z) biˆe
´
n thiˆen trong D.
136 Chu
.
o
.
ng 12. T´ıch phˆan h`am nhiˆe
`
u biˆe
´
n
(ii) Bu
.
´o
.
c chuyˆe

n t` u
.
to
.
a dˆo
.
Dˆec´ ac sang to
.
a dˆo
.
cˆa
`
u (r, ϕ, θ) du
.
o
.
.
c
thu
.
.
c hiˆe
.
n theo c´ac hˆe
.
th´ u
.
c x = r sinθ cos ϕ, y = r sin θ sinϕ, z =
r cos θ, 0 r < +∞, 0 ϕ < 2π, 0 θ π. T` u
.
(12.19) ta c´ o
J = r
2
sinθ v`a trong to
.
a dˆo
.
cˆa
`
u ta c´ o

D
f(M)dxdydz =
=

D

f

r sinθ cos ϕ, r sinθ sinϕ, r cos θ

r
2
sinθdrdϕdθ, (12.21)
trong d´o D

l`a miˆe
`
n biˆe
´
n thiˆen cu’ a to
.
a dˆo
.
cˆa
`
u tu
.
o
.
ng ´ u
.
ng khi diˆe

m
(x, y, z) biˆe
´
n thiˆen trong D.
12.2.3
Thˆe

t´ıch cu’ a vˆa
.
t thˆe

cho´ an hˆe
´
t miˆe
`
n D ⊂ R
3
du
.
o
.
.
c t´ınh theo cˆ ong
th´ u
.
c
V
D
=

D
dxdydz. (12.22)
12.2.4 Nhˆa
.
n x´et chung
B˘a
`
ng c´ach thay dˆo

i th´ u
.
tu
.
.
t´ınh t´ıch phˆan trong t´ıch phˆan 3-l´o
.
p ta s˜e
thu du
.
o
.
.
c c´ ac cˆong th´ u
.
c tu
.
o
.
ng tu
.
.
nhu
.
cˆong th´ u
.
c (12.16) dˆe

t´ınh t´ıch
phˆan. Viˆe
.
c t`ım cˆ a
.
n cho t´ıch phˆan do
.
n thˆong thu
.
`o
.
ng khi chuyˆe

n t´ıch
phˆan 3-l´o
.
p vˆe
`
t´ıch phˆan l˘a
.
p du
.
o
.
.
c thu
.
.
c hiˆe
.
n nhu
.
dˆo´i v´o
.
i tru
.
`o
.
ng ho
.
.
p
t´ıch phˆan 2-l´o
.
p.
C
´
AC V
´
I DU
.
V´ı du
.
1. T´ınh t´ıch phˆan l˘a
.
p
I =
1

−1
dx
1

x
2
dy
2

0
(4 +z)dx.
12.2. T´ıch phˆan 3-l´o
.
p 137
Gia’ i. Ta t´ınh liˆen tiˆe
´
p ba t´ıch phˆan x´ac di
.
nh thˆong thu
.
`o
.
ng b˘a
´
t
dˆa
`
u t` u
.
t´ıch phˆan trong
I(x, y) =
2

0
(4 +z)dz = 4z

2
0
+
z
2
2

2
0
= 10;
I(x) =
1

x
2
I(x, y)dy = 10
1

x
2
dy = 10(1 −x
2
);
I =
1

−1
I(x)dx =
1

−1
10(1 −x
2
)dx =
40
3

V´ı du
.
2. T´ınh t´ıch phˆan
I =

D
(x +y +z)dxdydz,
trong d´o miˆe
`
n D du
.
o
.
.
c gi´o
.
i ha
.
n bo
.
’ i c´ ac m˘a
.
t ph˘a

ng to
.
a dˆo
.
v`a m˘a
.
t
ph˘a

ng x +y +z = 1.
Gia’ i. Miˆe
`
n D d˜a cho l`a mˆo
.
t t´ u
.
diˆe
.
n c´o h`ınh chiˆe
´
u vuˆong g´oc trˆen
m˘a
.
t ph˘a

ng Oxy l`a tam gi´ac gi´o
.
i ha
.
n bo
.
’ i c´ ac du
.
`o
.
ng th˘a

ng x = 0,
y = 0, x + y = 1. R˜o r`ang l`a x biˆe
´
n thiˆen t` u
.
0 dˆe
´
n 1 (doa
.
n [0, 1] l`a
h`ınh chiˆe
´
u cu’ a D lˆen tru
.
c Ox). Khi cˆ o´ di
.
nh x, 0 x 1 th`ı y biˆe
´
n
thiˆen t` u
.
0 dˆe
´
n 1−x. Nˆe
´
u cˆo´ di
.
nh ca’ x v`a y (0 x 1, 0 y 1−x)
th`ı diˆe

m (x, y, z) biˆe
´
n thiˆen theo du
.
`o
.
ng th˘a

ng d´ u
.
ng t` u
.
m˘a
.
t ph˘a

ng
z = 0 dˆe
´
n m˘a
.
t ph˘a

ng x + y + z = 1, t´ u
.
c l`a z biˆe
´
n thiˆen t` u
.
0 dˆe
´
n
1 −x −y. Theo cˆong th´ u
.
c (12.16) ta c´ o
I =
1

0
dx
1−x

0
dy
1−x−y

0
(x +y +z)dz.
138 Chu
.
o
.
ng 12. T´ıch phˆan h`am nhiˆe
`
u biˆe
´
n
Dˆe
˜
d`ang thˆa´y r˘a
`
ng
I =
1

0
dx
1−x

0

xz +yz +
z
2
2

1−x−y
0
dy
=
1
2
1

0

y −yx
2
−xy
2

y
3
3

1−x
0
¸
dx
=
1
6
1

0
(2 −3x +x
3
)dx =
1
8

V´ı du
.
3. T´ınh I =

D
dxdydz
(x +y +z)
3
, trong d´o miˆe
`
n D du
.
o
.
.
c gi´o
.
i
ha
.
n bo
.
’ i c´ac m˘a
.
t ph˘a

ng x +z = 3, y = 2, x = 0, y = 0, z = 0.
Gia’ i. Miˆe
`
n D d˜a cho l`a mˆo
.
t h`ınh l˘ang tru
.
c´o h`ınh chiˆe
´
u vuˆong
g´oc lˆen m˘a
.
t ph˘a

ng Oxy l`a h`ınh ch˜ u
.
nhˆa
.
t D(x, y) =
¸
(x, y) : 0
x 3, 0 y 2
¸
. V´ o
.
i diˆe

m M(x, y) cˆo´ di
.
nh thuˆo
.
c D(x, y) diˆe

m
(x, y, z) ∈ D biˆe
´
n thiˆen trˆen du
.
`o
.
ng th˘a

ng d´ u
.
ng t` u
.
m˘a
.
t ph˘a

ng Oxy
(z = 0) dˆe
´
n m˘a
.
t ph˘a

ng x +z = 3, t´ u
.
c l`a z biˆe
´
n thiˆen t` u
.
0 dˆe
´
n 3 −x:
0 z 3 −x. T` u
.
d´o theo (12.17) ta c´o

D
f(M)dxdydz =

D(x,y)
dxdy
z=3−x

z=0
(x +y +z + 1)
−3
dz
=

D(x,y)

(x +y +z + 1)
−2
−2

3−x
0

dxdy = =
4 ln 2 −1
8

V´ı du
.
4. T´ınh t´ıch phˆan

D
(x
2
+ y
2
+ z
2
)dxdydz, trong d´o miˆe
`
n
D du
.
o
.
.
c gi´o
.
i ha
.
n bo
.
’ i m˘ a
.
t 3(x
2
+y
2
) +z
2
= 3a
2
.
Gia’ i. Phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh m˘a
.
t biˆen cu’ a D c´o thˆe

viˆe
´
t du
.
´o
.
i da
.
ng
x
2
a
2
+
y
2
b
2
+
z
2
(a

3)
2
= 1.
12.2. T´ıch phˆan 3-l´o
.
p 139
D´o l`a m˘a
.
t elipxoid tr`on xoay, t´ u
.
c l`a D l`a h`ınh elipxoid tr`on xoay.
H`ınh chiˆe
´
u vuˆong g´oc D(x, y) cu’ a D lˆen m˘a
.
t ph˘a

ng Oxy l`a h`ınh tr`on
x
2
+ y
2
a
2
. Do d´o ´ap du
.
ng c´ach lˆa
.
p luˆa
.
n nhu
.
trong c´ac v´ı du
.
2
v`a 3 ta thˆa´y r˘a
`
ng khi diˆe

m M(x, y) ∈ D(x, y) du
.
o
.
.
c cˆo´ di
.
nh th`ı diˆe

m
(x, y, z) cu’ a miˆe
`
n D biˆe
´
n thiˆen trˆen du
.
`o
.
ng th˘a

ng d´ u
.
ng M(x, y) t` u
.
m˘a
.
t biˆen du
.
´o
.
i cu’ a D
z = −

3(a
2
−x
2
−y
2
)
dˆe
´
n m˘a
.
t biˆen trˆen
z = +

3(a
2
−x
2
−y
2
).
T` u
.
d´o theo (12.17) ta c´o
I =

D(x,y)
dxdy
+

3(a
2
−x
2
−y
2
)



3(a
2
−x
2
−y
2
)
(x
2
+y
2
+z
2
)dz
= 2a
2

3

x
2
+y
2
a
2

a
2
−x
2
−y
2
dxdy = [chuyˆe

n sang to
.
a dˆo
.
cu
.
.
c[
= 2a
2

3

ra

a
2
−r
2
rdrdϕ = a
2

3

0

a

0
(a
2
−r
2
)
1/2
rdr
=
4πa
5

3

V´ı du
.
5. T´ınh thˆe

t´ıch cu’ a vˆ a
.
t thˆe

gi´o
.
i ha
.
n bo
.
’ i c´ ac m˘a
.
t ph˘a

ng
x +y +z = 4, x = 3, y = 2, x = 0, y = 0, z = 0.
Gia’ i. Miˆe
`
n D d˜a cho l`a mˆo
.
t h`ınh lu
.
c diˆe
.
n trong khˆong gian. N´o
c´o h`ınh chiˆe
´
u vuˆ ong g´ oc D(x, y) lˆen m˘a
.
t ph˘a

ng Oxy l`a h`ınh thang
vuˆong gi´o
.
i ha
.
n bo
.
’ i c´ac du
.
`o
.
ng th˘a

ng x = 0, y = 0, x = 3, y = 2 v`a
140 Chu
.
o
.
ng 12. T´ıch phˆan h`am nhiˆe
`
u biˆe
´
n
x +y = 4. Do d´o ´ap du
.
ng (12.17) ta c´o
V
D
=

D
dxdydz =

D(x,y)
dxdy
4−x−y

0
dz =

D(x,y)
(4 −x −y)dxdy
=
1

0
dy
3

0
(4 −x −y)dx +
2

1
dy
4−y

0
(4 −x −y)dx
=
1

0

(4 −y)x −
x
2
2

3
0
¸
dy +
2

1

(4 −y)x −
x
2
2

4−y
0
¸
dy
=
1

0

15
2
−3y

dy +
1
2
2

1
(4 −y)
2
dy =
55
6

V´ı du
.
6. T´ınh t´ıch phˆ an
I =

D
z

x
2
+y
2
dxdydz,
trong d´o miˆe
`
n D gi´o
.
i ha
.
n bo
.
’ i m˘a
.
t ph˘a

ng y = 0, z = 0, z = a v`a m˘a
.
t
tru
.
x
2
+y
2
= 2x (x 0, y 0, a > 0).
Gia’ i. Chuyˆe

n sang to
.
a dˆo
.
tru
.
ta thˆa´y phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh m˘a
.
t tru
.
x
2
+
y
2
= 2x trong to
.
a dˆo
.
tru
.
c´o da
.
ng r = 2 cos ϕ, 0 ϕ
π
2
(h˜ay v˜e h`ınh
!). Do d´o theo cˆong th´ u
.
c (12.20) ta c´ o
I =
π/2

0

2 cos ϕ

0
r
2
dr
a

0
zdz =
a
2
2
π/2

0

2 cos ϕ

0
r
2
dr
=
4a
2
3
π/2

0
cos
3
ϕdϕ =
8
9
a
2
.
V´ı du
.
7. T´ınh t´ıch phˆ an
I =

D
(x
2
+y
2
)dxdydz,
12.2. T´ıch phˆan 3-l´o
.
p 141
nˆe
´
u miˆe
`
n D l`a nu
.
’ a trˆen cu’ a h`ınh cˆa
`
u x
2
+y
2
+z
2
R
2
, z 0.
Gia’ i. Chuyˆe

n sang to
.
a dˆo
.
cˆa
`
u, miˆe
`
n biˆe
´
n thiˆen D

cu’ a c´ac to
.
a dˆo
.
cˆa
`
u tu
.
o
.
ng ´ u
.
ng khi diˆe

m (x, y, z) biˆe
´
n thiˆen trong D l`a c´o da
.
ng
D

: 0 ϕ < 2π, 0 θ
π
2
, 0 r R.
T` u
.
d´o
I =

D

r
2
sin
2
θ r
2
sinθdrdϕdθ =

0

π/2

0
sin
3
θdθ
R

0
r
4
dr
=
4
15
πR
5
.
B
`
AI T
ˆ
A
.
P
T´ınh c´ac t´ıch phˆan l˘a
.
p sau
1.
1

0
dx

x

0
ydy
2−2x

1−x
dz. (DS.
1
12
)
2.
a

0
ydy
h

0
dx
a−y

0
dz. (DS.
a
3
h
6
)
3.
2

0
dy
2


2y−y
2
xdx
3

0
z
2
dz. (DS. 30)
4.
1

0
dx
1−x

0
dy
1−x−y

0
dz
(1 +x +y +z)
3
. (DS.
ln2
2

5
16
)
5.
c

0
dz
b

0
dy
a

0
(x
2
+y
2
+z
2
)dx. (DS.

abc
3
(a
2
+b
2
+c
2
)

)
142 Chu
.
o
.
ng 12. T´ıch phˆan h`am nhiˆe
`
u biˆe
´
n
6.
a

0
dx
a−x

0
dy
a−x−y

0
(x
2
+y
2
+z
2
)dz. (DS.
a
5
20
)
T´ınh c´ac t´ıch phˆan 3-l´o
.
p theo miˆe
`
n D gi´o
.
i ha
.
n bo
.
’ i c´ac m˘a
.
t d˜a chı ’
ra.
7.

D
(x +y −z)dxdydz; x = −1, x = 1; y = 0, y = 1;
z = 0, z = 2. (DS. −2)
8.

D
xydxdydz; x = 1, x = 2; y = −2, y = −1; z = 0, z =
1
2
.
(DS. −
8
9
)
9.

D
dxdydz
(x +y +z)
2
; x = 1, x = 2; y = 1, y = 2; z = 1, z = 2.
(DS.
1
2
ln
128
125
)
10.

D
(x + 2y + 3z + 4)dxdydz; x = 0, x = 3; y = 0, y = 2;
z = 0, z = 1. (DS. 54)
11.

D
zdxdydz; x = 0, y = 0, z = 0; x +y +z = 1. (DS.
1
24
)
12.

D
xdxdydz; x = 0. y = 0, z = 0, y = 1; x +z = 1. (DS.
1
6
)
13.

D
yzdxdydz; x
2
+y
2
+z
2
= 1, z 0. (DS. 0)
14.

D
xydxdydz; x
2
+y
2
= 1, z = 0, z = 1 (x 0, y 0).
(DS.
1
8
)
15.

D
xyzdxdydz; x = 0, y = 0, z = 0, x
2
+y
2
+z
2
= 1
12.2. T´ıch phˆan 3-l´o
.
p 143
(x 0, y 0, z 0). (DS.
1
48
)
16.

D

x
2
+y
2
dxdydz; x
2
+y
2
= z
2
, z = 0, z = 1. (DS. π/6)
17.

D
(x
2
+y
2
+z
2
)dxdydz; x = 0, x = a, y = 0, y = b,
z = 0, z = c. (DS.
abc
3
(a
2
+b
2
+c
2
))
18.

D
ydxdydz; y =

x
2
+z
2
, y = h, h > 0. (DS.
πh
4
4
)
T´ınh c´ac t´ıch phˆan 3-l´o
.
p sau b˘a
`
ng phu
.
o
.
ng ph´ap dˆo

i biˆe
´
n.
19.

D
(x
2
+y
2
+z
2
)dxdydz; x
2
+y
2
+z
2
R
2
. (DS.
4πR
5
5
)
20.

D
(x
2
+y
2
)dxdydz; z = x
2
+y
2
, z = 1. (DS.
π
6
)
21.

D

x
2
+y
2
+z
2
dxdydz; x
2
+y
2
+z
2
R
2
. (DS. πR
4
)
22.

D
z

x
2
+y
2
dxdydz; x
2
+y
2
= 2x, y = 0, z = 0, z = 3.
(DS. 8)
23.

D
zdxdydz; x
2
+y
2
+z
2
R
2
, x 0, y 0, z 0.
(DS.
πR
4
16
)
24.

D
(x
2
−y
2
)dxdydz; x
2
+y
2
= 2z, z = 2. (DS.
16π
3
)
25.

D
z

x
2
+y
2
dxdydz; y
2
= 3x −x
2
, z = 0, z = 2. (DS. 24)
144 Chu
.
o
.
ng 12. T´ıch phˆan h`am nhiˆe
`
u biˆe
´
n
T´ınh thˆe

t´ıch cu’ a c´ac vˆa
.
t thˆe

gi´o
.
i ha
.
n bo
.
’ i c´ac m˘a
.
t d˜a chı ’ ra.
26. x = 0, y = 0, z = 0, x + 2y +z −6 = 0. (DS. 36)
27. 2x + 3y + 4z = 12; x = 0, y = 0, z = 0. (DS. 12)
28.
x
a
+
y
b
+
z
c
= 1, x = 0, y = 0, z = 0. (DS.
abc
6
)
29. ax = y
2
+z
2
, x = a. (DS.
πa
3
2
)
30. 2z = x
2
+y
2
, z = 2. (DS. 4π)
31. z = x
2
+y
2
, x
2
+y
2
+z
2
= 2. (DS.
π
6
[8

2 −7])
32. z =

x
2
+y
2
, z = x
2
+y
2
. (DS.
π
6
)
33. x
2
+y
2
−z = 1, z = 0. (DS.
π
2
)
34. 2z = x
2
+y
2
, y +z = 4. (DS.
81π
4
)
35.
x
2
a
2
+
y
2
b
2
+
z
2
c
2
= 1. (DS.
4
3
πabc)
12.3 T´ıch phˆan du
.
`o
.
ng
12.3.1 C´ac di
.
nh ngh˜ıa co
.
ba’ n
Gia’ su
.
’ h`am f(M), P(M) v`a Q(M), M = (x, y) liˆen tu
.
c ta
.
i mo
.
i diˆe

m
cu’ a du
.
`o
.
ng cong do du
.
o
.
.
c L = L(A, B) v´o
.
i diˆe

m dˆa
`
u A v`a diˆe

m cuˆo´i B.
Chia mˆo
.
t c´ ach t` uy ´ y L(A, B) th`anh n cung nho’ v´o
.
i dˆo
.
d`ai tu
.
o
.
ng ´ u
.
ng
l`a ∆s
0
, ∆s
1
, ∆s
2
, . . . , ∆s
n−1
. D˘a
.
t d = max
0in−1
(∆s
i
). Trong mˆo
˜
i cung
nho’, lˆa´y mˆo
.
t c´ach t` uy ´ y diˆe

m N
0
, N
1
, . . . , N
n−1
. t´ınh gi´a tri
.
f(N
i
),
P(N
i
) v`a Q(N
i
) ta
.
i diˆe

m N
i
d´o.
X´et hai phu
.
o
.
ng ph´ap lˆa
.
p tˆo

ng t´ıch phˆan sau dˆay.
12.3. T´ıch phˆan du
.
`o
.
ng 145
Phu
.
o
.
ng ph´ap I. Lˆa´y gi´a tri
.
f(N
i
) nhˆan v´ o
.
i dˆo
.
d`ai cung ∆s
i
tu
.
o
.
ng
´ u
.
ng v`a lˆa
.
p tˆo

ng t´ıch phˆan
σ
1
=
n−1
¸
i=0
f(N
i
)∆s
i
. (*)
Phu
.
o
.
ng ph´ ap II. Kh´ac v´o
.
i c´ ach lˆa
.
p tˆo

ng t´ıch phˆan (∗), trong
phu
.
o
.
ng ph´ap n`ay ta lˆa´y gi´ a tri
.
P(N
i
), Q(N
i
) nhˆan khˆong pha’ i v´ o
.
i
dˆo
.
d`ai cu’ a c´ac cung nho’ m`a l`a nhˆan v´o
.
i h`ınh chiˆe
´
u vuˆong g´oc cu’ a c´ac
cung nho’ d´o trˆen c´ ac tru
.
c to
.
a dˆ o
.
, t´ u
.
c l`a lˆa
.
p tˆo

ng
σ
x
=
n−1
¸
i=0
P(N
i
)∆x
i
; ∆x
i
= pro
Ox
∆s
i
,
σ
y
=
n−1
¸
i=0
Q(N
i
)∆y
i
; ∆y
i
= pro
Oy
∆s
i
.
Mˆo
˜
i c´ ach lˆa
.
p tˆo

ng t´ıch phˆan trˆen dˆay s˜e dˆa
˜
n dˆe
´
n mˆo
.
t kiˆe

u t´ıch
phˆan du
.
`o
.
ng.
D
-
i
.
nh ngh˜ıa 12.3.1. Nˆe
´
u tˆo
`
n ta
.
i gi´o
.
i ha
.
n h˜ u
.
u ha
.
n lim
d→0
σ
1
khˆong phu
.
thuˆo
.
c v`ao ph´ep phˆan hoa
.
ch du
.
`o
.
ng cong L th`anh c´ac cung nho’ v`a
khˆong phu
.
thuˆo
.
c v`ao viˆe
.
c cho
.
n c´ac diˆe

m trung gian N
i
trˆen mˆo
˜
i cung
nho’ th`ı gi´ o
.
i ha
.
n d´o du
.
o
.
.
c go
.
i l`a t´ıch phˆan du
.
`o
.
ng theo dˆo
.
d`ai (hay t´ıch
phˆan du
.
`o
.
ng kiˆe

u I) cu’ a h`am f(x, y) theo du
.
`o
.
ng cong L = L(A, B).
K´ y hiˆe
.
u:

L
f(x, y)ds. (12.23)
D
-
i
.
nh ngh˜ıa 12.3.2. Ph´at biˆe

u tu
.
o
.
ng tu
.
.
nhu
.
trong di
.
nh ngh˜ıa 12.3.1:
1
+
. lim
d→0
σ
x
= lim
d→0
n−1
¸
i=0
P(N
i
)∆x
i
=

L(A,B)
P(x, y)dx
(12.24)
146 Chu
.
o
.
ng 12. T´ıch phˆan h`am nhiˆe
`
u biˆe
´
n
go
.
i l`a t´ıch phˆan du
.
`o
.
ng theo ho`anh dˆo
.
(nˆe
´
u (12.24) tˆo
`
n ta
.
i h˜ u
.
u ha
.
n)
2
+
. lim
d→0
σ
y
= lim
d→0
n−1
¸
i=0
Q(N
i
)∆y
i
=

L(A,B)
Q(x, y)dy
(12.25)
go
.
i l`a t´ıch phˆan du
.
`o
.
ng theo tung dˆo
.
(nˆe
´
u (12.25) tˆo
`
n ta
.
i h˜ u
.
u ha
.
n)
Thˆong thu
.
`o
.
ng ngu
.
`o
.
i ta lˆa
.
p tˆo

ng t´ıch phˆan da
.
ng
Σ =
n−1
¸
i=0
P(N
i
)∆x
i
+
n−1
¸
o=0
Q(N
i
)∆y
i
v`a nˆe
´
u ∃ lim
d→0
Σ th`ı gi´o
.
i ha
.
n d´o du
.
o
.
.
c go
.
i l`a t´ıch phˆan du
.
`o
.
ng theo to
.
a
dˆo
.
da
.
ng tˆo

ng qu´at:

L(A,B)
P(x, y)dx +Q(x, y)dy. (12.26)
D
-
i
.
nh l´ y. Nˆe
´
u c´ac h`am f(x, y), P(x, y), Q(x, y) liˆen tu
.
c theo du
.
`o
.
ng
cong L(A, B) = L th`ı c´ ac t´ıch phˆan du
.
`o
.
ng (12.23) - (12.26) tˆ o
`
n ta
.
i
h˜ u
.
u ha
.
n.
T` u
.
di
.
nh ngh˜ıa 12.3.1 v`a kh´ai niˆe
.
m dˆo
.
d`ai cung (khˆong phu
.
thuˆo
.
c
hu
.
´o
.
ng cu’ a cung) v`a di
.
nh ngh˜ıa 12.3.2 v`a t´ınh chˆa´t cu’ a h`ınh chiˆe
´
u cu’ a
cung (h`ınh chiˆe
´
u dˆo

i dˆ a´u khi dˆo

i hu
.
´o
.
ng cu’ a cung) suy ra t´ınh chˆa´t
quan tro
.
ng cu’ a t´ıch phˆ an du
.
`o
.
ng: t´ıch phˆan du
.
` o
.
ng theo dˆ o
.
d`ai khˆong
phu
.
thuˆo
.
c v`ao hu
.
´o
.
ng cu’ a du
.
`o
.
ng cong; t´ıch phˆan du
.
`o
.
ng theo to
.
a dˆ o
.
dˆo

i dˆa´u khi dˆo

i hu
.
´o
.
ng du
.
` o
.
ng cong.
12.3.2 T´ınh t´ıch phˆan du
.
`o
.
ng
Phu
.
o
.
ng ph´ap chung dˆe

t´ınh t´ıch phˆan du
.
`o
.
ng l`a du
.
a viˆe
.
c t´ınh t´ıch
phˆan du
.
`o
.
ng vˆe
`
t´ıch phˆan x´ac di
.
nh. Cu
.
thˆe

l`a: xuˆa´t ph´at t` u
.
phu
.
o
.
ng
12.3. T´ıch phˆan du
.
`o
.
ng 147
tr`ınh cu’ a du
.
`o
.
ng lˆa´y t´ıch phˆan L = L(A, B) ta biˆe
´
n dˆo

i biˆe

u th´ u
.
c du
.
´o
.
i
dˆa´u t´ıch phˆan du
.
`o
.
ng th`anh biˆe

u th´ u
.
c mˆo
.
t biˆe
´
n m`a gi´a tri
.
cu’ a biˆe
´
n d´o
ta
.
i diˆe

m dˆa
`
u A v`a diˆe

m cuˆo´i B s˜e l`a cˆ a
.
n cu’ a t´ıch phˆan x´ac di
.
nh thu
du
.
o
.
.
c.
1
+
Nˆe
´
u L(A, B) du
.
o
.
.
c cho bo
.
’ i c´ac phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh tham sˆo´ x = ϕ(t),
y = ψ(t), t ∈ [a, b] (trong d´o ϕ, ψ kha’ vi liˆen tu
.
c v`a ϕ

2

2
> 0) th`ı
ds =

ϕ

2

2
dt

L(A,B)
f(x, y)ds =
b

a
f[ϕ(t), ψ(t)]

ϕ

2

2
dt (12.27)
v`a

L(A,B)
P(x, y)dx +Q(x, y)dy =
=
b

a

P

ϕ(t), ψ(t)

ϕ

(t) +Q

ϕ(t), ψ(t)

ψ

(t)

dt. (12.28)
2
+
Nˆe
´
u L(A, B) du
.
o
.
.
c cho bo
.
’ i phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh y = g(x), x ∈ [a, b]
(trong d´o g(x) kha’ vi liˆen tu
.
c trˆen [a, b]) th`ı
ds =

1 +g

2
(x)dx

L(A,B)
f(x, y)ds =
b

a
f[x, g(x)]

1 +g

2
(x)dx. (12.29)
v`a

L(A,B)
Pdx +Qdy =
b

a

P(x, g(x)) +Q(x, g(x))g

(x)

dx. (12.30)
148 Chu
.
o
.
ng 12. T´ıch phˆan h`am nhiˆe
`
u biˆe
´
n
3
+
Nˆe
´
u L(A, B) du
.
o
.
.
c cho du
.
´o
.
i da
.
ng to
.
a dˆo
.
cu
.
.
c ρ = ρ(ϕ) α ϕ
β th`ı
ds =

ρ
2

ϕ
2

L(A,B)
f(x, y)ds =
β

α
f[ρ cos ϕ, ρ sinϕ]

ρ
2

2
dϕ. (12.31)
4
+
T´ıch phˆan du
.
`o
.
ng theo to
.
a dˆo
.
c´o thˆe

t´ınh nh`o
.
cˆong th´ u
.
c Green.
Nˆe
´
u P(x, y), Q(x, y) v`a c´ac da
.
o h`am riˆeng
∂Q
∂x
,
∂P
∂y
c` ung liˆen tu
.
c
trong miˆe
`
n D gi´o
.
i ha
.
n bo
.
’ i du
.
`o
.
ng cong khˆong tu
.
.
c˘a
´
t tro
.
n t` u
.
ng kh´ uc
L = ∂D th`ı

L
+
Pdx +Qdy =

D

∂Q
∂x

∂P
∂y

dxdy. (12.32)
Cˆong th´ u
.
c (12.32) go
.
i l`a cˆ ong th´ u
.
c Green, trong d´o

L
+
l`a t´ıch phˆan
theo du
.
`o
.
ng cong k´ın c´o hu
.
´o
.
ng du
.
o
.
ng L
+
.
Hˆe
.
qua’ . Diˆe
.
n t´ıch miˆe
`
n D gi´o
.
i ha
.
n bo
.
’ i du
.
`o
.
ng cong L du
.
o
.
.
c t´ınh
theo cˆ ong th´ u
.
c
S
D
=
1
2

L
xdy −ydx. (12.33)
5
+
Nhˆa
.
n x´et vˆe
`
t´ıch phˆan du
.
`o
.
ng trong khˆong gian. Gia’ su
.
’ L =
L(A, B) l`a du
.
`o
.
ng cong khˆong gian; f, P, Q, R l`a nh˜ u
.
ng h`am ba biˆe
´
n
liˆen tu
.
c trˆen L. Khi d´o tu
.
o
.
ng tu
.
.
nhu
.
tru
.
`o
.
ng ho
.
.
p du
.
`o
.
ng cong ph˘a

ng
ta c´o thˆe

di
.
nh ngh˜ıa t´ıch phˆan du
.
`o
.
ng theo dˆo
.
d`ai

L(A,B)
f(x, y, z)ds v`a
t´ıch phˆan du
.
`o
.
ng theo to
.
a dˆo
.

L
P(x, y, z)dx,

L
Q(x, y, z)dy,

L
R(x, y, z)dz
12.3. T´ıch phˆan du
.
`o
.
ng 149
v`a

L
Pdx +Qdy +Rdz.
Vˆe
`
thu
.
.
c chˆa´t k˜ y thuˆa
.
t t´ınh c´ac t´ıch phˆan n`ay khˆong kh´ac biˆe
.
t g`ı
so v´o
.
i tru
.
`o
.
ng ho
.
.
p du
.
`o
.
ng cong ph˘a

ng.
C
´
AC V
´
I DU
.
V´ı du
.
1. T´ınh t´ıch phˆan du
.
`o
.
ng

L
x
y
ds, trong d´o L l`a cung parabˆon
y
2
= 2x t` u
.
diˆe

m (1,

2) dˆe
´
n diˆe

m (2, 2).
Gia’ i. Ta t`ım vi phˆan dˆo
.
d`ai cung. Ta c´ o
y =

2x, y

=
1

2x
,
ds =

1 +y

2
dx =

1 +
1
2x
dx =

1 + 2x

2x
dx.
Tu
.
d´o suy ra

L
x
y
ds =
2

1
x

2x


1 + 2x

2x
dx =
1
6
[5

5 −3

3].
V´ı du
.
2. T´ınh dˆo
.
d`ai cu’ a du
.
`o
.
ng astroid x = a cos
3
t, y = a sin
3
t,
t ∈ [0, 2π].
Gia’ i. Ta ´ap du
.
ng cˆong th´ u
.
c: dˆo
.
d`ai (L) =

L
ds. Trong tru
.
`o
.
ng
ho
.
.
p n`ay ta c´ o
x

= −3a cos
2
t sin t, y

= 3a sin
2
t cos t, ds =
3a
2
sin2tdt.
V`ı du
.
`o
.
ng cong dˆo´i x´ u
.
ng v´o
.
i c´ac tru
.
c to
.
a dˆo
.
nˆen
dˆo
.
d`ai(L) = 4
π/2

0
3a
2
sin2tdt = 6a

−cos 2t
2

π/2
0
= 6a.
150 Chu
.
o
.
ng 12. T´ıch phˆan h`am nhiˆe
`
u biˆe
´
n
V´ı du
.
3. T´ınh

L
(x −y)ds, trong d´o L : x
2
+y
2
= 2ax.
Gia’ i. Chuyˆe

n sang to
.
a dˆo
.
cu
.
.
c x = r cos ϕ, y = r sinϕ. Trong to
.
a
dˆo
.
cu
.
.
c phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh du
.
`o
.
ng tr`on c´o da
.
ng r = 2a cos ϕ, −
π
2
ϕ
π
2
.
Vi phˆan dˆo
.
d`ai cung
ds =

r
2
+r

ϕ
2
dϕ =

4a
2
cos
2
ϕ + 4a
2
sin
2
ϕdϕ = 2adϕ.
Do d´o
I =

L
(x −y)ds =
π/2

−π/2

(2a cos ϕ) cos ϕ −(2a sin ϕ) sinϕ

2adϕ
= 4a
2
π/2

−π/2
cos
2
ϕdϕ = 2πa
2
.
V´ı du
.
4. T´ınh t´ıch phˆ an

L
(3x
2
+y)dx + (x −2y
2
)dy, trong d´o L l`a
biˆen cu’ a h`ınh tam gi´ac v´o
.
i dı ’nh A(0, 0), B(1, 0), C(0, 1).
Gia’ i. Theo t´ınh chˆa´t cu’ a t´ıch phˆan du
.
`o
.
ng ta c´ o

L
=

AB
+

BC
+

CA
.
a) Trˆen ca
.
nh AB ta c´o y = 0 ⇒dy = 0. Do d´o

AB
=
1

0
3x
2
dx = 1.
b) Trˆen ca
.
nh BC ta c´o x+y = 1 ⇒y = −x+1, dy = −dx. Do d´o

BC
=
0

1
[3x
2
+ (1 −x) −x + 2(1 −x
2
)]dx = −
5
3

12.3. T´ıch phˆan du
.
`o
.
ng 151
c) Trˆen ca
.
nh CA ta c´o x = 0 ⇒dx = 0 v`a do d´o

CA
= −
0

1
2y
2
dy =
2
3

Nhu
.
vˆa
.
y

L
= 1 −
5
3
+
2
3
= 0.
V´ı du
.
5. T´ınh t´ıch phˆan

L
(x+y)dx−(x−y)dy, trong d´o L l`a du
.
`o
.
ng
elip
x
2
a
2
+
y
2
b
2
= 1 c´o di
.
nh hu
.
´o
.
ng du
.
o
.
ng.
Gia’ i. 1
+
Ta c´o thˆe

t´ınh tru
.
.
c tiˆe
´
p t´ıch phˆan d˜a cho b˘a
`
ng c´ ac phu
.
o
.
ng
ph´ap d˜ a nˆeu (ch˘a

ng ha
.
n b˘a
`
ng c´ach tham sˆo´ h´oa phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh elip).
2
+
Nhu
.
ng do
.
n gia’ n ho
.
n ca’ l`a su
.
’ du
.
ng cˆong th´ u
.
c Green. Ta c´o
P = x +y, Q = −(x −y) ⇒
∂Q
∂x

∂P
∂y
= −2.
Do d´o theo cˆong th´ u
.
c Green ta c´o

L
=

x
2
a
2
+
y
2
b
2
1
(−2)dxdy = −2πab,
v`ı diˆe
.
n t´ıch h`ınh elip b˘a
`
ng πab.
V´ı du
.
6. T´ınh t´ıch phˆan

L
2(x
2
+y
2
)dx+x(4y +3)dy, trong d´o L l`a
du
.
`o
.
ng gˆa´p kh´ uc ABC v´o
.
i dı ’nh A(0, 0), B(1, 1) v`a C(0, 2).
Gia’ i. Nˆe
´
u ta nˆo´i A v´o
.
i C th`ı thu du
.
o
.
.
c du
.
`o
.
ng gˆa´p kh´ uc k´ın L

gi´o
.
i ha
.
n ∆ABC. Trˆen ca
.
nh CA ta c´o x = 0 nˆen dx = 0 v`a t` u
.
d´o

CA
2(x
2
+y
2
)dx +x(4y + 3)dy = 0.
152 Chu
.
o
.
ng 12. T´ıch phˆan h`am nhiˆe
`
u biˆe
´
n
Do d´o

L
+

CA
=

L

L
=

L

.
´
Ap du
.
ng cˆong th´ u
.
c Green ta c´o

L
=

∆ABC
[(4y + 3) −4y]dxdy = 3

∆ABC
dxdy
= 3S
∆ABC
= 3.
B
`
AI T
ˆ
A
.
P
T´ınh c´ac t´ıch phˆan du
.
`o
.
ng theo dˆo
.
d`ai sau dˆay
1.

C
(x +y)ds, ( l`a doa
.
n th˘a

ng nˆo´i A(9, 6) v´o
.
i B(1, 2). (DS. 36

5)
2.

C
xyds, ( l`a biˆen h`ınh vuˆong [x[ +[y[ = a, a > 0. (DS. 0)
3.

C
(x +y)ds, ( l`a biˆen cu’ a tam gi´ ac dı ’nh A(1, 0), B(0, 1), C(0, 0).
(DS. 1 +

2)
4.

C
ds
x −y
, ( l`a doa
.
n th˘a

ng nˆo´i A(0, 2) v´o
.
i B(4, 0). (DS.

5 ln 2)
5.

C

x
2
+y
2
ds, ( l`a du
.
`o
.
ng tr`on x
2
+y
2
= ax. (DS. 2a
2
)
6.

C
(x
2
+y
2
)
n
ds, ( l`a du
.
`o
.
ng tr`on x
2
+y
2
= a
2
. (DS. 2πa
2n+1
)
7.

C
e

x
2
+y
2
ds, ( l`a biˆen h`ınh qua
.
t tr`on
12.3. T´ıch phˆan du
.
`o
.
ng 153
¸
(r, ϕ) : 0 r a, 0 ϕ
π
4
¸
.
(DS. 2(e
a
−1) +
πae
a
4
)
8.

C
xyds, ( l`a mˆo
.
t phˆa
`
n tu
.
elip n˘a
`
m trong g´oc phˆa
`
n tu
.
I.
(DS.
ab
3

a
2
+ab +b
2
a +b
)
Chı ’ dˆa
˜
n. Su
.
’ du
.
ng phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh tham sˆo´ cu’ a du
.
`o
.
ng elip: x =
a cos t, y = b sint.
9.

C
ds

x
2
+y
2
+ 4
, ( l`a doa
.
n th˘a

ng nˆo´i diˆe

m O(0, 0) vo
.
i A(1, 2).
(DS. ln

5 + 3
4
)
10.

C
(x
2
+ y
2
+z
2
)ds, ( l`a cung du
.
`o
.
ng cong x = a cos t, y = a sint,
z = bt; 0 t 2π, a > 0, b > 0.
(DS.

3

a
2
+b
2
(3a
2
+ 4π
2
b
2
))
11.

C
x
2
ds, ( l`a du
.
`o
.
ng tr`on

x
2
+y
2
+z
2
= a
2
x +y +z = 0
(DS.
2πa
3
3
)
Chı ’ dˆa
˜
n. Ch´ u
.
ng to’ r˘a
`
ng

C
x
2
ds =

C
y
2
ds =

C
z
2
ds v`a t` u
.
d´o suy
ra
I =
1
3

C
(x
2
+y
2
+z
2
)ds.
154 Chu
.
o
.
ng 12. T´ıch phˆan h`am nhiˆe
`
u biˆe
´
n
12.

C
(x +y)ds, ( l`a mˆo
.
t phˆa
`
n tu
.
du
.
`o
.
ng tr`on

x
2
+y
2
+z
2
= R
2
y = x
n˘a
`
m trong g´oc phˆa
`
n t´am I. (DS. R
2

2)
13. T´ınh

C
xyzds, ( l` a mˆo
.
t phˆa
`
n tu
.
du
.
`o
.
ng tr`on

x
2
+y
2
+z
2
= R
2
x
2
+y
2
=
R
2
4
n˘a
`
m trong g´oc phˆa
`
n t´am I.
T´ınh c´ac t´ıch phˆan du
.
`o
.
ng theo to
.
a dˆo
.
sau dˆay
14.

C
y
2
dx +x
2
dy, ( l`a du
.
`o
.
ng t` u
.
diˆe

m (0, 0) dˆe
´
n diˆe

m (1, 1):
1) ( l`a doa
.
n th˘a

ng.
2) ( l`a cung parabol y = x
2
.
3) ( l`a cung parabol y =

x.
(DS. 1)
2
3
; 2)
7
10
; 3)
7
10
)
15.

C
y
2
dx − x
2
dy, ( l`a du
.
`o
.
ng tr`on b´an k´ınh R = 1 v`a c´o hu
.
´o
.
ng
ngu
.
o
.
.
c chiˆe
`
u kim dˆo
`
ng hˆo
`
v`a:
1) v´o
.
i tˆam ta
.
i gˆo´c to
.
a dˆo
.
.
2) v´o
.
i tˆam ta
.
i diˆe

m (1, 1).
(DS. 1) 0; 2) −4π)
16.

C
xdy −ydx, ( l`a du
.
`o
.
ng gˆa´p kh´ uc dı ’nh ta
.
i c´ac diˆe

m (0, 0), (1, 0)
12.3. T´ıch phˆan du
.
`o
.
ng 155
v`a (1, 2). (DS. 2)
17.

C
cos ydx −sinxdy, ( l`a doa
.
n th˘a

ng t` u
.
diˆe

m (2, −2) dˆe
´
n diˆe

m
(−2, 2). (DS. −2 sin2)
18.

C
(x
2
+y
2
)dx + (x
2
−y
2
)dy, ( l`a du
.
`o
.
ng cong y = 1 −[1 −x[,
0 x 2. (DS.
4
3
)
19.

C
(x +y)dx + (x −y)dy, ( l`a elip c´o hu
.
´o
.
ng du
.
o
.
ng
x
2
a
2
+
y
2
b
2
= 1.
(DS. 0)
20.

C
(2a −y)dx +xdy, ( l`a mˆo
.
t v`om cuˆ o´n cu’ a du
.
`o
.
ng xicloid
x = a(t −sint), y = a(1 −cos t), 0 t 2π. (DS. −2πa
2
)
21.

C
dx +dy
[z[ +[y[
, ( l`a biˆen c´o hu
.
´o
.
ng du
.
o
.
ng cu’ a h`ınh vuˆong v´o
.
i dı ’nh
ta
.
i diˆe

m A(1, 0), B(0, 1), C(−1, 0) v`a D(0, −1). (DS. 0)
22.

C
(x
2
−y
2
)dx + (x
2
+y
2
)dy, ( l`a elip c´o hu
.
´o
.
ng du
.
o
.
ng
x
2
a
2
+
y
2
b
2
= 1. (DS. 0)
23.

C
(x
2
+y
2
)dx +xydy, ( l`a cung cu’ a du
.
`o
.
ng y = e
x
t` u
.
diˆe

m
(0, 1) dˆe
´
n diˆe

m (1, e). (DS.
3e
2
4
+
1
2
)
24.

C
(x
3
−y
2
)dx +xydy, ( l`a cung cu’ a du
.
`o
.
ng y = a
x
t` u
.
diˆe

m
(0, 1) dˆe
´
n diˆe

m (1, a). (DS.
1
4
+
a
2
2
+
3(1 −a
2
)
4 lna
)
25.

C
y
2
dx +x
2
dy, ( l`a v`om th´ u
.
nhˆa´t cu’ a du
.
`o
.
ng xicloid
156 Chu
.
o
.
ng 12. T´ıch phˆan h`am nhiˆe
`
u biˆe
´
n
x = a(t −sint), y = a(1 −cos t), a > 0 c´o di
.
nh hu
.
´o
.
ng theo hu
.
´o
.
ng
t˘ang cu’ a tham sˆo´. (DS. a
3
π(5 −2π))
´
Ap du
.
ng cˆong th´ u
.
c Green dˆe

t´ınh t´ıch phˆan du
.
`o
.
ng
26.

C
xy
2
dy −x
2
dx, ( l`a du
.
`o
.
ng tr`on x
2
+y
2
= a
2
. (DS.
πa
4
4
)
27.

C
(x +y)dx −(x −y)dy, ( l`a elip
x
2
a
2
+
y
2
b
2
= 1. (DS. −2πab)
28.

C
e
−x
2
+y
2
(cos 2xydx + sin2xydy), ( l`a du
.
`o
.
ng tr`on x
2
+y
2
= R
2
.
(DS. 0)
29.

C
(xy +e
x
sinx +x +y)dx + (xy −e
−y
+x −siny)dy,
( l`a du
.
`o
.
ng tr`on x
2
+y
2
= 2x. (DS. −π)
30.

C
(1 +xy)dx +y
2
dy, ( l`a biˆen cu’ a nu
.
’ a trˆen cu’ a h`ınh tr`on
x
2
+y
2
2x (y 0). (DS. −
π
2
)
31.

C
(x
2
+y
2
)dx + (x
2
−y
2
)dy, ( l`a biˆen cu’ a tam gi´ ac ∆ABC v´o
.
i
A = (0, 0), B = (1, 0), C = (0, 1), Kiˆe

m tra kˆe
´
t qua’ b˘a
`
ng c´ach
t´ınh tru
.
.
c tiˆe
´
p. (DS. 0)
32.

C
(2xy −x
2
)dx +(x +y
3
)dy, ( l`a biˆen cu’ a miˆe
`
n bi
.
ch˘a
.
n gi´o
.
i ha
.
n
bo
.
’ i hai du
.
`o
.
ng y = x
2
v`a y
2
= x. Kiˆe

m tra kˆe
´
t qua’ b˘a
`
ng c´ach t´ınh
tru
.
.
c tiˆe
´
p. (DS.
1
30
)
33.

C
e
x
[(1 − cos y)dx − (y − siny)dy], ( l`a biˆen cu’ a tam gi´ac ABC
v´o
.
i A = (1, 1), B = (0, 2) v`a C = (0, 0). (DS. 2(2 −e))
12.3. T´ıch phˆan du
.
`o
.
ng 157
34.

C
(xy +x +y)dx + (xy +x −y)dy, trong d´o ( l`a
a) elip
x
2
a
2
+
y
2
b
2
= 1;
b) du
.
`o
.
ng tr`on x
2
+y
2
= ax (a > 0). (DS. a) 0; b) −
πa
3
8
)
35.

C
xy
2
dx −x
2
ydy, ( l`a du
.
`o
.
ng tr`on x
2
+y
2
= R
2
. (DS.
πR
4
2
)
36.

C
2(x
2
+ y
2
)dx + x(4y + 3)dy, ( l`a du
.
`o
.
ng gˆa´p kh´ uc v´o
.
i dı ’nh
A = (0, 0), B = (1, 1), C = (0, 2). Kiˆe

m tra kˆe
´
t qua’ b˘a
`
ng c´ach t´ınh
tru
.
.
c tiˆe
´
p. (DS. 3)
Chı ’ dˆa
˜
n. Bˆo

sung cho ( doa
.
n th˘a

ng dˆe

thu du
.
o
.
.
c chu tuyˆe
´
n d´ong.
37. H˜ay so s´anh hai t´ıch phˆan
I
1
=

AmB
(x +y)
2
dx −(x −y)
2
dy v`a I
2
=

AnB
(x +y)
2
dx −(x −y)
2
dy
nˆe
´
u AmB l`a doa
.
n th˘a

ng nˆo´i A(1, 1) v´o
.
i B(2, 6) v`a AnB l`a cung parabol
qua A. B v`a gˆo´c to
.
a dˆo
.
. (DS. I
1
−I
2
= 2)
38. T´ınh I =

AmBnA
(x + y)dx − (x − y)dy, trong d´o AmB l`a cung
parabol qua A(1, 0) v`a B(2, 3) v`a c´o tru
.
c dˆo´i x´ u
.
ng l`a tru
.
c Oy, c` on
AnB l`a doa
.
n th˘a

ng nˆo´i A v´o
.
i B.
(DS. −
1
3
)
Chı ’ dˆa
˜
n. Dˆa
`
u tiˆen viˆe
´
t phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh parabol v`a du
.
`o
.
ng th˘a

ng, sau
d´o ´ap du
.
ng cˆong th´ u
.
c Green.
39. Ch´ u
.
ng minh r˘a
`
ng gi´a tri
.
cu’ a t´ıch phˆan

C
(2xy − y)dx + x
2
dy,
trong d´o ( l`a chu tuyˆe
´
n d´ong, b˘a
`
ng diˆe
.
n t´ıch miˆe
`
n ph˘a

ng v´o
.
i biˆen l`a
(.
158 Chu
.
o
.
ng 12. T´ıch phˆan h`am nhiˆe
`
u biˆe
´
n
40.

C
(x +y)
2
dx −(x
2
+y
2
)dy, ( l`a biˆen cu’ a ∆ABC v´o
.
i dı ’nh
A(1, 1), B(3, 2) v`a C(2, 5). (DS. −46
2
3
)
41.

C
(y −x
2
)dx + (x +y
2
)dy, ( l`a biˆen h`ınh qua
.
t b´an k´ınh R v`a
g´oc ϕ (0 ϕ
π
2
). (DS. 0)
42.

C
y
2
dx + (x +y)
2
dy, ( l`a biˆen cu’ a h`ınh tam gi´ac ∆ABC v´o
.
i
A(a, 0), B(a, a), C(0, a). (DS.
2a
3
3
)
12.4 T´ıch phˆan m˘a
.
t
12.4.1 C´ac di
.
nh ngh˜ıa co
.
ba’ n
Gia’ su
.
’ c´ac h`am f(M), P(M), Q(M) v`a R(M), M = (x, y, z) liˆen tu
.
c
ta
.
i mo
.
i diˆe

m M cu’ a m˘a
.
t tro
.
n, do du
.
o
.
.
c (σ) (m˘a
.
t tro
.
n l`a m˘a
.
t c´ o m˘a
.
t
ph˘a

ng tiˆe
´
p x´ uc ta
.
i mo
.
i diˆe

m cu’ a n´o). Chia mˆo
.
t c´ ach t` uy ´ y m˘a
.
t (σ)
th`anh n ma’ nh con σ
0
, σ
1
, . . . , σ
n−1
v´o
.
i diˆe
.
n t´ıch tu
.
o
.
ng ´ u
.
ng l`a ∆S
0
,
∆S
1
, . . . , ∆S
n−1
. D˘a
.
t d
k
= diamσ
k
; d = max
0kn−1
d
k
. Trong mˆo
˜
i ma’ nh
m˘a
.
t ta lˆa´y mˆo
.
t c´ ach t` uy ´ y diˆe

m N
i
. T´ınh gi´a tri
.
cu’ a c´ac h`am d˜a cho
ta
.
i diˆe

m N
i
, i = 0, n −1. Ta k´ y hiˆe
.
u cos α(N
i
), cos β(N
i
) v`a cos γ(N
i
)
l`a c´ac cosin chı ’ phu
.
o
.
ng cu’ a vecto
.
ph´ap tuyˆe
´
n n(N
i
) ta
.
i diˆe

m N
i
cu’ a
m˘a
.
t (σ).
X´et hai c´ach lˆa
.
p tˆo

ng t´ıch phˆan sau.
(I) Lˆa´y gi´a tri
.
f(N
i
) nhˆan v´ o
.
i c´ ac phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ diˆe
.
n t´ıch m˘a
.
t ∆S
0
,
∆S
1
, . . . , ∆S
n−1
v`a lˆa
.
p tˆo

ng
n−1
¸
i=0
f(N
i
)δS
i
12.4. T´ıch phˆan m˘a
.
t 159
(II) Kh´ ac v´o
.
i c´ach lˆa
.
p tˆo

ng t´ıch phˆan trong (I), trong phu
.
o
.
ng ph´ap
n`ay ta lˆa´y gi´a tri
.
P(N
i
), Q(N
i
) v`a R(N
i
) nhˆan khˆong pha’ i v´o
.
i phˆa
`
n
tu
.
’ diˆe
.
n t´ıch ∆S
i
cu’ a c´ac ma’ nh m˘a
.
t σ
i
m`a l`a nhˆan v´o
.
i h`ınh chiˆe
´
u cu’ a
c´ac ma’ nh d´o lˆen c´ac m˘a
.
t ph˘a

ng to
.
a dˆo
.
Oxy, Oxz v`a Oyz, t´ u
.
c l`a lˆa
.
p
c´ac tˆo

ng da
.
ng
σ
xy
=
n−1
¸
i=0
P(N
i
)m(σ
i
xy
), m(σ
i
xy
) = pro
Oxy

i
);
σ
xz
=
n−1
¸
i=0
Q(N
i
)m(σ
i
xz
), m(σ
i
xz
) = pro
Oxz

i
);
σ
yz
=
n−1
¸
i=0
R(N
i
)m(σ
i
yz
), m(σ
i
yz
) = pro
Oyz

i
).
D
-
i
.
nh ngh˜ıa 12.4.1. Nˆe
´
u tˆo
`
n ta
.
i gi´o
.
i ha
.
n h˜ u
.
u ha
.
n
lim
d→0
n−1
¸
i=1
f(N
i
)∆S
i
(12.34)
khˆong phu
.
thuˆo
.
c v`ao ph´ep phˆan hoa
.
ch m˘a
.
t (σ) th`anh c´ac ma’ nh con
v`a khˆong phu
.
thuˆo
.
c v`ao c´ach cho
.
n c´ac diˆe

m trung gian N
i
∈ σ
i
th`ı
gi´o
.
i ha
.
n d´o go
.
i l`a t´ıch phˆan m˘a
.
t theo diˆe
.
n t´ıch.
K´ y hiˆe
.
u :

(σ)
f(x, y, z)dS.
D
-
i
.
nh ngh˜ıa 12.4.2. C´ac t´ıch phˆan m˘a
.
t theo to
.
a dˆo
.
du
.
o
.
.
c di
.
nh ngh˜ıa
bo
.
’ i

(σ)
P(M)dxdy
def
= lim
d→0
n−1
¸
i=0
P(N
i
)m(σ
i
xy
) (12.35)

(σ)
Q(M)dxdz
def
= lim
d→0
n−1
¸
i=0
Q(N
i
)m(σ
i
xz
) (12.36)

(σ)
R(M)dydz
def
= lim
d→0
n−1
¸
i=0
R(N
i
)m(σ
i
yz
) (12.37)
160 Chu
.
o
.
ng 12. T´ıch phˆan h`am nhiˆe
`
u biˆe
´
n
nˆe
´
u c´ac gi´o
.
i ha
.
n o
.
’ vˆe
´
pha’ i (12.35)-(12.37) tˆo
`
n ta
.
i h˜ u
.
u ha
.
n khˆong phu
.
thuˆo
.
c v`ao ph´ep phˆan hoa
.
ch m˘a
.
t (σ) v`a c´ach cho
.
n diˆe

m trung gian N
i
,
i = 0, n −1.
T´ıch phˆan m˘a
.
t theo to
.
a dˆo
.
da
.
ng tˆo

ng qu´at

(σ)
P(M)dxdy +Q(M)dxdz +R(M)dydz
l`a tˆo

ng cu’ a c´ac t´ıch phˆan m˘a
.
t theo to
.
a dˆo
.
(12.35), (12.36) v`a (12.37).
Nˆe
´
u (σ) l`a m˘a
.
t d´ong (k´ın !) th`ı t´ıch phˆan m˘a
.
t theo ph´ıa ngo`ai cu’ a
n´o du
.
o
.
.
c k´ y hiˆe
.
u

(σ)
+
ho˘a
.
c do
.
n gia’ n l`a

(σ)
nˆe
´
u n´oi r˜o (σ) l`a m˘a
.
t n`ao;
c`on t´ıch phˆan theo ph´ıa trong du
.
o
.
.
c k´ y hiˆe
.
u

(σ)

ho˘a
.
c do
.
n gia’ n l`a

(σ)
khi d˜a n´oi r˜o (σ) l`a m˘a
.
t n`ao.
12.4.2 Phu
.
o
.
ng ph´ap t´ınh t´ıch phˆan m˘a
.
t
Phu
.
o
.
ng ph´ap chung dˆe

t´ınh t´ıch phˆan m˘a
.
t ca’ hai da
.
ng l`a du
.
a vˆe
`
t´ıch
phˆan hai l´o
.
p. Cu
.
thˆe

l`a: xuˆa´t ph´at t` u
.
phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh cu’ a m˘a
.
t (σ) ta
biˆe
´
n dˆo

i biˆe

u th´ u
.
c du
.
´o
.
i dˆa´u t´ıch phˆan th`anh biˆe

u th´ u
.
c hai biˆe
´
n m`a
miˆe
`
n biˆe
´
n thiˆen cu’ a ch´ ung l`a h`ınh chiˆe
´
u do
.
n tri
.
cu’ a (σ) lˆen m˘a
.
t ph˘a

ng
to
.
a dˆo
.
tu
.
o
.
ng ´ u
.
ng v´o
.
i c´ac biˆe
´
n d´o.
1
+
Nˆe
´
u m˘a
.
t (σ) c´o phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh z = ϕ(x, y) th`ı t´ıch phˆan m˘a
.
t
theo diˆe
.
n t´ıch du
.
o
.
.
c biˆe
´
n dˆo

i th`anh t´ıch phˆan hai l´o
.
p theo cˆong th´ u
.
c
dS =

1 +ϕ

x
2

y
2
dxdy

(σ)
f(x, y, z)dS =

D(x,y)
f[x, y, ϕ(x, y)]

1 +ϕ

x
2

y
2
dxdy (12.38)
trong d´o D(x, y) l`a h`ınh chiˆe
´
u vuˆong g´oc cu’ a (σ) lˆen m˘a
.
t ph˘a

ng Oxy.
12.4. T´ıch phˆan m˘a
.
t 161
Nˆe
´
u m˘a
.
t (σ) c´ o phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh y = ψ(x, z) th`ı

(σ)
f(x, y, z)dS =

D(x,z)
f[x, ψ(x, z), z]

1 +ψ

x
2

z
2
dxdz, (12.39)
trong d´o D(x, z) = pro
Oxz
(σ).
Nˆe
´
u m˘a
.
t (σ) c´ o phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh x = g(y, z) th`ı

(σ)
f()dS =

D(y,z)
f[g(y, z), y, z]

1 +g

y
2
+g

z
2
dydz, (12.40)
trong d´o D(y, z) = pro
Oyz
(σ).
2
+
Gia’ thiˆe
´
t m˘a
.
t (σ) chiˆe
´
u du
.
o
.
.
c do
.
n tri
.
lˆen c´ ac m˘a
.
t ph˘a

ng to
.
a dˆo
.
,
t´ u
.
c l` a m˘a
.
t c´ o phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh da
.
ng
z = ϕ(x, y), (x, y) ∈ D(x, y);
y = ψ(x, z), (x, z) ∈ D(x, z);
x = g(y, z), (y, z) ∈ D(y, z).
Ta k´ y hiˆe
.
u e
1
, e
2
, e
3
l`a c´ ac vecto
.
co
.
so
.
’ cu’ a R
3
v`a cos α(M) = cos(
¯
n, e
1
),
cos β(M) = cos(
¯
n, e
2
), cos γ(M) = cos(
¯
n, e
3
). D´o l`a c´ac cosin chı ’
phu
.
o
.
ng cu’ a vecto
.
ph´ap tuyˆe
´
n v´ o
.
i m˘a
.
t (σ) ta
.
i diˆe

m M ∈ (σ). Khi d´o
c´ac t´ıch phˆan m˘a
.
t theo to
.
a dˆo
.
lˆa´y theo m˘a
.
t hai ph´ıa du
.
o
.
.
c t´ınh nhu
.
sau.

(σ)
P(M)dxdy =

+

D(x,y)
P(x, y, ϕ(x, y))dxdy nˆe
´
u cos γ > 0;

D(x,y)
P(x, y, ϕ(x, y))dxdy nˆe
´
u cos γ < 0
(t´ u
.
c l` a dˆa´u “+” tu
.
o
.
ng ´ u
.
ng v´o
.
i ph´ep t´ıch phˆan theo ph´ıa ngo` ai (ph´ıa
trˆen) cu’ a m˘a
.
t, c` on dˆa´u “−” tu
.
o
.
ng ´ u
.
ng v´o
.
i ph´ep t´ıch phˆan theo ph´ıa
trong (ph´ıa du
.
´o
.
i) cu’ a m˘a
.
t.
162 Chu
.
o
.
ng 12. T´ıch phˆan h`am nhiˆe
`
u biˆe
´
n
Tu
.
o
.
ng tu
.
.
ta c´ o

(σ)
Q(M)dxdz =

+

D(x,z)
Q(x, ψ(x, z), z)dxdz nˆe
´
u cos β > 0,

D(x,z)
Q()dxdz nˆe
´
u cos β < 0;

(σ)
R(M)dydz =

+

D(y,z)
R(g(y, z), y, z)dydz nˆe
´
u cos α > 0

D(y,z)
R()dydz nˆe
´
u cos α < 0.
Nhˆa
.
n x´et. T´ıch phˆan m˘a
.
t theo to
.
a dˆo
.
lˆa´y theo phˆa
`
n m˘a
.
t tru
.
v´o
.
i du
.
`o
.
ng
sinh song song v´o
.
i tru
.
c Oz l`a b˘a
`
ng 0. Trong c´ac tru
.
`o
.
ng ho
.
.
p tu
.
o
.
ng
tu
.
.
, c´ac t´ıch phˆan m˘a
.
t theo to
.
a dˆo
.
x, z hay y, z c˜ ung = 0.
12.4.3 Cˆong th´ u
.
c Gauss-Ostrogradski
D´o l`a cˆong th´ u
.
c

D

∂P
∂x
+
∂Q
∂y
+
∂R
∂z

dxdydz =

∂D
Pdydz +Qdxdz +Rdxdy.
N´o x´ac lˆa
.
p mˆo´i liˆen hˆe
.
gi˜ u
.
a t´ıch phˆan m˘a
.
t theo m˘a
.
t biˆen ∂D cu’ a D
v´o
.
i t´ıch phˆan 3-l´o
.
p lˆa´y theo miˆe
`
n D ⊂ R
3
.
12.4.4 Cˆong th´ u
.
c Stokes
D´o l`a cˆong th´ u
.
c

L
Pdx +Qdy +Rdz =

(σ)

∂Q
∂x

∂P
∂y

dxdy +

∂R
∂y

∂Q
∂z

dydz
+

∂P
∂z

∂R
∂x

dzdx.
12.4. T´ıch phˆan m˘a
.
t 163
N´o x´ac lˆa
.
p mˆo´i liˆen hˆe
.
gi˜ u
.
a t´ıch phˆan m˘a
.
t theo m˘a
.
t (σ) v´o
.
i t´ıch phˆan
du
.
`o
.
ng lˆa´y theo b`o
.
L cu’ a m˘a
.
t (σ).
Ta nhˆa
.
n x´et r˘a
`
ng sˆo´ ha
.
ng th´ u
.
nhˆa´t o
.
’ vˆe
´
pha’ i cu’ a cˆ ong th´ u
.
c Stokes
c˜ ung ch´ınh l`a vˆe
´
pha’ i cˆong th´ u
.
c Green. Hai sˆo´ ha
.
ng c`on la
.
i thu du
.
o
.
.
c
t` u
.
d´o bo
.
’ i ph´ep ho´an vi
.
tuˆa
`
n ho`an c´ac biˆe
´
n x, y, z v`a c´ ac h`am P, Q, R:
x
`
z ←− y
P
`
R ←− Q
C
´
AC V
´
I DU
.
V´ı du
.
1. T´ınh t´ıch phˆan

(σ)
(6x + 4y + 3z)dS, trong d´o (σ) l`a phˆa
`
n
m˘a
.
t ph˘a

ng x + 2y + 3z = 6 n˘a
`
m trong g´oc phˆa
`
n t´am th´ u
.
nhˆa´t.
Gia’ i. M˘a
.
t t´ıch phˆan l`a tam gi´ac ABC tronng d´o A(6, 0, 0),
B(0, 3, 0) v`a C(0, 0, 2). Su
.
’ du
.
ng phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh cu’ a (σ) dˆe

biˆe
´
n dˆo

i
t´ıch phˆan m˘a
.
t th`anh t´ıch phˆan 2-l´o
.
p. T` u
.
phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh cu’ a (σ) r´ ut
ra z =
1
3
(6 −x −2y). T` u
.
d´o
dS =

1 +z

x
2
+z

y
2
dxdy =

14
2
dxdy.
Do d´o
I =

14
3

∆OAB
[(6x + 4y +
3
3
(6 −x −2y)]dxdy
=

14
3
3

0
dy
6−2y

0
(5x + 2y + 6)dx
=

14
3
3

0

5
2
x
2
+ 2xy + 6x

6−2y
0
¸
dy = 54

14.
164 Chu
.
o
.
ng 12. T´ıch phˆan h`am nhiˆe
`
u biˆe
´
n
V´ı du
.
2. T´ınh

(σ)

1 + 4x
2
+ 4y
2
dS, (σ) l`a phˆa
`
n paraboloid tr`on
xoay z = 1 −x
2
−y
2
n˘a
`
m trˆen m˘a
.
t ph˘a

ng Oxy.
Gia’ i. M˘a
.
t (σ) chiˆe
´
u du
.
o
.
.
c do
.
n tri
.
lˆen m˘a
.
t ph˘a

ng Oxy v`a h`ınh tr`on
x
2
+y
2
1 l`a h`ınh chiˆe
´
u cu’ a n´o: D(x, y) =
¸
(x, y) : x
2
+y
2
1
¸
. Ta
t´ınh dS. Ta c´o z

x
= −2x, z

y
= −2y ⇒ dS =

1 + 4x
2
+ 4y
2
dxdy.
Do vˆa
.
y

(σ)
=

D(x,y)

1 + 4x
2
+ 4y
2

1 + 4x
2
+ 4y
2
dxdy
=

x
2
+y
2
1
(1 + 4x
2
+ 4y
2
)dxdy.
B˘a
`
ng c´ach chuyˆe

n sang to
.
a dˆo
.
cu
.
.
c ta c´o
I =

0

1

0
(1 + 4r
2
)rdr = 3π.
V´ı du
.
3. T´ınh t´ıch phˆan

(σ)
(y
2
+z
2
dxdy, trong d´o (σ) l`a ph´ıa ngo`ai
cu’ a m˘a
.
t z =

1 −x
2
gi´ o
.
i ha
.
n bo
.
’ i c´ac m˘a
.
t ph˘a

ng y = 0, y = 1.
Gia’ i. M˘a
.
t (σ) l`a nu
.
’ a trˆen cu’ a m˘a
.
t tru
.
x
2
+ z
2
= 1, z 0. Do d´o
h`ınh chiˆe
´
u cu’ a (σ) lˆen m˘a
.
t ph˘a

ng Oxy l`a h`ınh ch˜ u
.
nhˆa
.
t x´ ac di
.
nh bo
.
’ i
c´ac diˆe
`
u kiˆe
.
n: −1 x 1, 0 y 1. Do d´o v`ı z =

1 −x
2
nˆen
cos γ > 0 v`a

(σ)
(y
2
+z
2
)dxdy =

D(x,y)
[y
2
+ (

1 −x
2
)
2
]dxdy
=
1

−1
dx
1

0
(y
2
+ 1 −x
2
)dy = 2.
12.4. T´ıch phˆan m˘a
.
t 165
V´ı du
.
4. T´ınh t´ıch phˆan

(σ)
2dxdy +ydxdz −x
2
zdydz, trong d´o (σ)
l`a ph´ıa trˆen cu’ a phˆa
`
n elipxoid 4x
2
+y
2
+4z
2
= 1 n˘a
`
m trong g´oc phˆa
`
n
t´am I.
Gia’ i. Ta viˆe
´
t t´ıch phˆan d˜a cho du
.
´o
.
i da
.
ng
I = 2

(σ)
dxdy +

(σ)
ydydz −

(σ)
x
2
zdydz.
v`a su
.
’ du
.
ng phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh cu’ a m˘a
.
t (σ) dˆe

biˆe
´
n dˆo

i mˆo
˜
i t´ıch phˆan. Lu
.
u
´ y r˘a
`
ng cos α > 0, cos β > 0, cos γ > 0.
(i) V`ı h`ınh chiˆe
´
u cu’ a m˘a
.
t (σ) lˆen m˘a
.
t ph˘a

ng Oxy l`a phˆa
`
n tu
.
h`ınh
elip
x
2
1
2
+
y
2
2
2
1 nˆen
I
1
=

(σ)
dxdy =

D(x,y)
dxdy =
π
2
(v`ı diˆe
.
n t´ıch elip = 2π)
(ii) H`ınh chiˆe
´
u cu’ a (σ) lˆen m˘a
.
t ph˘a

ng Oxz l`a phˆa
`
n tu
.
h`ınh tr`on
4x
2
+ 4z
2
4 ⇔x
2
+ z
2
1. M˘a
.
t kh´ac t` u
.
phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh m˘a
.
t r´ ut ra
y = 2

1 −x
2
−y
2
v`a do d´o
I
2
=

(σ)
ydxdz = 2

D(x,y)

1 −x
2
−z
2
dxdz = [chuyˆe

n sang to
.
a dˆo
.
cu
.
.
c[
= 2
π/2

0

1

0

1 −r
2
rdr =
π
3

(iii) H`ınh chiˆe
´
u cu’ a (σ) lˆen m˘a
.
t ph˘a

ng Oyz l`a mˆo
.
t phˆa
`
n tu
.
h`ınh
elip
y
2
4
+ z
2
1 (y 0, z 0). T` u
.
phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh m˘a
.
t (σ) r´ ut ra
166 Chu
.
o
.
ng 12. T´ıch phˆan h`am nhiˆe
`
u biˆe
´
n
x =

1 −
y
2
4
−z
2
rˆo
`
i thˆe
´
v`ao h`am du
.
´o
.
i dˆa´u t´ıch phˆan cu’ a I
3
:
I
3
=

(σ)
x
2
zdydz =

D(y,z)
z

1 −
y
2
4
−z
2

dydz
=
1

0
dz
2

1−z
2

0
z

1 −
y
2
4
−z
2

dy = =
4
15

Nhu
.
vˆa
.
y I = 2I
1
+I
2
−I
3
=

3

4
15

V´ı du
.
5. T´ınh

(σ)

ydydz, trong d´o (σ) l`a m˘a
.
t cu’ a t´ u
.
diˆe
.
n gi´o
.
i ha
.
n
bo
.
’ i m˘a
.
t ph˘a

ng x+y +z = 1 v`a c´ ac m˘a
.
t ph˘a

ng to
.
a dˆo
.
, t´ıch phˆan du
.
o
.
.
c
lˆa´y theo ph´ıa trong cu’ a t´ u
.
diˆe
.
n.
Gia’ i. M˘a
.
t ph˘a

ng x + y + z = 1 c˘a
´
t c´ ac tru
.
c to
.
a dˆo
.
ta
.
i A(1, 0, 0),
B(0, 1, 0) v`a C = (0, 0, 1). Ta k´ y hiˆe
.
u gˆo´c to
.
a dˆo
.
l`a O(0, 0, 0). T` u
.
d´o
suy ra m˘a
.
t k´ın (σ) gˆo
`
m t` u
.
4 h`ınh tam gi´ac ∆ABC, ∆BCO, ∆ACO
v`a ∆ABO. Do vˆa
.
y t´ıch phˆan d˜a cho l`a tˆo

ng cu’ a bˆo´n t´ıch phˆan.
(i) T´ıch phˆan I
1
=

ABC
ydxdz. R´ ut y t` u
.
phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh m˘a
.
t (σ) ⊃
∆ABC ta c´o y = 1 −x −z v`a do d´o
I
1
= −

ACO
(1 −x −z)dxdz =
1

0
dx
1−x

0
(x +z −1)dz = −
1
6

(Lu
.
u ´ y r˘a
`
ng cos β = cos(n, Oy) < 0 v`ı vecto
.
n lˆa
.
p v´o
.
i hu
.
´o
.
ng du
.
o
.
ng
tru
.
c Oy mˆo
.
t g´oc t` u, do d´o tru
.
´o
.
c t´ıch phˆan theo ∆ACO xuˆa´t hiˆe
.
n dˆa´u
tr` u
.
)
(ii)

(BCD)
ydxdz =

(ABO)
ydxdz = 0
12.4. T´ıch phˆan m˘a
.
t 167
v`ı m˘a
.
t ph˘a

ng BCO v`a ABO dˆe
`
u vuˆong g´oc v´o
.
i m˘a
.
t ph˘a

ng Oxz.
(iii)

(ACO)
ydxdz =

ACO
0dxdz = 0.
Vˆa
.
y I = −
1
6
.
V´ı du
.
6. T´ınh t´ıch phˆan I =

(σ)
x
3
dydz + y
3
dzdx + z
3
dxdy, trong
d´o (σ) l` a ph´ıa ngo`ai m˘a
.
t cˆ a
`
u x
2
+y
2
+z
2
= R
2
.
Gia’ i.
´
Ap du
.
ng cˆong th´ u
.
c Gauss-Ostrogradski ta c´ o

(σ)
= 3

D
(x
2
+y
2
+z
2
)dxdydz
trong d´o D ⊂ R
3
l`a miˆe
`
n v´o
.
i biˆen l`a m˘a
.
t (σ). Chuyˆe

n sang to
.
a dˆo
.
cˆa
`
u ta c´ o
3

D
(x
2
+y
2
+z
2
)dxdydz = 3

0

π

0
sinθdθ
R

0
r
4
dr
=
12πR
5
5

Vˆa
.
y I =
12πR
5
5

V´ı du
.
7. T´ınh t´ıch phˆan

L
x
2
y
3
dx +dy +zdz, trong d´o L l`a du
.
`o
.
ng
tr`on x
2
+ y
2
= 1, z = 0, c`on m˘a
.
t (σ) l`a ph´ıa ngo`ai cu’ a nu
.
’ a m˘a
.
t cˆ a
`
u
x
2
+y
2
+z
2
= 1, z > 0 v`a L c´o di
.
nh hu
.
´o
.
ng du
.
o
.
ng.
Gia’ i. Trong tru
.
`o
.
ng ho
.
.
p n`ay P = x
2
y
3
, Q = 1, R = z. Do d´o
∂Q
∂x

∂P
∂y
= −3x
2
y
2
,
∂R
∂y

∂Q
∂z
= 0,
∂P
∂z

∂R
∂x
= 0
168 Chu
.
o
.
ng 12. T´ıch phˆan h`am nhiˆe
`
u biˆe
´
n
v`a do d´o theo cˆong th´ u
.
c Stokes ta c´ o

L
= −3

(σ)
x
2
y
2
dxdy = −
π
8

B
`
AI T
ˆ
A
.
P
T´ınh c´ac t´ıch phˆan m˘a
.
t theo diˆe
.
n t´ıch sau dˆay
1.

(Σ)
(x +y +z)dS, (Σ) l`a m˘a
.
t lˆa
.
p phu
.
o
.
ng 0 x 1, 0 1,
0 z 1. (DS. 9)
2.

(Σ)
(2x+y +z)dS, (Σ) l`a phˆa
`
n m˘a
.
t ph˘a

ng x+y +z = 1 n˘a
`
m trong
g´oc phˆa
`
n t´am I. (DS.
2

3
3
)
3.

(Σ)

z + 2x +
4y
3

dS, (Σ) l`a phˆa
`
n m˘a
.
t ph˘a

ng 6x + 4y + 3z = 12
n˘a
`
m trong g´oc phˆa
`
n t´am I. (DS. 4

61)
4.

(σ)

x
2
+y
2
dS, (Σ) l`a phˆa
`
n m˘a
.
t n´on z
2
= x
2
+y
2
, 0 z 1.
(DS.
2


3
)
5.

(Σ)
(y + z +

a
2
−x
2
)dS, (Σ) l`a phˆa
`
n m˘a
.
t tru
.
x
2
+ y
2
= a
2
n˘a
`
m
gi˜ u
.
a hai m˘a
.
t ph˘a

ng z = 0 v`a z = h. (DS. ah(4a +πh))
6.

(Σ)

y
2
−x
2
dS, (Σ) l`a phˆa
`
n m˘a
.
t n´on z
2
= x
2
+y
2
n˘a
`
m trong m˘a
.
t
tru
.
x
2
+y
2
= a
2
. (DS.
8a
3
3
)
12.4. T´ıch phˆan m˘a
.
t 169
7.

(Σ)
(x +y +z)dS, (Σ) l`a nu
.
’ a trˆen cu’ a m˘a
.
t cˆ a
`
u x
2
+y
2
+z
2
= a
2
.
(DS. πa
3
)
8.

(Σ)

x
2
+y
2
dS, (Σ) l`a m˘a
.
t cˆ a
`
u x
2
+y
2
+z
2
= a
2
. (DS.
8πa
3
3
)
9.

(Σ)
dS
(1 +x +y)
, (Σ) l`a biˆen cu’ a t´ u
.
diˆe
.
n x´ac di
.
nh bo
.
’ i bˆa´t phu
.
o
.
ng
tr`ınh x+y+z 1, x 0, y 0, z 0. (DS.
1
3
(3−

3)+(

3−1) ln 2)
10.

(Σ)
(x
2
+ y
2
)dS, (Σ) l`a phˆa
`
n m˘a
.
t paraboloid x
2
+ y
2
= 2z du
.
o
.
.
c
c˘a
´
t ra bo
.
’ i m˘a
.
t ph˘a

ng z = 1. (DS.
55 + 9

3
65
)
11.

(Σ)

1 + 4x
2
+ 4y
2
dS, (Σ) l` a phˆa
`
n m˘a
.
t paraboloid z = 1−x
2
−y
2
gi´o
.
i ha
.
n bo
.
’ i c´ac m˘a
.
t ph˘a

ng z = 0 v`a z = 1. (DS. 3π)
12.

(Σ)
(x
2
+ y
2
)dS, (Σ) l`a phˆ a
`
n m˘a
.
t n´on z =

x
2
+y
2
n˘a
`
m gi˜ u
.
a
c´ac m˘a
.
t ph˘a

ng z = 0 v`a z = 1. (DS.
π

2
2
)
13.

(Σ)
(xy + yz + zx)dS, (Σ) l`a phˆa
`
n m˘a
.
t n´on z =

x
2
+y
2
n˘a
`
m
trong m˘a
.
t tru
.
x
2
+y
2
= 2ax (a > 0). (DS.
64a
4

2
15
)
14.

(Σ)
(x
2
+y
2
+z
2
)dS, (Σ) l`a ma
.
t cˆ a
`
u. (DS. 4π)
15.

(Σ)
xds, (Σ) l`a phˆa
`
n m˘a
.
t du
.
o
.
.
c c˘ a
´
t ra t` u
.
partaboloid 10x = y
2
+z
2
170 Chu
.
o
.
ng 12. T´ıch phˆan h`am nhiˆe
`
u biˆe
´
n
bo
.
’ i m˘a
.
t ph˘a

ng x = 10. (DS.
50π
3
(1 + 25

5))
Su
.
’ du
.
ng cˆong th´ u
.
c t´ınh diˆe
.
n t´ıch m˘a
.
t S(Σ) =

(Σ)
dS dˆe

t´ınh diˆe
.
n
t´ıch cu’ a phˆa
`
n m˘a
.
t (Σ) nˆe
´
u
16. (Σ) l`a phˆa
`
n m˘a
.
t ph˘a

ng 2x + 2y +z = 8a n˘a
`
m trong m˘a
.
t tru
.
x
2
+y
2
= R
2
. (DS. 3πR
2
)
17. (Σ) l`a phˆa
`
n m˘a
.
t tru
.
y +z
2
= R
2
n˘a
`
m trong m˘a
.
t tru
.
x
2
+y
2
= R
2
. (DS. 8R
2
)
18. (Σ) l`a phˆa
`
n m˘a
.
t paraboloid x
2
+y
2
= 6z n˘a
`
m trong m˘a
.
t tru
.
x
2
+y
2
= 27. (DS. 42π)
19. (Σ) l`a phˆa
`
n m˘a
.
t cˆ a
`
u x
2
+y
2
+z
2
= 3a
2
n˘a
`
m trong paraboloid
x
2
+y
2
= 2az. (DS. 2πa
2
(3 −

3))
20. (Σ) l`a phˆa
`
n m˘a
.
t n´on z
2
= 2xy n˘a
`
m trong g´oc phˆa
`
n t´am I gi˜ u
.
a
hai m˘a
.
t ph˘a

ng x = 2, y = 4. (DS. 16)
21. (Σ) l`a phˆa
`
n m˘a
.
t tru
.
x
2
+y
2
= Rx n˘a
`
m trong m˘a
.
t cˆ a
`
u
x
2
+y
2
+z
2
= R
2
. (DS. 4R
2
)
T´ınh c´ac t´ıch phˆan m˘a
.
t theo to
.
a dˆo
.
sau:
22.

(Σ)
dxdy, (Σ) l`a ph´ıa ngo`ai phˆa
`
n m˘a
.
t n´on z =

x
2
+y
2
khi
0 z 1. (DS. −π)
23.

(Σ)
ydzdx, (Σ) l`a ph´ıa trˆen cu’ a phˆa
`
n m˘a
.
t ph˘a

ng x + y + z = a
(a > 0) n˘a
`
m trong g´oc phˆa
`
n t´am I. (DS.
a
3
6
)
24.

(Σ)
xdydz +ydzdx+zdxdy, (Σ) l`a ph´ıa trˆen cu’ a phˆa
`
n m˘a
.
t ph˘a

ng
x +z −1 = 0 n˘a
`
m gi˜ u
.
a hai m˘a
.
t ph˘a

ng y = 0 v`a y = 4 v`a thuˆo
.
c v`ao
g´oc phˆa
`
n t´am I. (DS. 4)
12.4. T´ıch phˆan m˘a
.
t 171
25.

(Σ)
− xdydz + zdzdx + 5dxdy, (Σ) l`a ph´ıa trˆen cu’ a phˆa
`
n m˘a
.
t
ph˘a

ng 2x + 3y +z = 6 thuˆo
.
c g´oc phˆa
`
n t´am I. (DS. 6)
26.

(Σ)
yzdydz +xzdxdz +xydxdy, (Σ) l`a ph´ıa trˆen cu’ a tam gi´ac ta
.
o
bo
.
’ i giao tuyˆe
´
n cu’ a m˘a
.
t ph˘a

ng x + y + z = a v´o
.
i c´ac m˘a
.
t ph˘a

ng to
.
a
dˆo
.
. (DS.
a
4
8
)
27.

(Σ)
x
2
dydz +z
2
dxdy, (Σ) l`a ph´ıa ngo`ai cu’ a phˆa
`
n m˘a
.
t n´on
x
2
+y
2
= z
2
, 0 z 1. (DS. −
4
3
)
28.

(Σ)
xdydz +ydzdx +zdxdy, (Σ) l`a ph´ıa ngo`ai phˆa
`
n m˘a
.
t cˆ a
`
u
x
2
+y
2
+z
2
= a
2
. (DS. 4πa
3
)
29.

(σ)
x
2
dydz −y
2
dzdx +z
2
dxdy, (Σ) l`a ph´ıa ngo`ai cu’ a m˘a
.
t cˆ a
`
u
x
2
+y
2
+z
2
= R
2
thuˆo
.
c g´oc phˆa
`
n t´am I. (DS.
πa
4
8
)
30.

(Σ)
2dxdy + ydzdx − x
2
zdydz, (Σ) l`a ph´ıa ngo`ai cu’ a phˆa
`
n m˘a
.
t
elipxoid 4x
2
+y
2
+ 4z
2
= 4 thuˆo
.
c g´oc phˆa
`
n t´am I. (DS.

3

4
15
)
31.

(Σ)
(y
2
+z
2
)dxdy, (Σ) l`a ph´ıa ngo`ai cu’ a m˘a
.
t tru
.
z
2
= 1 −x
2
,
0 y 1. (DS.
π
3
)
32.

(Σ)
(z −R)
2
dxdy, (Σ) l`a ph´ıa ngo`ai cu’ a nu
.
’ a m˘a
.
t cˆ a
`
u
x
2
+y
2
+ (z −R)
2
= R
2
, R z 2R. (DS. −

24
)
172 Chu
.
o
.
ng 12. T´ıch phˆan h`am nhiˆe
`
u biˆe
´
n
33.

(Σ)
x
2
dydz +y
2
dzdx +z
2
dxdy, (Σ) l`a ph´ıa ngo`ai cu’ a phˆa
`
n m˘a
.
t
cˆa
`
u x
2
+y
2
+z
2
= a
2
thuˆo
.
c g´oc phˆa
`
n t´am I. (DS.
3πa
4
8
)
34.

(Σ)
z
2
dxdy, (σ) l`a ph´ıa trong cu’ a m˘a
.
t elipxoid
x
2
+y
2
+ 2z
2
= 2. (DS. 0)
35.

(Σ)
(z + 1)dxdy, (Σ) l`a ph´ıa ngo`ai cu’ a m˘a
.
t cˆ a
`
u
x
2
+y
2
+z
2
= R
2
. (DS.
4πR
3
3
)
36.

(Σ)
x
2
dydz +y
2
dzdx +z
2
dxdy, (Σ) l`a ph´ıa ngo`ai cu’ a m˘a
.
t cˆ a
`
u
(x −a)
2
+ (y −b)
2
+ (z −c)
2
= R
2
. (DS.
8πR
3
3
(a +b +c))
37.

(Σ)
x
2
y
2
zdxdy, (Σ) l`a ph´ıa trong cu’ a nu
.
’ a du
.
´o
.
i m˘a
.
t cˆ a
`
u
x
2
+y
2
+z
2
= R
2
. (DS.
2πR
7
105
)
38.

(Σ)
xzdxdy +xydydz +yzdxdz, (Σ) l`a ph´ıa ngo`ai cu’ a t´ u
.
diˆe
.
n ta
.
o
bo
.
’ i c´ac m˘a
.
t ph˘a

ng to
.
a dˆo
.
v`a m˘a
.
t ph˘a

ng x +y +z = 1. (DS.
1
8
)
Chı ’ dˆa
˜
n. Su
.
’ du
.
ng nhˆa
.
n x´et nˆeu trong phˆa
`
n l´ y thuyˆe
´
t.
39.

(Σ)
yzdydz + xzdxdz + xydxdy, (Σ) l`a ph´ıa ngo` ai cu’ a m˘a
.
t biˆen
t´ u
.
diˆe
.
n lˆa
.
p bo
.
’ i c´ac m˘a
.
t ph˘a

ng x = 0, y = 0, z = 0, x + y + z = a.
(DS. 0)
40.

(Σ)
x
2
dydz + y
2
dzdx + z
2
dxdy, (Σ) l`a ph´ıa ngo`ai cu’ a nu
.
’ a trˆen
12.4. T´ıch phˆan m˘a
.
t 173
m˘a
.
t cˆ a
`
u x
2
+y
2
+z
2
= R
2
(z 0). (DS.
πR
4
2
)
´
Ap du
.
ng cˆ ong th´ u
.
c Gauss-Ostrogradski dˆe

t´ınh t´ıch phˆan m˘a
.
t theo
ph´ıa ngo` ai cu’ a m˘a
.
t (Σ) (nˆe
´
u m˘a
.
t khˆong k´ın th`ı bˆo

sung dˆe

n´o tro
.
’ th`anh
k´ın)
41.

(Σ)
x
2
dydz +y
2
dzdx +z
2
dxdy, (Σ) l`a m˘a
.
t cˆ a
`
u
(x −a)
2
+ (y −b)
2
+ (z −c)
2
= R
2
. (DS.

3
(a +b +c)R
3
)
42.

(Σ)
xdydz +ydzdx +zdxdy, (Σ) l`a m˘a
.
t cˆ a
`
u x
2
+y
2
+z
2
= R
2
.
(DS. 4πR
3
)
43.

(Σ)
4x
3
dydz + 4y
3
dzdx −6z
2
dxdy, (Σ) l`a biˆen cu’ a phˆa
`
n h`ınh
tru
.
x
2
+y
2
a
2
, 0 z h. (DS. 6πa
2
(a
2
−h
2
))
44.

(σ)
(y −z)dydz + (z −x)dzdx + (x −y)dxdy, (Σ) l`a phˆa
`
n m˘a
.
t
n´on x
2
+y
2
= z
2
, 0 x h. (DS. 0)
Chı ’ dˆa
˜
n. V`ı (Σ) khˆong k´ın nˆen cˆ a
`
n bˆo

sung phˆa
`
n m˘a
.
t ph˘a

ng z = h
n˘a
`
m trong n´on dˆe

thu du
.
o
.
.
c m˘a
.
t k´ın.
45.

(Σ)
dydz +zxdzdx +xydxdy, (Σ) l`a biˆen cu’ a miˆe
`
n
¦(x, y, z) : x
2
+y
2
a
2
, 0 z h¦. (DS. 0)
46.

(Σ)
ydydz + zdzdx + xdxdy, (Σ) l`a m˘a
.
t cu’ a h`ınh ch´op gi´o
.
i ha
.
n
bo
.
’ i c´ac m˘a
.
t ph˘a

ng
x +y +z = a (a > 0), x = 0, y = 0, z = 0. (DS. 0)
47.

(Σ)
x
3
dydz +y
3
dzdx +z
3
dxdy, (Σ) l`a m˘a
.
t cˆ a
`
u x
2
+y
2
+z
2
= x.
174 Chu
.
o
.
ng 12. T´ıch phˆan h`am nhiˆe
`
u biˆe
´
n
(DS.
π
5
)
48.

(Σ)
x
3
dydz +y
3
dzdx +z
3
dxdy, (Σ) l`a m˘a
.
t cˆ a
`
u x
2
+y
2
+z
2
= a
2
.
(DS.
12πa
5
5
)
49.

(Σ)
z
2
dxdy, (Σ) l`a m˘a
.
t elipxoid
x
2
a
2
+
y
2
b
2
+
z
2
c
2
= 1. (DS. 0)
Chı ’ dˆa
˜
n. Xem v´ı du
.
10, mu
.
c III.
50.

(Σ)
xdydz +ydzdx+zdxdy, (Σ) l`a m˘a
.
t elipxoid
x
2
a
2
+
y
2
b
2
+
z
2
c
2
= 1.
(Ds. 4πabc)
51.

(Σ)
xdydz +ydzdx +zdxdy, (Σ) l`a biˆen h`ınh tru
.
x
2
+y
2
a
2
,
−h z h. (DS. 6πa
2
h)
52.

(Σ)
x
2
dydz +y
2
dzdx +z
2
dxdy, (Σ) l`a biˆen cu’ a h`ınh lˆa
.
p phu
.
o
.
ng
0 x a, 0 y a, 0 z a. (DS. 3a
4
)
Dˆe

´ap du
.
ng cˆong th´ u
.
c Stokes, ta lu
.
u ´ y la
.
i quy u
.
´o
.
c
Hu
.
´o
.
ng du
.
o
.
ng cu’ a chu tuyˆe
´
n ∂Σ cu’ a m˘a
.
t (Σ) du
.
o
.
.
c quy u
.
´o
.
c nhu
.
sau: Nˆe
´
u mˆo
.
t ngu
.
`o
.
i quan tr˘a
´
c d´ u
.
ng trˆen ph´ıa du
.
o
.
.
c cho
.
n cu’ a m˘a
.
t (t´ u
.
c
l`a hu
.
´o
.
ng t` u
.
chˆan dˆe
´
n dˆa
`
u tr` ung v´o
.
i hu
.
´o
.
ng cu’ a vecto
.
ph´ap tuyˆe
´
n) th`ı
khi ngu
.
`o
.
i quan s´at di chuyˆe

n trˆen ∂Σ theo hu
.
´o
.
ng d´o th`ı m˘a
.
t (Σ) luˆon
luˆon n˘a
`
m bˆen tr´ai.
´
Ap du
.
ng cˆong th´ u
.
c Stokes dˆe

t´ınh c´ ac t´ıch phˆan sau
53.

C
xydx +yzdy +xzdz, ( l`a giao tuyˆe
´
n cu’ a m˘a
.
t ph˘a

ng 2x −3y +
4z −12 = 0 v´o
.
i c´ac m˘a
.
t ph˘a

ng to
.
a dˆo
.
. (DS. −7)
12.4. T´ıch phˆan m˘a
.
t 175
54.

C
ydx+zdy+xdz, ( l`a du
.
`o
.
ng tr`on x
2
+y
2
+z
2
= R
2
, x+y+z = 0
c´o hu
.
´o
.
ng ngu
.
o
.
.
c chiˆe
`
u kim dˆo
`
ng hˆo
`
nˆe
´
u nh`ın t` u
.
phˆa
`
n du
.
o
.
ng tru
.
c Ox.
(DS. −

3πR
2
)
55.

C
(y − z)dx + (z − x)dy + (x − y)dz, ( l`a elip x
2
+ y
2
= a
2
,
x
a
+
z
h
= 1 (a > 0, h > 0) c´ o hu
.
´o
.
ng ngu
.
o
.
.
c chiˆe
`
u kim dˆo
`
ng hˆo
`
nˆe
´
u
nh`ın t` u
.
diˆe

m (2a, 0, 0). (DS. −2πa(a +h))
56.

C
(y−z)dx+(z−x)dy+(x−y)dz, ( l`a du
.
`o
.
ng tr`on x
2
+y
2
+z
2
= a
2
,
y = xtgα, 0 < α <
π
2
c´o hu
.
´o
.
ng ngu
.
o
.
.
c chiˆe
`
u kim dˆo
`
ng hˆo
`
nh`ın t` u
.
diˆe

m (2a, 0, 0). (DS. 2

2πa
2
sin

π
4
−α))
57.

C
(y−z)dx+(z −x)dy+(x−y)dz, ( l`a elip x
2
+y
2
= 1, x+z = 1
c´o hu
.
´o
.
ng ngu
.
o
.
.
c chiˆe
`
u kim dˆo
`
ng hˆo
`
nˆe
´
u nh`ın t` u
.
phˆa
`
n du
.
o
.
ng tru
.
c Oz.
(DS. −4π)
58.

C
(y
2
−z
2
)dx+(z
2
−x
2
)dy +(x
2
−y
2
)dz, ( l`a biˆen cu’ a thiˆe
´
t diˆe
.
n
cu’ a lˆa
.
p phu
.
o
.
ng 0 x a, 0 y a, 0 z a v´o
.
i m˘a
.
t ph˘a

ng
x +y +z =
3a
2
c´o hu
.
´o
.
ng ngu
.
o
.
.
c chiˆe
`
u kim dˆo
`
ng hˆo
`
nˆe
´
u nh`ın t` u
.
diˆe

m
(2a, 0, 0). (DS. −
9
2
a
3
)
59.

C
e
x
dx + z(x
2
+ y
2
)
3/2
dy + yz
3
dz, ( l`a giao tuyˆe
´
n cu’ a m˘a
.
t z =

x
2
+y
2
v´o
.
i c´ac m˘a
.
t ph˘a

ng x = 0, x = 2, y = 0, y = 1.
(DS. −14)
60.

C
8y

(1 −x
2
−z
2
)
3
dx+xy
3
dy +sin zdz, ( l`a biˆen cu’ a mˆo
.
t phˆa
`
n
tu
.
elipxoid 4x
2
+y
2
+ 4z
2
= 4 n˘ a
`
m trong g´oc phˆa
`
n t´am th´ u
.
I.
176 Chu
.
o
.
ng 12. T´ıch phˆan h`am nhiˆe
`
u biˆe
´
n
(DS.
32
5
)
Chu
.
o
.
ng 13
L´ y thuyˆe
´
t chuˆo
˜
i
13.1 Chuˆo
˜
i sˆo´ du
.
o
.
ng . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 178
13.1.1 C´ac di
.
nh ngh˜ıa co
.
ba’ n . . . . . . . . . . . . 178
13.1.2 Chuˆo
˜
i sˆo´ du
.
o
.
ng . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 179
13.2 Chuˆo
˜
i hˆo
.
i tu
.
tuyˆe
.
t dˆo´i v`a hˆo
.
i tu
.
khˆong
tuyˆe
.
t dˆo´i . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 191
13.2.1 C´ac di
.
nh ngh˜ıa co
.
ba’ n . . . . . . . . . . . . 191
13.2.2 Chuˆo
˜
i dan dˆa´u v`a dˆa´u hiˆe
.
u Leibnitz . . . . 192
13.3 Chuˆo
˜
i l˜ uy th` u
.
a . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 199
13.3.1 C´ac di
.
nh ngh˜ıa co
.
ba’ n . . . . . . . . . . . . 199
13.3.2 D
-
iˆe `u kiˆe
.
n khai triˆe

n v`a phu
.
o
.
ng ph´ap khai
triˆe

n . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 201
13.4 Chuˆo
˜
i Fourier . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 211
13.4.1 C´ac di
.
nh ngh˜ıa co
.
ba’ n . . . . . . . . . . . . 211
13.4.2 Dˆa´u hiˆe
.
u du’ vˆe ` su
.
.
hˆo
.
i tu
.
cu’ a chuˆo
˜
i Fourier 212
178 Chu
.
o
.
ng 13. L´ y thuyˆe
´
t chuˆo
˜
i
13.1 Chuˆo
˜
i sˆo
´
du
.
o
.
ng
13.1.1 C´ac di
.
nh ngh˜ıa co
.
ba’ n
Gia’ su
.
’ cho d˜ay sˆo´ (a
n
). Biˆe

u th´ u
.
c da
.
ng
a
1
+a
2
+ +a
n
+ =

¸
n=1
a
n
=
¸
n1
a
n
(13.1)
du
.
o
.
.
c go
.
i l`a chuˆ o
˜
i sˆ o´ (hay do
.
n gia’ n l`a chuˆo
˜
i). C´ ac sˆo´ a
1
, . . . , a
n
, . . .
du
.
o
.
.
c go
.
i l`a c´ac sˆo´ ha
.
ng cu’ a chuˆo
˜
i, sˆo´ ha
.
ng a
n
go
.
i l`a sˆ o´ ha
.
ng tˆo

ng qu´ at
cu’ a chuˆo
˜
i. Tˆo

ng n sˆo´ ha
.
ng dˆa
`
u tiˆen cu’ a chuˆo
˜
i du
.
o
.
.
c go
.
i l`a tˆo

ng riˆeng
th´ u
.
n cu’ a chuˆo
˜
i v`a k´ y hiˆe
.
u l`a s
n
, t´ u
.
c l`a
s
n
= a
1
+a
2
+ +a
n
.
V`ı sˆo´ sˆo´ ha
.
ng cu’ a chuˆo
˜
i l`a vˆo ha
.
n nˆen c´ac tˆo

ng riˆeng cu’ a chuˆo
˜
i lˆa
.
p
th`anh d˜ay vˆo ha
.
n c´ac tˆo

ng riˆeng s
1
, s
2
, . . . , s
n
, . . .
D
-
i
.
nh ngh˜ıa 13.1.1. Chuˆo
˜
i (13.1) du
.
o
.
.
c go
.
i l`a chuˆ o
˜
i hˆ o
.
i tu
.
nˆe
´
u d˜ay
c´ac tˆo

ng riˆeng (s
n
) cu’ a n´o c´o gi´ o
.
i ha
.
n h˜ u
.
u ha
.
n v`a gi´o
.
i ha
.
n d´o du
.
o
.
.
c
go
.
i l`a tˆo

ng cu’ a chuˆo
˜
i hˆ o
.
i tu
.
. Nˆe
´
u d˜ay (s
n
) khˆong c´o gi´o
.
i ha
.
n h˜ u
.
u ha
.
n
th`ı chuˆo
˜
i (13.1) phˆan k`y.
D
-
i
.
nh l´ y 13.1.1. Diˆe
`
u kiˆe
.
n cˆa
`
n dˆe

chuˆ o
˜
i (13.1) hˆo
.
i tu
.
l` a sˆ o´ ha
.
ng tˆ o

ng
qu´at cu’ a n´o dˆa
`
n dˆe
´
n 0 khi n →∞, t´ u
.
c l`a lim
n→∞
a
n
= 0.
Di
.
nh l´ y 13.1.1 chı’ l`a diˆe
`
u kiˆe
.
n cˆ a
`
n ch´ u
.
khˆong l`a diˆe
`
u kiˆe
.
n du’ .
Nhu
.
ng t` u
.
d´o c´ o thˆe

r´ ut ra diˆe
`
u kiˆe
.
n du’ dˆe

chuˆo
˜
i phˆan k` y: Nˆe
´
u
lim
n→∞
a
n
= 0 th`ı chuˆ o
˜
i
¸
n1
a
n
phˆan k`y.
Chuˆo
˜
i
¸
nm+1
a
n
thu du
.
o
.
.
c t` u
.
chuˆo
˜
i
¸
n1
a
n
sau khi c˘a
´
t bo’ m sˆo´ ha
.
ng
dˆa
`
u tiˆen du
.
o
.
.
c go
.
i l`a phˆa
`
n du
.
th´ u
.
m cu’ a chuˆo
˜
i
¸
n1
a
n
. Nˆe
´
u chuˆo
˜
i (13.1)
hˆo
.
i tu
.
th`ı mo
.
i phˆa
`
n du
.
cu’ a n´o dˆe
`
u hˆo
.
i tu
.
, v` a mˆo
.
t phˆa
`
n du
.
n`ao d´o
hˆo
.
i tu
.
th`ı ba’ n thˆan chuˆo
˜
i c˜ ung hˆo
.
i tu
.
. Nˆe
´
u phˆa
`
n du
.
th´ u
.
m cu’ a chuˆo
˜
i
13.1. Chuˆo
˜
i sˆo´ du
.
o
.
ng 179
(13.1) hˆo
.
i tu
.
v`a tˆo

ng cu’ a n´o b˘a
`
ng R
m
th`ı s = s
m
+R
m
. Chuˆo
˜
i hˆo
.
i tu
.
c´o c´ ac t´ınh chˆa´t quan tro
.
ng l`a
(i) V´o
.
i sˆo´ m cˆo´ di
.
nh bˆa´t k` y chuˆo
˜
i (13.1) v`a chuˆo
˜
i phˆa
`
n du
.
th´ u
.
m
cu’ a n´o dˆo
`
ng th`o
.
i hˆo
.
i tu
.
ho˘a
.
c dˆo
`
ng th`o
.
i phˆan k` y.
(ii) Nˆe
´
u chuˆo
˜
i (13.1) hˆo
.
i tu
.
th`ı R
m
→0 khi m →∞
(iii) Nˆe
´
u c´ac chuˆo
˜
i
¸
n1
a
n
v`a
¸
n1
b
n
hˆo
.
i tu
.
v`a α, β l`a h˘a
`
ng sˆo´ th`ı
¸
n1
(αa
n
+βb
n
) = α
¸
n1
a
n

¸
n1
b
n
.
13.1.2 Chuˆo
˜
i sˆo
´
du
.
o
.
ng
Chuˆo
˜
i sˆo´
¸
n1
a
n
du
.
o
.
.
c go
.
i l`a chuˆo
˜
i sˆo´ du
.
o
.
ng nˆe
´
u a
n
0 ∀n ∈ N. Nˆe
´
u
a
n
> 0 ∀n th`ı chuˆo
˜
i du
.
o
.
.
c go
.
i l` a chuˆo
˜
i sˆo´ du
.
o
.
ng thu
.
.
c su
.
.
.
Tiˆeu chuˆ a

n hˆo
.
i tu
.
. Chuˆo
˜
i sˆo´ du
.
o
.
ng hˆo
.
i tu
.
khi v`a chı ’ khi d˜ay tˆo

ng
riˆeng cu’ a n´o bi
.
ch˘a
.
n trˆen.
Nh`o
.
diˆe
`
u kiˆe
.
n n`ay, ta c´o thˆe

thu du
.
o
.
.
c nh˜ u
.
ng dˆa´u hiˆe
.
u du’ sau dˆay:
Dˆa´u hiˆe
.
u so s´ anh I. Gia’ su
.
’ cho hai chuˆo
˜
i sˆo´
A :
¸
n1
a
n
, a
n
0 ∀n ∈ N v`a B :
¸
n1
b
n
, b
n
0 ∀n ∈ N
v`a a
n
b
n
∀n ∈ N. Khi d´o:
(i) Nˆe
´
u chuˆo
˜
i sˆo´ B hˆo
.
i tu
.
th`ı chuˆo
˜
i sˆo´ A hˆo
.
i tu
.
,
(ii) Nˆe
´
u chuˆo
˜
i sˆo´ A phˆan k` y th`ı chuˆo
˜
i sˆo´ B phˆan k` y.
Dˆa´u hiˆe
.
u so s´anh II. Gia’ su
.
’ c´ac chuˆo
˜
i sˆo´ A v`a B l`a nh˜ u
.
ng chuˆo
˜
i
sˆo´ du
.
o
.
ng thu
.
.
c su
.
.
v`a ∃ lim
n→∞
a
n
b
n
= λ (r˜o r`ang l`a 0 λ +∞). Khi
d´o:
(i) Nˆe
´
u λ < ∞ th`ı t` u
.
su
.
.
hˆo
.
i tu
.
cu’ a chuˆo
˜
i sˆo´ B k´eo theo su
.
.
hˆo
.
i tu
.
cu’ a chuˆo
˜
i sˆo´ A
(ii) Nˆe
´
u λ > 0 th`ı t` u
.
su
.
.
hˆo
.
i tu
.
cu’ a chuˆo
˜
i sˆo´ A k´eo theo su
.
.
hˆo
.
i tu
.
cu’ a chuˆo
˜
i sˆo´ B
180 Chu
.
o
.
ng 13. L´ y thuyˆe
´
t chuˆo
˜
i
(iii) Nˆe
´
u 0 < λ < +∞ th`ı hai chuˆo
˜
i A v`a B dˆo
`
ng th`o
.
i hˆo
.
i tu
.
ho˘a
.
c
dˆo
`
ng th`o
.
i phˆan k` y.
Trong thu
.
.
c h`anh dˆa´u hiˆe
.
u so s´anh thu
.
`o
.
ng du
.
o
.
.
c su
.
’ du
.
ng du
.
´o
.
i da
.
ng
“ thu
.
.
c h`anh” sau dˆay:
Dˆa´u hiˆe
.
u thu
.
.
c h`anh. Nˆe
´
u dˆo´i v´o
.
i d˜ay sˆo´ du
.
o
.
ng (a
n
) tˆo
`
n ta
.
i c´ac sˆo´
p v`a C > 0 sao cho a
n

C
n
p
, n →∞th`ı chuˆo
˜
i
¸
n1
a
n
hˆo
.
i tu
.
nˆe
´
u p > 1
v`a phˆan k` y nˆe
´
u p 1.
C´ac chuˆo
˜
i thu
.
`o
.
ng du
.
o
.
.
c d` ung dˆe

so s´anh l`a
1) Chuˆo
˜
i cˆa´p sˆo´ nhˆan
¸
n0
aq
n
, a = 0 hˆo
.
i tu
.
khi 0 q < 1 v`a phˆan
k` y khi q 1.
2) Chuˆo
˜
i Dirichlet:
¸
n1
1
n
α
hˆo
.
i tu
.
khi α > 1 v`a phˆan k` y khi α 1.
Chuˆo
˜
i phˆan k` y
¸
n1
1
n
go
.
i l`a chuˆo
˜
i diˆe
`
u h`oa.
T` u
.
dˆa´u hiˆe
.
u so s´anh I v`a chuˆo
˜
i so s´anh 1) ta r´ ut ra:
Dˆa´u hiˆe
.
u D’Alembert. Nˆe
´
u chuˆo
˜
i a
1
+a
2
+ +a
n
+. . . , a
n
> 0
∀n c´o
lim
n→∞
a
n+1
a
n
= T
th`ı chuˆo
˜
i hˆo
.
i tu
.
khi T < 1 v`a phˆan k` y khi T > 1.
Dˆa´u hiˆe
.
u Cauchy. Nˆe
´
u chuˆo
˜
i a
1
+ a
2
+ +a
n
+. . . , a
n
0 ∀n
c´o
lim
n→∞
n

a
n
= (
th`ı chuˆo
˜
i hˆo
.
i tu
.
khi ( < 1 v`a phˆan k` y khi ( > 1.
Trong tru
.
`o
.
ng ho
.
.
p khi T = ( = 1 th`ı ca’ hai dˆa´u hiˆe
.
u n`ay dˆe
`
u
khˆong cho cˆau tra’ l`o
.
i kh˘a

ng di
.
nh v`ı tˆo
`
n ta
.
i chuˆo
˜
i hˆo
.
i tu
.
lˆa
˜
n chuˆo
˜
i
phˆan k` y v´o
.
i T ho˘a
.
c ( b˘a
`
ng 1.
Dˆa´u hiˆe
.
u t´ıch phˆan. Nˆe
´
u h`am f(x) x´ac di
.
nh ∀x 1 khˆong ˆam
v`a gia’ m th`ı chuˆo
˜
i
¸
n1
f(n) hˆo
.
i tu
.
khi v`a chı ’ khi t´ıch phˆan suy rˆo
.
ng
13.1. Chuˆo
˜
i sˆo´ du
.
o
.
ng 181

0
f(x)dx hˆo
.
i tu
.
.
T` u
.
dˆa´u hiˆe
.
u t´ıch phˆan suy ra chuˆo
˜
i
¸
n1
1
n
α
hˆo
.
i tu
.
khi α > 1 v`a
phˆan k` y khi 0 < α 1. Nˆe
´
u α 0 th`ı do a
n
=
1
n
α
→0 khi α 0 v`a
n →∞ nˆen chuˆo
˜
i d˜a cho c˜ ung phˆan k` y.
C
´
AC V
´
I DU
.
V´ı du
.
1. Kha’ o s´at su
.
.
hˆo
.
i tu
.
cu’ a c´ac chuˆo
˜
i
1)
¸
n1
1

n(n + 1)
; 2)
¸
n7
1
n
ln n

Gia’ i. 1) Su
.
’ du
.
ng bˆa´t d˘a

ng th´ u
.
c hiˆe

n nhiˆen
1

n(n + 1)
>
1
n + 1

V`ı chuˆo
˜
i
¸
n1
1
n + 1
l`a phˆa
`
n du
.
sau sˆo´ ha
.
ng th´ u
.
nhˆa´t cu’ a chuˆo
˜
i diˆe
`
u
h`oa nˆen n´o phˆan k` y.
Do d´o theo dˆa´u hiˆe
.
u so s´anh I chuˆo
˜
i d˜a cho phˆan k` y.
2) V`ı lnn > 2 ∀n > 7 nˆen
1
n
ln n
<
1
n
2
∀n > 7.
Do chuˆo
˜
i Dirichlet
¸
n7
1
n
2
hˆo
.
i tu
.
nˆen suy ra r˘a
`
ng chuˆo
˜
i d˜a cho hˆo
.
i
tu
.
.
V´ı du
.
2. Kha’ o s´at su
.
.
hˆo
.
i tu
.
cu’ a c´ac chuˆo
˜
i:
1)
¸
n1
(n −1)
n
n
n+1
, 2)
¸
n1
n
2
e


n
.
Gia’ i. 1) Ta viˆe
´
t sˆo´ ha
.
ng tˆo

ng qu´at cu’ a c´ac chuˆo
˜
i du
.
´o
.
i da
.
ng:
(n −1)
n
n
n+1
=
1
n

1 −
1
n

n
.
182 Chu
.
o
.
ng 13. L´ y thuyˆe
´
t chuˆo
˜
i
Ta biˆe
´
t r˘a
`
ng lim
n→∞

1 −
1
n

n
=
1
e
nˆen a
n

n→∞
1
ne
.
Nhu
.
ng chuˆo
˜
i
¸
n→∞
1
ne
phˆan k` y, do d´o chuˆo
˜
i d˜a cho phˆan k` y.
2) R˜ o r`ang l`a dˆa´u hiˆe
.
u D’Alembert v`a Cauchy khˆong gia’ i quyˆe
´
t
du
.
o
.
.
c vˆ a´n dˆe
`
vˆe
`
su
.
.
hˆo
.
i tu
.
. Ta nhˆa
.
n x´et r˘a
`
ng e


n
= 0(n

α
2
) khi n →∞
(α > 0). T` u
.
d´o
¸
n1
a
n
=
¸
n1
1
n
a
0
2
−2
hˆo
.
i tu
.
nˆe
´
u a
0
> 6. Do vˆa
.
y theo dˆa´u hiˆe
.
u so s´anh I chuˆo
˜
i
¸
n1
n
2
e


n
hˆo
.
i tu
.
.
V´ı du
.
3. Kha’ o s´at su
.
.
hˆo
.
i tu
.
cu’ a chuˆo
˜
i
1)
¸
n1
2
n
+n
2
3
n
+n
, 2)
¸
n1
(n!)
2
(2n)!

Gia’ i. 1) Ta c´ o:
a
n+1
a
n
=
2
n+1
+ (n + 1)
2
3
n+1
+ (n + 1)

3
n
+n
2
n
+n
2
=

2 +
(n + 1)
2
2
n

3 +
n + 1
3
n

1 +
n
3
n
1 +
n
2
2
n
,
n

a
n
=
2
3
n

1 +
n
2
2
n
1 +
n
3
n

T` u
.
d´o suy ra lim
n→∞
a
n+1
a
n
=
2
3
v`a lim
n→∞
n

a
n
=
2
3
. V`a ca’ hai dˆa´u hiˆe
.
u
Cauchy, D’Alembert dˆe
`
u cho kˆe
´
t luˆa
.
n chuˆo
˜
i hˆo
.
i tu
.
.
2)
´
Ap du
.
ng dˆa´u hiˆe
.
u D’Alembert ta c´ o:
T = lim
n→∞
a
n+1
a
n
= lim
n→∞
(n + 1)
2
(2n + 2)(2n + 1)
=
1
4
< 1.
Do d´o chuˆo
˜
i d˜a cho hˆo
.
i tu
.
.
13.1. Chuˆo
˜
i sˆo´ du
.
o
.
ng 183
Nhˆa
.
n x´et. Nˆe
´
u ´ap du
.
ng bˆa´t d˘a

ng th´ u
.
c

n
e

n
< n! < e

n
2

n
th`ı
(n!)
2
n

(2n)!
1
n
<
e
2
n

n
2

2

2n
e

2
=
e
2+
2
n
4
2
,
do d´o lim
n→∞
n

a
n
<

e
4

2
< 1 v`a khi d´o dˆa´u hiˆe
.
u Cauchy c˜ ung cho ta
kˆe
´
t luˆa
.
n.
V´ı du
.
4. Kha’ o s´at su
.
.
hˆo
.
i tu
.
cu’ a chuˆo
˜
i
1)
¸
n1
2n
n
2
+ 1
, 2)
¸
n2
1
nln
p
n
, p > 0.
Gia’ i. 1) Ta c´o a
n
=
2n
n
2
+ 1
= f(n). Trong biˆe

u th´ u
.
c cu’ a sˆo´ ha
.
ng
tˆo

ng qu´at cu’ a a
n
=
2n
n
2
+ 1
ta thay n bo
.
’ i biˆe
´
n liˆen tu
.
c x v`a ch´ u
.
ng to’
r˘a
`
ng h`am f(x) thu du
.
o
.
.
c liˆen tu
.
c do
.
n diˆe
.
u gia’ m trˆen nu
.
’ a tru
.
c du
.
o
.
ng.
Ta c´o:
+∞

1
2x
x
2
+ 1
dx = lim
A→+∞
A

1
2x
x
2
+ 1
dx = lim
A→+∞
ln(x
2
+ 1)

A
1
= ln(+∞) −ln2 = ∞.
Do d´o chuˆo
˜
i 1) phˆan k` y.
2) Nhu
.
trˆen, ta d˘a
.
t f(x) =
1
xln
p
x
, p > 0, x 2. H` am f(x) tho’a
m˜an mo
.
i diˆe
`
u kiˆe
.
n cu’ a dˆa´u hiˆe
.
u t´ıch phˆan. V`ı t´ıch phˆan
+∞

2
dx
xln
p
x
hˆo
.
i
tu
.
khi p > 1 v`a phˆan k` y khi p 1 nˆen chuˆo
˜
i d˜a cho hˆo
.
i tu
.
khi p > 1
v`a phˆan k` y khi 0 < p 1-
184 Chu
.
o
.
ng 13. L´ y thuyˆe
´
t chuˆo
˜
i
V´ı du
.
5. Ch´ u
.
ng minh r˘a
`
ng chuˆo
˜
i
¸
n1
n + 2
(n + 1)

n
tho’a m˜an diˆe
`
u kiˆe
.
n
cˆa
`
n hˆo
.
i tu
.
nhu
.
ng chuˆo
˜
i phˆan k` y.
Gia’ i. Ta c´o
a
n
=
n + 2
(n + 1)

n

(n→∞)
1

n
⇒ lim
n→∞
a
n
= 0.
Tiˆe
´
p theo ∀k = 1, 2, . . . , n ta c´o
a
k
=
k + 2
(k + 1)

k
>
1

k

1

n
v`a do d´o
s
n
=
n
¸
k=1
a
k
n
1

n
=

n →+∞ khi n →∞
v`a do d´o chuˆo
˜
i phˆan k` y.
B
`
AI T
ˆ
A
.
P
Trong c´ ac b`ai to´an sau dˆay, b˘a
`
ng c´ach kha’ o s´at gi´o
.
i ha
.
n cu’ a tˆo

ng
riˆeng, h˜ay x´ac lˆa
.
p t´ınh hˆo
.
i tu
.
(v`a t´ınh tˆo

ng S) hay phˆan k` y cu’ a chuˆo
˜
i
1.
¸
n1
1
3
n−1
. (DS. S =
3
2
)
2.
¸
n0
(−1)
n
2
n
. (DS.
2
3
)
3.
¸
n1
(−1)
n−1
. (DS. Phˆan k` y)
4.
¸
n0
ln
2n
2. (DS.
1
1 −ln
2
2
)
5.
¸
n1
1
n(n + 5)
. (DS.
137
300
)
13.1. Chuˆo
˜
i sˆo´ du
.
o
.
ng 185
6.
¸
n1
1
(α +n)(α +n + 1)
, α 0. (DS.
1
α + 1
)
7.
¸
n3
1
n
2
−4
. (DS.
25
48
)
8.
¸
n1
2n + 1
n
2
(n + 1)
2
. (DS. 1)
9.
¸
n1
(
3

n + 2 −1
3

n + 1 +
3

n). (DS. 1 −
3

2)
10.
¸
n1
1
n(n + 3)(n + 6)
. (DS.
73
1080
)
Su
.
’ du
.
ng diˆe
`
u kiˆe
.
n cˆa
`
n 2) dˆe

x´ac di
.
nh xem c´ac chuˆo
˜
i sau dˆay chuˆo
˜
i
n`ao phˆan k` y.
11.
¸
n1
(−1)
n−1
. (DS. Phˆan k` y)
12.
¸
n1
2n −1
3n + 2
. (DS. Phˆan k` y)
13.
¸
n1
n

0, 001. (DS. Phˆan k` y)
14.
¸
n1
1

2n
. (DS. Dˆa´u hiˆe
.
u cˆa
`
n khˆong cho cˆ au tra’ l`o
.
i)
15.
¸
n1
2n
3
n
. (DS. Dˆa´u hiˆe
.
u cˆa
`
n khˆong cho cˆ au tra’ l`o
.
i)
16.
¸
n1
1
n

0, 3
. (DS. Phˆan k` y)
17.
¸
n1
1
n

n!
. (DS. Phˆan k` y)
18.
¸
n1
n
2
sin
1
n
2
+n + 1
. (DS. Phˆan k` y)
186 Chu
.
o
.
ng 13. L´ y thuyˆe
´
t chuˆo
˜
i
19.
¸
n1

1 +
1
n

n
2
e
n
. (DS. Phˆan k` y)
20.
¸
n1

2n
2
+ 1
2n
2
+ 3

n
2
. (DS. Phˆan k` y)
21.
¸
n1
n
n+
1
n

n +
1
n

n
. (DS. Phˆan k` y)
22.
¸
n1
n + 2
(n + 1)

n
. (DS. Dˆa´u hiˆe
.
u cˆa
`
n khˆong cho cˆ au tra’ l`o
.
i)
23.
¸
n1
(n + 1)arctg
1
n + 2
. (DS. Phˆan k` y)
Trong c´ac b`ai to´an sau dˆay, h˜ay d` ung dˆa´u hiˆe
.
u so s´anh dˆe

kha’ o
s´at su
.
.
hˆo
.
i tu
.
cu’ a c´ac chuˆo
˜
i d˜a cho
24
¸
n1
1

n
. (DS. Phˆan k` y)
25.
¸
n1
1
n
n
. (DS. Hˆo
.
i tu
.
). Chı ’ dˆa
˜
n. n
n
> 2
n
∀n 3.
26.
¸
n1
1
lnn
. (DS. Phˆan k` y). Chı ’ dˆa
˜
n. So s´anh v´o
.
i chuˆo
˜
i diˆe
`
u h`oa.
27.
¸
n1
1
n3
n−1
. (DS. Hˆo
.
i tu
.
)
28.
¸
n1
1
3

n + 1
. (DS. Phˆan k` y)
29.
¸
n1
1
2
n
+ 1
. (DS. Hˆo
.
i tu
.
)
30.
¸
n1
n
(n + 2)2
n
. (DS. Hˆo
.
i tu
.
)
13.1. Chuˆo
˜
i sˆo´ du
.
o
.
ng 187
31.
¸
n1
1

(n + 2)(n
2
+ 1)
. (DS. Hˆo
.
i tu
.
)
32.
¸
n1
5n
2
−3n + 10
3n
5
+ 2n + 17
. (DS. Hˆo
.
i tu
.
)
33.
¸
n1
5 + 3(−1)
n
2
n+3
. (DS. Hˆo
.
i tu
.
). Chı ’ dˆa
˜
n. 2 5 + 3(−1)
n
8.
34.
¸
n1
lnn
n
. (DS. Phˆan k` y). Chı ’ dˆa
˜
n. lnn > 1 ∀n > 2.
35.
¸
n1
lnn
n
2
. (DS. Hˆo
.
i tu
.
)
Chı ’ dˆa
˜
n. Su
.
’ du
.
ng hˆe
.
th´ u
.
c lnn < n
α
∀α > 0 v`a n du’ l´o
.
n.
36.
¸
n1
lnn
3

n
. (DS. Phˆan k` y)
37.
¸
n1
n
5
5

n
. (DS. Hˆo
.
i tu
.
)
38.
¸
n1
1

n
sin
1
n
. (DS. Hˆo
.
i tu
.
)
39.
¸
n1
n
4
+ 4n
2
+ 1
2
n
. (DS. Hˆo
.
i tu
.
)
40.
¸
n1
n
2
(
n

a −
n+1

a), a > 0. (DS. Phˆan k` y ∀a = 1)
41.
¸
n1
(
n

2 −
n+1

2). (DS. Hˆo
.
i tu
.
)
42.
¸
n1
1
1 +a
n
, a > 0. (DS. Hˆo
.
i tu
.
khi a > 1. Phˆan k` y khi 0 < a 1)
43.
¸
n1
sin
πn
n
2

n +n + 1
. (DS. Hˆo
.
i tu
.
)
Trong c´ ac b`ai to´an sau dˆay, h˜ay x´ac di
.
nh nh˜ u
.
ng gi´a tri
.
cu’ a tham
sˆo´ p dˆe

chuˆo
˜
i d˜a cho hˆo
.
i tu
.
ho˘a
.
c phˆan k` y:
188 Chu
.
o
.
ng 13. L´ y thuyˆe
´
t chuˆo
˜
i
44.
¸
n1

sin
π
n

p
, p > 0. (DS. Hˆo
.
i tu
.
nˆe
´
u p > 1, phˆan k` y nˆe
´
u p 1)
45.
¸
n1
tg
p
π
n + 2
, p > 0. (DS. Hˆo
.
i tu
.
khi p > 1, phˆan k` y khi p 1)
46.
¸
n1
sin
1
n
p
tg
1
n
q
, p > 0, q > 0.
(DS. Hˆo
.
i tu
.
khi p +q > 1, phˆan k` y khi p +q 1)
47.
¸
n1

1 −cos
1
n
p

, p > 0.
(DS. Hˆo
.
i tu
.
khi p >
1
2
, phˆan k` y khi p
1
2
)
48.
¸
n1
(

n + 1 −

n)
p
ln
2n + 1
2n + 3
.
(DS. Hˆo
.
i tu
.
khi p > 0, phˆan k` y khi p 0)
Trong c´ ac b`ai to´an sau dˆay, h˜ay kha’ o s´at su
.
.
hˆo
.
i tu
.
cu’ a chuˆo
˜
i d˜a
cho nh`o
.
dˆa´u hiˆe
.
u du’ D’Alembert
49.
¸
n1
n
2
n
. (DS. Hˆo
.
i tu
.
)
50.
¸
n1
2
n−1
n
n
. (DS. Hˆo
.
i tu
.
)
51.
¸
n1
2
n−1
(n −1)!
. (DS. Hˆo
.
i tu
.
)
52.
¸
n1
n!
2
n
+ 1
. (DS. Phˆan k` y)
53.
¸
n1
4
n
n!
n
n
. (DS. Phˆan k` y)
54.
¸
n1
3
n
n2
n
. (DS. Phˆan k` y)
13.1. Chuˆo
˜
i sˆo´ du
.
o
.
ng 189
55.
¸
n1
1 3 (2n −1)
3
n
n!
. (DS. Hˆo
.
i tu
.
)
56.
¸
n1
n
2
sin
π
2
n
. (DS. Hˆo
.
i tu
.
)
57.
¸
n1
n(n + 1)
3
n
. (DS. Hˆo
.
i tu
.
)
58.
¸
n1
7
3n
(2n −5)!
. (DS. Hˆo
.
i tu
.
)
59.
¸
n1
(n + 1)!
2
n
n!
. (DS. Hˆo
.
i tu
.
)
60.
¸
n1
(2n −1)!!
n!
. (DS. Phˆan k` y)
61.
¸
n1
n!(2n + 1)!
(3n)!
. (DS. Hˆo
.
i tu
.
)
62.
¸
n1
n
n
sin
π
2
n
n!
. (DS. Phˆan k` y)
63.
¸
n1
n
n
n!3
n
. (DS. Hˆo
.
i tu
.
)
64.
¸
n1
n!a
n
n
n
, a = e, a > 0. (DS. Hˆo
.
i tu
.
khi a < e, phˆan k` y khi a > e)
Trong c´ ac b`ai to´an sau dˆay, h˜ay kha’ o s´at su
.
.
hˆo
.
i tu
.
cu’ a chuˆo
˜
i d˜a
cho nh`o
.
dˆa´u hiˆe
.
u du’ Cauchy
65.
¸
n1

n
2n + 1

n
. (DS. Hˆo
.
i tu
.
)
66.
¸
n1

arc sin
1
n

n
. (DS. hˆo
.
i tu
.
)
67.
¸
n1
1
3
n

n + 1
n

n
2
. (DS. Hˆo
.
i tu
.
)
190 Chu
.
o
.
ng 13. L´ y thuyˆe
´
t chuˆo
˜
i
68.
¸
n1
n
5

3n + 2
4n + 3

n
. (DS. Hˆo
.
i tu
.
)
69.
¸
n1

3n
n + 5

n

n + 2
n + 3

n
2
. (DS. Phˆan k` y)
70.
¸
n1
n!
n

n
. (DS. Phˆan k` y)
Chı ’ dˆan. Su
.
’ du
.
ng cˆong th´ u
.
c Stirling n! ∼

n
e

n√
2πn, n →∞
71.
¸
n1

n −1
n + 1

n(n−1)
. (DS. Hˆo
.
i tu
.
)
72.
¸
n1

n
2
+ 3
n
2
+ 4

n
3
+1
. (DS. Hˆo
.
i tu
.
)
73.
¸
n1
3
n

n
n + 1

n
2
. (DS. Phˆan k` y)
74.
¸
n10
arctg
n

3n + 2

n + 1
. (DS. Phˆan k` y)
75.
¸
n1

an
n + 2

n
, a > 0.
(DS. Hˆo
.
i tu
.
khi 0 < a < 1, phˆan k` y khi a 1)
76.
¸
n1
n
α

ln(n + 1)

n/2
, α > 0. (DS. Hˆo
.
i tu
.
∀α)
77.
¸
n1
5 + (−1)
n
4
n+1
. (DS. Hˆo
.
i tu
.
)
78.
¸
n1
2
(−1)
n
+n
. (DS. Phˆan k` y)
79.
¸
n1
2
(−1)
n
−n
. (DS. Hˆo
.
i tu
.
)
80.
¸
n1
[5 −(−1)
n
]
n
n
2
4
n
. (DS. Phˆan k` y)
13.2. Chuˆo
˜
i hˆo
.
i tu
.
tuyˆe
.
t dˆo´i v`a hˆo
.
i tu
.
khˆong tuyˆe
.
t dˆo´i 191
81.
¸
n1
[5 + (−1)
n
]
n
n
2
7
n
. (DS. Hˆo
.
i tu
.
)
82.
¸
n1
[3 + (−1)
n
]
3
n
. (DS. Hˆo
.
i tu
.
)
83.
¸
n1
n
4
[

5 + (−1)
n
]
n
4
n
. (DS. Hˆo
.
i tu
.
)
84.
¸
n1
2 + (−1)
n
5 + (−1)
n+1
(DS. Hˆo
.
i tu
.
)
13.2 Chuˆo
˜
i hˆo
.
i tu
.
tuyˆe
.
t dˆo
´
i v`a hˆo
.
i tu
.
khˆong tuyˆe
.
t dˆo
´
i
13.2.1 C´ac di
.
nh ngh˜ıa co
.
ba’ n
Chuˆo
˜
i v´o
.
i c´ac sˆo´ ha
.
ng c´o dˆa´u kh´ac nhau
a
1
+a
2
+ +a
n
+ =
¸
n1
a
n
(13.2)
du
.
o
.
.
c go
.
i l`a chuˆ o
˜
i hˆ o
.
i tu
.
tuyˆe
.
t dˆo´i nˆe
´
u chuˆo
˜
i sˆo´ du
.
o
.
ng
[a
1
[ +[a
2
[ + +[a
n
[ + =
¸
n1
[a
n
[ (13.3)
hˆo
.
i tu
.
. Chuˆo
˜
i (13.2) du
.
o
.
.
c go
.
i l`a chuˆo
˜
i hˆo
.
i tu
.
c´o diˆe
`
u kiˆe
.
n (khˆ ong tuyˆe
.
t
dˆo´i) nˆe
´
u n´o hˆo
.
i tu
.
c`on chuˆo
˜
i (13.3) phˆan k` y.
D
-
i
.
nh l´ y 13.2.1. Mo
.
i chuˆo
˜
i hˆo
.
i tu
.
tuyˆe
.
t dˆo´i dˆe
`
u hˆo
.
i tu
.
, t´ u
.
c l`a su
.
.
hˆo
.
i
tu
.
cu’ a chuˆo
˜
i (13.3) k´eo theo su
.
.
hˆo
.
i tu
.
cu’ a chuˆo
˜
i (13.2).
Chuˆ o
˜
i hˆo
.
i tu
.
c´o diˆe
`
u kiˆe
.
n c´o t´ınh chˆa´t rˆa´t d˘a
.
c biˆe
.
t l`a: nˆe
´
u chuˆo
˜
i
(13.2) hˆo
.
i tu
.
c´o diˆe
`
u kiˆe
.
n th`ı v´o
.
i sˆo´ A ⊂ R bˆa´t k` y luˆon luˆon c´o thˆe

ho´an vi
.
c´ac sˆo´ ha
.
ng cu’ a chuˆo
˜
i d´o dˆe

chuˆo
˜
i thu du
.
o
.
.
c c´ o tˆo

ng b˘a
`
ng A.
192 Chu
.
o
.
ng 13. L´ y thuyˆe
´
t chuˆo
˜
i
13.2.2 Chuˆo
˜
i dan dˆa
´
u v`a dˆa
´
u hiˆe
.
u Leibnitz
Chuˆo
˜
i da
.
ng
¸
n1
(−1)
n−1
a
n
= a
1
−a
2
+a
3
−a
4
+ + (−1)
n−1
a
n
+. . . ,
a
n
0 ∀n ∈ N (13.4)
du
.
o
.
.
c go
.
i l`a chuˆ o
˜
i dan dˆa´u.
Dˆa´u hiˆe
.
u Leibnitz. Nˆe
´
u lim
n→∞
a
n
= 0 v`a a
n
a
n+1
> 0 ∀n ∈ N th`ı
chuˆo
˜
i dan dˆa´u (13.4) hˆo
.
i tu
.
v`a
[S −S
n
[ a
n+1
(13.5)
trong d´o S l`a tˆo

ng cu’ a chuˆo
˜
i (13.4), S
n
l`a tˆo

ng riˆeng th´ u
.
n cu’ a n´o.
Nhu
.
vˆa
.
y dˆe

kha’ o s´at su
.
.
hˆo
.
i tu
.
cu’ a chuˆo
˜
i dan dˆa´u ta cˆ a
`
n kiˆe

m tra
hai diˆe
`
u kiˆe
.
n
i) a
n
a
n+1
> 0 ∀n ∈ N,
ii) lim
n→∞
a
n
= 0.
Hˆe
.
th´ u
.
c (13.5) ch´ u
.
ng to’ r˘a
`
ng sai sˆo´ g˘a
.
p pha’ i khi thay tˆo

ng S cu’ a
chuˆo
˜
i dan dˆa´u hˆo
.
i tu
.
bo
.
’ i tˆo

ng cu’ a mˆo
.
t sˆo´ sˆo´ ha
.
ng dˆa
`
u tiˆen cu’ a n´o l`a
khˆong vu
.
o
.
.
t qu´a gi´a tri
.
tuyˆe
.
t dˆo´i cu’ a sˆo´ ha
.
ng th´ u
.
nhˆa´t cu’ a chuˆo
˜
i du
.
bi
.
c˘a
´
t bo’.
Dˆe

x´ac lˆa
.
p su
.
.
hˆo
.
i tu
.
cu’ a chuˆo
˜
i v´o
.
i c´ac sˆo´ ha
.
ng c´o dˆa´u kh´ac nhau ta
c´o thˆe

su
.
’ du
.
ng c´ac dˆa´u hiˆe
.
u hˆo
.
i tu
.
cu’ a chuˆo
˜
i du
.
o
.
ng v`a di
.
nh l´ y 13.1.1.
Nˆe
´
u chuˆo
˜
i
¸
n1
[a
n
[ phˆan k` y th`ı su
.
.
hˆo
.
i tu
.
cu’ a chuˆo
˜
i
¸
n1
a
n
tro
.
’ th`anh
vˆa´n dˆe
`
dˆe

mo
.
’ ngoa
.
i tr` u
.
tru
.
`o
.
ng ho
.
.
p su
.
’ du
.
ng dˆa´u hiˆe
.
u D’Alembert v`a
dˆa´u hiˆe
.
u Cauchy v`ı c´ac dˆa´u hiˆe
.
u n`ay x´ac lˆa
.
p su
.
.
phˆan k` y cu’ a chuˆo
˜
i
chı ’ du
.
.
a trˆen su
.
.
ph´a v˜o
.
diˆe
`
u kiˆe
.
n cˆa
`
n.
Nhˆa
.
n x´et. Chuˆo
˜
i dan dˆa´u tho’a m˜an dˆa´u hiˆe
.
u Leibnitz go
.
i l`a chuˆo
˜
i
Leibnitz.
C
´
AC V
´
I DU
.
13.2. Chuˆo
˜
i hˆo
.
i tu
.
tuyˆe
.
t dˆo´i v`a hˆo
.
i tu
.
khˆong tuyˆe
.
t dˆo´i 193
V´ı du
.
1. Kha’ o s´at su
.
.
hˆo
.
i tu
.
v`a d˘a
.
c t´ınh hˆo
.
i tu
.
cu’ a chuˆo
˜
i
¸
n1
(−1)
n−1

n
.
Gia’ i. D˜ay sˆo´

1

n

do
.
n diˆe
.
u gia’ m dˆa
`
n dˆe
´
n 0 khi n →∞. Do d´o
theo dˆa´u hiˆe
.
u Leibnitz n´o hˆo
.
i tu
.
. Dˆe

kha’ o s´at d˘a
.
c t´ınh hˆo
.
i tu
.
(tuyˆe
.
t
dˆo´i hay khˆong tuyˆe
.
t dˆo´i) ta x´et chuˆo
˜
i du
.
o
.
ng
¸
n1
1

n
. Chuˆo
˜
i n`ay phˆan
k` y. Do vˆa
.
y chuˆo
˜
i d˜a cho hˆo
.
i tu
.
c´o diˆe
`
u kiˆe
.
n.
V´ı du
.
2. Kha’ o s´at su
.
.
hˆo
.
i tu
.
v`a d˘a
.
c t´ınh hˆo
.
i tu
.
cu’ a chuˆo
˜
i
¸
n1
(−1)
n−1
ln
2
n
n

Gia’ i. Dˆe

kha’ o s´at d´ang diˆe
.
u cu’ a d˜ay

ln
2
n
n

ta x´et h`am ϕ(x) =
ln
2
x
x
. R˜ o r`ang l`a lim
x→∞
ϕ(x) = 0 v` a ϕ

(x) =
lnx
x
2
(2 −lnx). T` u
.
d´o suy
ra khi x > e
2
th`ı ϕ

(x) < 0. Do d´o d˜ay (a
n
) =
ln
2
n
n
tho’a m˜an dˆa´u
hiˆe
.
u Leibnitz v´o
.
i n > e
2
. V`ı vˆa
.
y chuˆo
˜
i d˜a cho hˆo
.
i tu
.
. Dˆe
˜
d`ang thˆa´y
r˘a
`
ng chuˆo
˜
i sˆo´ du
.
o
.
ng
¸
n1
ln
2
n
n
phˆan k` y nˆen chuˆo
˜
i dan dˆa´u d˜a cho hˆo
.
i
tu
.
c´o diˆe
`
u kiˆe
.
n.
V´ı du
.
3. C˜ ung ho’i nhu
.
trˆen v´o
.
i chuˆo
˜
i
¸
n1
cos nα
2
n

Gia’ i. Dˆay l`a chuˆo
˜
i dˆo

i dˆa´u. X´et chuˆo
˜
i du
.
o
.
ng
¸
n1
[ cos nα[
2
n
(*)
V`ı
[ cos αn[
2
n

1
2
n
∀n ∈ N nˆen theo dˆa´u hiˆe
.
u so s´anh chuˆo
˜
i (*) hˆo
.
i tu
.
v`a do vˆ a
.
y chuˆo
˜
i d˜a cho hˆo
.
i tu
.
tuyˆe
.
t dˆo´i.
194 Chu
.
o
.
ng 13. L´ y thuyˆe
´
t chuˆo
˜
i
V´ı du
.
4. C˜ ung ho’i nhu
.
trˆen dˆo´i v´o
.
i chuˆo
˜
i
¸
n1
(−1)
n
n(n + 1)

Gia’ i. Dˆe
˜
d`ang thˆa´y r˘a
`
ng d˜ay
1
n(n + 1)
do
.
n diˆe
.
u gia’ m dˆa
`
n dˆe
´
n 0
khi n →∞. Do d´o theo dˆa´u hiˆe
.
u Leibnitz n´o hˆo
.
i tu
.
. Ta x´et su
.
.
hˆo
.
i tu
.
cu’ a chuˆo
˜
i du
.
o
.
ng
¸
n1
1
n(n + 1)
. Chuˆo
˜
i n`ay hˆo
.
i tu
.
, ch˘a

ng ha
.
n theo dˆa´u
hiˆe
.
u t´ıch phˆan

1
dx
x(x + 1)
= lim
A→∞
A

1
d

x +
1
2

x +
1
2

2

1
4
= lim
A→∞
ln
x
x + 1

A
1
= ln2.
Do d´o chuˆo
˜
i d˜a cho hˆo
.
i tu
.
tuyˆe
.
t dˆo´i.
V´ı du
.
5. Cˆa
`
n lˆa´y bao nhiˆeu sˆo´ ha
.
ng cu’ a chuˆo
˜
i
¸
n1
(−1)
n−1
1
n
2
dˆe

tˆo

ng
cu’ a ch´ ung sai kh´ac v´o
.
i tˆo

ng cu’ a chuˆo
˜
i d˜a cho khˆong qu´a 0,01 ? 0,001 ?
Gia’ i. 1
+
Chuˆo
˜
i d˜a cho l`a chuˆo
˜
i Leibnitz. Do d´o phˆa
`
n du
.
cu’ a n´o
tho’a m˜an diˆe
`
u kiˆe
.
n
[R
n
[ < a
n+1
⇒[R
n
[ <
1
(n + 1)
2

Dˆe

t´ınh tˆo

ng cu’ a chuˆo
˜
i d˜a cho v´o
.
i su
.
.
sai kh´ac khˆong qu´a 0,01 ta cˆa
`
n
d`oi ho’i l`a
[R
n
[ < 0, 01 ⇒
1
(n + 1)
2
< 0, 01 ⇔n > 10.
Nhu
.
vˆa
.
y dˆe

t´ınh tˆo

ng cu’ a chuˆo
˜
i v´o
.
i sai sˆo´ khˆong vu
.
o
.
.
t qu´a 0,01 ta chı ’
cˆa
`
n t´ınh tˆo

ng mu
.
`o
.
i sˆo´ ha
.
ng dˆa
`
u l`a du’ .
2
+
Dˆe

t´ınh tˆo

ng cu’ a chuˆo
˜
i v´o
.
i sai sˆo´ khˆong vu
.
o
.
.
t qu´a 0,001 ta cˆ a
`
n
t´ınh tˆo

ng 31 sˆo´ ha
.
ng dˆa
`
u l`a du’ (ta
.
i sao ?)
13.2. Chuˆo
˜
i hˆo
.
i tu
.
tuyˆe
.
t dˆo´i v`a hˆo
.
i tu
.
khˆong tuyˆe
.
t dˆo´i 195
Nhˆa
.
n x´et. Ta thˆa´y r˘a
`
ng chuˆo
˜
i Leibnitz l`a cˆong cu
.
t´ınh to´an tiˆe
.
n
ho
.
n so v´o
.
i chuˆ o
˜
i du
.
o
.
ng. Ch˘a

ng ha
.
n dˆe

t´ınh tˆo

ng cu’ a chuˆo
˜
i
¸
n1
1
n
2
v´o
.
i sai sˆo´ khˆong vu
.
o
.
.
t qu´a 0,001 ta cˆa
`
n pha’ i lˆa´y 1001 sˆo´ ha
.
ng m´o
.
i du’ .
Thˆa
.
t vˆa
.
y ta c´ o thˆe

´ap du
.
ng dˆa´u hiˆe
.
u t´ıch phˆan. Ta c´o

n+1
f(x)dx < R
n
<

n
f(x)dx.
T` u
.
d´o
R
n
<

n
dx
x
2
= −
1
x


n
=
1
n

T`ım n dˆe

1
n
< 0, 001. Gia’ i bˆa´t phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh dˆo´i v´o
.
i n ta c´o n > 1000,
t´ u
.
c l`a R
1001
< 0, 001. Vˆ a
.
y ta cˆa
`
n lˆa´y 1001 sˆo´ ha
.
ng dˆa
`
u dˆe

t´ınh tˆo

ng
m´o
.
i c´o du
.
o
.
.
c sai sˆo´ khˆong qu´a 0,001.
V´ı du
.
6. Ch´ u
.
ng to’ r˘a
`
ng chuˆo
˜
i
2 +

5
4

7
8

+

10
9

26
27

+ +

n
2
+ 1
n
2

n
3
−1
n
3

+. . . (*)
hˆo
.
i tu
.
, c`on chuˆo
˜
i
2 +
5
4

7
8
+
10
9

26
27
+ +
n
2
+ 1
n
2

n
3
−1
n
3
+. . . (**)
thu du
.
o
.
.
c t` u
.
chuˆo
˜
i d˜a cho sau khi bo’ c´ac dˆa´u ngo˘a
.
c do
.
n l`a chuˆo
˜
i phˆan
k` y.
Gia’ i. Sˆo´ ha
.
ng tˆo

ng qu´at cu’ a chuˆo
˜
i (*) c´o da
.
ng
a
n
=
n
2
+ 1
n
2

n
3
−1
n
3
=
n + 1
n
3

Do d´o ∀n > 1 ta c´ o
n + 1
n
3
=
1
n
2
+
1
n
3
196 Chu
.
o
.
ng 13. L´ y thuyˆe
´
t chuˆo
˜
i
v`a do chuˆo
˜
i
¸
n1
1
n
α
hˆo
.
i tu
.
∀α > 1 nˆen chuˆo
˜
i d˜a cho hˆo
.
i tu
.
.
Bˆay gi`o
.
x´et chuˆo
˜
i (**). R˜o r`ang sˆo´ ha
.
ng tˆo

ng qu´at cu’ a (**) khˆong
dˆa
`
n dˆe
´
n 0 khi n →∞, do d´o chuˆo
˜
i (**) phˆan k` y.
B
`
AI T
ˆ
A
.
P
Su
.
’ du
.
ng dˆa´u hiˆe
.
u Leibnitz dˆe

ch´ u
.
ng minh c´ ac chuˆo
˜
i sau dˆay hˆo
.
i
tu
.
c´o diˆe
`
u kiˆe
.
n
1.
¸
n4
(−1)
n+1

n
2
−4n + 1
2.
¸
n1
(−1)
n+1
n
9

n
20
+ 4n
3
+ 1
3.
¸
n1
(−1)
n
n
(n + 1)
3

n + 2
4.
¸
n1
(−1)
n

n
n + 20
5.
¸
n1
(−1)
n
1
4

n
6.
¸
n1
(−1)
n
lnn
n
7.
¸
n1
(−1)
n+1
2n + 1
n(n + 1)
8.
¸
n1
(−1)
n
cos
π
n
n
9.
¸
n1
(−1)
n
(
n

2 −1)
10.
¸
n1
(−1)
n
n −1
n + 1
1
100

n
Kha’ o s´at su
.
.
hˆo
.
i tu
.
v`a d˘a
.
c t´ınh hˆo
.
i tu
.
cu’ a c´ac chuˆo
˜
i
11.
¸
n1
(−1)
n

2n + 1
3n −2

n
. (DS. Hˆo
.
i tu
.
tuyˆe
.
t dˆo´i)
12.
¸
n1
(−1)
n

3n + 1
3n −2

5n+2
. (DS. Phˆan k` y)
13.
¸
n1
(−1)
n
2 + (−1)
n
n
. (DS. Phˆan k` y)
14.
¸
n1
(−1)
n−1
n
sin

n
n + 1
. (DS. Hˆo
.
i tu
.
tuyˆe
.
t dˆo´i)
13.2. Chuˆo
˜
i hˆo
.
i tu
.
tuyˆe
.
t dˆo´i v`a hˆo
.
i tu
.
khˆong tuyˆe
.
t dˆo´i 197
15.
¸
n1
(−1)
n+1
arctg
ln(n + 1)
(n + 1)
2
. (DS. Hˆo
.
i tu
.
tuyˆe
.
t dˆo´i)
Chı ’ dˆa
˜
n. Su
.
’ du
.
ng bˆa´t d˘a

ng th´ u
.
c ln(n + 1) <

n + 1, n > 2.
16.
¸
n1
(−1)
n+1
1
n −ln
3
n
. (DS. Hˆo
.
i tu
.
c´o diˆe
`
u kiˆe
.
n)
Trong c´ ac b`ai to´an sau dˆay h˜ay x´ac di
.
nh gi´a tri
.
cu’ a tham sˆo´ p dˆe

chuˆo
˜
i sˆo´ hˆo
.
i tu
.
tuyˆe
.
t dˆo´i ho˘a
.
c hˆ o
.
i tu
.
c´o diˆe
`
u kiˆe
.
n
17.
¸
n1
(−1)
n−1
(2n −1)
p
, p > 0.
(DS. Hˆo
.
i tu
.
tuyˆe
.
t dˆo´i khi p > 1; hˆo
.
i tu
.
c´o diˆe
`
u kiˆe
.
n khi 0 < p 1)
18.
¸
n1
(−1)
n−1
tg
p
1
n

n
, p > 0.
(DS. Hˆo
.
i tu
.
tuyˆe
.
t dˆo´i khi p >
2
3
; hˆo
.
i tu
.
c´o diˆe
`
u kiˆe
.
n khi 0 < p
2
3
)
19.
¸
n1
(−1)
n−1
sin
p
5n + 1
n
2

n + 3
, p > 0.
(DS. Hˆo
.
i tu
.
tuyˆe
.
t dˆo´i khi p >
2
3
; hˆo
.
i tu
.
c´o diˆe
`
u kiˆe
.
n khi 0 < p
2
3
)
20.
¸
n1
(−1)
n−1

n

ln
n + 3
n + 1

p
, p > 0.
(DS. Hˆo
.
i tu
.
tuyˆe
.
t dˆo´i khi p >
1
2
; hˆo
.
i tu
.
c´o diˆe
`
u kiˆe
.
n khi 0 < p
1
2
)
Kha’ o s´at d˘a
.
c t´ınh hˆo
.
i tu
.
cu’ a c´ac chuˆo
˜
i (21-32):
21.
¸
n1
(−1)
n+1
n
3

n
. (DS. Hˆo
.
i tu
.
tuyˆe
.
t dˆo´i)
22.
¸
n1
(−1)
n+1
1
(2n −1)
3
. (DS. Hˆo
.
i tu
.
tuyˆe
.
t dˆo´i)
198 Chu
.
o
.
ng 13. L´ y thuyˆe
´
t chuˆo
˜
i
23.
¸
n1
(−1)
n−1
(2n + 1)!!
2 5 8 (3n −1)
. (DS. Hˆo
.
i tu
.
tuyˆe
.
t dˆo´i)
24.
¸
n1
(−1)
n+1

1 −cos
π

n

. (DS. Hˆo
.
i tu
.
c´o diˆe
`
u kiˆe
.
n)
25.
¸
n1
(−1)
n
sin
π
n
n
. (DS. Hˆo
.
i tu
.
tuyˆe
.
t dˆo´i)
26.
¸
n1
(−1)
n

n + 2
. (DS. Hˆo
.
i tu
.
c´o diˆe
`
u kiˆe
.
n)
27.
¸
n1
(−1)
n
n

n
. (DS. Phˆan k` y)
28.
¸
n1
(−1)
n+1
n −lnn
. (DS. Hˆo
.
i tu
.
c´o diˆe
`
u kiˆe
.
n)
29.
¸
n1
(−1)
n−1
(n + 1)a
2n
.
(DS. Hˆo
.
i tu
.
tuyˆe
.
t dˆ o´i khi [a[ > 1, hˆo
.
i tu
.
c´o diˆe
`
u kiˆe
.
n khi [a[ = 1,
phˆan k` y khi [a[ < 1)
30.
¸
n1
(−1)
n
(n + 1)(

n + 1 −1)
. (DS. Hˆo
.
i tu
.
tuyˆe
.
t dˆo´i)
31.
¸
n1
(−1)
n+1

2 +
1
n

n
5
n
. (DS. Hˆo
.
i tu
.
tuyˆe
.
t dˆo´i)
32.
¸
n1
(−1)
n
tg
π
3
n
. (DS. Hˆo
.
i tu
.
tuyˆe
.
t dˆo´i)
Trong c´ ac b`ai to´an sau dˆay, h˜ay t`ım sˆo´ sˆo´ ha
.
ng cu’ a chuˆo
˜
i d˜a cho
cˆa
`
n lˆa´y dˆe

tˆo

ng cu’ a ch´ ung v`a tˆo

ng cu’ a chuˆo
˜
i tu
.
o
.
ng ´ u
.
ng sai kh´ac nhau
mˆo
.
t da
.
i lu
.
o
.
.
ng khˆong vu
.
o
.
.
t qu´a sˆo´ δ cho tru
.
´o
.
c
33.
¸
n1
(−1)
n−1
1
2n
2
, δ = 0, 01. (DS. No = 7)
13.3. Chuˆo
˜
i l˜ uy th` u
.
a 199
34.
¸
n1
cos(nπ)
n!
, δ = 0, 001. (DS. No = 5)
35.
¸
n1
(−1)
n−1

n
2
+ 1
, δ = 10
−6
. (DS. No = 10
6
)
36.
¸
n1
cos nπ
2
n
(n + 1)
, δ = 10
−6
. (DS. No = 15)
37.
¸
n1
(−1)
n
2n
(4n + 1)5
n
, δ = 0, 1?; δ = 0, 01? (DS. No = 2, No = 3)
38.
¸
n1
(−1)
n
n!
, δ = 0, 1; δ = 0, 001? (DS. No = 4, No = 6)
13.3 Chuˆo
˜
i l˜ uy th` u
.
a
13.3.1 C´ac di
.
nh ngh˜ıa co
.
ba’ n
Chuˆo
˜
i l˜ uy th` u
.
a dˆo´i v´o
.
i biˆe
´
n thu
.
.
c x l`a chuˆo
˜
i da
.
ng
¸
n0
a
n
x
n
= a
0
+a
1
x +a
2
x
2
+ +a
n
x
n
+. . . (13.6)
hay
¸
n0
a
n
(x −a)
n
= a
0
+a
1
(x −a) + +a
n
(x −a)
n
+. . . (13.7)
trong d´o c´ac hˆe
.
sˆo´ a
0
, a
1
, . . . , a
n
, . . . l`a nh˜ u
.
ng h˘a
`
ng sˆo´. B˘ a
`
ng ph´ep dˆo

i
biˆe
´
n x bo
.
’ i x − a t` u
.
(13.6) thu du
.
o
.
.
c (13.7). Do d´o dˆe

tiˆe
.
n tr`ınh b`ay
ta chı ’ cˆa
`
n x´et (13.6) l`a du’ (t´ u
.
c l` a xem a = 0).
Chuˆ o
˜
i (13.6) luˆon hˆo
.
i tu
.
ta
.
i diˆe

m x = 0, c` on (13.7) hˆo
.
i tu
.
ta
.
i x = a.
Do d´o tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p diˆe

m m`a chuˆo
˜
i l˜ uy th` u
.
a hˆo
.
i tu
.
luˆon luˆon = ∅.
Dˆo´i v´o
.
i chuˆo
˜
i l˜ uy th` u
.
a bˆa´t k` y (13.6) luˆon luˆon tˆo
`
n ta
.
i sˆo´ thu
.
.
c
R : 0 R +∞ sao cho chuˆo
˜
i d´o hˆo
.
i tu
.
tuyˆe
.
t dˆo´i khi [x[ < R v`a
phˆan k` y khi [x[ > R. Sˆo´ R d´o du
.
o
.
.
c go
.
i l`a b´an k´ınh hˆo
.
i tu
.
cu’ a chuˆo
˜
i
200 Chu
.
o
.
ng 13. L´ y thuyˆe
´
t chuˆo
˜
i
(13.6) v`a khoa’ ng I(R) = (−R, R) du
.
o
.
.
c go
.
i l`a khoa’ ng hˆo
.
i tu
.
cu’ a chuˆo
˜
i
l˜ uy th` u
.
a (13.6).
B´an k´ınh hˆo
.
i tu
.
R cu’ a chuˆo
˜
i l˜ uy th` u
.
a c´o thˆe

t´ınh thˆong qua c´ac
hˆe
.
sˆo´ cu’ a n´o bo
.
’ i mˆo
.
t trong c´ac cˆ ong th´ u
.
c
R = lim
n→∞
[a
n
[
[a
n+1
[
, (13.8)
ho˘a
.
c
R = lim
n→∞
1
n

[a
n
[
(13.9)
nˆe
´
u gi´o
.
i ha
.
n o
.
’ vˆe
´
pha’ i cu’ a (13.8) v`a (13.9) tˆo
`
n ta
.
i.
D
-
i
.
nh ngh˜ıa 13.3.1. Ngu
.
`o
.
i ta n´oi r˘a
`
ng h`am f(x) khai triˆe

n du
.
o
.
.
c
th`anh chuˆo
˜
i l˜ uy th` u
.
a
¸
n0
a
n
x
n
trˆen khoa’ ng (−R, R) nˆe
´
u trˆen khoa’ ng
d´o chuˆo
˜
i d˜a nˆeu hˆo
.
i tu
.
v`a tˆo

ng cu’ a n´o b˘a
`
ng f(x), t´ u
.
c l`a
f(x) =
¸
n0
a
n
x
n
, x ∈ (−R, R).
Di
.
nh ngh˜ıa 13.3.2. 1
+
Chuˆo
˜
i l˜ uy th` u
.
a da
.
ng
f(x
0
) +
f

(x
0
)
1!
(x −x
0
) + +
f
(n)
(x
0
)
n!
(x −x
0
)
n
+. . .
=
¸
n0
f
(n)
(x
0
)
n!
(x −x
0
)
n
(13.10)
du
.
o
.
.
c go
.
i l`a chuˆo
˜
i Taylor cu’ a h`am f(x) v´o
.
i tˆam ta
.
i diˆe

m x
0
(o
.
’ dˆay
0! = 1, f
(0)
(x
0
) = f(x
0
)).
2
+
C´ac hˆe
.
sˆo´ cu’ a chuˆo
˜
i Taylor
a
0
= f(x
0
), a
1
=
f

(x
0
)
1!
, . . . , a
n
=
f
(n)
(x
0
)
n!
(13.11)
du
.
o
.
.
c go
.
i l`a c´ac hˆe
.
sˆo´ Taylor cu’ a h`am f(x).
13.3. Chuˆo
˜
i l˜ uy th` u
.
a 201
3
+
Khi x
0
= 0, chuˆo
˜
i Taylor
f(0) +
f

(0)
1!
x + +
f
(n)
(0)
n!
x
n
+ =
¸
n0
f
(n)
(0)
n!
x
n
(13.12)
du
.
o
.
.
c go
.
i l`a chuˆo
˜
i Maclaurin.
13.3.2 D
-
iˆe
`
u kiˆe
.
n khai triˆe

n v`a phu
.
o
.
ng ph´ap khai
triˆe

n
D
-
i
.
nh l´ y 13.3.1 (Tiˆeu chuˆa

n khai triˆe

n). H`am f(x) khai triˆe

n du
.
o
.
.
c
th`anh chuˆo
˜
i l˜ uy th` u
.
a
¸
n0
a
n
x
n
trˆen khoa’ ng (−R, R) khi v`a chı ’ khi trˆen khoa’ ng d´o h`am f(x) c´ o da
.
o
h`am mo
.
i cˆa´p v`a trong cˆ ong th´ u
.
c Taylor
f(x) = f(0) +
f

(0)
1!
x + +
f
(n)
(0)
n!
x
n
+R
n
(x)
phˆa
`
n du
.
R
n
(x) →0 khi n →∞ ∀x ∈ (−R, R).
Trong thu
.
.
c h`anh ngu
.
`o
.
i ta thu
.
`o
.
ng su
.
’ du
.
ng dˆa´u hiˆe
.
u du’ nhu
.
sau.
D
-
i
.
nh l´ y 13.3.2. Dˆe

h`am f(x) khai triˆe

n du
.
o
.
.
c th`anh chuˆo
˜
i l˜ uy th` u
.
a
¸
n0
a
n
x
n
, x ∈ (−R, R)
diˆe
`
u kiˆe
.
n du’ l`a trˆen khoa’ ng d´o h`am f(x) c´ o da
.
o h`am mo
.
i cˆa´p v`a c´ac
da
.
o h` am d´o bi
.
ch˘a
.
n, t´ u
.
c l`a ∃M > 0 : ∀n = 0, 1, 2, . . . v` a ∀x ∈
(−R, R) th`ı
[f
(n)
(x)[ M.
Ta nˆeu ra dˆay hai phu
.
o
.
ng ph´ap khai triˆe

n h`am th`anh chuˆo
˜
i l˜ uy
th` u
.
a
202 Chu
.
o
.
ng 13. L´ y thuyˆe
´
t chuˆo
˜
i
1. Phu
.
o
.
ng ph´ap I (phu
.
o
.
ng ph´ap tru
.
.
c tiˆe
´
p) gˆ o
`
m c´ac bu
.
´o
.
c sau:
a) T´ınh c´ac hˆe
.
sˆo´ theo cˆong th´ u
.
c (13.11)
b) Ch´ u
.
ng to’ r˘a
`
ng lim
n→∞
R
n
(x) = 0.
Nhu
.
o
.
.
c diˆe

m cu’ a phu
.
o
.
ng ph´ap n`ay l`a t´ınh to´an qu´a cˆo
`
ng kˆe
`
nh v`a
sau n˜ u
.
a l`a viˆe
.
c kha’ o s´at gi´o
.
i ha
.
n R
n
(x) →0 (n →∞) la
.
i c`ang ph´ u
.
c
ta
.
p ho
.
n.
2. Phu
.
o
.
ng ph´ap II (phu
.
o
.
ng ph´ap gi´an tiˆe
´
p) l`a phu
.
o
.
ng ph´ap du
.
.
a
trˆen ba’ ng c´ac khai triˆe

n “c´o s˘a
˜
n” (hay Khai triˆe

n ba’ ng) c` ung v´o
.
i c´ac
ph´ep t´ınh dˆo´i v´o
.
i chuˆo
˜
i l˜ uy th` u
.
a.
I. e
x
= 1 +x +
x
2
2!
+ +
x
n
n!
− =
¸
n0
x
n
n!
, x ∈ R.
II. sinx = x −
x
3
3!
+
x
5
5!
− + (−1)
n
x
2n+1
(2n + 1)!
+ =
=
¸
n0
(−1)
n
x
2n+1
(2n + 1)!
, x ∈ R.
III. cos x = 1 −
x
2
2!
+
x
4
4!
− + (−1)
n
x
2n
(2n)!
+ =
=
¸
n0
(−1)
n
x
2n
(2n)!
, x ∈ R.
IV.
(1 +x)
α
= 1 +αx +
α(α −1)
2!
x
2
+ +
α(α −1) (α −n + 1)
n!
x
n
+. . .
= 1 +
¸
n1

α
n

x
n
, −1 < x < 1,

α
0

= 1,

α
n

=
α(α −1) (α −n + 1)
n!
,

α
n

= C
α
n
nˆe
´
u α ∈ N.
13.3. Chuˆo
˜
i l˜ uy th` u
.
a 203
Khi α = −1 ta c´o
1
1 +x
= 1 −x +x
2
− + (−1)
n
x
n
+. . .
=
¸
n0
(−1)
n
x
n
, −1 < x < 1.
1
1 −x
= 1 +x +x
2
+ +x
n
+ =
¸
n0
x
n
, −1 < x < 1.
V.
ln(1 +x) = x −
x
2
2
+
x
3
3
− + (−1)
n−1
x
n
n
+. . . ; −1 < x < 1
ln(1 −x) = −x −
x
2
2
− −
x
n
n
−. . . , −1 < x < 1.
C
´
AC V
´
I DU
.
V´ı du
.
1. T`ım miˆe
`
n hˆo
.
i tu
.
cu’ a chuˆo
˜
i l˜ uy th` u
.
a
¸
n1
(−1)
n−1
nx
n
.
Gia’ i. 1
+
Ta s˜e ´ap du
.
ng cˆong th´ u
.
c (13.8). V`ı a
n
= (−1)
n−1
n v`a
a
n+1
= (−1)
n
(n + 1) nˆen ta c´o
R = lim
n→∞
[a
n
[
[a
n+1
[
= lim
n→∞
n
n + 1
= 1.
Nhu
.
vˆa
.
y chuˆo
˜
i hˆo
.
i tu
.
b´o
.
i −1 < x < 1.
2
+
Ta c` on cˆa
`
n kha’ o s´at su
.
.
hˆo
.
i tu
.
cu’ a chuˆo
˜
i ta
.
i c´ac dˆa
`
u m´ ut cu’ a
khoa’ ng hˆo
.
i tu
.
.
V´o
.
i x = −1 ta c´ o
¸
n1
(−1)
n−1
n(−1)
n
=
¸
n1
(−1)
2n−1
n =
¸
n1
(−n).
Do d´o chuˆo
˜
i d˜a cho phˆan k` y ta
.
i diˆe

m x = −1 (khˆong tho’a m˜an diˆe
`
u
kiˆe
.
n cˆ a
`
n !)
204 Chu
.
o
.
ng 13. L´ y thuyˆe
´
t chuˆo
˜
i
V´o
.
i x = 1 ta c´o
¸
n1
(−1)
n−1
n ⇒ lim
n→∞
(−1)
n−1
n khˆong tˆo
`
n ta
.
i
Do d´o chuˆo
˜
i phˆan k` y ta
.
i diˆe

m x = 1. Vˆa
.
y miˆe
`
n hˆo
.
i tu
.
cu’ a chuˆo
˜
i l`a
(−1, 1).
V´ı du
.
2. T`ım khoa’ ng hˆo
.
i tu
.
cu’ a chuˆo
˜
i
¸
n1
(−1)
n
(x −2)
n
n
n

Gia’ i. Trong tru
.
`o
.
ng ho
.
.
p n`ay ta su
.
’ du
.
ng cˆong th´ u
.
c (13.9) v`a thu
du
.
o
.
.
c
R = lim
n→∞
1
n

[a
n
[
= lim
n→∞
1
n

(−1)
n
n
n

= lim
n→∞
n = +∞.
Diˆe
`
u d´o c´ o ngh˜ıa l`a chuˆo
˜
i d˜a cho hˆo
.
i tu
.
v´o
.
i mo
.
i gi´a tri
.
x, t´ u
.
c l`a
I(R) = (−∞, +∞).
V´ı du
.
3. T`ım khoa’ ng hˆo
.
i tu
.
cu’ a chuˆo
˜
i
¸
n0
n!x
n
, 0! ≡ 1.
Gia’ i.
´
Ap du
.
ng cˆong th´ u
.
c (13.8) ta c´o
R = lim
n→∞
[a
n
[
[a
n+1
[
= lim
n→∞
n!
n!(n + 1)
= lim
n→∞
1
n + 1
= 0.
Vˆa
.
y R = 0. Diˆe
`
u d´o c´o ngh˜ıa r˘a
`
ng chuˆo
˜
i d˜a cho hˆo
.
i tu
.
ta
.
i diˆe

m x = 0.

V´ı du
.
4. Khai triˆe

n h`am
1
4 −x
th`anh chuˆo
˜
i l˜ uy th` u
.
a ta
.
i lˆan cˆa
.
n diˆe

m
x
0
= 2 (c˜ ung t´ u
.
c l`a: theo c´ ac l˜ uy th` u
.
a cu’ a hiˆe
.
u x −2 hay chuˆo
˜
i l˜ uy
th` u
.
a v´o
.
i tˆam ta
.
i diˆe

m x
0
= 2).
13.3. Chuˆo
˜
i l˜ uy th` u
.
a 205
Gia’ i. Ta biˆe
´
n dˆo

i h`am d˜a cho dˆe

c´o thˆe

´ap du
.
ng khai triˆe

n ba’ ng:
1
1 −t
=
¸
n0
t
n
, −1 < t < 1.
Ta c´o
1
4 −x
=
1
2

1
1 −
x −2
2
Xem t =
x −2
2
ta c´o:
1
4 −x
=
1
2

1 +

x −2
2

+

x −2
2

2
+ +

x −2
2

n
+. . .


1
4 −x
=
¸
n0
1
2
n+1
(x −2)
n
.
Khai triˆe

n n`ay chı ’ d´ ung khi

x −2
2

< 1 ⇔[x −2[ < 2 ⇔−2 < x −2 < 2 ⇔0 < x < 4.
Nhˆa
.
n x´et. Ba
.
n do
.
c c˜ ung dˆe
˜
d`ang thu du
.
o
.
.
c khai triˆe

n trˆen dˆay
b˘a
`
ng phu
.
o
.
ng ph´ap tru
.
.
c tiˆe
´
p.
V´ı du
.
5. Khai triˆe

n h`am f(x) = sin
πx
4
th`anh chuˆo
˜
i Taylor v´o
.
i tˆam
ta
.
i diˆe

m x
0
= 2.
Gia’ i. Ta biˆe
´
n dˆo

i h`am d˜a cho nhu
.
sau
sin
π
4
x = sin
π
4
(x −2 + 2) = sin

π
4
(x −2) +
π
2

= cos
π
4
(x −2).
Xem
π
4
(x −2) = t v`a ´ap du
.
ng khai triˆe

n ba’ ng III ta c´o
sin
π
4
x =
¸
n0
(−1)
n
(2n)!

π
4
(x −2)

2n
=
¸
n0
(−1)
n
π
2n
4
2n
(2n)!
(x −2)
2n
, x ∈ R.
206 Chu
.
o
.
ng 13. L´ y thuyˆe
´
t chuˆo
˜
i
V´ı du
.
6. Khai triˆe

n h`am f(x) = ln
1 +x
1 −x
th`anh chuˆo
˜
i Maclaurin.
Gia’ i. Ta c´o ln
1 +x
1 −x
= ln(1 +x) −ln(1 −x). M˘a
.
t kh´ac
ln(1 +x) = x −
x
2
2
+ + (−1)
n−1
x
n
n
+. . . , −1 < x < 1;
ln(1 −x) = −x −
x
2
2
− −
x
n
n
−. . . , −1 < x < 1.
T` u
.
d´o
ln(1 +x) −ln(1 −x) = 2x +
2x
3
3
+
2x
5
5
+ +
2x
2n−1
2n −1
+. . .
−1 < x < 1.
B
`
AI T
ˆ
A
.
P
Su
.
’ du
.
ng c´ac khai triˆe

n ba’ ng dˆe

khai triˆe

n h`am th`anh chuˆo
˜
i l˜ uy
th` u
.
a v´o
.
i tˆam ta
.
i diˆe

m x
0
= 0 v`a chı ’ ra b´an k´ınh hˆo
.
i tu
.
cu’ a chuˆo
˜
i
1. f(x) = e
−2x
. (DS.
¸
n0
(−1)
n
2
n
n!
x
n
, R = +∞)
2. f(x) = ln
1
1 −2x
. (DS.
¸
n1
2
n
n
x
n
, R =
1
2
)
3. f(x) = xln

1 +
x
3
3

. (DS.
¸
n1
(−1)
n
x
3n+1
3
n
n
x
n
, R =
3

3)
4. f(x) =
3

1 −4x. (DS. 1 −
4
3
x +
¸
n2
4
n
2 5 (3n −4)
3
n
n!
x
n
;
R = 1)
5. f(x) = sin5x. (DS.
¸
n0
(−1)
n
5
2n+1
(2n + 1)!
x
2n+1
; R = +∞)
6. f(x) = cos
x
3
3
. (DS.
¸
n0
(−1)
n
x
6n
3
2n
(2n)!
; R = +∞)
13.3. Chuˆo
˜
i l˜ uy th` u
.
a 207
B˘a
`
ng c´ach biˆe
´
n dˆo

i (trong tru
.
`o
.
ng ho
.
.
p cˆa
`
n thiˆe
´
t) sao cho c´ o thˆe

´ap
du
.
ng c´ac khai triˆe

n ba’ ng dˆe

khai triˆe

n h`am f(x) th`anh chuˆo
˜
i l˜ uy th` u
.
a
v´o
.
i tˆam ta
.
i diˆe

m x
0
. H˜ ay chı ’ ra b´an k´ınh hˆo
.
i tu
.
cu’ a chuˆo
˜
i
7. f(x) = e

x
2
, x
0
= 10. (DS. e
−5
¸
n0
(−1)
n
n!
(x −10)
n
2
n
, R = +∞)
8. f(x) = 2
x
, x
0
= a. (DS. 2
a
¸
n0
ln
n
2
n!
(x −a)
n
, R = +∞)
9. f(x) = 2
x
3
−x
, x
0
= 0. (DS.
¸
n0

ln
2
3

n
n!
x
n
, R = +∞)
10. f(x) = e
1−2x
3
, x
0
= 0. (DS.
¸
n0
(−1)
n
2
n
e
n!
x
3n
, R = +∞)
11. f(x) = (2 +x)e
x−1
, x
0
= −2. (DS.
1
e
3
¸
n0
(x + 2)
n+1
n!
, R = +∞)
12. f(x) = sin(a +x), x
0
= 0.
(DS. sina
¸
n0
(−1)
n
x
2n
2n!
+ cos a
¸
n0
(−1)
n
x
2n+1
(2n + 1)!
, R = +∞)
13. f(x) = sin xcos 3x, x
0
= 0.
(DS.
1
2
¸
n0
(−1)
n
(4x)
2n+1
(2n + 1)!

1
2
¸
n0
(−1)
n
(2x)
2n+1
(2n + 1)!
, R = +∞)
14. f(x) =

cos x −1
x
, x = 0
0, x = 0
; x
0
= 0.
(DS.
¸
n0
(−1)
n
(x)
2n−1
(2n)!
, R = +∞)
15. f(x) = cos x, x
0
=
π
2
. (DS.
¸
n1
(−1)
n

x −
π
2

2n−1
(2n −1)!
, R = +∞)
16. f(x) = sin
2
xcos
2
x, x = 0.
208 Chu
.
o
.
ng 13. L´ y thuyˆe
´
t chuˆo
˜
i
(DS.
¸
n1
(−1)
n+1
2
4n−3
(2n)!
x
2n
, R = +∞)
17. f(x) = ln(x
2
+ 3x + 2), x
0
= 0.
(DS. ln2 +
¸
n1
(−1)
n−1
[1 + 2
−n
]
x
n
n
, R = +∞)
18. f(x) = ln(4 + 3x −x
2
), x
0
= 2.
DS. ln6 +
¸
n1
1
n

(−1)
n−1
3
−n
−2
−n

(x −2)
n
)
19. f(x) =
1
x
2
−2x −3
, x
0
= 0; x
0
= 4.
(DS. 1)
¸
n0

(−1)
n+1
4

1
12

1
3

n

x
n
, [x[ < 1;
2)
¸
n0

(−1)
n
4

1
20
(−1)
n
5
n

(x −4)
n
, [x −4[ < 1)
Chı ’ dˆa
˜
n. Biˆe

u diˆe
˜
n f(x) =
1
4

1
x −3

1
x + 1

.
20. f(x) =
x
2
+x + 1
(x −1)(x + 2)
, x
0
= 0.
(DS. 1 −
¸
n0
2
n+1
−(−1)
n
2
n+1
x
n
, R = 1)
21. f(x) =
1
x
2
+ 4x + 7
, x
0
= −2.
(DS.
¸
n0
(−1)
n
(x + 2)
2n
3
n+1
, R =

3)
Su
.
’ du
.
ng phu
.
o
.
ng ph´ap da
.
o h`am ho˘a
.
c t´ıch phˆan cu’ a chuˆo
˜
i l˜ uy th` u
.
a
dˆe

khai triˆe

n h`am f(x) th`anh chuˆo
˜
i l˜ uy th` u
.
a v´o
.
i tˆam x
0
= 0 v`a chı ’
ra b´an k´ınh hˆo
.
i tu
.
.
22. f(x) = arcctgx. (DS.
π
2
x +
x
3
3
+ +
(−1)
n
x
2n−1
2n −1
+. . . , [x[ 1)
13.3. Chuˆo
˜
i l˜ uy th` u
.
a 209
Chı ’ dˆa
˜
n. Khai triˆe

n arctgx v`a su
.
’ du
.
ng hˆe
.
th´ u
.
c arcctgx =
π
2

arctgx.
23. f(x) =
1
(1 −x)
3
. (DS.
1
2
¸
n0
(n + 1)(n + 2)x
n
, R = 1)
24. f(x) = arc sinx. (DS. x +
¸
n1
(2n −1)!!x
2n+1
(2n)!!(2n + 1)
, R = 1)
25. f(x) =
x

0
sint
2
t
dt. (DS.
¸
n1
(−1)
n
x
4n+2
(2n + 1)!(4n + 2)
, R = +∞)
26. f(x) =
x

0
ln(1 +t)
t
dt. (DS.
¸
n1
(−1)
n−1
x
n
n
2
, R = 1)
27. f(x) =
x

0
1 −cos 2t
t
2
dt. (DS.
¸
n1
(−1)
n
4
n
x
2n−1
(2n −1)(2n)!
, R = +∞)
28. f(x) =
x

0
g(t)dt, g(x) =

ln(1 +x)
x
, x = 0,
1, x = 0.
(DS.
¸
n1
(−1)
n−1
x
n
n
2
, R = 1)
29. f(x) = ln(x +

x
2
+ 1).
(DS. x +
¸
n1
(−1)
n
(2n −1)!!
(2n)!!
x
2n+1
, R = 1)
Chı ’ dˆa
˜
n. f(x) =
x

0
dt

1 +t
2
.
´
Ap du
.
ng c´ac phu
.
o
.
ng ph´ap th´ıch ho
.
.
p dˆe

khai triˆe

n h`am f(x) th`anh
chuˆo
˜
i l˜ uy th` u
.
a v´o
.
i tˆam ta
.
i x
0
v` a chı ’ ra b´an k´ınh hˆo
.
i tu
.
cu’ a chuˆo
˜
i
30. f(x) = e
x−1
, x
0
= 4. (DS. e
3
¸
n0
(x −4)
n
n!
, R = +∞)
210 Chu
.
o
.
ng 13. L´ y thuyˆe
´
t chuˆo
˜
i
31. f(x) = e
3x
−2e
−x
, x
0
= 0. (DS.
¸
n0
3
n
−2(−1)
n
n!
x
n
, R = +∞)
32. f(x) =
1
2
3x−2
, x
0
= −1. (DS. 32
¸
n0
(ln8)
n
n!
(x + 1)
n
, R = +∞)
33. f(x) = 2
x
e
x−1
, x
0
= 1. (DS. 2
¸
n0
(ln2 + 1)
n
n!
(x −1)
n
, R = +∞)
34. f(x) = sin3x, x
0
=
π
4
.
(DS.

2
2
¸
n0
(−1)
n
3
2n
(2n)!

x −
π
4

2n


2
2
¸
n0
(−1)
n
3
2n+1
(2n + 1)!

x −
π
4

2n+1
, R = +∞)
35. f(x) = cos
x
2
, x
0
= −
π
3
.
(DS.

3
¸
n0
(−1)
n

x +
π
3

2n
(2n)!2
2n+1
+
¸
n0
(−1)
n
(2n + 1)!(2
2n+1

x +
π
3

x +
π
3

2n+1
, R = +∞)
36. f(x) = cos
2
x, x
0
=
π
4
.
(DS.
1
2
+
¸
n1
(−1)
n
4
n−1

x −
π
4

2n−1
(2n −1)!
, R = +∞)
37. f(x) = sinxcos
2
x, x
0
= 0.
(DS.
¸
n0
(−1)
n
4(2n)!
(1 + 3
2n+1
)x
2n+1
, R = +∞)
38. f(x) = cos xcos 2x, x
0
= 0.
(DS.
1
2
¸
n0
(−1)
n

1
(2n)!
+
3
2n
(2n)!

x
2n
, R = +∞)
13.4. Chuˆo
˜
i Fourier 211
39. f(x) = xlnx, x
0
= 1.
(DS.
¸
n1
(−1)
n−1
(x −1)
n+1
n
+
¸
n1
(−1)
n−1
(x −1)
n
n
, R = 1)
40. f(x) = ln(2x + 3), x
0
= 4.
(DS. ln11 +
¸
n1
(−1)
n

2
11

n+1
1
n + 1
(x −4)
n
, R =
11
2
)
41. f(x) = ln(3 −4x), x
0
= −2.
(DS. ln11 −
¸
n1

4
11

n
(x + 2)
n
n
, x ∈

−19
4
,
3
4

)
42. f(x) = arctg
x + 3
x −3
, x
0
= 0.
(DS. −
π
4
+
¸
n0
(−1)
n+1
3
2n+1
x
2n+1
2n + 1
, R = 3)
Chı ’ dˆa
˜
n. f

(x) = −
3
x
2
+ 9
=
¸
n0
(−1)
n+1
x
2n
3
2n+1
. T` u
.
d´o
x

0
f(t)dt = f(x) −f(0) =
¸
n0
(−1)
n+1
3
2n+1
x

0
t
2n
dt.
13.4 Chuˆo
˜
i Fourier
13.4.1 C´ac di
.
nh ngh˜ıa co
.
ba’ n
Hˆe
.
h`am
1
2
, cos
πx

, sin
πx

, . . . , cos
nπx

, sin
nπx

, . . . (13.13)
du
.
o
.
.
c go
.
i l`a hˆe
.
lu
.
o
.
.
ng gi´ac co
.
so
.
’ . D´o l`a hˆe
.
tru
.
.
c giao trˆen doa
.
n [−, ]
(t´ u
.
c l`a t´ıch phˆan theo doa
.
n d´o cu’ a t´ıch hai h`am kh´ac nhau bˆa´t k` y cu’ a
hˆe
.
b˘a
`
ng 0).
212 Chu
.
o
.
ng 13. L´ y thuyˆe
´
t chuˆo
˜
i
D
-
i
.
nh ngh˜ıa 13.4.1. 1) Chuˆo
˜
i h`am da
.
ng
a
0
2
+
¸
n1

a
n
cos
nπx

+b
n
sin
nπx

, (13.14)
trong d´o > 0; a
n
, b
n
l`a c´ac h˘a
`
ng sˆo´ (go
.
i l`a hˆe
.
sˆo´ cu’ a chuˆo
˜
i (13.14))
du
.
o
.
.
c go
.
i l`a chuˆo
˜
i lu
.
o
.
.
ng gi´ac.
2) Chuˆo
˜
i lu
.
o
.
.
ng gi´ac (13.14) du
.
o
.
.
c go
.
i l`a chuˆo
˜
i Fourier cu’ a h`am
f(x) theo hˆe
.
lu
.
o
.
.
ng gi´ac co
.
so
.
’ (13.13) (go
.
i t˘a
´
t l`a chuˆo
˜
i Fourier) nˆe
´
u
c´ac hˆe
.
sˆo´ cu’ a n´o du
.
o
.
.
c t´ınh theo cˆ ong th´ u
.
c
a
n
=
1


f(x) cos
nπx

dx, n = 0, 1, . . .
(13.15)
b
n
=
1


f(x) sin
nπx

dx, n = 1, 2, . . .
C´ac hˆe
.
sˆo´ a
n
, b
n
du
.
o
.
.
c t´ınh theo cˆong th´ u
.
c (13.15) du
.
o
.
.
c go
.
i l`a hˆe
.
sˆo´
Fourier cu’ a h`am f theo hˆe
.
lu
.
o
.
.
ng gi´ac co
.
so
.
’ .
Gia’ su
.
’ h`am f(x) tho’a m˜an diˆe
`
u kiˆe
.
n


[f(x)[dx < +∞. Khi d´o
luˆon luˆon x´ac di
.
nh du
.
o
.
.
c c´ac hˆe
.
sˆo´ a
n
, b
n
theo (13.15) v`a lˆa
.
p chuˆo
˜
i
Fourier dˆo´i v´o
.
i h`am f(x) v`a viˆe
´
t
f(x) ∼
a
0
2
+
¸
n1

a
n
cos
nπx

+b
n
sin
nπx

, (13.16)
o
.
’ dˆay dˆa´u “∼” du
.
o
.
.
c d` ung khi d˘a

ng th´ u
.
c chu
.
a du
.
o
.
.
c ch´ u
.
ng minh (v`a
du
.
o
.
.
c go
.
i l`a dˆa´u tu
.
o
.
ng ´ u
.
ng).
13.4.2 Dˆa
´
u hiˆe
.
u du’ vˆe
`
su
.
.
hˆo
.
i tu
.
cu’ a chuˆo
˜
i Fourier
Dˆa´u tu
.
o
.
ng ´ u
.
ng “∼” trong hˆe
.
th´ u
.
c (13.16) c´o thˆe

thay b˘a
`
ng dˆa´u d˘a

ng
th´ u
.
c nˆe
´
u h`am f(x) tho’a m˜an dˆa´u hiˆe
.
u du’ sau dˆay vˆe
`
khai triˆe

n h`am
th`anh chuˆo
˜
i Fourier.
13.4. Chuˆo
˜
i Fourier 213
D
-
i
.
nh l´ y Dirichlet. Gia’ su
.
’ f(x) l`a h`am tuˆa
`
n ho`an chu k`y T (go
.
i l`a
h`am T-tuˆa
`
n ho`an), f(x) v`a f

(x) ho˘a
.
c liˆen tu
.
c kh˘ a
´
p no
.
i ho˘a
.
c liˆen tu
.
c
t` u
.
ng kh´ uc (t´ u
.
c l`a chı’ c´o mˆo
.
t sˆo´ h˜ u
.
u ha
.
n diˆe

m gi´ an doa
.
n loa
.
i I trong
mˆo
˜
i chu k`y).
Khi d´o chuˆ o
˜
i Fourier cu’ a h`am f(x) hˆo
.
i tu
.
v´ o
.
i mo
.
i x dˆe
´
n tˆo

ng S(x)
v`a
1) Ta
.
i mo
.
i diˆe

m liˆen tu
.
c cu’ a h`am f(x), chuˆ o
˜
i hˆo
.
i tu
.
dˆe
´
n ch´ınh
h`am f(x) t´ u
.
c l`a S(x) = f(x).
2) Ta
.
i mo
.
i diˆe

m gi´ an doa
.
n, chuˆ o
˜
i hˆo
.
i tu
.
dˆe
´
n nu
.
’ a tˆo

ng c´ac gi´o
.
i
ha
.
n mˆo
.
t ph´ıa bˆen tr´ai v`a bˆen pha’ i cu’ a h`am, t´ u
.
c l`a
S(x
0
) =
f(x
0
+ 0) +f(x
0
−0)
2
, x
0
l`a diˆe

m gi´an doa
.
n.
3) Nˆe
´
u f(x) liˆen tu
.
c kh˘ a
´
p no
.
i th`ı chuˆo
˜
i Fourier cu’ a n´o hˆo
.
i tu
.
tuyˆe
.
t
dˆo´i v`a dˆe
`
u.
C´o hai tru
.
`o
.
ng ho
.
.
p d˘a
.
c biˆe
.
t sau dˆay:
1) Nˆe
´
u f(x) l`a h`am ch˘a
˜
n, t´ u
.
c l`a f(x) = f(−x) ∀x th`ı b
n
= 0
∀n 1 v`a chuˆo
˜
i Fourier cu’ a n´o chı ’ ch´ u
.
a c´ac h`am cosin:
f(x) =
a
0
2
+
¸
n1
a
n
cos
nπx

, a
n
=
2

0
f(x) cos
nπx

dx n = 0, 1, 2, . . .
2) Nˆe
´
u f(x) l`a h`am le’, t´ u
.
c l`a f(x) = −f(−x) ∀x th`ı a
n
= 0
∀n = 0, 1, . . . v`a chuˆo
˜
i Fourier cu’ a n´o chı ’ ch´ u
.
a c´ac h`am sin:
f(x) =
¸
n1
b
n
sin
nπx

, b
n
=
2

0
f(x) sin
nπx

dx n = 1, 2, . . .
Nˆe
´
u h`am f(x) chı ’ x´ac di
.
nh trˆen doa
.
n [a, b] ⊂ [−, ] v`a khˆong x´ac
di
.
nh trˆen [−, ] ` [a, b] th`ı c´ o thˆe

du
.
.
ng h`am phu
.
F(x) sao cho
F(x) =

f(x), x ∈ [a, b]
g(x), x ∈ [−, ] ` [a, b],
214 Chu
.
o
.
ng 13. L´ y thuyˆe
´
t chuˆo
˜
i
trong d´o g(x) l`a h`am kha’ t´ıch t` uy ´ y.
Sau d´o gia’ thiˆe
´
t F(x + 2) = F(x) ∀x ∈ R v`a thu du
.
o
.
.
c h`am tuˆa
`
n
ho`an F(x) c´ o chu k` y 2. Ph´ep du
.
.
ng h`am F(x) nhu
.
vˆa
.
y du
.
o
.
.
c go
.
i l`a
ph´ep th´ac trıˆe

n tuˆa
`
n ho`an f(x).
H`am f(x) du
.
o
.
.
c cho trˆen [0, ] c´o thˆe

th´ac triˆe

n t` uy ´ y sang khoa’ ng
kˆe
`
[−, 0] v`a do vˆa
.
y n´ o du
.
o
.
.
c biˆe

u diˆe
˜
n bo
.
’ i c´ ac chuˆo
˜
i Fourier kh´ac
nhau (m`a thu
.
`o
.
ng g˘a
.
p l`a chuˆo
˜
i Fourier chı ’ ch´ u
.
a ho˘a
.
c c´ac h`am cosin
ho˘a
.
c c´ ac h`am sin).
Ta x´et hai tru
.
`o
.
ng ho
.
.
p d˘a
.
c biˆe
.
t sau dˆay:
1) Chuˆo
˜
i Fourier theo c´ac h`am cosin thu du
.
o
.
.
c khi th´ac triˆe

n ch˘a
˜
n
h`am d˜a cho trˆen doa
.
n [0, ] sang khoa’ ng kˆe
`
[−, 0]. Trong tru
.
`o
.
ng ho
.
.
p
n`ay dˆo
`
thi
.
cu’ a h`am F(x) dˆo´i x´ u
.
ng qua tru
.
c tung.
2) Chuˆo
˜
i Fourier theo c´ac h`am sin thu du
.
o
.
.
c khi th´ac triˆe

n le’ h`am
d˜a cho sang khoa’ ng kˆe
`
[−, 0). Trong tru
.
`o
.
ng ho
.
.
p n`ay dˆo
`
thi
.
cu’ a h`am
F(x) l`a dˆo´i x´ u
.
ng qua gˆo´c to
.
a dˆo
.
.
Gia’ su
.
’ h`am f(x) liˆen tu
.
c trˆen doa
.
n [−, ] v`a f(−) = f() v`a a
0
,
a
n
, b
n
, n ∈ N l`a c´ac hˆe
.
sˆo´ Fourier cu’ a h`am f(x). Khi d´o ta c´ o d˘a

ng
th´ u
.
c
1


f
2
(x)dx =
a
2
0
2
+
¸
n1
(a
2
n
+b
2
n
). (13.17)
D˘a

ng th´ u
.
c (13.17) du
.
o
.
.
c go
.
i l`a d˘a

ng th´ u
.
c Parseval.
C
´
AC V
´
I DU
.
V´ı du
.
1. Khai triˆe

n h`an f(x) = signx, −π < x < π th`anh chuˆo
˜
i
Fourier v`a su
.
’ du
.
ng khai triˆe

n ˆa´y dˆe

t`ım tˆo

ng cu’ a chuˆo
˜
i Leibnitz
¸
n1
(−1)
n
2n + 1

13.4. Chuˆo
˜
i Fourier 215
Gia’ i. V`ı h`am f(x) le’ nˆen a
n
= 0, n = 0, 1, . . . v`a
b
n
=
2
π
π

0
signxsinnxdx =
2
π


cos nx
n

π
0

=
2

([1 −cos nπ]) =

4
π(2m−1)
nˆe
´
u n = 2m−1
0 nˆe
´
u n = 2m
, m ∈ N.
Do d´o v´o
.
i −π < x < π ta c´ o
signx =
4
π
¸
m1
sin(2m−1)x
2m−1

Nˆe
´
u d˘a
.
t x =
π
2
th`ı t` u
.
chuˆo
˜
i Fourier thu du
.
o
.
.
c, ta c´o
1 =
4
π
¸
m1
(−1)
m+1
2m−1

¸
m0
(−1)
m
2m+ 1
=
π
4

V´ı du
.
2. T`ım khai triˆe

n Fourier cu’ a h`am f(x) = x
3
+ x
2
− x + 1,
x ∈ [−1, 1].
Gia’ i. Nhu
.
vˆa
.
y ta pha’ i khai triˆe

n h`am d˜a cho theo hˆe
.
co
.
so
.

¦1, cos πx, sinπx, cos 2πx, sin2πx, . . . ¦.
Ta c´o
a
0
=
1

1
(x
3
+x
2
−x −1)dx = −
4
3
,
216 Chu
.
o
.
ng 13. L´ y thuyˆe
´
t chuˆo
˜
i
a
n
=
1

−1
(x
3
+x
2
−x −1) cos nπxdx
=
1

(x
2
−1) sinnπx

1
−1
−2
1

−1
xsinnπxdx

=
2
π
2
n
2

xcos nπx

1
−1

1

−1
cos nπxdx

=
4
π
2
n
2
(−1)
n
, n = 1, 2, . . .
b
n
=
1

−1
(x
3
+x
2
−x −1) sin nπxdx =
12
π
3
n
3
(−1)
n
, n = 1, 2, . . .
V`ı h`am f(x) kha’ vi trˆen khoa’ ng (−1, 1) nˆen ta c´ o
x
3
+x
2
−x −1 = −
2
3
+
4
π
2
¸
n1

(−1)
n
n
2
cos nπx +
3(−1)
n
πn
3
sinnπx

,
∀x ∈ (−1, 1).
V´ı du
.
3. Khai triˆe

n h`am f(x) = x, x ∈ [0, ]:
1) theo c´ ac h`am cosin;
2) theo c´ ac h`am sin.
Gia’ i. 1) Dˆe

khai triˆe

n h`am f(x) th`anh chuˆo
˜
i Fourier theo c´ ac h`am
cosin, ta thu
.
.
c hiˆe
.
n ph´ep th´ac triˆe

n ch˘a
˜
n h`am f(x) = x, x ∈ [0, 1] sang
doa
.
n kˆe
`
[−, 0] v`a thu du
.
o
.
.
c h`am f

(x) = [x[, x ∈ [−, ]. T` u
.
d´o th´ac
triˆe

n 2-tuˆa
`
n ho`an h`am f

(x) ra to`an tru
.
c sˆo´. Hiˆe

n nhiˆen h`am f

(x)
liˆen tu
.
c ∀x ∈ R. Ta c´o:
a
0
=
2

0
xdx = ,
a
n
=
2

0
xcos
nπx

dx =

0 nˆe
´
u n ch˘a
˜
n,

4
n
2
π
2
nˆe
´
u n le’.
13.4. Chuˆo
˜
i Fourier 217
T` u
.
d´o ta thu du
.
o
.
.
c
x =

2

4
π
2
¸
n1
cos(2n −1)x
(2n −1)
2
, 0 x .
2) Dˆe

khai triˆe

n h`am f(x) theo c´ac h`am sin, ta thu
.
.
c hiˆe
.
n ph´ep
th´ac triˆe

n le’ h`am f(x) = x, x ∈ [0, ] sang doa
.
n kˆe
`
[−, 0] v`a thu du
.
o
.
.
c
h`am f

(x) = x, x ∈ [−, ]. T` u
.
d´o th´ac triˆe

n 2-tuˆa
`
n ho`an h`am f

(x)
ra to`an tru
.
c sˆo´. H`am d˜a du
.
o
.
.
c th´ac triˆe

n tho’a m˜an di
.
nh l´ y Dirichlet.
Do vˆa
.
y ta c´ o: a
0
= 0, a
n
= 0, ∀n = 1, 2, . . .
b
n
=
2

0
xsin
nπx

dx =
2


x

cos
nπx

0
+

0
cos
nπx

dx

=
2

(−1)
n+1
.
Do d´o
x =
2
π
¸
n1
(−1)
n+1
n
sin
nπx

, 0 x ,
V´ı du
.
4. Khai triˆe

n h`am
f(x) =

0 nˆe
´
u x
π
2
[x[ −
π
2
nˆe
´
u
π
2
< [x[ < π
v`a f(x + 2π) = f(x), x ∈ R th`anh chuˆo
˜
i Fourier.
Gia’ i. H`am f(x) l`a h`am ch˘a
˜
n nˆen n´o khai triˆe

n du
.
o
.
.
c th`anh chuˆo
˜
i
Fourier theo c´ ac h`am cosin. Ta c´o
a
0
=
2
π
π

0
f(x)dx =
2
π
π

π/2

x −
π
2

dx =
π
4
,
a
n
=
2
π
π

0
f(x) cos nxdx =
2
π
π

π/2

x −
π
2

cos nxdx
=
2
π

cos nπ
n
2

cos

2
n
2

, n ∈ N.
218 Chu
.
o
.
ng 13. L´ y thuyˆe
´
t chuˆo
˜
i
T` u
.
d´o suy ra r˘a
`
ng v´ o
.
i x ∈ (−π, π)
f(x) =
π
8
+
2
π
¸
n1

cos nπ
n
2

cos

2
n
2

cos nx
=
π
8
+
2
π
¸
n1
(−1)
n
n
2
cos nx −
1

¸
n1
(−1)
n
n
2
cos 2nx,
trong d´o ta d˜a su
.
’ du
.
ng c´ac hˆe
.
th´ u
.
c
cos

2
n
2
cos nx = 0 v´o
.
i n = 2m−1
cos

2
n
2
cos nx =
(−1)
m
4m
2
cos 2mx, n = 2m.
13.4. Chuˆo
˜
i Fourier 219
B
`
AI T
ˆ
A
.
P
Khai triˆe

n h`am th`anh chuˆo
˜
i Fourier trˆen doa
.
n (khoa’ ng) d˜a cho v`a
trong mˆo
.
t sˆo´ tru
.
`o
.
ng ho
.
.
p h˜ay su
.
’ du
.
ng khai triˆe

n thu du
.
o
.
.
c dˆe

t´ınh
tˆo

ng cu’ a chuˆo
˜
i sˆo´:
1. f(x) =
x
2
, x ∈ (0, 2π). (DS.
π
2

¸
n1
sinnx
n
)
2. f(x) =

6 nˆe
´
u 0 < x < 1
3x nˆe
´
u 2 < x < 4.
(DS.
15
2
+
12
π
2

cos
πx
2
+
1
9
cos
3πx
2
+
1
25
cos
5πx
2
+. . .


6
π

sin
πx
2
+
1
2
sin
2πx
2
+
1
3
sin
3πx
2
+. . .

)
3. f(x) = e
−x
, x ∈ (−π, π).
(DS. e
−x
=
e
π
−e
−π
π

1
2
+
¸
n1
(−1)
n
1 +n
2
(cos nx +nsin nx)

)
4. f(x) = x
2
, x ∈ [−π, π). T´ınh tˆo

ng c´ac chuˆo
˜
i sˆo´
¸
n1
(−1)
n−1
n
2
v`a
¸
n1
1
n
2
.
(DS. x
2
=
π
2
3
−4
¸
n1
(−1)
n−1
cos nx
n
2
. Thay x
0
= 0, ta thu du
.
o
.
.
c
¸
n1
(−1)
n−1
n
2
=
π
2
12
. Thay x = π thu du
.
o
.
.
c
¸
n1
1
n
2
=
π
2
6
)
5. f(x) = x
2
, x ∈ (0, π), f(x) = f(x +pi).
(DS.
π
2
3
+
¸
n1

1
n
2
cos 2nx −
π
n
sin 2nx

)
220 Chu
.
o
.
ng 13. L´ y thuyˆe
´
t chuˆo
˜
i
6. f(x) = cos
x
2
, x ∈ (0, 2π], f(x) = f(x + 2π).
(DS. cos
x
2
=
8
π
¸
n1
nsin nx
(2n −1)(2n + 1)
)
7. f(x) =

0 nˆe
´
u −3 < x 2
x nˆe
´
u 0 < x < 3.
T´ınh tˆo

ng cu’ a chuˆo
˜
i
¸
n1
1
(2n −1)
2
.
(DS.
3
4

6
π
2
¸
n1
1
(2n −1)
2
cos
(2n −1)nx
3

3
π
¸
n1
(−1)
n
n
sin
nπx
3
,
tˆo

ng cu’ a chuˆo
˜
i b˘a
`
ng
π
2
8
v´o
.
i x
0
= 0)
8. f(x) = xsinx, x ∈ [−π, π].
(DS. 1 −
cos x
2
+ 2
¸
n2
(−1)
n
cos nx
n
2
−1
)
H˜ay khai triˆe

n c´ac h`am sau dˆay th`anh chuˆo
˜
i Fourier theo c´ ac h`am
sin ho˘a
.
c h`am cosin
9. f(x) = xcos x, x ∈ (0, π). T´ınh tˆo

ng chuˆo
˜
i
¸
n0
4n
2
+ 1
(4n
2
−1)
2
.
(DS. 1) xcos x = −
2
π
+
π
2
cos x −
4
π
¸
n1
4n
2
+ 1
(4n
2
−1)
2
cos 2nx.
2) xcos x = −
sinx
x
+ 2
¸
n2
(−1)
n
n
n
2
−1
sin nx, 0 x < π.
3)
¸
n0
4n
2
+ 1
(4n
2
−1)
=
π
2
8
+
1
2
(thˆe
´
x = 0 v`ao 1))
10. f(x) = x(π −x), 0 x < π, f(x) = f(x +π).
(DS.
π
2
6

¸
n1
cos
2nx
n
2
)
13.4. Chuˆo
˜
i Fourier 221
11. f(x) = cos x, x ∈

0,
π
2

. T´ınh S =
¸
n1
(−1)
n
(2n −1)(2n + 1)
.
(DS.
4
π

1
2

¸
n1
(−1)
n
cos 2nx
4n
2
−1

; S =
1
2

π
4
khi x
0
= 0)
12. f(x) =

1 nˆe
´
u 0 x 1
0 nˆe
´
u 1 < x π.
T´ınh
σ
1
=
¸
n1
sinn
n
; σ
2
=
¸
n1
(−1)
n
sinn
n
(DS.
2
π

1
2
+
¸
n1
sinn
n
cos nx

, σ
1
=
π −1
2
;
khi x
0
= 0; σ
2
= −
1
2
v´o
.
i x = π)
13. f(x) = [ cos x[. T´ınh
S
1
=
¸
n1
(−1)
n
1
4n
2
−1
v`a S
2
=
¸
n1
1
4n
2
−1
.
(DS.
2
π
+
4
π
¸
n1
(−1)
n+1
4n
2
−1
cos 2nx;
S
1
=
π −2
4
khi x
0
= 0, S
2
=
1
2
khi x
0
=
π
2
)
14. f(x) = [ sin x[, x ∈ [−π, π]. T´ınh S =
¸
n1
1
(2n−1)(2n+1)
.
(DS.
2
π

4
π
¸
n1
cos 2nx
(2n −1)(2n + 1)
, S =
1
2
khi x
0
= 0)
15. f(x) = sign(sinx). T´ınh S =
¸
n1
(−1)
n−1
2n −1
.
(DS.
4
π
¸
n1
sin(2n −1)x
2n −1
,
¸
n1
(−1)
n+1
2n −1
=
π
4
v´o
.
i x
0
=
π
2
)
222 Chu
.
o
.
ng 13. L´ y thuyˆe
´
t chuˆo
˜
i
16. f(x) = x −[x] = ¦x¦ - phˆa
`
n thˆa
.
p phˆan cu’ a sˆo´ x.
(DS. ¦x¦ =
1
2

1
π
¸
n1
sin2nπx
n
)
17. f(x) =

−x nˆe
´
u −π x 0
x
2
π
nˆe
´
u 0 < x π.
(DS.

12
+
¸
n1

3(−1)
n
−1
πn
2
cos nx −
4
π
2
(2n −1)
3
sin(2n −1)x
¸
)
18. f(x) =

0 khi −2 x 0
1
2
x khi 0 < x 2.
(DS.
1
4
+
¸
n1


2
π
2
(2n −1)
3
cos
nπx
2
+
(−1)
n+1

sin
nπx
2

)
19. f(x) = x, x ∈ [3, 5]. (DS. 4 +
¸
n1
2

(−1)
n+1
sinnπx)
Chı ’ dˆa
˜
n. Ta hiˆe

u khai triˆe

n Fourier cu’ a h`am f(x) = x trˆen khoa’ ng
(3, 5) l`a khai triˆe

n Fourier cu’ a h`am tuˆa
`
n ho`an v´o
.
i chu k` y 2 = 5−3 = 2
tr` ung v´o
.
i h`am f(x) trˆen khoa’ ng (3, 5).
20. f(x) = sin2x + cos 5x, x ∈


π
2
,
π
2

.
(DS. −
2

+ sin 2x +
20
π
¸
n1
(−1)
n
4n
2
−25
cos 2nx)
21. f(x) = xsin2x, x ∈


π
4
,
π
4

.
(DS.
1
π
+
8
π
¸
n1
(−1)
n+1
n
4n
2
−1
cos 4nx)
13.4. Chuˆo
˜
i Fourier 223
22. f(x) =

0, −π x 0
sinx, 0 < x π
trˆen doa
.
n [−π, π].
(DS.
1
π
+
1
2
sinx −
¸
n1
2
π(4n
2
−1)
cos 2nx)
23. f(x) =

0,
π
2
[x[ π
cos x, [x[ <
π
2
trˆen doa
.
n [−π, π].
(DS.
1
π
+
1
2
cos x −
¸
n1
2
π(4n
2
−1)
cos 2nx)
24. f(x) =

cos x, x ∈

0,
π
2

−cos x, x ∈

π
2
, π

trˆen doa
.
n [0, π].
(DS.
4
π

1
2
+
¸
n1
(−1)
n+1
cos 2nx
4n
2
−1

)
25. Gia’ su
.
’ S
n
(f, x) =
a
0
2
+
n
¸
k=1
(a
k
cos kx+b
k
sinkx) l`a tˆo

ng riˆeng th´ u
.
n cu’ a chuˆo
˜
i Fourier cu’ a h`am 2π-tuˆa
`
n ho`an f(x). Ch´ u
.
ng minh r˘a
`
ng
S
n
(f, x) =
1
π
π

−π
f(t)
sin

n +
1
2

(t −x)
2 sin
t −x
2
dt.
Chı ’ dˆa
˜
n. Su
.
’ du
.
ng c´ac cˆong th´ u
.
c t´ınh hˆe
.
sˆo´ Fourier cu’ a h`am f(x)
v`a hˆe
.
th´ u
.
c
1
2
+ cos α + cos 2α + + cos nα =
sin

n +
1
2

α
2 sin
α
2

Chu
.
o
.
ng 14
Phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh vi phˆan
14.1 Phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh vi phˆan cˆa´p 1 . . . . . . . . . 225
14.1.1 Phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh t´ach biˆe
´
n . . . . . . . . . . . 226
14.1.2 Phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh d˘a

ng cˆa´p . . . . . . . . . . . 231
14.1.3 Phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh tuyˆe
´
n t´ınh . . . . . . . . . . 237
14.1.4 Phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh Bernoulli . . . . . . . . . . . 244
14.1.5 Phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh vi phˆan to`an phˆa
`
n . . . . . . 247
14.1.6 Phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh Lagrange v`a phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh
Clairaut . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 255
14.2 Phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh vi phˆan cˆa´p cao . . . . . . . . 259
14.2.1 C´ac phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh cho ph´ep ha
.
thˆa´p cˆa´p . . 260
14.2.2 Phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh vi phˆan tuyˆe
´
n t´ınh cˆa´p 2 v´o
.
i
hˆe
.
sˆo´ h˘a
`
ng . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 264
14.2.3 Phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh vi phˆan tuyˆe
´
n t´ınh thuˆa
`
n
nhˆa´t cˆa´p nnn (ptvptn cˆa´p nnn) v´o
.
i hˆe
.
sˆo´ h˘a
`
ng . 273
14.3 Hˆe
.
phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh vi phˆan tuyˆe
´
n t´ınh cˆa´p
1 v´o
.
i hˆe
.
sˆo´ h˘a
`
ng . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 290
14.1. Phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh vi phˆan cˆa´p 1 225
14.1 Phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh vi phˆan cˆa
´
p 1
Trong mu
.
c n`ay ta x´et c´ac phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh vi phˆan thu
.
`o
.
ng cˆa´p 1, t´ u
.
c l`a
phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh da
.
ng F(x, y, y

) = 0 ho˘ a
.
c du
.
´o
.
i da
.
ng gia’ i du
.
o
.
.
c v´o
.
i y

l`a
y

= f(x, y).
H`am kha’ vi y = ϕ(x) du
.
o
.
.
c go
.
i l`a nghiˆe
.
m cu’ a phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh vi
phˆan nˆe
´
u khi thay n´o cho ˆa

n h`am cu’ a phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh ta s˜e thu du
.
o
.
.
c
dˆo
`
ng nhˆa´t th´ u
.
c.
Nghiˆe
.
m tˆo

ng qu´at cu’ a phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh vi phˆan cˆ a´p 1: y

= f(x, y)
trong miˆe
`
n D ⊂ R
2
l`a h`am y = ϕ(x, C) tho’a m˜an c´ac t´ınh chˆa´t sau:
1
+
N´o l`a nghiˆe
.
m cu’ a phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh d˜a cho ∀C thuˆo
.
c tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p n`ao
d´o;
2
+
V´o
.
i mo
.
i diˆe
`
u kiˆe
.
n ban dˆa
`
u y(x
0
) = y
0
sao cho (x
0
, y
0
) ∈ D chı ’
c´o mˆo
.
t gi´a tri
.
duy nhˆa´t C = C
0
l`am cho nghiˆe
.
m y = ϕ(x, C
0
) tho’a
m˜an diˆe
`
u kiˆe
.
n ban dˆa
`
u d˜a cho.
Mo
.
i nghiˆe
.
m y = ϕ(x, C
0
) nhˆa
.
n du
.
o
.
.
c t` u
.
nghiˆe
.
m tˆo

ng qu´at y =
ϕ(x, C) ´ u
.
ng v´o
.
i gi´a tri
.
cu
.
thˆe

C = C
0
du
.
o
.
.
c go
.
i l`a nghiˆe
.
m riˆeng.
B`ai to´an t`ım nghiˆe
.
m riˆeng cu’ a phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh y

= f(x, y) tho’a m˜an
diˆe
`
u kiˆe
.
n ban dˆa
`
u y(x
0
) = y
0
du
.
o
.
.
c go
.
i l`a b`ai to´an Cauchy.
Tuy nhiˆen, ta c` on g˘a
.
p nh˜ u
.
ng phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh vi phˆan c´o c´ ac nghiˆe
.
m
khˆong thˆe

thu du
.
o
.
.
c t` u
.
nghiˆe
.
m tˆo

ng qu´at v´o
.
i bˆa´t c´ u
.
gi´a tri
.
C n`ao.
Nghiˆe
.
m nhu
.
vˆa
.
y go
.
i l`a nghiˆe
.
m k`y di
.
(bˆ a´t thu
.
`o
.
ng!) Ch˘a

ng ha
.
n phu
.
o
.
ng
tr`ınh y

=

1 −y
2
c´o nghiˆe
.
m tˆo

ng qu´at y = sin(x+C) v`a h`am y = 1
c˜ ung l`a nghiˆe
.
m nhu
.
ng khˆong thˆe

thu du
.
o
.
.
c t` u
.
nghiˆe
.
m tˆo

ng qu´at v´o
.
i
bˆa´t c´ u
.
gi´a tri
.
C n`ao. D´o l`a nghiˆe
.
m k` y di
.
.
226 Chu
.
o
.
ng 14. Phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh vi phˆan
14.1.1 Phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh t´ach biˆe
´
n
Phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh vi phˆan cˆ a´p 1 da
.
ng
P(x, y)dx +Q(x, y)dy = 0
du
.
o
.
.
c go
.
i l`a phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh t´ach biˆe
´
n nˆe
´
u c´ ac h`am P(x, y) v`a Q(x, y)
phˆan t´ıch du
.
o
.
.
c th`anh t´ıch c´ ac th` u
.
a sˆo´ m`a mˆo
˜
i th` u
.
a sˆo´ chı ’ phu
.
thuˆo
.
c
v`ao mˆo
.
t biˆe
´
n:
f
1
(x)f
2
(y)dx +ϕ
1
(x)ϕ
2
(y)dy = 0. (14.1)
Dˆe

t´ıch phˆan phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh n`ay ta cˆa
`
n chia 2 vˆe
´
cu’ a phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh
(14.1) cho f
2
(y)ϕ
1
(x) = 0 v`a thu du
.
o
.
.
c
f
1
(x)
ϕ
1
(x)
dx +
ϕ
2
(y)
f
2
(y)
dy = 0 (14.2)
v`a t` u
.
d´o thu du
.
o
.
.
c t´ıch phˆan tˆo

ng qu´at

f
1
(x)
ϕ
1
(x)
dx +

ϕ
2
(y)
f
1
(y)
dy = C. (14.3)
Trong ph´ep chia dˆe

c´o (14.2), c´ o thˆe

l`am mˆa´t nghiˆe
.
m cu’ a c´ ac
phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh f
1
(y) = 0 v`a ϕ
1
(x) = 0. Do vˆa
.
y dˆe

thu du
.
o
.
.
c to`an bˆo
.
nghiˆe
.
m cu’ a (14.1) ta cˆa
`
n ho
.
.
p nhˆa´t v`ao (14.3) c´ac khˆong diˆe

m cu’ a h`am
f
1
(y) v`a ϕ
1
(x).
Nhˆa
.
n x´et. Phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh da
.
ng
dy
dx
= f(ax +by),
trong d´o f(ax + by) h`am liˆen tu
.
c, c´o thˆe

du
.
a vˆe
`
phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh t´ach
biˆe
´
n
[a +bf(t)]dx −dt = 0
bo
.
’ i ph´ep dˆo

i biˆe
´
n t = ax +by.
14.1. Phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh vi phˆan cˆa´p 1 227
C
´
AC V
´
I DU
.
V´ı du
.
1. Gia’ i phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh

y
2
+ 1dx = xydy.
Gia’ i. D´o l`a phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh da
.
ng (14.1). Chia hai vˆe
´
cho t´ıch
x

y
2
+ 1 ta c´o
dx
x
=
ydy

y
2
+ 1
, x = 0
v`a t` u
.
d´o

dx
x
=

ydy

y
2
+ 1
+C ⇒ln[x[ −

y
2
+ 1 = C.
Nhu
.
vˆa
.
y, mo
.
i nghiˆe
.
m cu’ a phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh d˜a cho l`a
ln[x[ −

y
2
+ 1 = C, v`a x = 0.
V´ı du
.
2. Gia’ i phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh (x
2
−1)y

+ 2xy
2
= 0, y(0) = 1.
Gia’ i. Dˆa
`
u tiˆen ta t`ım nghiˆe
.
m tˆo

ng qu´at cu’ a phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh. Ta c´o
(x
2
−1)dy + 2xy
2
dx = 0 ⇒
dy
y
2
+
2xdx
x
2
−1
= 0.
T` u
.
d´o thu du
.
o
.
.
c

1
y
+ ln[x
2
−1[ = C. (14.4)
Do vˆa
.
y mo
.
i nghiˆe
.
m cu’ a phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh d˜a cho l`a

1
y
+ ln[x
2
−1[ = C, v`a y = 0.
T` u
.
tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p mo
.
i du
.
`o
.
ng cong t´ıch phˆan thu du
.
o
.
.
c ta t`ım du
.
`o
.
ng
cong qua diˆe

m (0, 1). Thay x = 0 v`a y = 1 v`ao (14.4) ta c´o C = −1.
Nhu
.
vˆa
.
y h`am
y =
1
1 + ln[x
2
−1[
228 Chu
.
o
.
ng 14. Phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh vi phˆan
l`a nghiˆe
.
m cu’ a b`ai to´an Cauchy d˜a cho.
V´ı du
.
3. Gia’ i phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh (1 +e
x
)yy

= e
x
, y(0) = 1.
Gia’ i. Ta c´o
(1 +e
x
)y
dy
dx
= e
x
⇒ydy =
e
x
dx
1 +e
x

y
2
2
= ln(1 +e
x
) +C. (14.5)
Thay x = 0 v`a y = 1 v`ao (14.5) ta thu du
.
o
.
.
c nghiˆe
.
m riˆeng
y
2
= 1 + ln

1 +e
x
2

2
⇒y = ±

1 + ln

1 +e
x
2

2
.
T` u
.
diˆe
`
u kiˆe
.
n ban dˆa
`
u suy r˘a
`
ng y > 0 (y

x=0
= 1 > 0) do vˆa
.
y tru
.
´o
.
c
dˆa´u c˘an ta lˆa´y dˆa´u +. Nhu
.
vˆa
.
y nghiˆe
.
m riˆeng cˆa
`
n t`ım l`a
y =

1 + ln

1 +e
x
2

2
.
V´ı du
.
4. Gia’ i phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh
dy
dx
= cos(x +y).
Gia’ i.
´
Ap du
.
ng nhˆa
.
n x´et d˜a nˆeu, ta d˘a
.
t z = x +y. Khi d´o ta c´o
dz
dx
= 1 +
dy
dx
v`a t` u
.
d´o phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh d˜a cho c´ o da
.
ng
dz
dx
= 1 + cos z ⇒
dz
1 + cos z
= dx ⇒

dz
1 + cos z
=

dx +C

dz
2 cos
2
z
2
= x +C ⇒tg
z
2
= x +C ⇒z = 2[arctg(x +C) +nπ].
V`ı khi gia’ i phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh ta d˜a chia hai vˆe
´
cho 1 + cos z. Do vˆa
.
y,
cˆa
`
n kiˆe

m tra xem c´ o mˆa´t nghiˆe
.
m hay khˆong. V`ı 1 +cos z = 0 ⇔z
n
=
(2n + 1)π, n ∈ Z. Thˆe
´
z
n
v`ao phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh ta thˆa´y z
n
l`a nghiˆe
.
m cu’ a
phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh d˜a cho. Tro
.
’ vˆe
`
biˆe
´
n c˜ u ta c´ o nghiˆe
.
m:
y = −x + 2arctg(x +C) + 2nπ,
14.1. Phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh vi phˆan cˆa´p 1 229
v`a
y = −x + (2n + 1)π.
B
`
AI T
ˆ
A
.
P
Gia’ i c´ac phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh sau
1. (1 +y
2
)dx + (1 +x
2
)dy = 0. (DS. arctgx + arctgy = C)
2. (1 +y
2
)dx +xydy = 0. (DS. x
2
(1 +y
2
) = C)
3. (1 +y
2
)dx = xdy. (DS. y = tg lnCx)
4. x

1 +y
2
+yy


1 +x
2
= 0. (DS.

1 +x
2
+

1 +y
2
= C)
5. e
−y
(1 +y

) = 1. (DS. e
x
= C(1 −e
−y
))
6. y

= a
x+y
(0 < a = 1). (DS. a
x
+a
−y
= C)
7. e
y
(1 +x
2
)dy −2x(1 +e
y
)dx = 0. (DS. 1 +e
y
= C(1 +x
2
))
8. y
2
sin xdx + cos
2
xlnydy = 0. (DS. (1 +Cy + lny) cos x)
9. e
x
sin
3
y + (1 +e
2x
) cos y y

. (DS. arctge
x
=
1
2 sin
2
y
+C)
10. y

= sin(x −y). (DS. x +C = cotg

y −x
2
+
π
4

)
11. y

= cos(y −x). (DS. x −cotg
y −x
2
= C, y −x = 2kπ, k ∈ Z)
12. y −y

= 2x −3. (DS. y = 1 −2x +Ce
x
)
Chı ’ dˆa
˜
n. Dˆo

i biˆe
´
n z = y + 2x −3.
13. (x + 1)
3
dy −(y −2)
2
dx = 0. (DS. −
1
y −2
+
1
2(x + 1)
2
= C)
14. (

xy +

x)y

−y = 0. (DS. 2

y + ln[y[ −2

x = C)
15. 2
x+y
+ 3
x−2y
y

= 0. (DS.

2
3

x
ln
2
3

18
−y
ln18
= C)
230 Chu
.
o
.
ng 14. Phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh vi phˆan
16. (y +xy)dx + (x −xy)dy = 0. (DS. x −y + ln[xy[ = C)
17. yy

+x = 1. (DS. (x −1)
2
+y
2
= C
2
)
18. 1 + (1 +y

)e
y
= 0. (DS. (e
y
+ 1)e
x
= C)
19. y

=
1
2

cos(x −y) −cos(x +y)

.
(DS. y = 2

arctg(C
1
e
−cos x
+nπ

)
20. 3e
x
tgydx + (2 −e
x
)
dy
cos
2
y
= 0. (DS. tgy −C(2 −e
x
)
3
= 0)
T`ım nghiˆe
.
m riˆeng cu’ a c´ac phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh tho’a m˜an c´ ac diˆe
`
u kiˆe
.
n
ban dˆa
`
u d˜a chı ’ ra.
21. ydx + cotgxdy = 0, y

π
3

= −1. (DS. y = −2 cos x)
22. y
2
+x
2
y

= 0, y(−1) = 1. (DS. x +y = 0)
23. 2(1 +e
x
)yy

= e
x
, y(0) = 0. (DS. 2e
y
2
= e
x
+ 1)
24. xy

+y = y
2
, y(1) =
1
2
. (DS. 4xy(1 −y) −1 = 0)
25. y

sinx = y lny, a) y

π
2

= e, b) y

π
2

= 1.
(DS. a) y = e
tg
x
2
, b) y ≡ 1)
26. y

sinx −y cos x = 0, y

π
2

= 1. (DS. y = sinx)
27. y lnydx +xdy = 0, y(1) = 1. (DS. y = 1)
28. x

1 −y
2
dx +y

1 −x
2
dy = 0, y(0) = 1.
(DS.

1 −x
2
+

1 −y
2
= 1, y = 1)
29. (2x +1)dy +y
2
dx = 0, y(4) = 1. (DS. ln

2
9
x +
1
9

= 2

1
y
−1

)
30. (1 +y
2
)dx −xydy = 0, y(2) = 1. (DS. x
2
= 2 + 2y
2
)
31. y

= (2y + 1)cotgx, y

π
4

=
1
2
. (DS. y = 2 sin
2
x −
1
2
)
14.1. Phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh vi phˆan cˆa´p 1 231
32. y

tgx −y = 1, y

π
2

= 1. (DS. y = 2 sinx −1)
33. siny cos xdy = cos y sinydx, y(0) =
π
4
. (DS. cos x =

2 cos y)
34. y

sin x = y lny, y

π
2

= 1. (DS. y = 1)
35. xydx + (1 +y
2
)

1 +x
2
dy = 0, y(

8) = 1.
(DS. 2

1 +x
2
+ lny
2
+y
2
= 7)
14.1.2 Phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh d˘a

ng cˆa
´
p
1. Tru
.
´ o
.
c hˆe
´
t lu
.
u ´ y r˘a
`
ng h`am f(x, y) du
.
o
.
.
c go
.
i l`a h`am d˘a

ng cˆ a´p cˆa´p m
dˆo´i v´o
.
i c´ac biˆe
´
n cu’ a n´o nˆe
´
u n´o tho’a m˜an dˆo
`
ng nhˆa´t th´ u
.
c f(tx, ty) =
t
m
f(x, y).
Phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh vi phˆan
dy
dx
= f(x, y) du
.
o
.
.
c go
.
i l`a phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh d˘a

ng
cˆa´p dˆo´i v´o
.
i c´ac biˆe
´
n x v`a y nˆe
´
u h`am f(x, y) l`a h`am d˘a

ng cˆa´p cˆa´p 0
dˆo´i v´o
.
i c´ac biˆe
´
n cu’ a n´o.
Phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh d˘a

ng cˆa´p luˆon luˆon c´o thˆe

biˆe

u diˆe
˜
n du
.
´o
.
i da
.
ng
dy
dx
=
ϕ

y
x

.
Nh`o
.
ph´ep dˆo

i biˆe
´
n
u =
y
x
ta du
.
a du
.
o
.
.
c phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh d˘a

ng cˆa´p vˆe
`
phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh t´ach biˆe
´
n d˜a biˆe
´
t
c´ach gia’ i:
x
du
dx
= ϕ(u) −u.
Nˆe
´
u u = u
0
l`a nghiˆe
.
m cu’ a phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh ϕ(u) − u = 0 th`ı phu
.
o
.
ng
tr`ınh d˘ a

ng cˆa´p c`on c´o nghiˆe
.
m l` a y = u
0
x.
2. C´ac phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh du
.
a du
.
o
.
.
c vˆe
`
phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh d˘a

ng cˆ a´p
232 Chu
.
o
.
ng 14. Phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh vi phˆan
i) Phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh vi phˆan da
.
ng
y = f

a
1
x +b
1
y +c
1
a
2
x +b
2
y +c
2

, a
i
= const, b
i
= const, i = 1, 2. (14.6)
c´o thˆe

du
.
a du
.
o
.
.
c vˆe
`
phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh d˘a

ng cˆa´p nˆe
´
u

a
1
b
1
a
2
b
2

= a
1
b
2
−a
2
b
1
= 0.
Dˆe

l`am viˆe
.
c d´o, ta d˘a
.
t x = u+α, y = v +β v`a cho
.
n α v`a β sao cho vˆe
´
pha’ i cu’ a phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh (14.6) c´o da
.
ng f

a
1
u +b
1
v
a
2
u +b
2
v

. N´oi c´ach kh´ac
α v`a β l`a nghiˆe
.
m cu’ a hˆe
.
phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh
a
1
α +b
1
β +c
1
= 0,
(14.7)
a
2
α +b
2
β +c
2
= 0.
T`ım nghiˆe
.
m tˆo

ng qu´at cu’ a phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh
dv
du
= f

a
1
u +b
1
v
a
2
u +b
2
v

rˆo
`
i thay u bo
.
’ i x −α, thay v bo
.
’ i y −β ta thu du
.
o
.
.
c nghiˆe
.
m tˆo

ng qu´at
cu’ a (14.6).
ii) Nˆe
´
u

a
1
b
1
a
2
b
2

= a
1
b
2
− a
2
b
1
= 0 th`ı a
1
x + b
1
y = λ(a
2
x + b
2
y),
λ = const. Trong tru
.
`o
.
ng ho
.
.
p n`ay phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh (14.6) du
.
a du
.
o
.
.
c vˆe
`
phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh t´ach biˆe
´
n b˘a
`
ng c´ach d˘a
.
t z = a
2
x +b
2
y.
C
´
AC V
´
I DU
.
V´ı du
.
1. Gia’ i phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh 2x
2
dy = (x
2
+y
2
)dx.
Gia’ i. Chia hai vˆe
´
cu’ a phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh cho x
2
dx ta thu du
.
o
.
.
c
2
dy
dx
= 1 +

y
x

2
.
14.1. Phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh vi phˆan cˆa´p 1 233
D˘a
.
t y = ux ⇒y

= xu

+u v` a thu du
.
o
.
.
c
2xu

+ 2u = 1 +u
2
⇒2x
dy
dx
= u
2
−2u + 1 ⇒
2du
(u −1)
2
=
dx
x

T´ıch phˆan phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh n`ay ta c´ o

2
u −1
= ln[x[ + lnC ⇒−
2
y
x
−1
= lnCx ⇒ Cx = e

2x
y−x
Khi thu
.
.
c hiˆe
.
n viˆe
.
c chia cho x v`a u−1 ta cˆa
`
n xem x = 0 v`a u = 1.
Kiˆe

m tra tru
.
.
c tiˆe
´
p ta thˆa´y x = 0 v`a u = 1 (t´ u
.
c l`a y = x) c˜ ung l`a
nghiˆe
.
m cu’ a phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh d˜a cho. Vˆa
.
y
Cx = e

2x
y−x
, y = x, x = 0.
V´ı du
.
2. Gia’ i phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh
xy

= y

1 + ln
y
x

, y(1) = e

1
2
.
Gia’ i. Trong phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh d˘a

ng cˆ a´p y

=
y
x

1+ln
y
x

ta d˘a
.
t u =
y
x
,
y

= u +xu

. Ta thu du
.
o
.
.
c phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh t´ach biˆe
´
n
u +x
du
dx
= u(1 + lnu) ⇒x
du
dx
= ulnu

du
ulnu
=

dx
x
+ lnC ⇒ln[ lnu[ = ln[x[ + lnC
⇒lnu = Cx.
Thay u bo
.
’ i
y
x
ta c´o
ln
y
x
= Cx ⇒y = xe
Cx
.
D´o l`a nghiˆe
.
m tˆo

ng qu´at. Thay diˆe
`
u kiˆe
.
n ban dˆa
`
u y(1) = e

1
2
ta c´ o
C = −
1
2
v`a do d´o nghiˆe
.
m riˆeng cˆa
`
n t`ım l`a y = xe

x
2
.
234 Chu
.
o
.
ng 14. Phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh vi phˆan
V´ı du
.
3. Gia’ i phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh (x +y −2)dx + (x −y + 4)dy = 0.
Gia’ i. Phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh d˜a cho tho’a m˜an diˆe
`
u kiˆe
.
n a
1
b
2
−a
2
b
1
= −2 =
0.
Ta t`ım c´ac sˆo´ α v`a β b˘a
`
ng c´ach gia’ i hˆe
.
x +y −2 = 0
x −y + 4 = 0
¸
⇔α = x
0
= −1, β = y
0
= 3.
Thu
.
.
c hiˆe
.
n ph´ep dˆo

i biˆe
´
n x = u − 1, y = v + 3. Khi d´o phu
.
o
.
ng
tr`ınh d˜a cho tro
.
’ th`anh
(u +v)du + (u −v)dv = 0. (14.8)
Phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh (14.8) l`a phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh d˘a

ng cˆa´p. D˘a
.
t v = zu ta thu
du
.
o
.
.
c
(u +uz)du + (u −uz)(udz +zdu) = 0,
(1 + 2z −z
2
)du +u(1 −z)dz = 0,
du
u
+
1 −z
1 + 2z −z
2
dz = 0,
ln[u[ +
1
2
ln[1 + 2z −z
2
[ = lnC
hay l`a
u
2
(1 + 2z −z
2
) = C.
Tro
.
’ vˆe
`
biˆe
´
n c˜ u x v`a y ta c´ o
(x + 1)
2

1 + 2
y −3
x + 1

(y −3)
2
(x + 1)
2

= C
1
hay l`a
x
2
+ 2xy −y
2
−4x + 8y = C. (C = C
1
+ 14).
14.1. Phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh vi phˆan cˆa´p 1 235
V´ı du
.
4. Gia’ i phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh
(x +y + 1)dx + (2x + 2y −1)dy = 0.
Gia’ i. R˜o r`ang l`a dˆo´i v´o
.
i phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh d˜a cho ta c´ o

1 1
2 2

= 0, t´ u
.
c
l`a hˆe
.
x +y + 1 = 0
2x + 2y −1 = 0
¸
vˆo nghiˆe
.
m. Trong tru
.
`o
.
ng ho
.
.
p n` ay ta d˘a
.
t
z = x +y, dy = dz −dx
v`a
(2 −z)dx + (2z −1)dz = 0 ⇒dx −
2z −1
z −2
dz = 0
⇒x −2z −3 ln [z −2[ = C.
Tro
.
’ vˆe
`
biˆe
´
n c˜ u ta c´ o x + 2y + 3 ln[x +y −2[ = C.
B
`
AI T
ˆ
A
.
P
Gia’ i c´ac phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh sau
1. (x −y)dx +xdy = 0. (DS. y = x(C −lnx))
2. xy

= y(lny −lnx). (DS. y = xe
1+Cx
)
3. (x
2
+y
2
)dx −xydy = 0. (DS. y
2
= x
2
(lnx −C))
4. xy

cos
y
x
= y cos
y
x
−x. (DS. sin
y
x
+ lnx = C)
5. y

= e
y
x
+
y
x
. (DS. lnCx = −e

y
x
)
6. xy

= y ln
x
y
. (DS. y = xe
Cx+1
)
236 Chu
.
o
.
ng 14. Phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh vi phˆan
7. x
2
dy = (y
2
−xy +x
2
)dx. (DS. (x −y) lnCx = x)
8. xy

= y +

y
2
−x
2
. (DS. y +

y
2
−x
2
= Cx
2
, y = x)
9. (4x −3y)dx + (2y −3x)dy = 0. (DS. y
2
−3xy + 2x
2
= C)
10. (y −x)dx + (y +x)dy = 0. (DS. x
2
+ 2xy −x
2
= C)
11. xy

= y(1 + lny −lnx). (DS. y = xe
Cx
)
12. y −xy

= y ln
x
y
. (DS. y = xe
Cx
)
13. y −xy

= x +yy

. (DS. arctg
y
x
+ lnC

x
2
+y
2
= 0)
14. ydy + (x −2y)dx. (DS. x = (y −x) lnC(y −x))
15. ydx + (2

xy −x)dy = 0. (DS.

x +

y lnCy = 0)
16. xy

cos
y
x
= y cos
y
x
−x. (DS. sin
y
x
+ lnx = C)
17. (y +

x
2
+y
2
)dx −xdy = 0. (DS. y =
1
2C
(x
2
−C
2
))
18. (x +y)dx + (x −y)dy = 0. (DS. x
2
+ 2xy −y
2
= C)
Gia’ i c´ac phu
.
o
.
.
ng tr`ınh vi phˆan du
.
a du
.
o
.
.
c vˆe
`
phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh d˘a

ng cˆa´p
sau
19. y

= −
x −2y + 5
2x −y + 4
. (DS.
y −x −3
(y +x + 1)
3
= C)
20. (2x −y + 1)dx + (2y −x −1)dy = 0.
(DS. x
2
−xy +y
2
−x −y = C)
21. y

=
2x +y −1
4x + 2y + 5
.
(DS. 10y −5x + 7 ln(10x + 5y + 9) = C)
22. (x +y + 2)dx + (2x + 2y −1)dy = 0.
(DS. x + 2y + 5 ln [x +y −3[ = C)
23. (x −2y + 3)dy + (2x +y −1)dx = 0.
(DS. x
2
+xy −y
2
−x + 3y = C)
24. (x −y + 4)dy + (x +y −2)dx = 0.
14.1. Phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh vi phˆan cˆa´p 1 237
(DS. x
2
+ 2xy −y
2
−4x + 8y = C)
T`ım nghiˆe
.
m riˆeng cu’ a c´ac phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh d˘a

ng cˆa´p ho˘a
.
c du
.
a du
.
o
.
.
c
vˆe
`
d˘a

ng cˆa´p sau
25. xdy −ydx = ydy, y(−1) = 1. (DS. x = −y(1 + ln[y[))
26. xydx + (y
2
−x
2
)dy = 0, y(1) = 1. (DS. x
2
+y
2
(lny
2
−1) = 0)
27. xy

−y = xtg

y
x

, y(1) =
π
2
. (DS. y = xarc sin x)
28. x
2
−y
2
+ 2xyy

= 0, y(1) = 1. (DS. x
2
+ 2x +y
2
= 0)
14.1.3 Phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh tuyˆe
´
n t´ınh
Phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh da
.
ng
dy
dx
+P(x)y = Q(x) (14.9)
trong d´o P(x) v`a Q(x) l`a nh˜ u
.
ng h`am liˆen tu
.
c, du
.
o
.
.
c go
.
i l`a phu
.
o
.
ng
tr`ınh vi phˆan tuyˆe
´
n t´ınh cˆa´p 1. T´ınh chˆa´t tuyˆe
´
n t´ınh o
.
’ dˆay c´o ngh˜ıa
l`a ˆa

n h`am y v`a da
.
o h`am y

cu’ a n´o tham gia trong phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh l`a
tuyˆe
´
n t´ınh, t´ u
.
c l`a c´o bˆa
.
c b˘a
`
ng 1.
Nˆe
´
u Q(x) ≡ 0 th`ı (14.9) du
.
o
.
.
c go
.
i l`a phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh tuyˆe
´
n t´ınh thuˆa
`
n
nhˆa´t cˆa´p 1. Nˆe
´
u Q(x) ≡ 0 th`ı (14.9) du
.
o
.
.
c go
.
i l`a phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh tuyˆe
´
n
t´ınh khˆ ong thuˆa
`
n nhˆa´t.
Phu
.
o
.
ng ph´ap gia’ i. Hai phu
.
o
.
ng ph´ap thu
.
`o
.
ng du
.
o
.
.
c su
.
’ du
.
ng l`a
1
+
Phu
.
o
.
ng ph´ap biˆe
´
n thiˆen h˘a
`
ng sˆ o
´
.
Dˆa
`
u tiˆen t`ım nghiˆe
.
m cu’ a phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh thuˆa
`
n nhˆa´t
dy
dx
+P(x)y = 0. (14.10)
Sau d´o trong cˆong th´ u
.
c nghiˆe
.
m tˆo

ng qu´at cu’ a (14.10) ta xem h˘a
`
ng
sˆo´ C l`a h`am kha’ vi cu’ a x: C = C(x). Ta thu du
.
o
.
.
c h`am C = C(x)
t` u
.
phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh vi phˆan t´ach biˆe
´
n sau khi thˆe
´
nghiˆe
.
m tˆo

ng qu´at
238 Chu
.
o
.
ng 14. Phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh vi phˆan
cu’ a (14.10) v`ao (14.9). Phu
.
o
.
ng ph´ap v` u
.
a nˆeu go
.
i l`a phu
.
o
.
ng ph´ap
Lagrange.
2
+
Phu
.
o
.
ng ph´ap dˆo

i biˆe
´
n c`on go
.
i l`a phu
.
o
.
ng ph´ap Bernoulli.
Dˆe

gia’ i (14.9) ta t`ım h`am y du
.
´o
.
i da
.
ng t´ıch cu’ a hai h`am chu
.
a biˆe
´
t
cu’ a x: y = u(x)v(x). Thˆe
´
y v`ao (14.9) ta c´ o
v[u

+P(x)u] +v

u = Q(x). (14.11)
V`ı y l`a t´ıch cu’ a hai h`am nˆen mˆo
.
t trong hai c´o thˆe

cho
.
n t` uy ´ y, c`on
h`am kia du
.
o
.
.
c x´ac di
.
nh bo
.
’ i (14.11). Thˆong thu
.
`o
.
ng ta cho
.
n u(x) sao
cho biˆe

u th´ u
.
c trong dˆa´u ngo˘a
.
c vuˆong b˘a
`
ng 0, t´ u
.
c l`a u

+P(x)u = 0.
Dˆe

c´o diˆe
`
u d´o ta chı ’ cˆa
`
n lˆa´y u(x) l`a nghiˆe
.
m riˆeng cu’ a phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh
u

+ P(x)u = 0. Gia’ i phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh n`ay ta thu du
.
o
.
.
c u(x). Thˆe
´
u(x)
v`ao (14.11) ta c´ o
v

u = Q(x)
v`a thu du
.
o
.
.
c nghiˆe
.
m tˆo

ng qu´at v = v(x, C). Nhu
.
vˆa
.
y y = u(x)v(x, C)
l`a nghiˆe
.
m tˆo

ng qu´at cu’ a (14.9).
Trong nhiˆe
`
u tru
.
`o
.
ng ho
.
.
p phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh vi phˆan cˆa´p 1 khˆong tuyˆe
´
n
t´ınh dˆo´i v´o
.
i y m`a l`a tuyˆe
´
n t´ınh dˆo´i v´o
.
i x, t´ u
.
c l`a phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh c´o thˆe

du
.
a vˆe
`
da
.
ng
dx
dy
+F(y)x = R(y). (14.12)
Viˆe
.
c gia’ i phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh (14.12) tu
.
o
.
ng tu
.
.
nhu
.
gia’ i phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh (14.9)
v´o
.
i ch´ u ´ y l`a: y l`a dˆo´i sˆo´, x = x(y) l`a ˆa

n h`am.
14.1. Phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh vi phˆan cˆa´p 1 239
C
´
AC V
´
I DU
.
V´ı du
.
1. Gia’ i phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh y

+ 3y = e
2x
.
Gia’ i. Ta s˜e gia’ i phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh d˜a cho b˘a
`
ng phu
.
o
.
ng ph´ap biˆe
´
n thiˆen
h˘a
`
ng sˆo´.
Dˆa
`
u tiˆen gia’ i phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh thuˆa
`
n nhˆa´t
y

+ 3y = 0 ⇒
dy
y
= −3dx.
T` u
.
d´o thu du
.
o
.
.
c:
ln[y[ = −3x + ln[C
1
[ ⇒y = ±C
1
e
−3x
= Ce
−3x
.
Nghiˆe
.
m tˆo

ng qu´at cu’ a phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh khˆong thuˆa
`
n nhˆa´t d˜a cho s˜e
du
.
o
.
.
c t`ım du
.
´o
.
i da
.
ng y = C(x)e
−3x
. Lˆa´y da
.
o h`am y

rˆo
`
i thˆe
´
c´ac biˆe

u
th´ u
.
c cu’ a y v`a y

v`ao phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh d˜a cho ta c´o
C

(x)e
−3x
= e
2x
⇒C

(x) = e
5x
⇒C(x) =
1
5
e
5x
+C
2
trong d´o C
2
l`a h˘a
`
ng sˆo´ t` uy ´ y. T` u
.
d´o thu du
.
o
.
.
c nghiˆe
.
m tˆo

ng qu´at cu’ a
phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh d˜a cho
y = C(x)e
−3x
=

1
5
e
5x
+C
2

=
1
5
e
5x
+C
2
e
−3x
.
V´ı du
.
2. Gia’ i phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh trong v´ı du
.
1 b˘a
`
ng phu
.
o
.
ng ph´ap dˆo

i
biˆe
´
n.
Gia’ i. D˘a
.
t y = uv. Khi d´o y

= u

v + v

u. Thay v`ao phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh
ta thu du
.
o
.
.
c
u

v +uv

+ 3uv = e
2x
⇒u[v

+ 3v] +u

v = e
2x
. (14.13)
T` u
.
d´o ta c´o hai phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh dˆe

t`ım u v`a v:
v

+ 3v = 0, (14.14)
vu

= e
2x
. (14.15)
240 Chu
.
o
.
ng 14. Phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh vi phˆan
T` u
.
(14.14) suy ra
dv
3v
= −dx ⇒v = e
−3x
.
Thˆe
´
v = e
−3x
v`ao (14.15) ta du
.
o
.
.
c
e
−3x
u

= e
2x
→u

= e
5x
⇒u =
1
5
e
5x
+C
v`a do d´o
y = e
−3x

1
5
e
5x
+C

=
1
5
e
2x
+Ce
−3x
.
R˜o r`ang l`a ca’ hai c´ach gia’ i dˆe
`
u cho mˆo
.
t kˆe
´
t qua’ .
V´ı du
.
3. Gia’ i phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh
dy
dx
=
1
xcos y +a sin 2y
(14.16)
Gia’ i. Phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh d˜a cho khˆong pha’ i l`a phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh tuyˆe
´
n t´ınh
dˆo´i v´o
.
i y. Tuy nhiˆen, b˘a
`
ng ph´ep biˆe
´
n dˆo

i do
.
n gia’ n ta biˆe
´
n dˆo

i n´o vˆe
`
phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh tuyˆe
´
n t´ınh dˆo´i v´o
.
i x v`a x

:
dx
dy
−xcos y = a sin2y.
D˘a
.
t x = u(y)v(y) ⇒
dx
dy
= u
dv
dy
+v
du
dy
. Thˆe
´
x v`ao phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh v` u
.
a
thu du
.
o
.
.
c ta c´o hai phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh dˆe

x´ac di
.
nh u v`a v
du
dy
−ucos y = 0, (14.17)
u
dv
dy
= a sin 2y. (14.18)
Gia’ i phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh (14.17) ta thu du
.
o
.
.
c u = e
siny
. Thˆe
´
kˆe
´
t qua’ n`ay v`ao
(14.18) dˆe

t`ım v. Ta c´o
e
siny
dv
dy
= a sin2y
v(y) = 2a

siny cos ye
−siny
dy +C
= −2a(siny + 1)e
−sin y
+C.
14.1. Phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh vi phˆan cˆa´p 1 241
T` u
.
d´o thu du
.
o
.
.
c nghiˆe
.
m tˆo

ng qu´ at
x(y) = u v = e
siny

−2a(siny + 1)e
−siny
+C

= −2a(siny + 1) +Ce
siny
.
V´ı du
.
4. Gia’ i b`ai to´an Cauchy
x(x −1)y +y = x
2
(2x −1), y(2) = 4.
Gia’ i. T`ım nghiˆe
.
m tˆo

ng qu´at du
.
´o
.
i da
.
ng
y = u(x)v(x) ⇒y

= u

v +v

u.
Thˆe
´
y v`a y

v`ao phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh d˜a cho ta s˜e c´o hai phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh dˆe

x´ac
di
.
nh u(x) v`a v(x):
x(x −1)v

+v = 0, (14.19)
x(x −1)vu

= x
2
(2x −1). (14.20)
Gia’ i (14.19) ta thu du
.
o
.
.
c v =
x
x −1
. Thˆe
´
v`ao (14.20) ta c´ o
u

= 2x −1 ⇒u(x) = x
2
−x +C.
Do d´o nghiˆe
.
m tˆo

ng qu´at c´ o da
.
ng
y = uv = (x
2
−x +C)
x
x −1
⇒y =
Cx
x −1
+x
2
.
v`a su
.
’ du
.
ng diˆe
`
u kiˆe
.
n ban dˆa
`
u ta thu du
.
o
.
.
c
4 = C
2
2 −1
+ 2
2
⇒C = 0 ⇒y = x
2
.
Nhu
.
vˆa
.
y nghiˆe
.
m cu’ a b`ai to´an Cauchy l`a y = x
2
.
B
`
AI T
ˆ
A
.
P
242 Chu
.
o
.
ng 14. Phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh vi phˆan
Gia’ i c´ac phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh sau
1. y

−y = e
x
. (DS. y = (x +C)e
x
)
2. y

+ 2y = e
−x
. (DS. y = Ce
−2x
+e
−x
)
3. y

= x +y. (DS. y = Ce
x
−x −1)
4. y

+x
2
y = x
2
. (DS. y = 1 +Ce

x
3
3
)
5. xy

+y = 3. (DS. y = 3 +
C
x
)
6. xy

+y = e
x
. (DS. y =
e
x
+C
x
)
7. y

+ 2xy = 2xe
−x
2
. (DS. y = (x
2
+C)e
−x
2
)
8. y

−2xy = 2xe
x
2
. (DS. y = (x +C)e
x
2
)
9. y

+ 2xy = e
−x
2
. (DS. y = (x +C)e
−x
2
)
10. y

+y = cos x. (DS. y = Ce
−x
+
1
2
(cos x + sinx))
11. y

cos x −y sinx = sin2x. (DS. y =
C −cos 2x
2 cos x
)
12. xy

−2y = x
3
cos x. (DS. y = Cx
2
+x
2
sinx)
13. xy

+y = lnx + 1. (DS. y = lnx +
C
x
)
14. y

+
2y
x
=
e
−x
2
x
. (DS. y =
C −e
−x
2
2x
2
)
15. y

−ytgx = cotgx. (DS. y = 1 +
lnCtg
x
2
cos x
)
16. y

xlnx −y = 3x
3
ln
2
x. (DS. y = (C +x
3
) lnx)
17. y

+y cos x = sin2x. (DS. y = 2(sin x −1) +Ce
−sinx
)
18. y


2
x
y =
e
x
(x −2)
x
. (DS. y = Cx
2
+e
x
)
19. y

+ 2xy = 2x
2
e
−x
2
. (DS. y = e
−x
2

2x
3
3
+C))
14.1. Phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh vi phˆan cˆa´p 1 243
Gia’ i c´ac phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh tuyˆe
´
n t´ınh dˆo´i v´o
.
i x sau dˆay
20. y

=
y
2y lny +y −x
. (DS. x =
C
y
+y lny)
21. (e

y
2
2
−xy)dy −dx = 0. (DS. x = (C +y)e

y
2
2
)
22. (sin
2
y +xcotgy)y

= 1. (DS. x = (−cos y +C) siny)
23. (x +y
2
)dy = ydx. (DS. x = Cy +y
2
, y = 0)
24. (2e
y
−x)y

= 1. (DS. x = Ce
−y
+e
y
)
25. (y
2
−6x)y

+ 2y = 0. (DS. x =
1
2
y
2
+Cy
3
)
26. y = xy

+y

lny. (DS. x = Cy −1 −lny)
27. (x
2
lny −x)y

= y. (DS. x =
1
lny + 1 −Cy
)
28. (2xy + 3)dy −y
2
dx = 0. (DS. x = Cy
2

1
y
)
29. (y
4
+ 2x)y

= y. (DS. x = Cy
2
+
y
4
2
)
30. ydx + (x +x
2
y
2
)dy = 0. (DS. x =
1
y(y +C)
)
31. e
−x
dy
dx
−e
−x
= e
y
. (DS. e
−y
= Ce
−x

1
2
e
x
)
Chı ’ dˆa
˜
n. D˘a
.
t z(x) = e
−y
.
32. 3dy + (1 +e
x+3y
)dx = 0. (DS. y = −
1
3
ln(C +x) −
x
3
)
Chı ’ dˆa
˜
n. D˘a
.
t z(x) = e
−3y
.
Gia’ i c´ac b`ai to´an Cauchy sau
33. ydx −(3x + 1 + lny)dy = 0. y


1
3

= 1.
(DS. x =
y
3
−4
9

1
3
lny)
Chı ’ dˆa
˜
n. Xem x l`a ˆa

n h`am.
34. x
2
+xy

= y, y(1) = 0. (DS. y = x −x
2
)
244 Chu
.
o
.
ng 14. Phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh vi phˆan
35. y

cos x −y sinx = 2x, y(0) = 0. (DS. y =
x
2
cos x
)
36. y

−ytgx =
1
cos
3
x
, y(0) = 0. (DS. y =
sinx
cos
2
x
)
37. y

+y cos x = cos x, y(0) = 1. (DS. y = 1)
38. (1 −x)(y

+y) = e
−x
, y(2) = 0. (DS. −e
−x
ln[1 −x[)
39. y

+ 3ytg3x = sin6x, y(0) =
1
3
. (DS. y = cos 3x[1 −
2
3
cos 3x])
40. y

sinx −y cos x = 1; y

π
2

= 0. (DS. y = −cos x)
41. y

−ytgx =
1
cos x
, y(0) = 1. (DS. y =
x
cos x
+ 1)
42. y

+x
2
y = x
2
, y(2) = 1. (DS. y = 1)
43. y

−y
1
sinxcos x
= −
1
sinx
−sinx, y

π
4

= 1 +

2
2
.
(DS. tgx + cos x)
44. y

+y cos x = sinxcos x, y(0) = 1. (DS. y = 2e
−sinx
+ sinx −1)
14.1.4 Phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh Bernoulli
Phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh da
.
ng
y

+P(x)y = Q(x)y
α
, α = const, α = 0, α = 1, (14.21)
trong d´o P(x) v`a Q(x) l`a nh˜ u
.
ng h`am liˆen tu
.
c, du
.
o
.
.
c go
.
i l`a phu
.
o
.
ng
tr`ınh Bernoolli.
C˜ ung giˆo´ng nhu
.
phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh tuyˆe
´
n t´ınh, phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh Bernoulli
du
.
o
.
.
c gia’ i nh`o
.
phu
.
o
.
ng ph´ap
a) dˆo

i biˆe
´
n y = u(x)v(x),
b) biˆe
´
n thiˆen h˘a
`
ng sˆo´ t` uy ´ y.
Phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh (14.21) c´ o thˆe

du
.
a vˆe
`
phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh tuyˆe
´
n t´ınh bo
.
’ i
ph´ep dˆo

i biˆe
´
n
z = y
1−α
14.1. Phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh vi phˆan cˆa´p 1 245
C
´
AC V
´
I DU
.
V´ı du
.
1. Gia’ i phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh x
2
y
2
y

+xy
3
= 1.
Gia’ i. Chia hai vˆe
´
cho x
2
y
2
:
y

+
y
x
= y
−2

1
x
2
(14.22)
D´o l`a phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh Bernolli. Thay y = uv v`ao (14.22) ta c´ o:
u

v +v

u +
uv
x
=
1
x
2
u
2
v
2
,
⇒u

v +u

v

+
v
x

=
1
x
2
u
2
v
2

T` u
.
d´o dˆe

t`ım u v`a v ta c´o hai phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh
1) v

+
v
x
= 0; 2) vu

=
1
x
2
u
2
v
2

Phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh 1) cho ta nghiˆe
.
m v =
1
x
v`a t` u
.
d´o
u

x
=
1
u
2
⇒u
2
u

= x ⇒u
2
du = xdx

u
3
3
=
x
2
2
+
C
3
⇒u =
3

3x
2
2
+C.
Do vˆa
.
y nghiˆe
.
m tˆo

ng qu´at cu’ a phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh d˜a cho c´ o da
.
ng
y = uv =
3

3
2x
+
C
x
3
.
V´ı du
.
2. Gia’ i phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh y

−2xy = 3x
3
y
2
.
Gia’ i. D´o l`a phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh Bernolli. Chia hai vˆe
´
cu’ a phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh
cho y
2
:
y
−2
y

−2xy
−1
= 2x
3
.
D˘a
.
t z = y
−1
→−y
−2
y

= z

. Do d´o
z

+ 2xz = −2x
3
.
246 Chu
.
o
.
ng 14. Phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh vi phˆan
Gia’ i phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh n`ay ta thu du
.
o
.
.
c
z = Ce
−x
2
+ 1 −x
2
v`a do d´o nghiˆe
.
m tˆo

ng qu´at cu’ a phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh d˜a cho l`a
y =
1
Ce
−x
2
+ 1 −x
2

V´ı du
.
3. Gia’ i phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh xy

+y = y
2
lnx.
Gia’ i. Phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh d˜a cho l`a phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh Bertnoulli. Ta s˜e b˘a
`
ng
phu
.
o
.
ng ph´ap biˆe
´
n thiˆen h˘a
`
ng sˆo´.
1
+
Nghiˆe
.
m tˆo

ng qu´at cu’ a phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh thuˆa
`
n nhˆa´t tu
.
o
.
ng ´ u
.
ng l`a
y =
C
x
.
2
+
Nghiˆe
.
m tˆo

ng qu´at cu’ a phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh khˆong thuˆa
`
n nhˆa´t s˜e du
.
o
.
.
c
t`ım du
.
´o
.
i da
.
ng y =
C(x)
x
, trong d´o C(x) l`a h`am m´o
.
i chu
.
a biˆe
´
t. Thay
y =
C(x)
x
v`ao phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh d˜a cho ta thu du
.
o
.
.
c
C

(x) = C
2
(x)
lnx
x
2

dC
C
2
=
lnx
x
2
dx

1
C(x)
=
lnx
x
+
1
x
+C ⇒C(x) =
x
1 +Cx + lnx
v`a do d´o nghiˆe
.
m tˆo

ng qu´at cu’ a n´o l`a
y =
1
1 +Cx + lnx

B
`
AI T
ˆ
A
.
P
Gia’ i c´ac phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh Bernoulli sau
1. y

+ 2xy = 2xy
2
. (DS. y =
1
1 +Ce
x
2
)
2. 3xy
2
y

−2y
3
= x
3
. (DS. y
3
= x
3
+Cx
2
)
14.1. Phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh vi phˆan cˆa´p 1 247
3. (x
3
+e
y
)y

= 3x
2
. (DS. x
3
e
−y
= C +y)
4. y

+ 2xy = y
2
e
x
2
. (DS. y =
e
−x
2
C −x
)
5. y

−y cos x = y
2
cos x. (DS. y =
1
Ce
−sinx
−1
)
6. 2y

sinx +y cos x = y
3
sin
2
x. (DS. y
2
(C −x) sin x = 1)
Su
.
’ du
.
ng ph´ep dˆo

i biˆe
´
n du
.
a c´ac phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh phi tuyˆe
´
n sau dˆay
vˆe
`
phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh tuyˆe
´
n t´ınh ho˘ a
.
c phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh Bernoulli. Gia’ i c´ ac
phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh d´o.
7. y

−tgy = e
x
1
cos y
. (DS. siny = (x +C)e
x
.
Chı ’ dˆa
˜
n. D˘a
.
t z = siny.
8. y

= y(e
x
+ lny). (DS. lny = (x +C)e
x
)
Chı ’ dˆa
˜
n. D˘a
.
t z = lny.
9. y

cos y + siny = x + 1. (DS. siny = x +Ce
−x
)
Chı ’ dˆa
˜
n. D˘a
.
t z = siny.
10. yy

+ 1 = (x −1)e

y
2
2
. (DS. x −2 +Ce
−x
= e
y
2
2
)
Chı ’ dˆa
˜
n. D˘a
.
t z = e
y
2
2
11. y

+xsin2y = 2xe
−x
2
cos
2
y. (DS. tgy = (C +x
2
)e
−x
2
)
Chı ’ dˆa
˜
n. D˘a
.
t z = tgy.
14.1.5 Phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh vi phˆan to`an phˆa
`
n
I. Nˆe
´
u trong phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh vi phˆan cˆ a´p 1
P(x, y)dx +Q(x, y)dy = 0 (14.23)
c´ac hˆe
.
sˆo´ P v`a Q tho’a m˜an diˆe
`
u kiˆe
.
n
∂Q
∂x
=
∂P
∂y
(14.24)
248 Chu
.
o
.
ng 14. Phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh vi phˆan
th`ı vˆe
´
tr´ai cu’ a n´o l`a vi phˆan to`an phˆa
`
n cu’ a h`am V (x, y) n`ao d´o v`a
trong tru
.
`o
.
ng ho
.
.
p n`ay phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh (14.23) du
.
o
.
.
c go
.
i l`a phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh
vi phˆan to`an phˆa
`
n (ptvptp) v`a
P(x, y)dx +Q(x, y)dy = dV (x, y) = 0 (14.25)
Phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh (14.23) l`a ptvptp khi v`a chı ’ khi c´ac h`am P, Q,
∂Q
∂x
,
∂P
∂y
liˆen tu
.
c trong miˆe
`
n do
.
n liˆen D ⊂ R
2
v`a tho’a m˜an diˆe
`
u kiˆe
.
n
(14.24).
Nˆe
´
u dV (x, y) = 0 th`ı nghiˆe
.
m tˆo

ng qu´at cu’ a (14.25) c´o da
.
ng
V (x, y) = C,
trong d´o C l`a h˘a
`
ng sˆo´ t` uy ´ y v`a du
.
o
.
.
c t`ım theo c´ ac phu
.
o
.
ng ph´ap sau.
1
+
T´ıch phˆan biˆe

u th´ u
.
c dV (x, y) theo du
.
`o
.
ng L(A, M) ⊂ D bˆa´t k` y
gi˜ u
.
a hai diˆe

m A(x
0
, y
0
) v`a M(x, y) v`a thu du
.
o
.
.
c nghiˆe
.
m cu’ a ptvptp:
V (x, y) =
(x,y)

(x
0
,y
0
)
Pdx +Qdy = C.
Thˆong thu
.
`o
.
ng lˆa´y L(A, M) l`a du
.
`o
.
ng gˆa´p kh´ uc v´o
.
i c´ac ca
.
nh song song
v´o
.
i tru
.
c to
.
a dˆo
.
A(x
0
, y
0
), B(x, y
0
), M(x, y)):
V (x, y) =
x

x
0
P(t, y
0
)dt +
y

y
0
Q(x, t)dt = C.
2
+
V`ı dV (x, y) = d
x
V (x, y) + d
y
V (x, y), trong d´o d
x
V v`a d
y
V l`a
c´ac vi phˆan riˆeng cu’ a V (x, y) nˆen b˘a
`
ng c´ach t´ıch phˆan riˆeng biˆe
.
t mˆo
˜
i
biˆe

u th´ u
.
c d´o, ta c´ o V (x, y) biˆe

u diˆe
˜
n bo
.
’ i hai da
.
ng sau
1) V (x, y) =

Pdx +ϕ(y), xem y l`a khˆong dˆo

i,
2) V (x, y) =

Qdy +ψ(x), xem x khˆong dˆo

i.
14.1. Phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh vi phˆan cˆa´p 1 249
Dˆe
´
n dˆay, ho˘a
.
c xuˆa´t ph´at t` u
.
1) ta t`ım ϕ(y) du
.
.
a v`ao diˆe
`
u kiˆe
.
n l`a
∂V
∂y
= Q(x, y) ⇒

Pdx

y

(y) = Q(x, y)
v`a t` u
.
d´o thu du
.
o
.
.
c ϕ(y).
Ho˘a
.
c t`ım ψ(x) du
.
.
a v`ao diˆe
`
u kiˆe
.
n l`a
∂V
∂x
= P(x, y) ⇒

Qdy

x

(x) = P(x, y)
v`a t` u
.
d´o thu du
.
o
.
.
c ψ(x).
II. Th` u
.
a sˆo´ t´ıch phˆan
Nˆe
´
u phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh (14.23) khˆong l`a ptvptp nhu
.
ng tˆo
`
n ta
.
i h`am
µ = µ(x, y) ≡ 0 sao cho sau khi nhˆan hai vˆe
´
cu’ a (14.23) v´o
.
i µ m`a
phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh thu du
.
o
.
.
c trong kˆe
´
t qua’ l`a ptvptp th`ı h`am µ(x, y) du
.
o
.
.
c
go
.
i l`a th` u
.
a sˆo´ t´ıch phˆan. Ta chı ’ ha
.
n chˆe
´
x´et hai tru
.
`o
.
ng ho
.
.
p sau.
1
+
Nˆe
´
u

∂P
∂y

∂Q
∂x

/Q l`a h`am chı ’ cu’ a biˆe
´
n x th`ı phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh
(14.23) c´ o th` u
.
a sˆo´ t´ıch phˆan µ = µ(x) chı ’ phu
.
thuˆo
.
c x v`a du
.
o
.
.
c x´ac
di
.
nh bo
.
’ i phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh
d lnµ
dx
=
∂P
∂y

∂Q
∂x
Q
(14.26)
2
+
Tu
.
o
.
ng tu
.
.
nˆe
´
u

∂Q
∂x

∂P
∂y

/P l`a h`am chı ’ cu’ a biˆe
´
n y th`ı (14.23)
c´o th` u
.
a sˆo´ t´ıch phˆan µ = µ(y) chı ’ phu
.
thuˆo
.
c y v`a du
.
o
.
.
c t`ım t` u
.
phu
.
o
.
ng
tr`ınh
d lnµ
dy
=
∂Q
∂x

∂P
∂y
P
(14.27)
C
´
AC V
´
I DU
.
250 Chu
.
o
.
ng 14. Phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh vi phˆan
V´ı du
.
1. Gia’ i phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh
(x +y + 1)dx + (x −y
2
+ 3)dy = 0.
Gia’ i. O
.

dˆay P = x +y + 1, Q = x −y
2
+ 3. V`ı
∂P
∂y
= 1 =
∂Q
∂x
nˆen vˆe
´
tr´ai cu’ a phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh d˜a cho l`a vi phˆan to`an phˆa
`
n cu’ a h`am
V (x, y) n`ao d´o v`a
1)
∂V
∂x
= x +y + 1,
2)
∂V
∂y
= x −y
2
+ 3.
T` u
.
1) thu du
.
o
.
.
c
V =

P(x, y)dx +ϕ(y) =

(x +y + 1)dx +ϕ(y)
=
x
2
2
+yx +x +ϕ(y). (*)
Dˆe

t`ım ϕ(y) ta cˆa
`
n su
.
’ du
.
ng 2) v` a kˆe
´
t qua’ v` u
.
a thu du
.
o
.
.
c

∂y

x
2
2
+yx +x +ϕ(y)

= x −y
2
+ 3 ⇒ϕ

(y) = −y
2
+ 3
⇒ϕ(y) =

(−y
2
+ 3)dy ⇒ϕ(y) = −
y
3
3
+ 3y +C
1
.
Thˆe
´
biˆe

u th´ u
.
c ϕ(y) v`ao (*) ta thu du
.
o
.
.
c
V (x, y) =
x
2
2
+xy +x −
y
3
3
+ 3y +C
1
.
Phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh d˜a cho c´ o da
.
ng dV (x., y) = 0 v`a nghiˆe
.
m tˆo

ng qu´at cu’ a
n´o du
.
o
.
.
c x´ac di
.
nh bo
.
’ i phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh
V (x, y) = C
2
hay
x
2
2
+xy +x −
y
3
3
+ 3y +C
1
= C
2
.
14.1. Phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh vi phˆan cˆa´p 1 251
D˘a
.
t 6(C
2
− C
1
) = C - h˘a
`
ng sˆo´ t` uy ´ y v`a thu du
.
o
.
.
c nghiˆe
.
m tˆo

ng qu´at
cu’ a phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh d˜a cho l`a
3x
2
+ 6xy + 6x −2y
3
+ 18y = C.
V´ı du
.
2. Gia’ i phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh
(1 +x

x
2
+y
2
)dx + (−1 +

x
2
+y
2
)ydy = 0.
Gia’ i. Dˆe
˜
kiˆe

m tra r˘a
`
ng phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh d˜a cho l`a ptvptp. Thˆa
.
t vˆa
.
y
v`ı
∂P
∂y

∂Q
∂x
=
xy

x
2
+y
2
liˆen tu
.
c kh˘a
´
p no
.
i trong m˘a
.
t ph˘a

ng nˆen
phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh d˜a cho l`a ptvptp. Nghiˆe
.
m tˆo

ng qu´at cu’ a n´o c´o thˆe

viˆe
´
t
du
.
´o
.
i da
.
ng t´ıch phˆan du
.
`o
.
ng
(x,y)

(x
0
,y
0
)
[Pdx +Qdy] = C.
Cho
.
n du
.
`o
.
ng t´ıch phˆan l`a du
.
`o
.
ng gˆa´p kh´ uc c´o c´ ac ca
.
nh song song v´o
.
i
tru
.
c to
.
a dˆo
.
MNK, trong d´o M(x
0
, y
0
), K(x, y
0
), N(x, y) v` a thu du
.
o
.
.
c
x

x
0
P(t, y
0
)dt +
y

y
0
Q(x, t)dt = C.
Trong tru
.
`o
.
ng ho
.
.
p n`ay ta cho
.
n M(0; 1) v`a c´o
P(x, 1) = 1 +x

x
2
+ 1; Q(x, y) = (−1 +

x
2
+y
2
)y.
Do d´o t´ıch phˆan tˆo

ng qu´at c´ o da
.
ng
x

0
[1 +t

t
2
+ 1]dt +
y

1
[−1 +

x
2
+t
2
]tdt = C
hay l`a
x +
1
3
(x
2
+y
2
)
3/2

y
2
2
= C.
252 Chu
.
o
.
ng 14. Phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh vi phˆan
Nˆe
´
u ta cho
.
n M l`a diˆe

m kh´ac cu’ a m˘a
.
t ph˘a

ng th`ı thu du
.
o
.
.
c kˆe
´
t qua’ kh´ac
kˆe
´
t qua’ trˆen bo
.
’ i da
.
ng cu’ a h˘a
`
ng sˆo´ t` uy ´ y.
V´ı du
.
3. Gia’ i phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh
(x +y
2
)dx −2xydy = 0.
Gia’ i. O
.

dˆay P = x + y
2
, Q = −2xy. Ta thˆa´y ngay phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh
d˜a cho khˆong l`a phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh vi phˆan to`an phˆa
`
n. Ta c´o
∂P
∂y

∂Q
∂x
Q
=
2y + 2y
−2xy
= −
2
x
v`a do vˆa
.
y
d ln µ
dx
= −
2
x
⇒lnµ = −2ln[x[ ⇒µ =
1
x
2

Phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh
x +y
2
x
2
dx −2
xy
x
2
dy = 0
l`a phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh vi phˆan to`an phˆa
`
n. Vˆe
´
tr´ai cu’ a n´o c´o thˆe

viˆe
´
t du
.
´o
.
i
da
.
ng
dx
x

2xydy −y
2
dx
x
2
= 0 ⇒d

ln[x[ −
y
2
x

= 0.
T` u
.
d´o thu du
.
o
.
.
c t´ıch phˆ an tˆo

ng qu´at
x = Ce
y
2
/x
.
V´ı du
.
4. Gia’ i phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh
2xy lnydx + (x
2
+y
2

y
2
+ 1)dy = 0.
Gia’ i. O
.

dˆay P = 2xy lny, Q = x
2
+y
2

y
2
+ 1. Ta c´o
∂Q
∂x

∂P
∂y
P
=
2x −2x(lny + 1)
2xy lny
= −
1
y

d ln µ
dy
= −
1
y
⇒µ =
1
y

14.1. Phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh vi phˆan cˆa´p 1 253
Nhˆan µ =
1
y
v´o
.
i hai vˆe
´
cu’ a phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh d˜a cho ta thu du
.
o
.
.
c phu
.
o
.
ng
tr`ınh vi phˆan to`an phˆa
`
n
2xy lnydx
y
+
x
2
+y
2

y
2
+ 1
y
dy = 0
hay l`a
d(x
2
lny) +y

y
2
+ 1dy = 0 ⇒x
2
lny +
1
3
(y
2
+ 1)
3/2
= C.
B
`
AI T
ˆ
A
.
P
Gia’ i c´ac phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh sau
1. (3x
2
+ 6xy
2
)dx + (6x
2
y + 4y
3
)dy = 0. (DS. x
3
+ 3x
2
y
2
+y
4
= C)
2. 3xe
y
dx + (x
3
e
y
−1)dy = 0. (DS. x
3
e
y
−y = C)
3. e
−y
dx + (1 −xe
−y
)dy = 0. (DS. y +xe
−y
= C)
4. 2xcos
2
ydx + (2y −x
2
sin2y)dy = 0. (DS. x
2
cos
2
y +y
2
= C)
5. (3x
2
+ 2y)dx + (2x −3)dy = 0. (DS. x
3
+ 2xy −3y = C)
6. (3x
2
y −4xy
2
)dx + (x
3
−4x
2
y + 12y
3
)dy = 0.
(DS. x
3
y −2x
2
y
2
+ 3y
4
= C)
7. (xcos 2y + 1)dx −x
2
sin 2ydy = 0. (DS.
x
2
cos 2y
2
+x = C)
8. (3x
2
e
y
)dx + (x
3
e
y
−1)dy = 0. (DS. x
3
e
y
−y = C)
9. (2y −3)dx + (2x + 3y
2
)dy = 0. (DS. 2xy −3x +y
3
= C)
10. (x + ln[y[)dx +

1 +
x
y
+ siny)dy = 0.
(DS.
x
2
2
+xln[y[ +y −cos y = C)
11. (3x
2
y
2
+ 7)dx + 2x
3
ydy = 0. (DS. x
3
y
2
+ 7x = C)
12. (e
y
+ye
x
+ 3)dx = (2 −xe
y
−e
x
)dy.
254 Chu
.
o
.
ng 14. Phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh vi phˆan
(DS. xe
y
+ye
x
+ 3x −2y = C)
13. sin(x +y)dx +xcos(x +y)(dx +dy) = 0.
(DS. xsin(x +y) = C)
14. e
−y
dx + (1 −xe
−y
)dy = 0. (DS. xe
−y
+y = C)
15. (12x + 5y −9)dx + (5x + 2y −4)dy = 0.
(DS. 6x
2
+ 5xy +y
2
−9x −4y = C)
16. (3xy
2
−x
2
)dx + (3x
2
y −6y
2
−1)dy = 0.
(DS. 6y + 12y
3
−9x
2
y
2
+ 2x
3
= C)
17. (lny −2x)dx +

x
y
−2y

dy = 0.
(DS. xlny −x
2
−y
2
= C)
18.

sin 2x
y
+x

dx +

y −
sin
2
x
y
2

dy = 0.
(DS.
sin
2
x
y
+
x
2
+y
2
2
= C)
19. (3x
2
−2x −y)dx + (2y −x + 3y
2
)dy = 0.
(DS. x
3
+y
3
−x
2
−xy +y
2
= C)
20.

siny +y sin x +
1
x

dx +

xcos y −cos x +
1
y

dy = 0.
(DS. xsiny −y cos x + ln[xy[ = C)
T`ım th` u
.
a sˆo´ t´ıch phˆ an dˆe

gia’ i c´ac phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh
21. (1 −x
2
y)dx +x
2
(y −x)dy = 0.
(DS. xy
2
−2x
2
y −2 = Cx, µ =
1
x
2
)
22. (x
2
+y)dx −xdy = 0, µ = µ(x).
(DS. x −
y
x
= C, µ = −
1
x
2
)
23. (x +y
2
) −2xydy = 0, µ = µ(x).
(DS. xln[x[ −y
2
= Cx, µ =
1
x
2
)
24. (2x
2
y + 2y + 5)dx + (2x
3
+ 2x)dy = 0.
14.1. Phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh vi phˆan cˆa´p 1 255
(DS. 5arctgx + 2xy = C, x = 0, µ =
1
1 +x
2
)
25. (x
4
lnx −2xy
3
)dx + 3x
2
y
2
dy = 0.
(DS. y
3
+x
3
(lnx −1) = C, x = 0, µ =
1
x
4
)
26. (x + sinx +siny)dx + cos ydy = 0.
(DS. 2e
x
siny + 2e
x
(x −1) +e
x
(sinx −cos x) = C, µ = e
x
)
27. (2xy
2
−3y
3
)dx + (7 −3xy
2
)dy = 0.
(DS. x
2

7
y
−3xy = C, µ =
1
y
2
)
Gia’ i c´ac b`ai to´an Cauchy sau
28. (2x +ye
xy
)dx + (1 +xe
xy
)dy = 0, y(0) = 1.
(DS. x
2
+y +e
xy
= 2)
29. 2xcos
2
ydx + (2y −x
2
sin2y)dy = 0, y(0) = 0.
(DS. 2y
2
+x
2
cos 2y +x
2
= 0)
30. 3x
2
e
y
+ (x
3
e
y
−1)y

= 0, y(0) = 1. (DS. x
3
e
y
−y = −1)
31.
2xdx
y
3
+
y
2
−3x
2
y
4
dy = 0, y(1) = 1. (DS. y = x)
14.1.6 Phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh Lagrange v`a phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh
Clairaut
Phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh vi phˆan da
.
ng
y = xϕ(y

) +ψ(y

) (14.28)
du
.
o
.
.
c go
.
i l`a phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh Lagrange, trong d´o ϕ(y

) v`a ψ(y

) l`a c´ac h`am
d˜a biˆe
´
t cu’ a y

.
Trong tru
.
`o
.
ng ho
.
.
p khi ϕ(y

) = y

th`ı (14.28) c´o da
.
ng
y = xy

+ψ(y

) (14.29)
256 Chu
.
o
.
ng 14. Phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh vi phˆan
v`a du
.
o
.
.
c go
.
i l`a phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh Clairaut.
1
+
Phu
.
o
.
ng ph´ap gia’ i phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh Lagrange
a) Gia’ i phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh (14.28) dˆo´i v´o
.
i y

(dˆe

t`ım biˆe

u th´ u
.
c y

qua x
v`a y) nˆe
´
u ph´ep gia’ i d´o thu
.
.
c hiˆe
.
n du
.
o
.
.
c. Tiˆe
´
p dˆe
´
n l`a gia’ i phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh
vi phˆan y

= f(x, y).
b) Phu
.
o
.
ng ph´ap du
.
a tham sˆo´. Du
.
a v`ao tham sˆo´
dy
dx
= p
v`a thu du
.
o
.
.
c hˆe
.
th´ u
.
c th´ u
.
nhˆa´t liˆen hˆe
.
x, y v`a tham sˆo´ p:
y = xϕ(p) +ψ(p). (14.30)
Dˆe

c´o hˆe
.
th´ u
.
c th´ u
.
hai cˆ a
`
n thiˆe
´
t dˆe

x´ac di
.
nh x v`a y ta lˆa´y da
.
o h`am hai
vˆe
´
cu’ a (14.30) rˆo
`
i thay
dy
dx
= p v`ao:
p = ϕ(p) +xϕ

(p)
dp
dx

(p)
dp
dx
,
p −ϕ(p) = [xϕ

(p) +ψ

(p)]
dp
dx
, (14.31)
[p −ϕ(p)]
dx
dp
= xϕ

(p) +ψ

(p). (14.32)
Dˆay l`a phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh tuyˆe
´
n t´ınh dˆo´i v´o
.
i ˆa

n h`am x. Gia’ i (14.32) ta c´o
x = W(p, C). Nhu
.
vˆa
.
y nghiˆe
.
m cu’ a phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh Lagrange l`a
x = W(p, C),
y = xϕ(p) +ψ(p).
Nhˆa
.
n x´et. Ch´ u ´ y r˘a
`
ng khi chuyˆe

n t` u
.
(14.31) dˆe
´
n (14.32) ta cˆa
`
n
chia cho
dp
dx
v`a khi d´o bi
.
mˆa´t c´ ac nghiˆe
.
m m`a p l`a h˘a
`
ng sˆo´

dp
dx
= 0

.
Do d´o nˆe
´
u xem p khˆong dˆo

i th`ı (14.31) chı ’ tho’a m˜an khi p l`a nghiˆe
.
m
cu’ a phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh
p −ϕ(p) = 0. (14.33)
14.1. Phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh vi phˆan cˆa´p 1 257
Do vˆa
.
y phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh Lagrange c`on ch´ u
.
a nghiˆe
.
m bˆa´t thu
.
`o
.
ng da
.
ng
y = xϕ(α) +ψ(α)
trong d´o α l`a nghiˆe
.
m cu’ a (14.33). D´o l`a phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh du
.
`o
.
ng th˘a

ng.
2
+
Phu
.
o
.
ng ph´ap gia’ i phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh Clairaut
D˘a
.
t y

= p ta c´o
y = xp +ψ(p). (14.34)
Lˆa´y da
.
o h`am d˘a

ng th´ u
.
c n`ay theo x ta c´ o
p = p +x
dp
dx

(p)
dp
dx

⇒[x +ψ

(p)]
dp
dx
= 0 ⇔
dp
dx
= 0 ⇔p = const = C, (14.35)
¸
x +ψ

(p) = 0. (14.36)
Trong tru
.
`o
.
ng ho
.
.
p (14.35) t` u
.
(14.34) ta c´o
y = Cx +ψC
l`a nghiˆe
.
m tˆo

ng qu´at cu’ a phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh (14.29).
Trong tru
.
`o
.
ng ho
.
.
p (14.36) nghiˆe
.
m cu’ a phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh Clairaut du
.
o
.
.
c
x´ac di
.
nh bo
.
’ i
y = xp +ψ(p),
x = −ψ

(p).
¸
(14.37)
Phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh Clairaut c´o thˆe

c´o nghiˆe
.
m bˆa´t thu
.
`o
.
ng thu du
.
o
.
.
c bo
.
’ i
viˆe
.
c khu
.
’ p t` u
.
(14.37).
258 Chu
.
o
.
ng 14. Phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh vi phˆan
C
´
AC V
´
I DU
.
V´ı du
.
1. Gia’ i phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh y = 2xy

+ lny

.
Gia’ i. D˘a
.
t y

= p ⇒ dy = pdx v`a y = 2xp + lnp. Lˆa´y da
.
o h`am ta
c´o
pdx = 2pdx + 2xdp +
dp
p
⇒p
dx
dp
= −2x −
1
p
hay l`a
dx
dp
= −
2
p
x −
1
p
2
⇒x =
C
p
2

1
p

Thay gi´ a tri
.
x v` u
.
a thu du
.
o
.
.
c v`ao biˆe

u th´ u
.
c dˆo´i v´o
.
i y ta c´o
x =
C
p
2

1
p
2
, y = lnp +
2C
p
−2.
V´ı du
.
2. Gia’ i phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh y = xy

+
a
2y

(a = const).
Gia’ i. D˘a
.
t y

= p ta c´o
y = xp +
a
2p

Lˆa´y da
.
o h`am d˘a

ng th´ u
.
c n`ay rˆo
`
i thay dy bo
.
’ i pdx ta c´o
pdx = pdx +xdp −
a
2p
2
dp ⇒

x −
a
2p
2

dp = 0
a) dp = 0 ⇒ p = const = C ⇒ nghiˆe
.
m tˆo

ng qu´at cu’ a phu
.
o
.
ng
tr`ınh l`a y = Cx +
a
2C
.
b) x −
a
2p
2
= 0 ⇒x =
a
2p
2
. Khu
.
’ p t` u
.
hai phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh x =
a
2p
2
v`a y = xp +
a
2p
ta c´ o y
2
= 2ax. D´o l`a nghiˆe
.
m bˆa´t thu
.
`o
.
ng.
14.2. Phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh vi phˆan cˆa´p cao 259
B
`
AI T
ˆ
A
.
P
Gia’ i c´ac phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh sau
1. y = 2xy

+ sin y

.
(DS. x =
C
p
2

cos p
p
2

sinp
p
, y =
2C
p

2 cos p
p
−sinp, y = 0)
2. y = x(1 +y

) +y

2
.
(DS. x = 2(1 −p) +Ce
−p
, y = [2(1 −p) +Ce
−p
](1 +p) +p
2
)
3. y = xy

2

1
y

.
(DS. x =
Cp
2
+ 2p −1
2p
2
(p −1)
2
, y =
Cp
2
+ 2p −1
2(p −1)
2

1
p
.)
4. y = xy

+
a
y

2
. (DS. y = Cx +
a
C
2
, 4y
3
= 27ax
2
)
5. y = xy

+y

2
. (DS. y = Cx +C
2
, y = −
x
2
4
)
6. xy

2
−yy

−y

+ 1 = 0. (DS. y = Cx −
C −1
C
, (y + 1)
2
= 4x)
7.

y

2
+ 1 +xy

−y = 0.
(DS. y = Cx +

1 +C
2
,

x = −
p

1 −p
2
,
y = px +

1 +p
2
.
)
8. y

+y = xy

2
. (DS. x =
p −lnp +C
(1 −p)
2
, y = xp −p
2
)
14.2 Phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh vi phˆan cˆa
´
p cao
Phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh vi phˆan cˆa´p n l`a phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh da
.
ng
F(x, y, y

, . . . , y
(n)
) = 0 (14.38)
260 Chu
.
o
.
ng 14. Phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh vi phˆan
hay (nˆe
´
u n´o gia’ i du
.
o
.
.
c dˆo´i v´o
.
i da
.
o h`am y
(n)
):
y
(n)
= f(x, y, y

, . . . , y
(n−1)
). (14.39)
B`ai to´an t`ım nghiˆe
.
m y = ϕ(x) cu’ a phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh (14.39) tho’a m˜an
diˆe
`
u kiˆe
.
n ban dˆa
`
u
y(x
0
) = y
0
, y

(x
0
) = y

0
, . . . , y
(n−1)
(x
0
) = y
(n−1)
0
(14.40)
du
.
o
.
.
c go
.
i l`a b`ai to´an Cauchy dˆo´i v´o
.
i phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh (14.39).
Nghiˆe
.
m tˆo

ng qu´at cu’ a phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh vi phˆan cˆa´p n (14.39) l`a tˆa
.
p
ho
.
.
p mo
.
i nghiˆe
.
m x´ac di
.
nh bo
.
’ i cˆ ong th´ u
.
c y = ϕ(x, C
1
, C
2
, . . . , C
n
)
ch´ u
.
a n h˘a
`
ng sˆo´ t` uy ´ y C
1
, C
2
, . . . , C
n
sao cho nˆe
´
u cho tru
.
´o
.
c c´ac diˆe
`
u
kiˆe
.
n ban dˆa
`
u (14.40) th`ı t`ım du
.
o
.
.
c c´ac h˘a
`
ng sˆo´
˜
C
1
,
˜
C
2
, . . . ,
˜
C
n
dˆe

y =
ϕ(x,
˜
C
1
, . . . ,
˜
C
n
) l`a nghiˆe
.
m cu’ a phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh (14.39) tho’a m˜an c´ac
diˆe
`
u kiˆe
.
n (14.40).
Mo
.
i nghiˆe
.
m thu du
.
o
.
.
c t` u
.
nghiˆe
.
m tˆo

ng qu´at v´o
.
i c´ac gi´a tri
.
cu
.
thˆe

cu’ a c´ac h˘a
`
ng sˆo´ t` uy ´ y C
1
, C
2
, . . . , C
n
du
.
o
.
.
c go
.
i l`a nghiˆe
.
m riˆeng cu’ a
phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh vi phˆan (14.39).
Phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh da
.
ng φ(x, y, C
1
, C
2
, . . . , C
n
) = 0 x´ac di
.
nh nghiˆe
.
m
tˆo

ng qu´at cu’ a phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh vi phˆan du
.
´o
.
i da
.
ng ˆa

n du
.
o
.
.
c go
.
i l`a t´ıch
phˆan tˆo

ng qu´at cu’ a phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh.
14.2.1 C´ac phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh cho ph´ep ha
.
thˆa
´
p cˆa
´
p
Da
.
ng I. Phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh da
.
ng y
(n)
= f(x).
Sau n lˆa
`
n t´ıch phˆan ta thu du
.
o
.
.
c nghiˆe
.
m tˆo

ng qu´at
y =

. . .

. .. .
n
f(x) dx dx
. .. .
n
+C
1
x
n−1
(n −1)!
+C
2
x
n−1
(n −2)!
+ +C
n−1
x +C
n
.
V´ı du
.
1. T`ım nghiˆe
.
m riˆeng cu’ a phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh
y
(3)
=
lnx
x
2
, y(1) = 0, y

(1) = 1, y

(1) = 2.
14.2. Phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh vi phˆan cˆa´p cao 261
Gia’ i. T´ıch phˆan 3 lˆa
`
n phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh d˜a cho ta c´o
y

=

lnx
x
2
dx = −
lnx
x

1
x
+C
1
,
y

= −
1
2
ln
2
x −lnx +C
1
x +C
2
,
y = −
x
2
ln
2
x +C
1
x
2
2
+C
2
x +C
3
.
Su
.
’ du
.
ng c´ac diˆe
`
u kiˆe
.
n ban dˆa
`
u ta c´ o
C
1
2
+C
2
+C
3
= 0
C
1
+C
2
= 1
−1 +C
1
= 2

⇒C
1
= 3, C
2
= −2, C
3
=
1
2

T` u
.
d´o suy ra nghiˆe
.
m riˆeng cˆa
`
n t`ım l`a
y = −
x
2
ln
2
x +
3
2
x
2
−2x +
1
2

Da
.
ng II. Phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh (14.38) khˆong ch´ u
.
a ˆa

n h`am v`a da
.
o h`am dˆe
´
n
cˆa´p k −1:
F(x, y
(k)
, y
(k+1)
, . . . , y
(n)
) = 0.
Khi d´o b˘a
`
ng c´ach d˘a
.
t
y
(k)
= p(x)
cˆa´p cu’ a phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh s˜e ha
.
xuˆo´ng k do
.
n vi
.
.
V´ı du
.
2. Gia’ i phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh xy
(5)
−y
(4)
= 0.
Gia’ i. Phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh d˜a cho khˆong ch´ u
.
a ˆa

n h`am v`a c´ac da
.
o h`am
dˆe
´
n cˆa´p 3. Do d´o ta d˘a
.
t
y
(4)
= p
262 Chu
.
o
.
ng 14. Phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh vi phˆan
v`a thu du
.
o
.
.
c
x
dp
dx
−p = 0 ⇒p = C
1
x ⇒y
(4)
= C
1
x.
T´ıch phˆan liˆen tiˆe
´
p ta c´ o
y
(3)
= C
1
x
2
2
+C
2
,
y
(2)
= C
1
x
3
6
+C
2
x +C
3
,
y

= C
1
x
4
24
+C
2
x
2
2
+C
3
x +C
4
,
y = C
1
x
5
120
+C
2
x
3
6
+C
3
x
2
2
+C
4
x +C
5
= C
1
x
5
+C
2
x
3
+C
3
x
2
+C
4
x +C
5
;
C
1
=
C
1
120
, C
2
=
C
2
6
, C
3
=
C
3
2

Da
.
ng III. Phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh (14.38) khˆong ch´ u
.
a biˆe
´
n dˆo
.
c lˆa
.
p
F(y, y

, y

, . . . , y
(n)
) = 0. (14.41)
Khi d´o b˘a
`
ng c´ach d˘a
.
t
y

= p
(trong d´o p du
.
o
.
.
c xem l`a h`am cu’ a y : p = p(y)) cˆa´p cu’ a phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh
ha
.
xuˆo´ng 1 do
.
n vi
.
.
Dˆe

gia’ i ta cˆa
`
n biˆe

u diˆe
˜
n c´ac da
.
o h`am y

, y

, . . . , y
(n)
qua c´ac da
.
o
h`am cu’ a h`am p = p(y). Ta c´o
y

=
dy
dx
= p,
y

=
dp
dx
=
dp
dy

dy
dx
= p
dp
dy
,
y

=
d
dx

p
dp
dy

=
d
dy

p
dp
dy

dy
dx
= p
2
d
2
p
dy
2
+p

dp
dy

2
, . . .
14.2. Phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh vi phˆan cˆa´p cao 263
Thˆe
´
c´ac kˆe
´
t qua’ n`ay v`ao vˆe
´
tr´ai cu’ a (14.41) ta thu du
.
o
.
.
c phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh
cˆa´p n −1.
V´ı du
.
3. Gia’ i phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh y

+y

2
= 2e
−y
.
Gia’ i. Dˆay l`a phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh khˆong ch´ u
.
a biˆe
´
n dˆo
.
c lˆa
.
p x. D˘a
.
t y

=
p ⇒y

= p
dp
dy
v`a thu du
.
o
.
.
c
p
dp
dy
+p
2
= 2e
−y
.
D´o l`a phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh Bernoulli. B˘a
`
ng ph´ep dˆo

i ˆa

n h`am p
2
= z ta thu
du
.
o
.
.
c phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh tuyˆe
´
n t´ınh
dz
dy
+ 2z = 4e
−y
, z = y

2
.
N´o c´ o nghiˆe
.
m tˆo

ng qu´at l`a z = 4e
−y
+C
1
e
−2y
. Thay z bo
.
’ i y

2
ta thu
du
.
o
.
.
c
dy
dx
= ±

4e
−y
+C
1
e
−2y
.
T´ach biˆe
´
n v`a t´ıch phˆan ta c´o
x +C
2
= ±
1
2

4e
y
+C
1
⇒e
y
+
¯
C
1
= (x +C
2
)
2
,
¯
C
1
=
C
1
4

D´o l`a t´ıch phˆan tˆo

ng qu´at cu’ a phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh d˜a cho.
B
`
AI T
ˆ
A
.
P
Gia’ i c´ac phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh sau
1. y
(3)
= 60x
2
. (DS. y = x
5
+C
1
x
2
2
+C
2
x +C
3
)
2. (x −3)y

−y

= 0. (DS. y = C
1
ln[x −3[ +C
2
)
3. y
(3)
= x + cos x. (DS. y =
x
4
24
−sinx +C
1
x
2
+C
2
x +C
3
)
264 Chu
.
o
.
ng 14. Phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh vi phˆan
4. y

= xe
x
; y(0) = y

(0) = 0. (DS. y = (x −2)e
x
+x + 2)
5. xy

= y

. (DS. y = C
1
x
2
+C
2
)
6. xy

+y

= 0. (DS. y = C
1
ln[x[ +C
2
)
7. xy

= (1 + 2x
2
)y

. (DS. y = C
1
e
x
2
+C
2
)
8. xy

= y

+x
2
. (DS. y =
x
3
3
+C
1
x
2
+C
2
)
9. xy
(3)
−y

= 0. (DS. y = C
1
x
3
+C
2
x +C
3
)
10. y

= y

2
. (DS. y = C
2
−ln[C
1
−x[)
11. y

= 1 +y

2
. (DS. y = C
2
−ln[ cos(x +C
1
)[)
12. y

+y

+ 2 = 0; y(0) = 0, y

(0) = −2. (DS. y = −2x)
14.2.2 Phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh vi phˆan tuyˆe
´
n t´ınh cˆa
´
p 2 v´o
.
i
hˆe
.
sˆo
´
h˘a
`
ng
I. Phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh tuyˆe
´
n t´ınh thuˆa
`
n nhˆ a
´
t
Phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh vi phˆan da
.
ng
y

+a
1
y

+a
2
y = 0 (14.42)
trong d´o a
1
, a
2
l`a c´ac h˘a
`
ng sˆo´, du
.
o
.
.
c go
.
i l`a phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh tuyˆe
´
n t´ınh
thuˆa
`
n nhˆa´t cˆ a´p 2 v´o
.
i hˆe
.
sˆo´ h˘a
`
ng.
1. Nˆe
´
u y
1
v`a y
2
l`a c´ac nghiˆe
.
m riˆeng cu’ a (14.42) sao cho
y
1
(x)
y
2
(x)
=
const th`ı y = C
1
y
1
+C
2
y
2
l`a nghiˆe
.
m tˆo

ng qu´at cu’ a (14.42).
2. Nˆe
´
u y = u(x) +iv(x) l`a nghiˆe
.
m cu’ a (14.42) th`ı phˆa
`
n thu
.
.
c u(x)
v`a phˆa
`
n a’ o v(x) c˜ ung l` a nghiˆe
.
m.
Dˆe

x´ac di
.
nh c´ ac nghiˆe
.
m riˆeng y
1
(x) v`a y
2
(x) dˆa
`
u tiˆen cˆ a
`
n gia’ i
phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh d˘a
.
c tru
.
ng (ptdt) thu du
.
o
.
.
c b˘a
`
ng c´ach d˘a
.
t y = e
λx
λ
2
+a
1
λ +a
2
= 0. (14.43)
14.2. Phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh vi phˆan cˆa´p cao 265
Hiˆe

n nhiˆen ta luˆon xem bˆo
.
i cu’ a nghiˆe
.
m cu’ a (14.43) l`a r = 1 (do
.
n)
ho˘a
.
c 2 (k´ep). Ta c˜ ung quy u
.
´o
.
c bˆo
.
i r = 0 nˆe
´
u λ khˆong l`a nghiˆe
.
m cu’ a
(14.43). Ta c´o ba’ ng t´om t˘a
´
t sau
Nghiˆe
.
m cu’ a ptdt
Nghiˆe
.
m riˆeng
cu’ a (14.42)
Nghiˆe
.
m tˆo

ng qu´at
cu’ a (14.42)
I. λ
1
, λ
2
∈ R, λ
1
= λ
2
y
1
= e
λ
1
x
,
y
2
= e
λ
2
x
y = C
1
e
λ
1
x
+C
2
e
λ
2
x
II. λ
1
= λ
2
= λ ∈ R
y
1
= e
λx
,
y
2
= xe
λx
y = C
1
e
λx
+C
2
xe
λx
= e
λx
(C
1
+C
2
x)
III. λ
1
, λ
2
∈ C y
1
= e
αx
cos βx y = e
αx
(C
1
cos βx
λ = α ±iβ y
2
= e
αx
sinβx +C
2
sinβx)
V´ı du
.
1. T`ım nghiˆe
.
m tˆo

ng qu´at cu’ a phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh
y

+y

−2y = 0.
Gia’ i. T`ım nghiˆe
.
m trong da
.
ng y = e
λx
, ta c´o y

= λe
λx
, y

= λ
2
e
λx
.
Thay v` ao phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh ta thu du
.
o
.
.
c phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh d˘a
.
c tru
.
ng
λ
2
+λ −2 = 0 ⇔

λ
1
= 1,
λ
2
= −2.
Ca’ hai nghiˆe
.
m λ
1
, λ
2
∈ R v`a kh´ac nhau nˆen theo tru
.
`o
.
ng ho
.
.
p I o
.
’ ba’ ng
ta c´o y
1
= e
x
, y
2
= e
−2x
v`a do d´o
y = C
1
e
x
+C
2
e
−2x
.
V´ı du
.
2. C˜ ung ho’i nhu
.
trˆen dˆo´i v´o
.
i phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh
y

+ 2y

+y = 0.
266 Chu
.
o
.
ng 14. Phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh vi phˆan
Gia’ i. Phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh d˘a
.
c tru
.
.
ng tu
.
o
.
ng ´ u
.
ng c´o da
.
ng
λ
2
−2λ + 1 = 0 ⇔λ
1
= λ
2
= 1.
C´ac nghiˆe
.
m cu’ a phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh d˘a
.
c tru
.
ng thu
.
.
c v`a b˘a
`
ng nhau nˆen y
1
=
e
x
, y
2
= xe
x
. Do d´o
y = C
1
e
x
+C
2
xe
x
= e
x
(C
1
+C
2
x).
V´ı du
.
3. T`ım nghiˆe
.
m tˆo

ng qu´at cu’ a phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh
y

−4y

+ 13y = 0.
Gia’ i. Ptdt tu
.
o
.
ng ´ u
.
ng c´o da
.
ng
λ
2
−4λ + 13 = 0 ⇔

λ
1
= 2 + 3i,
λ
2
= 2 −3i.
.
C´ac nghiˆe
.
m ph´ u
.
c n`ay tu
.
o
.
ng ´ u
.
ng v´o
.
i c´ac nghiˆe
.
m riˆeng dˆo
.
c lˆa
.
p tuyˆe
´
n
t´ınh l`a y
1
= e
2x
cos 3x, y
2
= e
2x
sin3x. Do d´o nghiˆe
.
m tˆo

ng qu´avt c´o
da
.
ng
y = C
1
e
2x
cos 3x +C
2
e
2x
sin3x
= e
2x
(C
1
cos 3x +C
2
sin3x).
II. Phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh tuyˆe
´
n t´ınh khˆong thuˆa
`
n nhˆa
´
t
Phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh da
.
ng
y

+a
1
y

+a
2
y = f(x) (14.44)
trong d´o a
1
, a
2
l`a nh˜ u
.
ng h˘a
`
ng sˆo´ thu
.
.
c, f(x) l`a h`am liˆen tu
.
c du
.
o
.
.
c go
.
i
l`a ptvp tuyˆe
´
n t´ınh khˆong thuˆa
`
n nhˆa´t v´ o
.
i hˆe
.
sˆ o´ h˘a
`
ng.
D
-
i
.
nh l´ y. Nghiˆe
.
m tˆo

ng qu´ at cu’ a (14.44) l`a tˆo

ng cu’ a nghiˆe
.
m tˆo

ng qu´ at
cu’ a phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh thuˆa
`
n nhˆa´t tu
.
o
.
ng ´ u
.
ng v` a mˆ o
.
t nghiˆe
.
m riˆeng n` ao d´ o
cu’ a phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh khˆong thuˆa
`
n nhˆa´t (14.44).
14.2. Phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh vi phˆan cˆa´p cao 267
T` u
.
I v`a di
.
nh l´ y v` u
.
a ph´at biˆe

u suy r˘a
`
ng b`ai to´an t`ım nghiˆe
.
m tˆo

ng
qu´at cu’ a (14.44) du
.
o
.
.
c du
.
a vˆe
`
b`ai to´an t`ım nghiˆe
.
m riˆeng ˜ y cu’ a n´o. N´oi
chung ph´ep t´ıch phˆan (14.44) luˆon luˆon c´o thˆe

thu
.
.
c hiˆe
.
n nh`o
.
phu
.
o
.
ng
ph´ap biˆe
´
n thiˆen h˘a
`
ng sˆo´ Lagrange.
Nˆe
´
u vˆe
´
pha’ i c´o da
.
ng d˘a
.
c biˆe
.
t ta c´o thˆe

t`ım nghiˆe
.
m riˆeng cu’ a (14.44)
nh`o
.
Phu
.
o
.
ng ph´ap cho
.
n (phu
.
o
.
ng ph´ap hˆe
.
sˆo´ bˆa´t di
.
nh khˆong ch´ u
.
a qu´a
tr`ınh t´ıch phˆan). Ta c´o ba’ ng t´om t˘a
´
t sau trong d´o P
n
(x), Q
m
(x), . . .
l`a c´ac da th´ u
.
c da
.
i sˆo´ bˆa
.
c tu
.
o
.
ng ´ u
.
ng.
Vˆe
´
pha’ i cu’ a (14.44) Nghiˆe
.
m cu’ a ptdt Da
.
ng nghiˆe
.
m riˆeng
I. Sˆo´ 0 l`a nghiˆe
.
m ˜ y = Q
n
(x)x
r
f(x) = P
n
(x) bˆo
.
i r cu’ a ptdt Q
n
cˆa
`
n du
.
o
.
.
c
x´ac di
.
nh
II. Sˆo´ α l`a nghiˆe
.
m ˜ yx
r
Q
n
(x)e
αx
f(x) = e
αx
P
n
(x) bˆ o
.
i r cu’ a ptdt Q
n
(x) cˆ a
`
n du
.
o
.
.
c
x´ac di
.
nh
III. f(x) = Sˆo´ ph´ u
.
c iβ l`a ˜ y = x
r
(Acos βx
a cos βx nghiˆe
.
m bˆo
.
i r +Bsinβx); A,
+b sinβx cu’ a ptdt B - cˆa
`
n x´ac di
.
nh
IV. f(x) = e
αx
Sˆo´ α +iβ l`a ˜ y = x
r
e
αx

[P
n
(x) cos βx+ nghiˆe
.
m bˆo
.
i r [Q
1
(x) cos βx+
Q
m
(x) sinβx] cu’ a ptdt Q
2
(x) sinβx],
Q
1
v`a Q
2
l`a da th´ u
.
c bˆa
.
c
s = max(m, n)
V. Vˆe
´
pha’ i cu’ a phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh l`a tˆo

ng cu’ a hai h`am
y

+a
1
y

+a
2
y = f
1
(x) +f
2
(x).
268 Chu
.
o
.
ng 14. Phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh vi phˆan
Khi d´o nghiˆe
.
m riˆeng c´o thˆe

t`ım du
.
´o
.
i da
.
ng
˜ y = ˜ y
1
+ ˜ y
2
trong d´o ˜ y
1
l`a nghiˆe
.
m riˆeng cu’ a phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh y

+a
1
y

+a
2
y = f
1
(x),
c`on ˜ y
2
l`a nghiˆe
.
m riˆeng cu’ a phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh y

+a
1
y

+a
2
y = f
2
(x).
V´ı du
.
4. Gia’ i phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh y

−2y

+y = x + 1 (da
.
ng I)
Gia’ i. Nghiˆe
.
m tˆo

ng qu´at cu’ a phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh thuˆa
`
n nhˆa´t tu
.
o
.
ng ´ u
.
ng
c´o da
.
ng Y = e
x
(C
1
+C
2
x). V`ı λ
1
= λ
2
= 1 nˆen sˆo´ 0 khˆong l`a nghiˆe
.
m
cu’ a ptdt v`a do d´o r = 0 v`a nghiˆe
.
m riˆeng cu’ a phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh d˜a cho
(tru
.
`o
.
ng ho
.
.
p I) cˆa
`
n t`ım du
.
´o
.
i da
.
ng
˜ y = x
0
(Ax +B)
trong d´o A, B l`a nh˜ u
.
ng h˘a
`
ng sˆo´ cˆa
`
n x´ac di
.
nh. Thˆe
´
˜ y v`a ˜ y

, ˜ y

v`ao
phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh v`a so s´anh c´ ac hˆe
.
sˆo´ cu’ a c´ac l˜ uy th` u
.
a c` ung bˆa
.
c cu’ a x ta
thu du
.
o
.
.
c A = 1, −2A+B = 1 ⇒A = 1, B = 3. Do vˆa
.
y ˜ y = x+3 v` a
y = ˜ y +Y = 3 +x +e
x
(C
1
+C
2
x).
V´ı du
.
5. Gia’ i phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh y

−4y

+ 3y = xe
x
(da
.
ng II).
Gia’ i. Nghiˆe
.
m tˆo

ng qu´at cu’ a phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh thuˆa
`
n nhˆa´t tu
.
o
.
ng ´ u
.
ng
c´o da
.
ng Y = C
1
e
x
+ C
2
e
3x
. V`ı vˆe
´
pha’ i f(x) = xe
x
nˆen (xem II) ta
c´o P
n
(x) = x, α = 1 v` a nhu
.
vˆa
.
y sˆo´ α = 1 l`a nghiˆe
.
m do
.
n cu’ a phu
.
o
.
ng
tr`ınh d˘a
.
c tru
.
ng; r = 1. Do vˆa
.
y nghiˆe
.
m riˆeng cˆa
`
n t`ım du
.
´o
.
i da
.
ng
˜ y = (Ax +B)xe
x
T´ınh ˜ y

, ˜ y

rˆo
`
i thˆe
´
v`ao phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh d˜a cho ta thu du
.
o
.
.
c A = −
1
4
,
B = −
1
4
v`a t` u
.
d´o
y = ˜ y +Y = −
1
4
(x + 1)xe
x
+C
1
e
x
+C
2
e
3x
= C
1
e
x
+C
2
e
3x

1
4
x(x + 1)e
x
.
14.2. Phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh vi phˆan cˆa´p cao 269
V´ı du
.
6. Gia’ i phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh y

+y = sin x (da
.
ng III).
Gia’ i. Phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh d˘a
.
c tru
.
ng λ
2
+ 1 = 0 c´o nghiˆe
.
m λ
1
= i,
λ
2
= −i. Do d´o nghiˆe
.
m tˆo

ng qu´at cu’ a phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh thuˆa
`
n nhˆa´t l`a
Y = C
1
cos x+C
2
sinx. V`ı f(x) = sinx = 0 cos x+1 sinx nˆen a = 0,
b = 1, β = 1. V`ı iβ = i l`a nghiˆe
.
m do
.
n cu’ a phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh d˘a
.
c tru
.
ng
nˆen r = 1 v`a nghiˆe
.
m riˆeng cˆa
`
n t`ım du
.
´o
.
i da
.
ng
˜ y = (Acos x +Bsinx)x.
Thˆe
´
˜ y v`ao phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh ta thu du
.
o
.
.
c A = −
1
2
, B = 0 v`a
y = −
1
2
cos x +C
1
cos x +C
2
sinx.
V´ı du
.
7. X´et phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh y

+y = sin2x (da
.
ng III).
Gia’ i. Tu
.
o
.
ng tu
.
.
nhu
.
trong v´ı du
.
6 ta c´o
Y = C
1
cos x +C
2
sinx.
Phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh d˜a cho c´ o β = 2. V`ı iβ = 2i khˆong l`a nghiˆe
.
m cu’ a
phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh d˘a
.
c tru
.
ng nˆen r = 0 v`a
˜ y = Acos 2x +Bsin 2x
Thˆe
´
˜ y v`ao phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh d˜a cho c` ung v´o
.
i ˜ y

, ˜ y

ta c´o A = 0, B = −
1
3
.
Do d´o
y = ˜ y +Y = −
1
3
sin 2x +C
1
cos x +C
2
sinx.
V´ı du
.
8. Gia’ i phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh y

−2y

+y = sinx +e
−x
(da
.
ng V).
Gia’ i. Phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh d˘a
.
c tru
.
ng c´o nghiˆe
.
m λ
1
= λ
2
= 1. Do vˆa
.
y
nghiˆe
.
m tˆo

ng qu´at cu’ a phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh thuˆa
`
n nhˆa´t tu
.
o
.
ng ´ u
.
ng c´o da
.
ng
Y = e
x
(C
1
+C
2
x).
270 Chu
.
o
.
ng 14. Phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh vi phˆan
V`ı vˆe
´
pha’ i cu’ a phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh d˜a cho l`a tˆo

ng cu’ a hai h`am sinx v`a
e
−x
nˆen nghiˆe
.
m riˆeng cˆ a
`
n t`ım du
.
´o
.
i da
.
ng ˜ y = ˜ y
1
+ ˜ y
2
, trong d´o ˜ y
1
l`a
nghiˆe
.
m riˆeng cu’ a
y

−2y

+y = sinx (14.45)
c`on ˜ y
2
l`a nghiˆe
.
m riˆeng cu’ a phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh
y

−2y

+y = e
−x
(14.46)
T`ım ˜ y
1
. V`ı f(x) = sin x ⇒ β = 1. Tiˆe
´
p d´o v`ı iβ = i khˆong l`a
nghiˆe
.
m cu’ a phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh d˘a
.
c tru
.
ng nˆen r = 0 v`a nghiˆe
.
m riˆeng ˜ y cˆa
`
n
t`ım du
.
´o
.
i da
.
ng ˜ y
1
= Acos x +Bsinx.
Thay ˜ y
1
, ˜ y

1
, ˜ y

1
v`ao (14.45) ta thu du
.
o
.
.
c A =
1
2
, B = 0:
˜ y
1
=
1
2
cos x.
T`ım ˜ y
2
. Vˆe
´
pha’ i f(x) = e
−x
(xem II). Sˆo´ α = −1 khˆong l`a nghiˆe
.
m
cu’ a phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh d˘a
.
c tru
.
ng nˆen r = 0 nˆen nghiˆe
.
m riˆeng cˆa
`
n t`ım du
.
´o
.
i
da
.
ng
˜ y
2
= Ae
−x
.
Thay ˜ y
2
, ˜ y

2
, ˜ y

2
v`ao (14.46) ta thu du
.
o
.
.
c A =
1
4
v`a do vˆa
.
y
˜ y
2
=
1
4
e
−x
.
Nhu
.
vˆa
.
y ˜ y = ˜ y
1
+ ˜ y
2
=
1
2
cos x +
1
4
e
−x
v`a
y = ˜ y +Y =
1
2
cos x +
1
4
e
−x
+e
x
(C
1
+C
2
x).
B
`
AI T
ˆ
A
.
P
14.2. Phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh vi phˆan cˆa´p cao 271
Gia’ i c´ac phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh vi phˆan sau
1. y

−5y

+ 4 = 0. (DS. y = C
1
e
−x
+C
2
e
4x
)
2. y

−6y

+ 9y = 0. (DS. y = e
3x
(C
1
+C
2
x))
3. y

+ 8y

+ 25y = 0. (DS. y = e
−4x
(C
1
cos 3x +C
2
sin3x))
4. y

−3y

+ 2y = 0. (DS. y = C
1
e
x
+C
2
e
2x
)
5. y

−4y

+ 4y = 0. (DS. y = e
2x
(C
1
+C
2
x))
6. y

−2y

+ 2y = 0. (DS. y = e
x
(C
1
cos x +C
2
sinx))
Gia’ i c´ac b`ai to´an Cauchy sau
7. y

+ 4y

+ 5y = 0; y(0) = −3, y

(0) = 0.
(DS. y = −3e
−2x
(cos x + 2 sin x))
8. y

−4y

+ 3y = 0; y(0) = 6, y

(0) = 10. (DS. y = 4e
x
+ 2e
3x
)
9. y

−2y

+ 2y = 0; y(0) = 0, y

(0) = 1. (DS. y = e
x
sinx)
10. y

−2y

+ 3y = 0; y(0) = 1, y

(0) = 3.
(DS. y = e
x
(cos

2x +

2 sin

2x))
11. y

+ 4y

= 0; y(0) = 7, y

(0) = 8. (DS. y = 9 −2e
−4x
)
12. y

+ 4y = 0; y(0) = 0, y

(0) = 2. (DS. y = sin2x)
Gia’ i c´ac phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh khˆong thuˆa
`
n nhˆa´t sau
13. y

+ 2y

+y = e
x
. (DS. y = (C
1
x +C
2
)e
−x
+
1
4
e
x
)
14. y

−3y

+ 2y = e
x
. (DS. y = C
1
e
2x
+ (C
2
−x)e
x
)
15. y

+y

−2y = 6x
2
. (DS. y = C
1
e
x
+C
2
e
−x
−3(x
2
+x + 1, 5))
16. y

+ 3y

= 9x. (DS. y = C
1
+C
2
e
−3x
+
3
2
x
2
−x)
17. y

−2y = xe
−x
. (DS. y = C
1
e
x

2
+C
2
e
−x

2
−(x −2)e
−x
)
18. y

−4y = 8x
3
. (DS. y = C
1
e
2x
+C
2
e
−2x
−2x
3
−3x)
19. y

−5y

+ 6y = 13 sin 3x.
272 Chu
.
o
.
ng 14. Phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh vi phˆan
(DS. y = C
1
e
2x
+C
2
e
3x
+
1
6
(5 cos 3x −sin3x))
20. y

+ 4y = 3 sin 2x. (DS. y = C
1
cos 2x +C
2
sin 2x −
3
4
xcos 2x)
21. y

+ 4y = sin2x. (DS. y = C
1
cos 2x +C
2
sin2x −
1
4
xcos 2x)
22. y

+y = xcos x.
(DS. y = C
1
cos x +C
2
sinx +
1
4
xcos x +
1
4
x
2
sinx)
23. y

−2y

+ 3y = e
−x
cos x.
(DS. y = e
x
(C
1
cos

2x +C
2
sin

2x) +
e
−x
41
(5 cos x −4 sin x))
24. y

−3y

+ 2y = e
3x
(x
2
+x).
(DS. y = C
1
e
x
+C
2
e
2x
+
e
3x
2
(x
2
−2x + 2))
25. y

+y = x + 2e
x
. (DS. y = C
1
cos x +C
2
sin x +x +e
x
)
26. y

−2y

+y = 3e
x
+x + 1.
(DS. y =
3
2
e
x
x
2
+x + 3 +e
x
(C
1
x +C
2
))
27. y

−6y

+ 8y = e
x
+e
2x
.
(DS. y =
1
3
e
x

1
2
xe
2x
+C
1
e
2x
+C
2
e
4x
)
28. y

+ 9y = e
x
cos 3x.
(DS. y = C
1
cos 3x +C
2
sin3x +
e
x
37
(cos 3x + 6 sin 3x))
29. y

−4y

+ 4y = xe
2x
. (DS. y = (C
1
x +C
2
)e
2x
+
1
6
x
3
e
2x
)
30. y

+y = 4 cos x + (x
2
+ 1)e
x
.
(DS. y = C
1
cos x +C
2
sinx + 2xsin x +e
x
(1 −x +
1
2
x
2
))
31. y

−6y

+ 9y = 25e
x
sinx.
(DS. y = (C
1
+C
2
x)e
3x
+e
x
(4 cos x + 3 sin x))
32. y

+ 2y

+ 5y = e
−x
sin2x.
(DS. y = (C
1
cos 2x +C
2
sin 2x)e
−x

1
4
xe
−x
cos 2x)
14.2. Phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh vi phˆan cˆa´p cao 273
33. y

+y

= 4x
2
e
x
. (DS. y = C
1
+C
2
e
−x
+ (2x
2
−6x + 7)e
x
)
34. y

+ 10y

+ 25y = 4e
−5x
. (DS. y = (C
1
+C
2
x)e
−5x
+ 2x
2
e
−5x
)
14.2.3 Phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh vi phˆan tuyˆe
´
n t´ınh thuˆa
`
n
nhˆa
´
t cˆa
´
p nnn (ptvptn cˆa
´
p nnn) v´ o
.
i hˆe
.
sˆo
´
h˘a
`
ng
Phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh vi phˆan da
.
ng
L(y) ≡ y
(n)
+a
1
y
(n−1)
+ +a
n−1
y

+a
n
y = 0 (14.47)
trong d´o a
1
, a
2
, . . . , a
n
l`a nh˜ u
.
ng h˘a
`
ng sˆo´ thu
.
.
c du
.
o
.
.
c go
.
i l`a phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh
vi phˆan tuyˆe
´
n t´ınh thuˆa
`
n nhˆa´t cˆ a´p n (ptvptn cˆ a´p n) v´o
.
i hˆe
.
sˆo´ h˘a
`
ng.
1. Nˆe
´
u y
1
(x) v`a y
2
(x) l`a nghiˆe
.
m cu’ a (14.47): Ly = 0 th`ı y =
C
1
y
1
(x) +C
2
y
2
(x) c˜ ung l`a nghiˆe
.
m cu’ a n´o;
2. Nˆe
´
u y(x) = u(x) + iv(x) l`a nghiˆe
.
m cu’ a (14.47) th`ı phˆa
`
n thu
.
.
c
u(x) v` a phˆa
`
n a’ o v(x) cu’ a n´o c˜ ung l`a nghiˆe
.
m cu’ a (14.47).
Lu
.
o
.
.
c dˆo
`
gia’ i phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh (14.47)
Xuˆa´t ph´ at t` u
.
ptvptn
L(y) ≡ y
(n)
+a
1
y
(n−1)
+ +a
n
y = 0
a
1
, a
2
, . . . , a
n
∈ R

Lˆa
.
p phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh d˘a
.
c tru
.
ng
ϕ(λ) = λ
n
+a
1
λ
n−1
+ +x
n−1
λ +A
n
= 0

T`ım nghiˆe
.
m cu’ a phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh d˘a
.
c tru
.
ng
ϕ = 0 : λ
1
, λ
2
, . . . , λ
n
.

274 Chu
.
o
.
ng 14. Phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh vi phˆan
T`ım nghiˆe
.
m riˆeng dˆo
.
c lˆa
.
p tuyˆe
´
n t´ınh (dtt)
y
1
(x), y
2
(x), . . . , y
n
(x)
cu’ a ptvptn:L(y) = 0

Nghiˆe
.
m tˆo

ng qu´at cu’ a phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh L(y) = 0
y = C
1
y
1
(x) +C
2
y
2
(x) + +C
n
y
n
(x)
C
1
, C
2
, . . . , C
n
l`a c´ac h˘a
`
ng sˆo´ t` uy ´ y
Gia’ su
.
’ t`ım du
.
o
.
.
c c´ac nghiˆe
.
m λ
1
, λ
2
, . . . , λ
n
cu’ a phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh d˘a
.
c
tru
.
ng dˆo´i v´ o
.
i phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh (14.47). Khi d´o t` uy thuˆo
.
c v`ao d˘ a
.
c t´ınh
cu’ a nghiˆe
.
m λ
1
, . . . , λ
n
ta viˆe
´
t du
.
o
.
.
c c´ ac nghiˆe
.
m riˆeng dltt cu’ a (14.47).
1
+
Nˆe
´
u λ
i
∈ R, λ
i
= λ
j
∀i = j th`ı mˆo
˜
i λ
i
s˜e tu
.
o
.
ng ´ u
.
ng v´o
.
i nghiˆe
.
m
riˆeng cu’ a phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh (14.47) l`a
e
λ
i
x
, i = 1, n
v`a nghiˆe
.
m tˆo

ng qu´at cu’ a (14.47) s˜e l`a
y = C
1
e
λ
1
x
+C
2
e
λ
2
x
+ +C
n
e
λnx
. (14.48)
2
+
Nˆe
´
u phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh d˘a
.
c tru
.
ng c´o nghiˆe
.
m bˆo
.
i ch˘a

ng ha
.
n λ
1
=
λ
2
= = λ
k
=
˜
λ v`a n − k nghiˆe
.
m c` on la
.
i dˆe
`
u kh´ac nhau th`ı c´ ac
nghiˆe
.
m riˆeng dltt s˜e l`a
e
˜
λx
, xe
˜
λx
, . . . , x
k−1
e
˜
λx
, e
λ
k+1
x
, . . . , e
λnx
v`a nghiˆe
.
m tˆo

ng qu´at c´ o da
.
ng
y = C
1
e
˜
λx
+C
2
xe
˜
λx
+ +C
k
x
k−1
e
˜
λx
+C
k+1
e
λ
k+1
x
+ +C
n
e
λnx
.
(14.49)
3
+
Nˆe
´
u phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh d˘a
.
c tru
.
ng c´ o nghiˆe
.
m ph´ u
.
c xuˆa´t hiˆe
.
n t` u
.
ng c˘ a
.
p
liˆen ho
.
.
p, ch˘a

ng ha
.
n dˆe

x´ac di
.
nh ta gia’ thiˆe
´
t λ
1
= α+iβ, λ
2
= α−iβ,
14.2. Phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh vi phˆan cˆa´p cao 275
λ
3
= γ +iδ, λ
4
= γ −iδ v`a c´ ac nghiˆe
.
m c`on la
.
i dˆe
`
u thu
.
.
c th`ı c´ac nghiˆe
.
m
riˆeng dltt l`a
e
αx
cos βx, e
αx
sinβx, e
γx
cos δx, e
γx
sinδx, e
λ
5
x
, . . . , e
λnx
v`a khi d´o nghiˆe
.
m tˆo

ng qu´at c´ o da
.
ng
y = C
1
e
αx
cos βx +C
2
e
αx
sinβx +C
3
e
γx
cos δx
+C
4
e
γx
sinδx +C
5
e
λ
5
x
+ +C
n
e
λnx
. (14.50)
4
+
Sau c` ung nˆe
´
u λ
1
= α + iβ l`a nghiˆe
.
m bˆo
.
i k cu’ a phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh
d˘a
.
c tru
.
ng

k ≤
n
2

th`ı λ
2
= α−iβ c˜ ung l`a nghiˆe
.
m bˆo
.
i k cu’ a n´o. C´ac
nghiˆe
.
m dltt s˜e l`a
e
αx
cos βx,e
αx
sin βx, xe
αx
cos βx, xe
αx
sin βx, . . . ,
x
k−1
e
αx
cos βx, x
k−1
e
αx
sinβx, e
λ
2k+1
x
, . . . , e
λnx
v`a t` u
.
d´o viˆe
´
t du
.
o
.
.
c nghiˆe
.
m tˆo

ng qu´at.
C
´
AC V
´
I DU
.
V´ı du
.
1. T`ım nghiˆe
.
m tˆo

ng qu´at cu’ a phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh
y
(3)
−2y
(2)
−3y

= 0.
Gia’ i. Lˆa
.
p phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh d˘a
.
c tru
.
ng
ϕ(λ) = λ
3
−2λ
2
−3λ = 0.
Phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh d˘a
.
c tru
.
ng c´o ba nghiˆe
.
m kh´ac nhau l`a λ
1
= 0, λ
2
= −1,
λ
3
= 3. Khi d´o ´ap du
.
ng (14.48) ta thu du
.
o
.
.
c nghiˆe
.
m tˆo

ng qu´at
y = C
1
+C
2
e
−x
+C
3
e
3x
.
V´ı du
.
2. C˜ ung ho’i nhu
.
trˆen v´o
.
i phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh
y
(3)
+ 2y

+y

= 0.
276 Chu
.
o
.
ng 14. Phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh vi phˆan
Gia’ i. Phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh d˘a
.
c tru
.
ng c´o da
.
ng
λ
3
+ 2λ
2
+λ = 0.
T` u
.
d´o suy ra λ
1
= λ
2
= −1, λ
3
= 0. C´ac nghiˆe
.
m n`ay dˆe
`
u thu
.
.
c v`a
λ = −1 l`a nghiˆe
.
m k´ep nˆen ´ap du
.
ng (14.49) ta thu du
.
o
.
.
c
y = C
1
e
−x
+C
2
xe
−x
+C
3
.
V´ı du
.
3. C˜ ung ho’i nhu
.
trˆen dˆo´i v´o
.
i phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh
y
(3)
+ 4y
(2)
+ 13y

= 0.
Gia’ i. Phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh d˘a
.
c tru
.
ng λ
3
+ 4λ
2
+ 13λ = 0 c´o c´ac nghiˆe
.
m
λ
1
= 0, λ
2
= −2 −3i, λ
3
= −2 + 3i. Do d´o nghiˆe
.
m tˆo

ng qu´at cu’ a n´o
c´o da
.
ng
y = C
1
+C
2
e
−2x
cos 3x +C
3
e
−2x
sin3x.
V´ı du
.
4. X´et phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh
y
(5)
−2y
(4)
+ 2y
(3)
−4y
(2)
+y

−2y = 0.
Gia’ i. Phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh d˘a
.
c tru
.
ng
λ
5
−2λ
4
+ 2λ
3
−4λ
2
+λ −2 = 0
c´o c´ac nghiˆe
.
m: λ
1
= 2 - nghiˆe
.
m do
.
n; λ
2
= ±i l`a c˘a
.
p nghiˆe
.
m ph´ u
.
c liˆen
ho
.
.
p bˆo
.
i 2. Khi d´o nghiˆe
.
m tˆo

ng qu´at cu’ a phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh c´o da
.
ng
y = C
1
e
2x
+C
2
cos x +C
3
xcos x +C
4
sinx +C
5
xsinx
= C
1
e
2x
+ (C
2
+C
3
x) cos x + (C
4
+C
5
x) sinx.
V´ı du
.
5. Gia’ i phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh
y
(4)
+ 4y
(3)
+ 8y
(2)
+ 8y

+ 4y = 0.
14.2. Phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh vi phˆan cˆa´p cao 277
Gia’ i. Lˆa
.
p phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh d˘a
.
c tru
.
ng
λ
4
+ 4λ
3
+ 8λ
2
+ 8λ + 4 = 0 ⇔(λ
2
+ 2λ + 2)
2
= 0.
N´o c´ o c´ac nghiˆe
.
m k´ep ph´ u
.
c λ
1
= λ
2
= −1 −i; λ
3
= λ
4
= −1 +i. Do
d´o t` u
.
4
+
suy ra nghiˆe
.
m tˆo

ng qu´at cu’ a n´o s˜e l`a
y = C
1
e
−x
cos x +C
2
e
−x
sinx +C
3
xe
−x
cos x +C
4
xe
−x
sinx
= e
−x
[C
1
+C
3
x] cos x +e
−x
[C
2
+C
4
x] sinx.
B
`
AI T
ˆ
A
.
P
Gia’ i c´ac phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh sau
1. y
(3)
+ 6y
(2)
+ 11y

+ 6y = 0. (DS. y = C
1
e
−x
+C
2
e
−2x
+C
3
e
−3x
)
2. y
(3)
−8y = 0. (DS. y = C
1
e
2x
+e
−x
(C
2
cos

3x +C
3
sin

3x))
3. y
(4)
−y = 0. (DS. y = C
1
e
x
+C
2
e
−x
+C
3
cos x +C
4
sinx)
4. y
(3)
−3y

−2y = 0. (DS. y = e
−x
(C
1
+C
2
x) +C
3
e
2x
)
5. 2y
(3)
−3y
(2)
+y

= 0. (DS. y = C
1
+C
2
e
x
+C
3
e
x/2
)
6. y
(3)
−6y
(2)
+ 13y

= 0. (DS. y = C
1
+e
3x
(C
2
cos 2x +C
3
sin2x))
7. y
(4)
+ 13y
(2)
+ 36y = 0.
(DS. y = C
1
cos 2x +C
2
sin 2x +C
3
cos 3x +C
4
sin 3x)
Gia’ i c´ac b`ai to´an Cauchy sau dˆay
8. y

+ 4y

+ 5y = 0; y(0) = −3, y

(0) = 0.
(DS. y = −3e
−2x
(cos x + 2 sin x))
9. y
(3)
+ 3y
(2)
+ 3y

+y = 0; y(0) = −1, y

(0) = 2, y

(0) = 3.
(DS. y = e
−x
(3x
2
+x −1))
10. y
(3)
−3y
(2)
+ 3y

−y = 0; y(0) = 1, y

(0) = 2, y

(0) = 3.
(DS. y = e
x
(1 +x))
278 Chu
.
o
.
ng 14. Phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh vi phˆan
11. y
(3)
+y
(2)
= 0; y(0) = 1, y

(0) = 0, y

(0) = 1.
(DS. y = x +e
−x
)
Bˆay gi`o
.
x´et phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh vi phˆan tuyˆe
´
n t´ınh khˆ ong thuˆa
`
n nhˆa´t
cˆa´p n v´o
.
i hˆe
.
sˆo´ h˘a
`
ng:
y
(n)
+a
1
y
(n−1)
+ +a
n−1
y

+a
n
y = f(x) (14.51)
Tu
.
o
.
ng tu
.
.
nhu
.
tru
.
`o
.
ng ho
.
.
p phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh cˆa´p 2 v´o
.
i hˆe
.
sˆo´ h˘a
`
ng b`ai
to´an t´ıch phˆan phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh (14.51) du
.
o
.
.
c quy vˆe
`
t`ım mˆo
.
t nghiˆe
.
m
riˆeng n`ao d´o cu’ a (14.51). Trong tru
.
`o
.
ng ho
.
.
p tˆo

ng qu´at ph´ep t´ıch phˆan
phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh (14.51) c´o thˆe

thu
.
.
c hiˆe
.
n nh`o
.
phu
.
o
.
ng ph´ap biˆe
´
n thiˆen
h˘a
`
ng sˆo´ t` uy ´ y. Dˆo´i v´o
.
i mˆo
.
t sˆo´ da
.
ng d˘a
.
c biˆe
.
t cu’ a vˆe
´
pha’ i nghiˆe
.
m riˆeng
cu’ a (14.51) du
.
o
.
.
c t`ım bo
.
’ i phu
.
o
.
ng ph´ap do
.
n gia’ n ho
.
n: d´o l`a phu
.
o
.
ng
ph´ap cho
.
n. Da
.
ng tˆo

ng qu´at cu’ a vˆe
´
pha’ i (14.51) m`a phu
.
o
.
ng ph´ap cho
.
n
c´o thˆe

´ap du
.
ng du
.
o
.
.
c l` a
f(x) = e
αx
[P

(x) cos βx +Q
m
(x) sinβx]
trong d´o P

(x) v` a Q
m
(x) l`a nh˜ u
.
ng da th´ u
.
c bˆa
.
c v`a m tu
.
o
.
ng ´ u
.
ng.
Trong tru
.
`o
.
ng ho
.
.
p n`ay nghiˆe
.
m riˆeng cu’ a (14.51) cˆ a
`
n du
.
o
.
.
c t`ım du
.
´o
.
i
da
.
ng
˜ y = x
r
e
αx

˜
P
k
(x) cos βx +
˜
Q
k
(x) sinβx

k = max(, m),
˜
P
k
v`a
˜
Q
k
l`a nh˜ u
.
ng da th´ u
.
c bˆa
.
c k cu’ a x da
.
ng tˆo

ng qu´at
v´o
.
i c´ac hˆe
.
sˆo´ chu
.
a du
.
o
.
.
c x´ac di
.
nh, r l`a bˆo
.
i cu’ a nghiˆe
.
m λ = α+iβ cu’ a
ptdt (nˆe
´
u λ = α ± iβ khˆong l`a nghiˆe
.
m cu’ a phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh d˘a
.
c tru
.
ng
th`ı r = 0).
Nˆo
.
i dung cu’ a phu
.
o
.
ng ph´ap biˆe
´
n thiˆen h˘a
`
ng sˆo´ Lagrange dˆo´i v´o
.
i
phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh vi phˆan cˆ a´p cao l`a nhu
.
sau.
Gia’ su
.
’ y
1
(x), y
2
(x), . . . , y
n
(x) l`a hˆe
.
c´ac nghiˆe
.
m riˆeng dˆo
.
c lˆa
.
p tuyˆe
´
n
t´ınh cu’ a phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh thuˆa
`
n nhˆa´t tu
.
o
.
ng ´ u
.
ng cu’ a (14.51) v`a
Y (x) = C
1
y
1
(x) +C
2
y
2
(x) + +C
n
y)n(x)
14.2. Phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh vi phˆan cˆa´p cao 279
l`a nghiˆe
.
m tˆo

ng qu´at cu’ a n´o, trong d´o C
1
, C
2
, . . . , C
n
l`a nh˜ u
.
ng h˘a
`
ng sˆo´
t` uy ´ y.
Ta s˜e t`ım nghiˆe
.
m cu’ a (14.51) du
.
´o
.
i da
.
ng
y = C
1
(x)y
1
(x) +C
2
(x)y
2
(x) + +C
n
(x)y
n
(x) (14.52)
trong d´o C
1
(x), . . . , C
n
(x) l`a nh˜ u
.
ng h`am ta
.
m th`o
.
i chu
.
a biˆe
´
t cu’ a biˆe
´
n
x. Dˆe

x´ac di
.
nh ch´ ung ta lˆa
.
p hˆe
.

y
1
(x)C

1
(x) +y
2
(x)C

2
(x) + +y
n
(x)C

n
(x) = 0,
y

1
(x)C

1
(x) +y

2
(x)C

2
(x) + +y

n
(x)C

n
(x) = 0,
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
y
(n−1)
1
(x)C

1
(x) +y
(n−1)
2
(x)C

2
(x) + +y
(n−1)
n
(x)C

n
(x) = f(x).
(14.53)
V`ı y
1
, . . . , y
n
l`a dltt nˆen di
.
nh th´ u
.
c cu’ a hˆe
.
(Wronskian) luˆon = 0
v`a hˆe
.
c´o nghiˆe
.
m duy nhˆa´t:
dC
i
(x)
dx
= ϕ
i
(x) ⇒C
i
(x) =

ϕ
i
(x)dx +
˜
C
i
, i = 1, n. (14.54)
trong d´o
˜
C
i
l`a h˘a
`
ng sˆo´ t` uy ´ y. Thˆe
´
(14.54) v`ao (14.52) ta thu du
.
o
.
.
c
nghiˆe
.
m tˆo

ng qu´at cu’ a (14.51).
Nhˆa
.
n x´et. Dˆo´i v´o
.
i phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh cˆa´p 2 hˆe
.
(14.53) c´o da
.
ng

y
1
(x)C

1
(x) +y
2
(x)C

2
(x) = 0,
y

1
(x)C

1
(x) +y

2
(x)C

2
(x) = f(x).
(14.55)
Ba’ ng t´om t˘a
´
t c´ ac da
.
ng nghiˆe
.
m riˆeng
tu
.
o
.
ng ´ u
.
ng v´o
.
i mˆo
.
t sˆo´ da
.
ng vˆe
´
pha’ i kh´ac nhau cu’ a (14.51)
280 Chu
.
o
.
ng 14. Phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh vi phˆan
Vˆe
´
pha’ i cu’ a phu
.
o
.
ng Nghiˆe
.
m cu’ a phu
.
o
.
ng C´ ac da
.
ng
N

tr`ınh vi phˆan tr`ınh d˘a
.
c tru
.
ng nghiˆe
.
m riˆeng
1. Sˆo´ 0 khˆong pha’ i
l`a nghiˆe
.
m cu’ a
phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh
d˘a
.
c tru
.
ng
˜
P
m
(x)
I P
m
(x)
2. Sˆo´ 0 l`a nghiˆe
.
m
bˆo
.
i s cu’ a phu
.
o
.
ng
tr`ınh d˘a
.
c tru
.
ng x
s
˜
P
m
(x)
14.2. Phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh vi phˆan cˆa´p cao 281
Vˆe
´
pha’ i cu’ a phu
.
o
.
ng Nghiˆe
.
m cu’ a phu
.
o
.
ng C´ac da
.
ng
N

tr`ınh vi phˆan tr`ınh d˘a
.
c tru
.
ng nghiˆe
.
m riˆeng
Sˆo´ α khˆong pha’ i l`a
nghiˆe
.
m cu’ a phu
.
o
.
ng
tr`ınh d˘a
.
c tru
.
ng
˜
P
m
(x)e
αx
II P
m
(x)e
αx
2. Sˆo´ α l`a nghiˆe
.
m
bˆo
.
i s cu’ a phu
.
o
.
ng
tr`ınh d˘a
.
c tru
.
ng x
s
˜
P
m
(x)e
αx
1. sˆo´ ±iβ khˆong
˜
P
k
(x) cos βx+
pha’ i l`a nghiˆe
.
m
˜
Q
k
(x) sinβx,
cu’ a phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh k = max(m, n)
d˘a
.
c tru
.
ng
III P
n
(x) cos βx+
Q
m
(x) sinβx
2. Sˆo´ ±iβ l`a nghiˆe
.
m x
s
[
˜
P
k
(x) cos βx
bˆo
.
i s cu’ a phu
.
o
.
ng
˜
Q
k
(x) sinβx],
tr`ınh d˘a
.
c tru
.
ng k = max(m, n)
1. Sˆo´ α ±iβ khˆong [
˜
P
k
(x) cos βx+
pha’ i l`a nghiˆe
.
m
˜
Q
k
(x) sinβx]e
αx
,
cu’ a phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh k = max(m, n)
d˘a
.
c tru
.
ng
IV e
αx
[P
n
(x) cos βx
+Q
m
(x) sinβx]
2. Sˆo´ α ±iβ l`a x
s
[
˜
P
k
(x) cos βx+
nghiˆe
.
m bˆo
.
i s
˜
Q
k
(x) sinβx]e
αx
,
cu’ a phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh k = max(m, n)
d˘a
.
c tru
.
ng
282 Chu
.
o
.
ng 14. Phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh vi phˆan
Nhˆa
.
n x´et. Nˆe
´
u f(x) = f
1
(x) + f
2
(x) + + f
m
(x), trong d´o
f
1
, . . . , f
m
l`a c´ ac h`am da
.
ng I-IV o
.
’ ba’ ng v`a ˜ y
1
, ˜ y
2
, . . . , ˜ y
m
l`a c´ ac nghiˆe
.
m
riˆeng tu
.
o
.
ng ´ u
.
ng v´o
.
i f
i
(x), i = 1, m th`ı
˜ y = ˜ y
1
+ ˜ y
2
+ + ˜ y
m
l`a nghiˆe
.
m riˆeng cu’ a phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh (14.51). Dˆay c˜ ung ch´ınh l`a nˆo
.
i dung
cu’ a phu
.
o
.
ng ph´ap chˆ o
`
ng nghiˆe
.
m.
C
´
AC V
´
I DU
.
V´ı du
.
1. Gia’ i c´ac phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh
1) y
(3)
−y
(2)
+y

−y = x
2
+x;
2) y
(3)
−y
(2)
= 12x
2
+ 6x.
Gia’ i. 1) Phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh d˘a
.
c tru
.
ng λ
3
−λ
2
+λ−1 = 0 c´ o c´ac nghiˆe
.
m
kh´ac nhau λ
1
= 1, λ
2
= i, λ
3
= −i. Do d´o phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh thuˆa
`
n nhˆa´t
tu
.
o
.
ng ´ u
.
ng v´o
.
i 1) c´ o nghiˆe
.
m tˆo

ng qu´at l`a
Y = C
1
e
x
+C
2
cos x +C
3
sinx
(o
.
’ dˆay sˆo´ α = 0). V`ı sˆo´ α = 0 khˆong l`a nghiˆe
.
m cu’ a phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh d˘a
.
c
tru
.
ng nˆen theo tru
.
`o
.
ng ho
.
.
p I. 2, ta c´o ˜ y = A
1
x
2
+ A
2
x + A
3
, trong
d´o A
1
, A
2
, A
3
l`a nh˜ u
.
ng hˆe
.
sˆo´ cˆa
`
n du
.
o
.
.
c x´ac di
.
nh. Thˆe
´
nghiˆe
.
m riˆeng ˜ y
v`ao phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh 1), ta thu du
.
o
.
.
c
−A
1
x
2
+ (2A
1
−A
2
)x + (A
2
−2A
1
−A
3
) = x
2
+x,
t` u
.
d´o suy ra r˘a
`
ng A
1
= −1, A
2
= −3, A
3
= −1. Do d´o ˜ y = −x
2
−3x−1
v`a nghiˆe
.
m tˆo

ng qu´at c´ o da
.
ng
y = Y + ˜ y = C
1
e
x
+C
2
cos x +C
3
sinx −x
2
−3x −1.
2) Phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh d˘a
.
c tru
.
ng λ
3
− λ
2
= 0 c´o nghiˆe
.
m λ
1
= λ
2
= 0,
λ
3
= 1. Do d´o nghiˆe
.
m tˆo

ng qu´at cu’ a phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh thuˆa
`
n nhˆa´t tu
.
o
.
ng
´ u
.
ng v´o
.
i 2) c´ o da
.
ng
Y = C
1
+C
2
x +C
3
e
x
.
14.2. Phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh vi phˆan cˆa´p cao 283
V`ı sˆo´ α = 0 l`a nghiˆe
.
m k´ep cu’ a phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh d˘a
.
c tru
.
ng nˆen theo
tru
.
`o
.
ng ho
.
.
p I. 2, ta c´o
˜ y = x
2
(A
1
x
2
+A
2
x +A
3
) = A
1
x
4
+A
2
x
3
+A
3
x
2
.
Thˆe
´
˜ y v`ao phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh 2), ta thu du
.
o
.
.
c
−12A
1
x
2
+ (24A
1
−6A
2
)x + (6A
2
−2A
3
) = 12x
2
+ 6x
v`a t` u
.
d´o A
1
= −1, A
2
= −5, A
3
= −15 v`a
˜ y = −x
4
−5x
3
−15x
2
.
Nhu
.
vˆa
.
y
y = Y + ˜ y = C
1
+C
2
x +C
3
e
x
−x
4
−5x
3
−15x
2
.
V´ı du
.
2. Gia’ i phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh
y
(3)
−2y
(2)
+ 2y

= 4 cos xcos 3x + 6 sin
2
x.
Gia’ i. Ta s˜e ´ap du
.
ng nhˆa
.
n x´et d˜a nˆeu ra sau ba’ ng t´om t˘a
´
t nghiˆe
.
m
riˆeng. Tru
.
´o
.
c tiˆen ta biˆe
´
n dˆo

i vˆe
´
pha’ i cu’ a phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh. Ta c´o
4 cos xcos 3x + 6 sin
2
x = 2 cos 4x −cos 2x + 3.
Khi d´o
y
(3)
−2y
(2)
+ 2y

= 2 cos 4x −cos 2x + 3.
Nghiˆe
.
m tˆo

ng qu´at cu’ a phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh thuˆa
`
n nhˆa´t tu
.
o
.
ng ´ u
.
ng l`a
Y = C
1
+ (C
2
cos x +C
3
sinx)e
x
.
Dˆe

t`ım nghiˆe
.
m riˆeng, ta s˜e ´ap du
.
ng nhˆa
.
n x´et d˜a nˆeu: Ta cˆa
`
n t`ım
nghiˆe
.
m riˆeng cu’ a ba phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh
y
(3)
−2y
(2)
+ 2y

= 2 cos 4x,
y
(3)
−2y
(2)
+ 2y

= −cos 2x,
y
(3)
−2y
(2)
+ 2y

= 3.
284 Chu
.
o
.
ng 14. Phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh vi phˆan
Dˆe
˜
d`ang thˆa´y r˘a
`
ng
˜ y
1
=
1
65
(cos 4x −
7
4
sin4x); ˜ y
2
=
1
10
(
1
2
sin2x −cos 2x); ˜ y
3
=
3
2
x.
Do d´o
˜ y = ˜ y
1
+ ˜ y
2
+ ˜ y
3
=
1
65
(cos 4x −
7
4
sin4x) +
1
10
(
1
2
sin 2x −cos 2x) +
3
2
x.
T` u
.
d´o suy ra r˘a
`
ng
y = Y + ˜ y = C
1
+ (C
2
cos x +C
3
sinx)e
x
+
1
65
(cos 4x −
7
4
sin 4x)
+
1
10

sin2x
2
−cos 2x

+
3
2
x.
V´ı du
.
3. T`ım nghiˆe
.
m tˆo

ng qu´at cu’ a phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh
y
(3)
+y

= tgx.
Gia’ i. Dˆe
˜
d`ang thˆa´y r˘a
`
ng nghiˆe
.
m tˆo

ng qu´at cu’ a phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh
thuˆa
`
n nhˆa´t tu
.
o
.
ng ´ u
.
ng y
(3)
+y

= 0 l`a
Y = C
1
+C
2
cos x +C
3
sinx.
Ta t`ım nghiˆe
.
m riˆeng cu’ a phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh khˆong thuˆa
`
n nhˆa´t b˘a
`
ng
phu
.
o
.
ng ph´ap biˆe
´
n phˆan h˘a
`
ng sˆo´. Tru
.
´o
.
c tiˆen, ta lˆa
.
p phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh dˆe

x´ac di
.
nh c´ac h`am C
i
(x), i = 1, 3. Ta c´o

C

1
+C

2
cos x +C

3
sinx = 0,
−C

2
sinx +C

3
cos x = 0,
−C

2
cos x −C

3
sinx = tgx.
Nhˆan phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh th´ u
.
hai v´o
.
i sin x, phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh th´ u
.
ba v´o
.
i cos x
rˆo
`
i cˆo
.
ng la
.
i, ta thu du
.
o
.
.
c C

2
= −sinx. T` u
.
d´o C

3
= −
sin
2
x
cos x
. Tiˆe
´
p dˆe
´
n,
cˆo
.
ng phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh th´ u
.
nhˆa´t v´o
.
i phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh th´ u
.
ba, ta c´o C

1
= tgx.
14.2. Phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh vi phˆan cˆa´p cao 285
T` u
.
c´ac kˆe
´
t qua’ n`ay suy ra r˘a
`
ng C
1
= −ln[ cos x[, C
2
= cos x, C
3
=
sinx −ln

tg

π
4
+
x
2

v`a do d´o nghiˆe
.
m riˆeng cˆa
`
n t`ım c´o da
.
ng
˜ y = −ln[ cos x[ + cos
2
x + sinx

sinx −ln

tg

π
4
+
x
2

= −ln[ cos x[ + 1 −sin xln

tg

π
4
+
x
2

.
T` u
.
˜ y v`a Y ta thu du
.
o
.
.
c nghiˆe
.
m tˆo

ng qu´at cu’ a phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh d˜a cho
y = Y + ˜ y = C
1
+C
2
cos x +C
3
sinx
−ln[ cos x[ −sinxln

tg

π
4
+
x
2

+ 1.
V´ı du
.
4. Gia’ i phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh
y

−4y

+ 5y =
e
2x
cos x

Gia’ i. Dˆa
`
u tiˆen t`ım nghiˆe
.
m tˆo

ng qu´at cu’ a phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh thuˆa
`
n
nhˆa´t. Dˆe
˜
thˆa´y r˘a
`
ng
Y = C
1
e
2x
cos x +C
2
e
2x
sinx.
V`ı vˆe
´
pha’ i f(x) =
e
2x
cos x
khˆong thuˆo
.
c v`ao nh´om c´ac h`am da
.
ng d˘a
.
c biˆe
.
t
d˜a x´et o
.
’ trˆen, nˆen viˆe
.
c cho
.
n nghiˆe
.
m riˆeng theo vˆe
´
pha’ i v`a nghiˆe
.
m cu’ a
ptdt nhu
.
o
.
’ trˆen l`a khˆong thu
.
.
c hiˆe
.
n du
.
o
.
.
c. Trong tru
.
`o
.
ng ho
.
.
p n`ay ta
su
.
’ du
.
ng phu
.
o
.
ng ph´ap biˆe
´
n thiˆen h˘a
`
ng sˆo´ Lagrange. (Lu
.
u ´ y r˘a
`
ng d´o
l`a phu
.
o
.
ng ph´ap tˆo

ng qu´at c´o thˆe

´ap du
.
ng cho phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh v´o
.
i vˆe
´
pha’ i liˆen tu
.
c bˆa´t k` y f(x)).
Ta lˆa
.
p hˆe
.
phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh dˆe

t`ım C

1
(x) v`a C

2
(x):
C

1
(x) cos x +C

2
(x) sinx = 0,
C

1
(x)(2 cos x −sinx) +C

2
(x)(2 sin x + cos x) =
1
cos x

286 Chu
.
o
.
ng 14. Phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh vi phˆan
T` u
.
d´o suy ra C

1
(x) = −tgx, C

2
(x) = 1 v`a do d´o
C
1
(x) =

−tgxdx = ln[ cos x[ +
˜
C
1
,
C
2
(x) =

dx = x +
˜
C
2
.
Thay C
1
(x) v`a C
2
(x) v`ao biˆe

u th´ u
.
c cu’ a Y ta c´o nghiˆe
.
m tˆo

ng qu´at
y =

ln[ cos x[ +
˜
C
1

e
2x
cos x +

x +
˜
C
2

e
2x
sinx,
trong d´o
˜
C
1
,
˜
C
2
l`a nh˜ u
.
ng h˘a
`
ng sˆo´ t` uy ´ y.
V´ı du
.
5. Gia’ i b`ai to´an Cauchy dˆo´i v´o
.
i phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh
y

−y

=
1
1 +e
x
, y(0) = 1, y

(0) = 2.
Gia’ i. Nghiˆe
.
m tˆo

ng qu´at cu’ a phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh thuˆa
`
n nhˆa´t l`a
Y = C
1
+C
2
e
x
.
D˘a
.
t C
1
= C
1
(x), C
2
= C
2
(x). Ta lˆa
.
p hˆe
.
phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh dˆe

x´ac di
.
nh
C

1
(x) v`a C

2
(x). Ta c´o
C

1
(x) +C

2
(x)e
x
= 0,
C

2
(x)e
x
=
1
1 +e
x

(v`ı y
1
(x) = 1 ⇒y

1
(x) = 0; y
2
(x) = e
x
⇒y

2
(x) = e
x
). Gia’ i hˆe
.
n`ay ta
thu du
.
o
.
.
c
C

1
(x) = −
1
1 +e
x
⇒C
1
(x) = −x + ln(1 +e
x
) +
˜
C
1
C

2
(x) =
1
e
x
(1 +e
x
)
⇒C
2
(x) = −e
−x
−x + ln(1 +e
x
) +
˜
C
2
.
T` u
.
d´o thu du
.
o
.
.
c nghiˆe
.
m tˆo

ng qu´at
y = −x + ln(1 +e
x
) +e
x

−e
−x
−x + ln(1 +e
x
) +
˜
C
2

+
˜
C
1
.
14.2. Phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh vi phˆan cˆa´p cao 287
Thay x = 0, y = 1 v`ao nghiˆe
.
m tˆo

ng qu´at ta c´o
1 = 2 ln2 −1 +
˜
C
2
+
˜
C
1
.
T´ınh y

(x) rˆo
`
i thay x = 0 v`a y

(0) = 2 v`ao ta c´o
2 = −1 +
˜
C
2
+ ln2 ⇒
˜
C
2
= 3 −ln2
˜
C
1
= −ln2 −1.
Sau c` unh nghiˆe
.
m riˆeng cˆa
`
n t`ım c´o da
.
ng
˜ y = (1 +e
x
) ln(1 +e
x
) +e
x

3 −ln2 −x

−(2 + ln2 +x).
B
`
AI T
ˆ
A
.
P
H˜ay x´ac di
.
nh da
.
ng nghiˆe
.
m riˆeng cu’ a c´ac phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh sau
1. y
(3)
+y = x. (DS. ˜ y = A
1
+A
2
x)
2. y
(3)
+y

= 2. (DS. ˜ y = Ax)
3. y
(3)
+y
(2)
= 3. (DS. ˜ y = Ax
2
)
4. y
(4)
−y = 1. (DS. ˜ y = A, A = const)
5. y
(4)
−y

= 2. (DS. ˜ y = Ax)
6. y
(4)
−y
(2)
= 3. (DS. ˜ y = Ax
2
)
7. y
(4)
−y
(3)
= 4. (DS. ˜ y = Ax
3
)
8. y
(4)
+ 2y
(3)
+y
(2)
= e
4x
. (DS. ˜ y = Ae
4x
)
9. y
(4)
+ 2y
(3)
+y
(2)
= e
−x
. (DS. ˜ y = Ax
2
e
−x
)
10. y
(4)
+ 2y
(3)
+y
(2)
= xe
−x
. (DS. ˜ y = (A
1
x
2
+A
2
x
3
)e
−x
)
11. y
(4)
+ 4y
(2)
+ 4y = sin 2x. (DS. ˜ y = A
1
cos 2x +A
2
sin 2x)
12. y
(4)
+ 4y
(2)
+ 4y = xsin 2x.
288 Chu
.
o
.
ng 14. Phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh vi phˆan
(DS. ˜ y = (A
1
+A
2
x) sin2x + (B
1
+B
2
x) cos 2x)
Gia’ i c´ac phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh tuyˆe
´
n t´ınh khˆong thuˆa
`
n nhˆa´t sau
13. y
(3)
+y
(2)
= 1. (DS. y = C
1
+C
2
x +C
3
e
−x
+
x
2
2
)
14. 3y
(4)
+y
(3)
= 2. (DS. y = C
1
+C
2
x +C
3
x
2
+C
4
e

x
3
+
x
3
3
)
15. y
(4)
−2y
(3)
+ 2y
(2)
−2y

+y = 1.
(DS. y = C
1
cos x +C
2
sinx + (C
3
+C
4
x)e
x
+ 1)
16. y
(3)
−y
(2)
+y

−y = x
2
+x.
(DS. y = C
1
e
x
+C
2
cos x +C
3
sinx −(x
2
+ 3x + 1))
17. y
(4)
+y
(2)
= x
2
+x.
(DS. y = C
1
+C
2
x +C
3
cos x +C
4
sinx +
x
4
12
+
x
3
6
−x
2
)
18. y
(4)
−2y
(2)
+y = cos x.
(DS. y = (C
1
+C
2
x)e
x
+ (C
3
+C
4
x)e
−x
+
1
4
cos x)
19. y
(3)
−3y
(2)
+ 3y

−y = e
x
cos x.
(DS. y = (C
1
+C
2
x +C
3
x
2
)e
x

e
x
8
sin2x)
20. y
(4)
−3y
(2)
= 9x
2
.
(DS. y = C
1
+C
2
x +C
3
e

3x
+C
4
e


3x

x
4
4
−x
2
)
21. 4y
(3)
+y

= 3e
x
+ 2 sin
x
2
.
(DS. y = C
1
+C
2
cos
x
2
+C
3
sin
x
2
+
3
5
e
x
−xsin
x
2
)
22. y
(3)
+y
(2)
= 12x
2
.
(DS. y = x
4
−4x
3
+ 12x
2
+C
1
+C
2
x +C
3
e
−x
)
23. y
(3)
−5y
(2)
+ 8y

−4y = e
2x
.
(DS. y = C
1
e
x
+ (C
2
+C
3
x)e
2x
+
1
2
x
2
e
2x
)
14.2. Phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh vi phˆan cˆa´p cao 289
T`ım c´ac nghiˆe
.
m riˆeng tho’a m˜an c´ac diˆe
`
u kiˆe
.
n ban dˆa
`
u d˜a chı ’ ra.
24. y
(3)
−y

= −2x; y(0) = 0, y

(0) = 1, y

(0) = 2. (DS. y = shx+x
2
)
25. y
(4)
−y = 8e
x
; y(0) = −1, y

(0) = 0, y
(2)
(0) = 1, y
(3)
(0) = 0.
(DS. y = cos x + 2 sin x +e
−x
+ (2x −3)e
x
)
26. y
(4)
− y = 8e
x
; y(0) = 0, y

(0) = 2, y
(2)
(0) = 4, y
(3)
(0) = 6. (DS.
y = 2xe
x
)
Gia’ i c´ac phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh sau b˘ a
`
ng phu
.
o
.
ng ph´ap biˆe
´
n thiˆen h˘a
`
ng sˆo´.
27. y

+y = tgx; y(0) = y

π
6

= 0.
(DS. y =

3
2
ln3 sinx −cos x lntg

x
2
+
π
4

)
28. y

+y =
1
sinx
. (DS. y = (C
1
−x) cos x + (C
2
+ ln[ sinx[) sinx)
29. y

+y =
1
cos
3
x
. (DS. y = C
1
cos x +C
2
sinx −
cos 2x
2 cos x
)
30. y

+y =
2
sin
3
x
. (DS. y = C
1
cos x +C
2
sinx +
cos 2x
sinx
)
31. y

−2y

+y =
e
x
x
. (DS. y = C
1
e
x
+C
2
e
x
−xe
x
+xe
x
ln[x[)
32. x
3
(y

−y) = x
2
−2. (DS. y = C
1
e
x
+C
2
e
−x

1
x
)
290 Chu
.
o
.
ng 14. Phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh vi phˆan
14.3 Hˆe
.
phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh vi phˆan tuyˆe
´
n t´ınh
cˆa
´
p 1 v´o
.
i hˆe
.
sˆo
´
h˘a
`
ng
Hˆe
.
phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh vi phˆan da
.
ng
dx
1
dt
= f
1
(t, x
1
, . . . , x
n
),
dx
2
dt
= f
2
(t, x
2
, . . . , x
n
),
. . . . . . . . . . . .
dx
n
dt
= f
n
(t, x
1
, . . . , x
n
),

(14.56)
trong d´o x
1
, x
2
, . . . , x
n
l`a c´ac ˆa

n h`am cu’ a biˆe
´
n dˆo
.
c lˆa
.
p t, du
.
o
.
.
c go
.
i l`a
hˆe
.
chuˆ a

n t˘a
´
c.
Tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p n h`am x
1
= ϕ
1
(t), . . . , x
n
= ϕ
n
(t) x´ac di
.
nh trˆen khoa’ ng
(a, b) du
.
o
.
.
c go
.
i l`a nghiˆe
.
m cu’ a hˆe
.
chuˆa

n t˘a
´
c (14.56) nˆe
´
u khi thˆe
´
ch´ ung
v`ao c´ ac phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh (14.56) th`ı c´ac phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh n`ay tro
.
’ th`anh dˆo
`
ng
nhˆa´t th´ u
.
c.
B`ai to´an Cauchy dˆo´i v´o
.
i hˆe
.
(14.56) l`a b`ai to´an t`ım nghiˆe
.
m x
1
=
x
1
(t), . . . , x
n
= x
n
(t) cu’ a hˆe
.
d´o tho’a m˜an diˆe
`
u kiˆe
.
n ban dˆa
`
u
x
1
(t
0
) = x
0
1
, x
2
(t
0
) = x
0
2
, . . . , x
n
(t
0
) = x
0
n
trong d´o t
0
, x
0
1
, . . . , x
0
n
l`a nh˜ u
.
ng sˆo´ cho tru
.
´o
.
c
Tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p n h`am
x
1
= ϕ
1
(t, C
1
, . . . , C
n
),
x
2
= ϕ
2
(t, C
1
, . . . , C
n
),
. . . . . . . . . . . .
x
n
= ϕ
n
(t, C
1
, . . . , C
n
)

(14.57)
phu
.
thuˆo
.
c v`ao t v`a n h˘a
`
ng sˆo´ t` uy ´ y C
1
, C
2
, . . . , C
n
du
.
o
.
.
c go
.
i l`a nghiˆe
.
m
tˆo

ng qu´at cu’ a hˆe
.
(14.56) trong miˆe
`
n D n`ao d´o nˆe
´
u:
1
+
V´o
.
i mˆo
˜
i gi´ a tri
.
cho ph´ep cu’ a c´ac h˘a
`
ng sˆo´ C
1
, C
2
, . . . , C
n
c´ac
h`am n`ay l`a nghiˆe
.
m cu’ a hˆe
.
(14.56);
14.3. Hˆe
.
phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh vi phˆan tuyˆe
´
n t´ınh cˆa´p 1 v´o
.
i hˆe
.
sˆo´ h˘a
`
ng 291
2
+
Trong miˆe
`
n D c´ac h`am (14.57) l`a nghiˆe
.
m cu’ a mo
.
i b`ai to´an
Cauchy dˆo´i v´o
.
i hˆe
.
(14.56).
C´ac phu
.
o
.
ng ph´ap gia’ i
I. Phu
.
o
.
ng ph´ap khu
.
’ . Nˆo
.
i dung cu’ a n´o l`a du
.
a hˆe
.
d˜a cho vˆe
`
mˆo
.
t
phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh cˆa´p n dˆo´i v´o
.
i mˆo
.
t ˆa

n h`am.
II. Phu
.
o
.
ng ph´ap tˆo

ho
.
.
p kha’ t´ıch. Trong phu
.
o
.
ng ph´ap n`ay, b˘a
`
ng
c´ac ph´ep to´an sˆo´ ho
.
c, t` u
.
c´ac phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh cu’ a hˆe
.
ta lˆa
.
p du
.
o
.
.
c c´ac tˆo

ho
.
.
p (go
.
i l`a tˆo

ho
.
.
p kha’ t´ıch) m`a viˆe
.
c t´ıch phˆan s˜e du
.
o
.
.
c thu
.
.
c hiˆe
.
n dˆe
˜
ho
.
n.
III. Phu
.
o
.
ng ph´ap biˆe
´
n phˆan h˘a
`
ng sˆ o
´
(Phu
.
o
.
ng ph´ap Lagrange).
B˘a
`
ng c´ach xuˆa´t ph´at t` u
.
hˆe
.
nghiˆe
.
m co
.
so
.
’ cu’ a hˆe
.
thuˆa
`
n nhˆa´t v`a v´o
.
i
viˆe
.
c ´ap du
.
ng phu
.
o
.
ng ph´ap biˆe
´
n phˆan h˘a
`
ng sˆo´ t` uy ´ y ta s˜e thu du
.
o
.
.
c
nghiˆe
.
m cu’ a hˆe
.
(14.56).
IV. Phu
.
o
.
ng ph´ap Euler. Phu
.
o
.
ng ph´ap n`ay chı’ ´ap du
.
ng du
.
o
.
.
c cho
hˆe
.
v´o
.
i hˆe
.
sˆ o´ h˘a
`
ng.
Ta s˜e tr`ınh b`ay phu
.
o
.
ng ph´ap Euler v`a phu
.
o
.
ng ph´ap Lagrange dˆe

gia’ i hˆe
.
phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh tuyˆe
´
n t´ınh v´o
.
i hˆe
.
sˆo´ h˘a
`
ng. Tru
.
´o
.
c hˆe
´
t ta tr`ınh
b`ay phu
.
o
.
ng ph´ap Euler. Dˆe

tiˆe
.
n tr`ınh b`ay ba’ n chˆa´t cu’ a phu
.
o
.
ng ph´ap,
ta x´et hˆe
.
ba phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh v´o
.
i ba ˆa

n h`am
dx
dt
= a
11
x +a
12
y +a
13
z,
dy
dt
= a
21
x +a
22
y +a
23
z, (14.58)
dz
dt
= a
31
x +a
32
y +a
33
z.
Ta s˜e t`ım nghiˆe
.
m riˆeng cu’ a hˆe
.
d´o du
.
´o
.
i da
.
ng
x = αe
kx
,
y = βe
kx
, (14.59)
z = γe
kx
,
292 Chu
.
o
.
ng 14. Phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh vi phˆan
trong d´o ta cˆa
`
n pha’ i x´ac di
.
nh c´ac h˘a
`
ng sˆo´ α, β, γ v`a k sao cho (14.59) l`a
nghiˆe
.
m cu’ a (14.58). Thay (14.59) v`ao (14.58) v`a gia’ n u
.
´o
.
c cho e
kx
= 0
ta c´o
kα = a
11
α +a
12
β +a
13
γ,
kβ = a
21
α +a
22
β +a
23
γ,
kγ = a
31
α +a
32
β +a
33
γ,
hay l`a
(a
11
−k)α +a
12
β +a
13
γ = 0,
a
21
α + (a
22
−k)β +a
33
γ = 0, (14.60)
a
31
α +a
32
β + (a
33
−k)γ = 0.
Hˆe
.
(14.60) l`a hˆe
.
phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh tuyˆe
´
n t´ınh thuˆa
`
n nhˆa´t. N´o c´o
nghiˆe
.
m kh´ac 0 khi v`a chı ’ khi

a
11
−k a
12
a
13
a
21
a
22
−k a
23
a
31
a
32
a
33
−k

= 0. (14.61)
D˘a

ng th´ u
.
c (14.61) l`a phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh bˆa
.
c ba dˆo´i v´ o
.
i k v`a n´o du
.
o
.
.
c
go
.
i l`a phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh d˘a
.
c tru
.
ng cu’ a hˆe
.
(14.58).
Ta chı ’ ha
.
n chˆe
´
x´et tru
.
`o
.
ng ho
.
.
p khi (14.61) c´o c´ac nghiˆe
.
m kh´ac
nhau k
1
, k
2
v`a k
3
.
Dˆo´i v´o
.
i mˆo
˜
i nghiˆe
.
m v` u
.
a thu du
.
o
.
.
c ta thay v`ao (14.60) v`a x´ac di
.
nh
du
.
o
.
.
c
α
1
, β
1
, γ
1
; α
2
, β
2
, γ
2
; α
3
, β
3
, γ
3
.
Nˆe
´
u k´ y hiˆe
.
u c´ac nghiˆe
.
m riˆeng cu’ a hˆe
.
tu
.
o
.
ng ´ u
.
ng v´o
.
i c´ac nghiˆe
.
m
cu’ a phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh d˘a
.
c tru
.
ng l`a:
i) dˆo´i v´o
.
i k
1
: x
1
, y
1
, z
1
;
ii) dˆo´i v´o
.
i k
2
: x
2
, y
2
, z
2
;
14.3. Hˆe
.
phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh vi phˆan tuyˆe
´
n t´ınh cˆa´p 1 v´o
.
i hˆe
.
sˆo´ h˘a
`
ng 293
iii) dˆo´i v´o
.
i k
3
: x
3
, y
3
, z
3
th`ı nghiˆe
.
m tˆo

ng qu´at cu’ a hˆe
.
(14.58) c´o thˆe

viˆe
´
t du
.
´o
.
i da
.
ng
x(t) = C
1
x
1
+C
2
x
2
+C
3
x
3
,
y(t) = C
1
y
1
+C
2
y
2
+C
3
y
3
,
z(t) = C
1
z
1
+C
2
z
2
+C
3
z
3
,
hay l`a
x(t) = C
1
α
1
e
k
1
t
+C
2
α
2
e
k
2
t
+C
3
α
3
e
k
3
t
,
y(t) = C
1
β
1
e
k
1
t
+C
2
β
2
e
k
2
t
+C
3
β
3
e
k
3
t
, (14.62)
z(t) = C
1
γ
1
e
k
1
t
+C
2
γ
2
e
k
2
t
+C
3
γ
3
e
k
3
t
.
Ta x´et mˆo
.
t v´ı du
.
minh ho
.
a.
V´ı du
.
1. T`ım nghiˆe
.
m tˆo

ng qu´at cu’ a hˆe
.
dx
dt
= −2x −3y,
dy
dt
= −x.
Gia’ i. Lˆa
.
p phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh d˘a
.
c tru
.
ng

−2 −k −3
−1 0 −k

= 0
⇔k
2
+ 2k −3 = 0 ⇔

k
1
= −3,
k
2
= 1.
Nghiˆe
.
m riˆeng cu’ a hˆe
.
du
.
o
.
.
c t`ım du
.
´o
.
i da
.
ng
x
1
= α
1
e
k
1
t
,
y
1
= β
1
e
k
1
t
,
x
2
= α
2
e
k
2
t
,
y
2
= β
2
e
k
2
t
.
294 Chu
.
o
.
ng 14. Phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh vi phˆan
Lˆa
.
p hˆe
.
(14.60)
[−2 −(−3)]α
1
−3β
1
= 0,
−α
1
+ [0 −(−3)]β
1
= 0,
hay l`a
α
1
−3β
1
= 0,
−α
1
+ 3β
1
= 0.
Hˆe
.
n`ay c´o vˆo sˆo´ nghiˆe
.
m. Ch˘ a

ng ha
.
n ta cho β
1
= 1. Khi d´o α
1
= 3.
Nhu
.
vˆa
.
y v´o
.
i nghiˆe
.
m k
1
= −3 cu’ a phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh d˘a
.
c tru
.
ng ta c´o
c´ac nghiˆe
.
m riˆeng
x
1
= 3e
−3t
,
y
1
= e
−3t
.
Dˆo´i v´o
.
i nghiˆe
.
m k = 1 cu’ a phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh d˘a
.
c tru
.
ng ta c´ o
−3α
2
−3β
2
= 0,
−α
2
−β
2
= 0.
Ta c´o thˆe

lˆa´y α
2
= 1, β
2
= −1. Khi d´o tu
.
o
.
ng ´ u
.
ng v´o
.
i k = 1 ta c´o
x
2
= e
t
,
y
2
= −e
t
.
Nghiˆe
.
m tˆo

ng qu´at cu’ a hˆe
.
d˜a cho (theo (14.62)) c´o da
.
ng
x(t) = 3C
1
e
−3t
+C
2
e
t
,
y(t) = C
1
e
−3t
−C
2
e
t
.
Ta s˜e minh ho
.
a nˆo
.
i dung phu
.
o
.
ng ph´ap Lagrange (phu
.
o
.
ng ph´ap
biˆe
´
n thiˆen h˘a
`
ng sˆo´) trˆen v´ı du
.
hˆe
.
ba phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh khˆong thuˆa
`
n nhˆa´t.
14.3. Hˆe
.
phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh vi phˆan tuyˆe
´
n t´ınh cˆa´p 1 v´o
.
i hˆe
.
sˆo´ h˘a
`
ng 295
Gia’ su
.
’ cho hˆe
.
x

+a
11
x +a
12
y +a
13
z = f
1
(t),
y

+a
21
x +a
22
y +a
23
z = f
2
(t), (14.63)
z

+a
31
x +a
32
y +a
33
z = f
3
(t).
Ta gia’ thiˆe
´
t r˘a
`
ng nghiˆe
.
m tˆo

ng qu´at cu’ a hˆe
.
thuˆa
`
n nhˆa´t tu
.
o
.
ng ´ u
.
ng d˜a
du
.
o
.
.
c t`ım du
.
´o
.
i da
.
ng
x = C
1
x
1
+C
2
x
2
+C
3
x
3
,
y = C
1
y
1
+C
2
y
2
+C
3
y
3
, (14.64)
z = C
1
z
1
+C
2
z
2
+C
3
z
3
.
Ta t`ım nghiˆe
.
m cu’ a hˆe
.
thuˆa
`
n nhˆa´t (14.63) du
.
´o
.
i da
.
ng
x = C
1
(t)x
1
+C
2
(t)x
2
+C
3
(t)x
3
,
y = C
1
(t)y
1
+C
2
(t)y
2
+C
3
(t)y
3
, (14.65)
z = C
1
(t)z
1
+C
2
(t)z
2
+C
2
(t)z
3
,
trong d´o C
1
(t), C
2
(t), C
3
(t) l`a nh˜ u
.
ng h`am c`on chu
.
a biˆe
´
t.
Thˆe
´
(14.65) v`ao (14.63). Khi d´o phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh th´ u
.
nhˆa´t cu’ a hˆe
.
(14.63) c´o da
.
ng
C

1
x
1
+C

2
x
2
+C

3
x
3
+C
1
(x

1
+a
11
x
1
+a
12
y
1
+a
13
z
1
)
+C
2
(x

2
+a
11
x
2
+a
12
y
2
+a
13
z
2
)
+C
3
(x

3
+a
11
x
3
+a
12
y
3
+a
13
z
3
) = f
1
(t). (14.66)
C´ac tˆo

ng trong c´ac dˆa´u ngo˘a
.
c do
.
n dˆe
`
u = 0 v`ı (14.64) l`a nghiˆe
.
m cu’ a
hˆe
.
thuˆa
`
n nhˆa´t tu
.
o
.
ng ´ u
.
ng. T` u
.
d´ o v`a (14.66) ta c´o
C

1
x
1
+C

2
x
2
+C

3
x
3
= f
1
(t). (14.67)
296 Chu
.
o
.
ng 14. Phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh vi phˆan
Tu
.
o
.
ng tu
.
.
nhu
.
vˆa
.
y sau khi thˆe
´
(14.65) v`ao (14.63) t` u
.
phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh
th´ u
.
hai v`a th´ u
.
ba cu’ a hˆe
.
ta c´ o
C

1
y
1
+C

2
y

2
+C

3
y

3
= f
2
(t),
(14.68)
C

1
z
1
+C

2
z
2
+C

3
z
3
= f
3
(t).
Hˆe
.
phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh gˆo
`
m (14.67) v`a (14.68) l`a hˆe
.
phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh tuyˆe
´
n
t´ınh dˆo´i v´o
.
i C

1
, C

2
v`a C

3
. Hˆe
.
n`ay c´o nghiˆe
.
m v`ı di
.
nh th´ u
.
c

x
1
x
2
x
3
y
1
y
2
y
3
z
1
z
2
z
3

= 0
(do t´ınh dˆo
.
c lˆa
.
p tuyˆe
´
n t´ınh cu’ a c´ac nghiˆe
.
m riˆeng cu’ a hˆe
.
thuˆa
`
n nhˆa´t
tu
.
o
.
ng ´ u
.
ng).
Sau khi t`ım du
.
o
.
.
c C

1
(t), C

2
(t), C

3
(t) ta s˜e t`ım du
.
o
.
.
c C
1
(t), C
2
(t)
v`a C
3
(t) b˘a
`
ng ph´ep t´ıch phˆan v`a do d´o thu du
.
o
.
.
c (14.65).
V´ı du
.
2. Gia’ i hˆe
.
phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh
dx
dt
+ 2x + 4y = 1 + 4t,
dy
dt
+x −y =
3
2
t
2
.
Gia’ i. Dˆa
`
u tiˆen ta gia’ i hˆe
.
thuˆa
`
n nhˆa´t tu
.
o
.
ng ´ u
.
ng
x

+ 2x + 4y = 0,
(14.69)
y

+x −y = 0.
T` u
.
phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh th´ u
.
hai cu’ a (14.69) ta c´o x = y −y

v`a do d´o
x

= y

−y

.
Thay biˆe

u th´ u
.
c dˆo´i v´o
.
i x v`a x

v`ao phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh th´ u
.
nhˆa´t cu’ a (14.69)
ta thu du
.
o
.
.
c
d
2
y
dt
2
+
dy
dt
−6y = 0. (14.70)
14.3. Hˆe
.
phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh vi phˆan tuyˆe
´
n t´ınh cˆa´p 1 v´o
.
i hˆe
.
sˆo´ h˘a
`
ng 297
Nghiˆe
.
m tˆo

ng qu´at cu’ a (14.70)c´o da
.
ng
y = C
1
e
2t
+C
2
e
−3t
.
V`ı x = y −
dy
dt
⇒x = −C
1
e
2t
+ 4C
2
e
−3t
.
Nhu
.
vˆa
.
y, nghiˆe
.
m tˆo

ng qu´at cu’ a hˆe
.
(14.69) l`a
x = −C
1
e
2t
+ 4C
2
e
−3t
,
y = C
1
e
2t
+C
2
e
−3t
.
Ta s˜e t`ım nghiˆe
.
m cu’ a phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh d˜a cho du
.
´o
.
i da
.
ng
x = −C
1
(t)e
2t
+ 4C
2
(t)e
−3t
,
(14.71)
y = C
1
(t)e
2t
+C
2
(t)e
−3t
.
Sau khi thˆe
´
(14.71) v`ao phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh d˜a cho ta thu du
.
o
.
.
c
−C

1
(t)e
2t
+ 4C

2
(t)e
−3t
= 1 + 4t,
C

1
(t)e
2t
+C

2
(t)e
−3t
=
3
2
t
2
.
T` u
.
d´o suy ra
C

1
(t) =
(6t
2
−4t −1)e
−2t
5
,
C

2
(t) =
(3t
2
+ 8t + 2)e
3t
10

B˘a
`
ng ph´ep t´ıch phˆan ta thu du
.
o
.
.
c
C
1
(t) = −
1
5
(t + 3t
2
)e
−2t
+C
1
,
(14.72)
C
2
(t) =
1
10
(2t +t
2
)e
3t
+C
2
,
298 Chu
.
o
.
ng 14. Phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh vi phˆan
trong d´o C
1
v`a C
2
l`a nh˜ u
.
ng h˘a
`
ng sˆo´ t` uy ´ y. Thˆe
´
(14.72) v` ao (14.71)
ta thu du
.
o
.
.
c nghiˆe
.
m tˆo

ng qu´at cu’ a phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh d˜a cho
x = −C
1
e
2t
+ 4C
2
e
−3t
+t
2
+t,
y = C
1
e
2t
+C
2
e
−3t

1
2
t
2
.
V´ı du
.
3. Gia’ i c´ac hˆe
.
phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh b˘a
`
ng phu
.
o
.
ng ph´ap tˆo

ho
.
.
p kha’
t´ıch
1)

dx
dt
= −
y
t
,
dy
dt
= −
x
t
, t > 0.
2)

dx
dt
= x
2
y,
dy
dt
=
y
t
−xy
2
.
Gia’ i. 1) Cˆo
.
ng vˆe
´
v´o
.
i vˆe
´
hai phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh cu’ a hˆe
.
, ta du
.
o
.
.
c
d(x +y)
dt
= −
1
t
(x +y).
T` u
.
d´o x +y =
C
1
t
. Tr` u
.
vˆe
´
v´o
.
i vˆe
´
hai phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh cu’ a hˆe
.
, ta c´ o
d(x −y)
dt
=
1
t
(x −y).
T` u
.
d´o x −y = C
2
t. T` u
.
hˆe
.
phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh
x +y =
C
1
t
,
x −y = C
2
t,
ta thu du
.
o
.
.
c
x =
1
2

C
1
t
+C
2
t

,
y =
1
2

C
1
t
−C
2
t

.
2) Nhˆan hai vˆe
´
cu’ a phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh th´ u
.
nhˆa´t v´o
.
i y, cu’ a phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh
th´ u
.
hai v´o
.
i x, rˆo
`
i cˆo
.
ng c´ac phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh thu du
.
o
.
.
c, ta c´o
y
dx
dt
+x
dy
dt
=
xy
t

d
dt
(xy) =
xy
t

14.3. Hˆe
.
phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh vi phˆan tuyˆe
´
n t´ınh cˆa´p 1 v´o
.
i hˆe
.
sˆo´ h˘a
`
ng 299
T` u
.
d´o
xy = C
1
t (14.73)
Thˆe
´
biˆe

u th´ u
.
c xy = C
1
t v`ao phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh th´ u
.
nhˆa´t, ta du
.
o
.
.
c
dx
dt
= C
1
tx.
T` u
.
d´o x = C
2
e
C
1
t
2
2
.
T` u
.
(14.73) v´o
.
i C
2
= 0 ta c´o
y =
C
1
t
x
=
C
1
C
2
te
−C
1
t
2
2
.
Ngo` ai ra nˆe
´
u x = 0 th`ı t` u
.
phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh th´ u
.
hai ta du
.
o
.
.
c y = Ct
v`a nˆe
´
u y = 0 th`ı t` u
.
phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh th´ u
.
nhˆa´t ta c´o x = C.
B
`
AI T
ˆ
A
.
P
Gia’ i c´ac hˆe
.
phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh vi phˆan sau b˘a
`
ng phu
.
o
.
ng ph´ap khu
.
’ ˆa

n
h`am:
1.

dx
dt
= −9y,
dy
dt
= x.
(DS.

x = 3C
1
cos t −3C
2
sin3t,
y = C
2
cos 3t +C
1
sin 3t.
)
2.

dx
dt
= y +t,
dy
dt
= x −t.
(DS.

x = C
1
e
t
−C
2
e
−t
+t −1,
y = C
1
e
t
+C
2
e
−t
−t + 1.
)
3.

4
dx
dt

dy
dt
+ 3x = sint,
dy
dt
+y = cos t.
(DS.

x = C
1
e
−t
+C
2
e
−3t
,
y = C
1
e
−t
+ 3C
2
e
−3t
+ cos t.
)
300 Chu
.
o
.
ng 14. Phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh vi phˆan
4.

dx
dt
= −y +z,
dy
dt
−z,
dz
dt
= −x +z.
(DS.

x = (C
1
−C
2
) cos t + (C
1
+C
2
) sint,
y = C
1
sint −C
2
cos t +C
3
e
t
,
z = C
1
cos t +C
2
sint +C
3
e
t
.
)
5.

dx
dt
+ 3x + 4y = 0,
dy
dt
+ 2x + 5y = 0,
x(0) = 1, y(0) = 4.
(DS.

x = −2e
−t
+ 3e
−7t
,
y = e
−t
+ 3e
−7t
.
)
6.

dx
dt
= xsint,
dy
dt
= xe
cost
.
(DS.

x = C
1
e
−cos t
,
y = C
1
t +C
2
.
)
7.

dx
dt
= ax +y,
dy
dt
= −x +ay.
(DS.

x = e
at
(C
1
cos t +C
2
sint),
y = e
at
(−C
1
sint +C
2
cos t).
)
8.

t
dx
dt
= −x +yt,
t
2
dy
dt
= −2x +yt.
(DS.

x = C
1
+C
2
t,
y =
C
1
t
+ 2C
2
, t = 0.
)
Gia’ i c´ac hˆe
.
sau b˘a
`
ng phu
.
o
.
ng ph´ap tˆo

ho
.
.
p kha’ t´ıch
9.

dx
dt
= x
2
+y
2
,
dy
dt
= 2xy.
(DS.

1
x +y
+ t = C
1
,
1
x −y
+t = C
2
.
)
10.

dx
dt
= −
1
y
,
dy
dt
=
1
x

(DS.

x = C
2
e

t
C
1
,
y =
C
1
C
2
e
t
C
1
.
)
11.

dx
dt
=
x
y
,
dy
dt
=
y
x

(DS.

1
x

1
y
= C
1
,
1 +C
1
x = C
2
e
C
1
t
.
)
14.3. Hˆe
.
phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh vi phˆan tuyˆe
´
n t´ınh cˆa´p 1 v´o
.
i hˆe
.
sˆo´ h˘a
`
ng 301
12.

dx
dt
=
y
x −y
,
dy
dt
=
x
x −y

(DS.

x
2
−y
2
= C
1
,
x −y +t = C
2
.
)
13.

e
t
dx
dt
=
1
y
,
e
t
dy
dt
=
1
x

(DS.

y = C
1
x,
C
1
x
2
= C
2
−2e
−t
.
)
14.

dx
dt
= sin xcos y,
dy
dt
= cos xsiny.
(DS.

tg
x +y
2
= C
1
e
t
,
tg
x −y
2
= C
2
e
t
.
)
15.

dx
dt
= y −z,
dy
dt
= x
2
+y,
dz
dt
= x
2
+z.
(DS.

x = C
2
e
t
+C
1
,
y = −C
2
1
+ (2C
1
C
2
t +C
3
)e
t
+C
2
2
e
2t
,
z = −C
2
e
t
+ (2C
1
C
2
t +C
3
)e
t
+C
2
2
e
2t
−C
2
1
.
)
Gia’ i c´ac hˆe
.
phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh vi phˆan sau b˘a
`
ng phu
.
o
.
ng ph´ap Euler:
16.

dx
dt
= 8y −x,
dy
dt
= x +y.
(DS.

x = 2C
1
e
3t
−4C
2
e
−3t
,
y = C
1
e
3t
+C
2
e
−3t
.
)
17.

dx
dt
= x −y,
dy
dt
= y −x.
(DS.

x = C
1
+C
2
e
t
,
y = C
1
.
)
18.

dx
dt
= 2x +y,
dy
dt
= x −3y,
x(0) = y(0) = 0.
(DS.

x ≡ 0,
y ≡ 0.
)
302 Chu
.
o
.
ng 14. Phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh vi phˆan
19.

dx
dt
= x +y,
dy
dt
= 4y −2x,
x(0) = 0, y(0) = −1.
(DS.

x = e
2t
−e
3t
,
y = e
2t
−2e
3t
.
)
20.

dx
dt
= −x −2y,
dy
dt
= 3x + 4y,
x(0) = −1, y(0) = 2.
(DS.

x = e
t
−2e
2t
,
y = −e
t
+ 3e
2t
.
)
Gia’ i c´ ac hˆe
.
phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh vi phˆan khˆong thuˆa
`
n nhˆa´t sau b˘a
`
ng
phu
.
o
.
ng ph´ap biˆe
´
n phˆan h`am sˆo´.
21.

dx
dt
+ 2x −y = −e
2t
,
dy
dt
+ 3x −2y = 6e
2t
.
(DS.

x =
8
3
e
2t
+ 2C
1
e
t
+C
2
e
−t
,
y =
29
3
e
2t
+ 3C
1
e
t
+C
2
e
−t
.
)
22.

dx
dt
= x +y −cos t,
dy
dt
= −y −2x + cos t + sint,
x(0) = 1, y(0) = 2.
(DS.

x = (1 −t) cos t −sint,
y = (t −2) cos t +t sint.
)
23.

dx
dt
= y + tg
2
t −1,
dy
dt
= −x + tgt.
(DS.

x = C
1
cos t +C
2
sint + tgt,
y = −C
1
sint +C
2
cos t + 2.
)
24.

dx
dt
= 3x + 2y + 3e
2t
,
dy
dt
= x + 2y +e
2t
.
(DS.

x = C
1
e
t
+ 2C
2
e
4t
−e
2t
,
y = −C
1
e
t
+C
2
e
4t
−e
2t
.
)
25.

dx
dt
= −2x +y −e
2t
,
dy
dt
= −3x + 2y + 6e
2x
,
(DS.

x = 2e
2t
+C
1
e
t
+C
2
e
−t
,
y = 9e
2t
+ 3C
1
e
t
+C
2
e
−t
.
)
14.3. Hˆe
.
phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh vi phˆan tuyˆe
´
n t´ınh cˆa´p 1 v´o
.
i hˆe
.
sˆo´ h˘a
`
ng 303
26.

dx
dt
= x −y + 1,
dy
dt
= y −4x +t.
(DS.

x = C
1
e
−t
+C
2
e
3t
+
1
9
+
t
3
,
y = 2C
1
e
−t
−2C
2
e
3t
+
7
9
+
t
3

)
27.

dx
dt
= x −y +e
t
,
dy
dt
= x −4y +e
3t
.
(DS.

x = C
1
e
−t
+C
2
e
3t
+
1 −4t
16
e
3t
,
y = 2C
1
e
−t
−2C
2
e
3t
+e
t
+
1
8
(1 + 4t)e
3t
.
)
Chu
.
o
.
ng 15
Kh´ai niˆe
.
m vˆe
`
phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh
vi phˆan da
.
o h`am riˆeng
15.1 Phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh vi phˆan cˆa´p 1 tuyˆe
´
n t´ınh
dˆo´i v´o
.
i c´ac da
.
o h`am riˆeng . . . . . . . . . . 306
15.2 Gia’ i phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh da
.
o h`am riˆeng cˆa´p 2
do
.
n gia’ n nhˆa´t . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 310
15.3 C´ac phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh vˆa
.
t l´ y to´an co
.
ba’ n . . . 313
15.3.1 Phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh truyˆe `n s´ong . . . . . . . . . . 314
15.3.2 Phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh truyˆe `n nhiˆe
.
t . . . . . . . . . 317
15.3.3 Phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh Laplace . . . . . . . . . . . . 320
T`ai liˆe
.
u tham kha’ o . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 327
D˘a

ng th´ u
.
c ch´ u
.
a ˆa

n h`am (cu’ a nhiˆe
`
u biˆe
´
n dˆo
.
c lˆa
.
p), ch´ u
.
a c´ac biˆe
´
n
dˆo
.
c lˆa
.
p v` a c´ ac da
.
o h`am riˆeng cu’ a ˆa

n h`am theo c´ac biˆe
´
n dˆo
.
c lˆa
.
p d´o
du
.
o
.
.
c go
.
i l`a phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh vi phˆan da
.
o h`am riˆeng.
305
Cˆa´p cao nhˆa´t cu’ a da
.
o h`am riˆeng hiˆe
.
n diˆe
.
n trong phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh
du
.
o
.
.
c go
.
i l`a cˆa´p cu’ a phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh. Mˆo
.
t phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh vi phˆan da
.
o
h`am riˆeng bao gi`o
.
c˜ ung pha’ i ch´ u
.
a ´ıt nhˆa´t mˆo
.
t trong c´ac da
.
o h`am
riˆeng cu’ a ˆa

n h`am.
Mˆo
.
t h`am c´o c´ac da
.
o h`am riˆeng tu
.
o
.
ng ´ u
.
ng (v´o
.
i gia’ thiˆe
´
t ch´ ung liˆen
tu
.
c) m` a khi thˆe
´
v`ao phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh da
.
o h`am riˆeng th`ı phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh d´o
tro
.
’ th`anh dˆo
`
ng nhˆa´t th´ u
.
c du
.
o
.
.
c go
.
i l`a nghiˆe
.
m cu’ a phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh d´o.
Qu´a tr`ınh t`ım nghiˆe
.
m cu’ a phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh da
.
o h`am riˆeng du
.
o
.
.
c go
.
i l`a
ph´ep t´ıch phˆan phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh da
.
o h`am riˆeng. Thˆ ong thu
.
`o
.
ng viˆe
.
c t´ıch
phˆan mˆo
.
t phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh da
.
o h`am riˆeng s˜e cho ph´ep thu du
.
o
.
.
c mˆo
.
t ho
.
nghiˆe
.
m phu
.
thuˆo
.
c v`ao c´ ac h`am t` uy ´y ch´ u
.
khˆong pha’ i c´ac h˘a
`
ng sˆo´ t` uy
´ y nhu
.
trong tru
.
`o
.
ng ho
.
.
p phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh vi phˆan thu
.
`o
.
ng.
Nˆe
´
u phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh ch´ u
.
a ˆa

n h`am z chı ’ phu
.
thuˆo
.
c hai biˆe
´
n dˆo
.
c lˆa
.
p
x v`a y th`ı nghiˆe
.
m z = z(x, y) cu’ a n´o tu
.
o
.
ng ´ u
.
ng v´o
.
i mˆo
.
t m˘a
.
t n`ao
d´o trong khˆong gian (x, y, z). M˘a
.
t n`ay du
.
o
.
.
c go
.
i l`a m˘a
.
t t´ıch phˆan cu’ a
phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh d˜a cho.
Dˆo´i v´o
.
i tru
.
`o
.
ng ho
.
.
p khi ˆa

n h`am phu
.
thuˆo
.
c hai biˆe
´
n dˆo
.
c lˆa
.
p c´ ac
phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh sau dˆay du
.
o
.
.
c xem l`a nh˜ u
.
ng phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh co
.
ba’ n:
1
+
Phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh truyˆe
`
n s´ong

2
u
∂t
2
= a
2

2
u
∂x
2
,
(dˆay l`a phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh da
.
ng hypecbolic).
2
+
Phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh truyˆe
`
n nhiˆe
.
t
∂u
∂t
= a
2

2
u
∂x
2
,
(phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh da
.
ng parabolic)
3
+
Phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh Laplace

2
u
∂x
2
+

2
u
∂y
2
= 0
(phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh da
.
ng eliptic).
306 Chu
.
o
.
ng 15. Kh´ai niˆe
.
m vˆe
`
phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh vi phˆan da
.
o h`am riˆeng
Phu
.
o
.
ng ph´ap thu
.
`o
.
ng d` ung dˆe

gia’ i c´ ac phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh trˆen dˆay l`a
phu
.
o
.
ng ph´ap Fourier.
Dˆa
`
u tiˆen, t`ım c´ ac nghiˆe
.
m riˆeng cu’ a phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh d˜a cho du
.
´o
.
i da
.
ng
t´ıch c´ac h`am m`a mˆo
˜
i h`am chı ’ phu
.
thuˆo
.
c mˆo
.
t dˆo´i sˆo´. Sau d´o xuˆa´t ph´at
t` u
.
c´ac diˆe
`
u kiˆe
.
n go
.
i l`a diˆe
`
u kiˆe
.
n biˆen ngu
.
`o
.
i ta x´ac di
.
nh c´ac gi´a tri
.
cu’ a
c´ac h˘a
`
ng sˆo´ t` uy ´ y ch´ u
.
a trong c´ac nghiˆe
.
m riˆeng d´o. Sau c` ung nghiˆe
.
m
cˆa
`
n t`ım (tho’a m˜an phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh v`a c´ ac diˆe
`
u kiˆe
.
n biˆen) thu du
.
o
.
.
c du
.
´o
.
i
da
.
ng chuˆo
˜
i lˆa
.
p nˆen t` u
.
c´ac nghiˆe
.
m riˆeng d´o.
15.1 Phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh vi phˆan cˆa
´
p 1 tuyˆe
´
n
t´ınh dˆo
´
i v´o
.
i c´ac da
.
o h`am riˆeng
Gia’ su
.
’ x´et phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh
X
1
∂z
∂x
+X
2
∂z
∂y
= R, (15.1)
trong d´o X
1
, X
2
, R l`a c´ ac h`am cu’ a x, y, z. Nˆe
´
u biˆe
´
n z khˆong tham
gia trong X
1
, X
2
v`a R ≡ 0 th`ı (15.1) du
.
o
.
.
c go
.
i l`a phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh thuˆa
`
n
nhˆa´t. Trong tru
.
`o
.
ng ho
.
.
p ngu
.
o
.
.
c la
.
i (15.1) go
.
i l`a phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh khˆong
thuˆa
`
n nhˆa´t.
Trong tru
.
`o
.
ng ho
.
.
p thuˆa
`
n nhˆa´t
X
1
∂z
∂x
+X
2
∂z
∂y
= 0 (15.2)
th`ı (15.2) luˆon luˆon c´ o nghiˆe
.
m z = C l`a h˘a
`
ng sˆo´ bˆa´t k` y. Nghiˆe
.
m n`ay
du
.
o
.
.
c go
.
i l`a nghiˆe
.
m hiˆe

n nhiˆen.
Dˆe

gia’ i (15.1) dˆa
`
u tiˆen ta gia’ i so
.
bˆo
.
phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh vi phˆan thu
.
`o
.
ng
dx
X
1
=
dy
X
2
=
dz
R
(15.3)
Gia’ su
.
’ nghiˆe
.
m cu’ a hˆe
.
d´o du
.
o
.
.
c x´ac di
.
nh bo
.
’ i c´ac d˘a

ng th´ u
.
c
ω
1
(x, y, z) = C
1
, ω
2
(x, y, z) = C
2
.
15.1. Phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh vi phˆan cˆa´p 1 tuyˆe
´
n t´ınh dˆo´i v´o
.
i c´ac da
.
o h`am riˆeng307
Khi d´o nghiˆe
.
m tˆo

ng qu´at cu’ a (15.1) c´ o da
.
ng
Φ[ω
1
(x, y, z), ω
2
(x, y, z)] = 0.
trong d´o Φ(ω
1
, ω
2
) l`a h`am kha’ vi liˆen tu
.
c t` uy ´ y.
Nˆe
´
u trong phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh v´o
.
i hai biˆe
´
n dˆo
.
c lˆa
.
p
P(x, y)
∂z
∂x
+Q(x, y)
∂y
∂y
= 0 (15.4)
th`ı hˆe
.
(15.3) c´ o da
.
ng
dx
P(x, y)
=
dy
Q(x, y)

Nˆe
´
u ψ(x, y) l`a t´ıch phˆan cu’ a n´o th`ı nghiˆe
.
m tˆo

ng qu´at cu’ a (15.4) l`a
z = F(ψ(x, y))
trong d´o F l`a h`am kha’ vi liˆen tu
.
c t` uy ´ y. Trong tru
.
`o
.
ng ho
.
.
p phu
.
o
.
ng
tr`ınh (15.4) v´o
.
i hai biˆe
´
n dˆo
.
c lˆa
.
p b`ai to´an Cauchy c´o nˆo
.
i dung nhu
.
sau: T`ım nghiˆe
.
m z = f(x, y) sao cho z(x
0
) = ϕ(y).
308 Chu
.
o
.
ng 15. Kh´ai niˆe
.
m vˆe
`
phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh vi phˆan da
.
o h`am riˆeng
C
´
AC V
´
I DU
.
V´ı du
.
1. T`ım nghiˆe
.
m tˆo

ng qu´at cu’ a phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh
(x
2
+y
2
)
∂z
∂x
+ 2xy
∂z
∂y
= 0.
Gia’ i. Ta lˆa
.
p hˆe
.
dx
x
2
+y
2
=
dy
2xy

Su
.
’ du
.
ng t´ınh chˆa´t cu’ a ty’ lˆe
.
th´ u
.
c ta c´o
dx +dy
x
2
+y
2
+ 2xy
=
dx −dy
x
2
+y
2
−2xy

d(x +y)
(x +y)
2
=
d(x −y)
(x −y)
2
⇒−
1
(x +y)
= −
1
x −y
+C ⇒
1
x −y

1
x +y
= C

2y
x
2
−y
2
= C ⇒
y
x
2
−y
2
= C
1
.
M˘a
.
t kh´ac dz = 0 ⇒z = C
2
. Nhu
.
vˆa
.
y nghiˆe
.
m tˆo

ng qu´at c´ o da
.
ng
F

y
x
2
−y
2
, z

= 0
hay l`a
z = G

y
x
2
−y
2

.
V´ı du
.
2. T`ım m˘a
.
t tho’a m˜an phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh
x
∂z
∂x
+ (y +x
2
)
∂z
∂y
= z; z = y −4 khi x = 2.
Gia’ i. Lˆa
.
p hˆe
.
phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh tu
.
o
.
ng ´ u
.
ng
dx
x
=
dy
y +x
2
=
dz
z

15.1. Phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh vi phˆan cˆa´p 1 tuyˆe
´
n t´ınh dˆo´i v´o
.
i c´ac da
.
o h`am riˆeng309
T` u
.
phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh
dx
x
=
dy
y +x
2
suy ra
y = x(C
1
+x) ⇒
y −x
2
x
= C
1
⇒ψ
1
=
y −x
2
x

T` u
.
phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh
dx
x
=
dz
z
suy ra
z
x
= C
2
⇒ψ
2
=
z
x

Do d´o nghiˆe
.
m tˆo

ng qu´at cu’ a phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh d˜a cho l`a
F

y −x
2
x
,
z
x

= 0
hay l`a
z = xf

y −x
2
x

. (15.5)
Dˆe

t`ım nghiˆe
.
m (m˘a
.
t !) tho’a m˜an diˆe
`
u kiˆe
.
n d˜a cho ta thˆe
´
x = 2
v`ao ψ
1
v`a ψ
2
ta c´o
˜
ψ
1
=
y −x
2
x

x=2
=
y −4
2
⇒y = 2
˜
ψ
1
+ 4;
˜
ψ
2
=
z
x

x=2
=
z
2
⇒z = 2
˜
ψ
2
.
Thˆe
´
y, z v`ao diˆe
`
u kiˆe
.
n z = y −4 v`a thˆe
´
˜
ψ
1
,
˜
ψ
2
bo
.
’ i ψ
1
v`a ψ
2
ta c´o
2
˜
ψ
2
= 2
˜
ψ
1
+ 4 −4 ⇒ψ
2
= ψ
1

z
x
=
y −x
2
x
hay l`a z = y −x
2
. Nghiˆe
.
m n`ay thu du
.
o
.
.
c t` u
.
(15.5) khi f(t) ≡ t.
B
`
AI T
ˆ
A
.
P
T´ıch phˆan c´ac phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh sau
1
1
Trong c´ac d´ap sˆo´ ta bo’ qua cu
.
m t` u
.
“. . . trong d´o ψ, ϕ, . . . l`a nh˜ u
.
ng h`am kha’
vi liˆen tu
.
c t` uy ´y.”
310 Chu
.
o
.
ng 15. Kh´ai niˆe
.
m vˆe
`
phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh vi phˆan da
.
o h`am riˆeng
1. x
∂z
∂x
+y
∂z
∂y
= z. (DS. z = xψ

y
x

)
2. yz
∂z
∂x
+xz
∂z
∂y
= xy. (DS. z
2
= x
2
+ψ(y
2
−x
2
))
3. T`ım m˘a
.
t tho’a m˜an phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh
1
x
∂z
∂x
+
1
y
∂z
∂y
= 4
v`a di qua parabon y
2
= z, x = 0.
(DS. Paraboloid tr`on xoay z = x
2
+y
2
)
4. (1 +x
2
)
∂z
∂x
+xy
∂z
∂y
= 0, z(0) = y
2
.
(DS. z = ψ

y
2
1 +x
2

; z =
y
2
1 +x
2
)
5. yz
∂z
∂x
+xz
∂z
∂y
= −2xy.
(DS. x +
z
2
2
= ψ(x
2
−y
2
))
6. x
∂z
∂x
−z
∂z
∂y
= 0, x > 0. (DS. F(z, lnx +
y
z
) = 0)
Chı ’ dˆa
˜
n. Dˆay khˆong l`a phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh thuˆa
`
n nhˆa´t v`ı hˆe
.
sˆo´ cu’ a z

y
c´o ch´ u
.
a z. Dˆa
`
u tiˆen cˆ a
`
n gia’ i dz = 0 ⇒z = C
1
sau thˆe
´
z = C
1
v`ao hˆe
.
dx
x
=
dy
−z
=
dy
−C
1

15.2 Gia

i phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh da
.
o h` am riˆeng
cˆa
´
p 2 do
.
n gia

n nhˆ a
´
t
15.2. Gia’ i phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh da
.
o h`am riˆeng cˆa´p 2 do
.
n gia’ n nhˆa´t 311
V´ı du
.
1. T`ım nghiˆe
.
m tˆ o

ng qu´at cu’ a phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh da
.
o h`am riˆeng
(ptdhr)

2
z(x, y)
∂x
2
= 0
trong d´o z(x, y) l`a ˆa

n h`am cu’ a biˆe
´
n dˆo
.
c lˆa
.
p.
Gia’ i. Ta c´o

2
z
∂x
2
=

∂x

∂z
∂x

= 0.
T` u
.
d´o suy ra
∂z
∂x
khˆong phu
.
thuˆo
.
c x. Do d´o
∂z
∂x
= C
1
(y),
trong d´o C
1
(y) l`a h`am t` uy ´ y cu’ a y. T` u
.
phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh n`ay thu du
.
o
.
.
c
z(x, y) =

C
1
(y)dx = xC
1
(y) +C
2
(y)
trong d´o C
1
(y), C
2
(y) l`a nh˜ u
.
ng h`am t` uy ´ y cu’ a y. Nˆe
´
u h`am thu du
.
o
.
.
c
hai lˆa
`
n kha’ vi theo x th`ı

2
z
∂x
2
= 0, do vˆa
.
y h`am thu du
.
o
.
.
c l`a nghiˆe
.
m
cˆa
`
n t`ım.
V´ı du
.
2.

2
z(x, y)
∂x∂y
= x
2
−y.
Gia’ i. Viˆe
´
t phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh d˜a cho du
.
´o
.
i da
.
ng

∂y

∂z
∂x

= x
2
−y ⇒
∂z
∂x
=

(x
2
−y)dy = x
2
y −
y
2
2
+C
1
(x).
T` u
.
d´o lˆa´y t´ıch phˆan biˆe

u th´ u
.
c thu du
.
o
.
.
c theo x ta c´o
z(x, y) =

x
2
y −
y
2
2
+C
1
(x)

dx =
x
3
y
3

y
2
x
2
+C

1
(x) +C
2
(y),
312 Chu
.
o
.
ng 15. Kh´ai niˆe
.
m vˆe
`
phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh vi phˆan da
.
o h`am riˆeng
trong d´o C

1
(x) =

C
1
(x)dx. Nhu
.
vˆa
.
y nghiˆe
.
m tˆo

ng qu´at cu’ a phu
.
o
.
ng
tr`ınh d˜a cho l`a
z(x, y) =
x
3
y
3

y
2
x
2
+C

1
(x) +C
2
(y)
trong d´o C

1
(x) v` a C
2
(y) l`a nh˜ u
.
ng h`am t` uy ´ y v`a C

1
(x) l`a h`am kha’ vi.

V´ı du
.
3. Gia’ i phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh

2
z
∂x∂y
= 2
∂z
∂x
(15.6)
Gia’ i. Ta viˆe
´
t phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh (15.6) du
.
´o
.
i da
.
ng

∂x

∂z
∂y
−2z

= 0.
T´ıch phˆan d˘a

ng th´ u
.
c n`ay ta c´o
∂z
∂y
−2z = C
1
(y).
Trong phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh n`ay da
.
o h`am riˆeng
∂z
∂y
c´o thˆe

xem nhu
.
da
.
o h`am
thˆong thu
.
`o
.
ng theo y, c`on x du
.
o
.
.
c xem l`a tham sˆo´
dz
dy
−2z = C
1
(y) ⇒z(x, y) = e

2dy

C
2
(x) +

C
1
(y)e

2dy
dy

= C
2
(x)e
2y
+C

1
(y).
Nhu
.
vˆa
.
y
z(x, y) = C
2
(x)e
2y
+C

1
(y)
trong d´o C
2
(x) v`a C

1
(y) l`a nh˜ u
.
ng h`am t` uy ´ y.
B
`
AI T
ˆ
A
.
P
15.3. C´ ac phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh vˆa
.
t l´ y to´an co
.
ba’ n 313
Gia’ i c´ac phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh sau.
1.
∂z
∂x
= 1. (DS. z = x +ϕ(y))
2.

2
z
∂y
2
= 6y. (DS. z = y
3
+yϕ(x) +ψ(x))
3.

2
z
∂x∂y
= 0. (DS. z = ϕ(x) +ψ(y))
4.

2
z
∂x∂y
= 1. (DS. z = xy +ϕ(x) +ψ(y))
5.

2
z
∂x
2
= x
2
+y. (DS. z =
x
4
12
+
yx
2
2
+xC
1
(y) +C
2
(y))
6.

2
z
∂x∂y
= x +y. (DS. z =
x
2
y
2
+
xy
2
2
+C
1
(x) +C
2
(y))
7.

2
z
∂y
2
= e
x+y
. (DS. z = e
x+y
+yC
1
(x) +C
2
(y))
8.

2
z
∂x∂y
+
1
x
∂z
∂x
= 0. (DS. z = C
1
(x) +
1
x
C
2
(y))
9.

2
z
∂x∂y
= 2y
∂z
∂x
(DS. z = C
1
(x)e
y
2
+C
2
(y))
10.

2
z
∂x∂y
= 2x. (DS. z = x
2
y +C
1
(y) +C
2
(x))
11.

2
z
∂x
2
= x +y. (DS. z =
xy
2
2
+
y
3
6
+yC
1
(x) +C
2
(x))
15.3 C´ac phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh vˆa
.
t l´ y to´an co
.
ba

n
Dˆo´i v´o
.
i tru
.
`o
.
ng ho
.
.
p khi ˆa

n h`am phu
.
thuˆo
.
c hai biˆe
´
n dˆo
.
c lˆa
.
p c´ac phu
.
o
.
ng
tr`ınh vˆa
.
t l´ y to´an sau dˆay du
.
o
.
.
c xem l`a nh˜ u
.
ng phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh co
.
ba’ n.
1
+
Phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh truyˆe
`
n s´ong

2
u
∂t
2
= a
2

2
u
∂x
2
(15.7)
314 Chu
.
o
.
ng 15. Kh´ai niˆe
.
m vˆe
`
phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh vi phˆan da
.
o h`am riˆeng
2
+
Phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh truyˆe
`
n nhiˆe
.
t
∂u
∂t
= a
2

2
u
∂x
2
(15.8)
3
+
Phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh Laplace

2
u
∂x
2
+

2
u
∂y
2
= 0. (15.9)
Thˆong thu
.
`o
.
ng ngu
.
`o
.
i ta khˆong t`ım nghiˆe
.
m tˆo

ng qu´at m`a l`a t`ım
nghiˆe
.
m riˆeng cu’ a phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh tho’a m˜an nh˜ u
.
ng diˆe
`
u kiˆe
.
n n`ao d´o go
.
i
l`a diˆe
`
u kiˆe
.
n biˆen v`a diˆe
`
u kiˆe
.
n ban dˆ a
`
u.
15.3.1 Phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh truyˆe
`
n s´ong
B`ai to´an co
.
ba’ n. T`ım nghiˆe
.
m riˆeng cu’ a phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh (15.7) tho’a
m˜an c´ac diˆe
`
u kiˆe
.
n biˆen v`a diˆe
`
u kiˆe
.
n ban dˆa
`
u sau:
i) Diˆe
`
u kiˆe
.
n biˆen: (1) u(0, t) = 0; (2) u(, t) = 0.
ii) Diˆe
`
u kiˆe
.
n ban dˆa
`
u: (1) u(x, 0) = ϕ
1
(x); (2)
∂u(x, 0)
∂t
= ϕ
2
(x).
Gia’ i.
´
Ap du
.
ng phu
.
o
.
ng ph´ap Fourier dˆa
`
u tiˆen ta t`ım nghiˆe
.
m riˆeng
cu’ a phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh d˜a cho du
.
´o
.
i da
.
ng t´ıch hai h`am m`a mˆo
.
t h`am chı ’ phu
.
thuˆo
.
c x, c`on h`am kia chı ’ phu
.
thuˆo
.
c t:
u(x, t) = X(t)T(t). (15.10)
Thay u(x, t) v`ao phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh d˜a cho ta thu du
.
o
.
.
c
XT

−a
2
TX

= 0 →
X

X
=
T

a
2
T
(15.11)
Vˆe
´
tr´ai cu’ a (15.11) khˆong phu
.
thuˆo
.
c t, vˆe
´
pha’ i khˆong phu
.
thuˆo
.
c x.
Diˆe
`
u d´o chı ’ xˆa

y ra khi ca’ hai vˆe
´
cu’ a (15.11) khˆong phu
.
thuˆo
.
c ca’ x lˆa
˜
n
t t´ u
.
c l`a b˘a
`
ng mˆo
.
t h˘a
`
ng sˆo´. K´ y hiˆe
.
u h˘a
`
ng sˆo´ d´o l`a −λ
2
. Ta thu du
.
o
.
.
c
X

X
= −λ
2
⇒X


2
X = 0 ⇒X = Acos λx +Bsinλx, (15.12)
T

a
2
T
= −λ
2
⇒T

+a
2
λ
2
T = 0 ⇒T = C cos aλt +Dsin aλt,
(15.13)
15.3. C´ ac phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh vˆa
.
t l´ y to´an co
.
ba’ n 315
trong d´o A, B, C, D l`a nh˜ u
.
ng h˘a
`
ng sˆo´ t` uy ´ y. T` u
.
(15.12), (15.13) v`a
(15.10) suy r˘a
`
ng
u(x, t) = (Acos λx +Bsinλx)(C cos aλt +Dsin aλt). (15.14)
´
Ap du
.
ng diˆe
`
u kiˆe
.
n biˆen
u(0, t) = 0, u(, t) = 0
cho (15.14) v`a sau khi d˜a do
.
n gia’ n cho T(t) ≡ 0 ta c´o
0 = Acos 0 +Bsin0 ⇒A = 0,
0 = Acos λ +Bsin λ ⇒sinλ = 0 (v`ı B = 0 khi A = 0).
T` u
.
d´o ta x´ac di
.
nh du
.
o
.
.
c tham sˆo´ λ =

, n = 1, 2, . . . l`a tham sˆo´ t` uy
´ y. Lu
.
u ´ y r˘a
`
ng nˆe
´
u trong (15.12) v`a (15.13) thay cho −λ
2
ta lˆa´y +λ
2
th`ı X = Ae
−λx
+Be
λx
v`a dˆo´i v´ o
.
i h`am X da
.
ng n`ay c´ac diˆe
`
u kiˆe
.
n i) v`a
ii) chı ’ du
.
o
.
.
c tho’a m˜an khi X ≡ 0.
Nhu
.
vˆa
.
y mˆo
˜
i gi´ a tri
.
λ (hay n) dˆe
`
u tu
.
o
.
ng ´ u
.
ng v´o
.
i nghiˆe
.
m riˆeng
da
.
ng
u
n
= X
n
T
n
=

α
n
cos
anπt


n
sin
anπt

sin
nπx

trong d´o α
n
= B
n
C
n
, β
n
= B
n
D
n
l`a c´ac h˘a
`
ng sˆo´ t` uy ´ y.
V`ı phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh d˜a cho l`a tuyˆe
´
n t´ınh v`a thuˆa
`
n nhˆa´t nˆen tˆo

ng c´ac
nghiˆe
.
m c˜ ung l`a nghiˆe
.
m. Do d´o tˆo

ng cu’ a chuˆo
˜
i
u(x, t) =
¸
n1
u
n
=
¸
n1

α
n
cos
anπt


n
sin
anπt

sin
nπx

(15.15)
c˜ ung l`a nghiˆe
.
m cu’ a phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh d˜a cho v`a n´o tho’a m˜an c´ ac diˆe
`
u kiˆe
.
n
biˆen.
316 Chu
.
o
.
ng 15. Kh´ai niˆe
.
m vˆe
`
phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh vi phˆan da
.
o h`am riˆeng
Dˆe

x´ac di
.
nh α
n
v`a β
n
ta s˜e ´ap du
.
ng c´ac diˆe
`
u kiˆe
.
n ban dˆa
`
u: khi
t = 0 th`ı u(x, t) = ϕ
1
(x) nˆen
ϕ
1
(x) =

¸
n=1
α
n
sin
nπx

(15.16)
T` u
.
(15.15) ta c` on c´ o
∂u
∂t
=
¸
n1
anπ

β
n
cos
anπt

−α
n
sin
anπt

sin
nπx

v`a do diˆe
`
u kiˆe
.
n u

t
(x, 0) = ϕ
2
(x) nˆen
ϕ
2
(x) =
¸
n1
anπ

β
n
sin
nπx

(15.17)
C´ac d˘a

ng th´ u
.
c (15.16) v`a (15.17) l`a khai triˆe

n cu’ a c´ac h`am ϕ
1
(x) v`a
ϕ
2
(x) th`anh chuˆo
˜
i Fourier trong khoa’ ng (0, ). C´ac khai triˆe

n n`ay chı ’
ch´ u
.
a h`am sin. C´ac hˆe
.
sˆo´ cu’ a khai triˆe

n du
.
o
.
.
c t´ınh theo cˆ ong th´ u
.
c
α
n
=
2

0
ϕ
1
(x) sin
nπx

dx; β
n
=
2
naπ

0
ϕ
2
(x) sin
nπx

dx.
(15.18)
Nhu
.
vˆa
.
y nghiˆe
.
m riˆeng tho’a m˜an c´ac diˆe
`
u kiˆe
.
n d˜a nˆeu l`a h`am
(15.15) v´o
.
i c´ac hˆe
.
sˆo´ α
n
v`a β
n
du
.
o
.
.
c t´ınh theo cˆ ong th´ u
.
c (15.18).
B
`
AI T
ˆ
A
.
P
T`ım nghiˆe
.
m cu’ a phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh

2
u
∂t
2
= a
2

2
u
∂x
2
(15.19)
tho’a m˜an c´ac diˆe
`
u kiˆe
.
n ban dˆa
`
u v`a diˆe
`
u kiˆe
.
n biˆen
15.3. C´ ac phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh vˆa
.
t l´ y to´an co
.
ba’ n 317
1. (i) C´ac diˆe
`
u kiˆe
.
n ban dˆa
`
u
u(x, 0) = f(x) =

x
5
v´o
.
i 0 x

2
,

1
5
(x −) v´o
.
i

2
x
∂u(x, 0)
∂t
= ϕ(x) = 0.
(ii) C´ac diˆe
`
u kiˆe
.
n biˆen u(0, t) = 0, u(, t) = 0.
(DS. u(x, t) =
4

2
¸
n1
(−1)
n−1
1
(2n −1)
2
cos
πant

sin
πnx

)
2. (i) u(x, 0) = 0,
∂u(x, 0)
∂t
= 1;
(ii) u(0, t) = u(, t) = 0.
(DS. u(x, t) =
2
π
2
a
¸
n1
1
(2n −1)
2
sin
2n −1

πat sin
(2n −1)πx

)
3. C˜ ung ho’i nhu
.
trˆen dˆo´i v´o
.
i phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh

2
u
∂t
2
= 4

2
u
∂x
2
v`a c´ac diˆe
`
u kiˆe
.
n:
(i) u(x, 0) = sin
4πx
3
, u

t
(x, 0) = 0;
(ii) u(0, t) = 0, u(3, t) = 0.
(DS. u(x, t) = cos
8πt
3
sin
4πx
3
)
15.3.2 Phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh truyˆe
`
n nhiˆe
.
t
B`ai to´an co
.
ba’ n. T`ım nghiˆe
.
m cu’ a phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh
∂u
∂t
= a
2

2
u
∂x
2
318 Chu
.
o
.
ng 15. Kh´ai niˆe
.
m vˆe
`
phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh vi phˆan da
.
o h`am riˆeng
tho’a m˜an c´ac diˆe
`
u kiˆe
.
n
1) u(x, 0) = ϕ(x)
2) u(0, t) = u(, t) = 0.
Gia’ i.
´
Ap du
.
ng phu
.
o
.
ng ph´ap Fourier, ta d˘a
.
t
u(x, t) = X(x)T(t)
v`a phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh d˜a cho tro
.
’ th`anh
X

X
=
T

a
2
T
= −λ
2
v`a thu du
.
o
.
.
c hai phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh
X


2
X = 0 ⇒X = Acos λx +Bsinλx,
T

+a
2
λ
2
T = 0 ⇒T = Ce
−a
2
λ
2
t
.
Do d´o
u(x, t) = e
−a
2
λ
2
t

αcos λx +β sinλx

trong d´o α = AC, β = BC l`a nh˜ u
.
ng h˘a
`
ng sˆo´ t` uy ´ y.
´
Ap du
.
ng diˆe
`
u kiˆe
.
n 2) ta c´o
0 = αcos 0 +β sin0
0 = αcos λ +β sinλ
⇒α = 0, λ =

, n = 1, 2, 3, . . .
C˜ ung nhu
.
trong 1
+
, mˆo
˜
i gi´a tri
.
λ (hay n) tu
.
o
.
ng ´ u
.
ng v´o
.
i nghiˆe
.
m riˆeng
u
n
= β
n
e

a
2
n
2
π
2
t

2
sin
nπx

v`a tˆo

ng cu’ a ch´ ung c˜ ung l`a nghiˆe
.
m cu’ a phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh
u(x, t) =
¸
n1
β
n
e

a
2
n
2
π
2
t

2
sin
πnx

(15.20)
15.3. C´ ac phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh vˆa
.
t l´ y to´an co
.
ba’ n 319
Bˆay gi` o
.
´ap du
.
ng diˆe
`
u kiˆe
.
n 1) ta c´o: u(x, 0) = ϕ(x):
ϕ(x) =
¸
n1
β
n
sin
nπx

D´o l`a khai triˆe

n Fourier cu’ a h`am ϕ(x) trong khoa’ ng (0, ). Do d´o ta
c´o
β
n
=
2

0
ϕ(x) sin
nπx

dx. (15.21)
Nhu
.
vˆa
.
y tˆo

ng chuˆo
˜
i (15.20) v´o
.
i hˆe
.
sˆo´ t´ınh theo vˆong th´ u
.
c (15.21) l`a
nghiˆe
.
m riˆeng tho’a m˜an c´ac diˆe
`
u kiˆe
.
n d˜a cho.
B
`
AI T
ˆ
A
.
P
1. Gia’ i phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh
∂u
∂t
= a
2

2
u
∂x
2
(15.22)
u(x, 0) =

x v´o
.
i 0 x

2
,
−x v´o
.
i

2
x ;
u(0, t) = u(, t) = 0.
(DS. u =
4
π
2
¸
n1
(−1)
n−1
1
(2n −1)
2
e

π
2
a
2
(2n−1)
2

2
t
sin
π(2n−1)

x
)
2. Gia’ i phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh (15.22) v´ o
.
i c´ac diˆe
`
u kiˆe
.
n
u(x, 0) = f(x); u(0, t) = A, u(, t) = B; A, B −const.
Chı ’ dˆa
˜
n. Du
.
a v`ao ˆa

n h`am m´o
.
i
v(x, t) = u(x, t) −
B −A

x −A.
320 Chu
.
o
.
ng 15. Kh´ai niˆe
.
m vˆe
`
phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh vi phˆan da
.
o h`am riˆeng
Khi d´o (15.22) tro
.
’ th`anh
∂v
∂t
= a
2

2
v
∂x
2
v´o
.
i c´ac diˆe
`
u kiˆe
.
n v(0, t) = 0,
v(, t) = 0, v(x, 0) = u(x, 0) −
B −A

x − A = f(x) −
B −A

x −A =
g(x). D´o l`a b`ai to´an d˜a biˆe
´
t c´ ach gia’ i.
3. T`ım nghiˆe
.
m u(x, y) cu’ a phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh
∂u
∂y
=

2
u
∂x
2
tho’a m˜an c´ ac diˆe
`
u
kiˆe
.
n biˆen u(0, y) = u(π, y) = 0 v`a diˆe
`
u kiˆe
.
n ban dˆa
`
u u(x, 0) = 3 sin 2x.
(DS. u(x, y) = 3e
−4y
sin 2x)
15.3.3 Phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh Laplace
H`am u(x, y) du
.
o
.
.
c go
.
i l`a h`am diˆe
`
u h`oa trong miˆe
`
n ph˘a

ng D nˆe
´
u n´o
c´o c´ac da
.
o h`am riˆeng liˆen tu
.
c cˆa´p 2 trˆen D v`a trˆen D n´o tho’a m˜an
phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh
∆u ≡

2
u
∂x
2
+

2
u
∂y
2
= 0. (15.23)
Tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p c´ ac h`am diˆe
`
u h`oa - ch´ınh l`a tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p mo
.
i nghiˆe
.
m cu’ a
phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh Laplace. C˜ ung nhu
.
dˆo´i v´o
.
i phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh vi phˆan
thu
.
`o
.
ng, dˆe

t´ach mˆo
.
t nghiˆe
.
m x´ac di
.
nh cu’ a phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh Laplace ngu
.
`o
.
i
ta pha’ i cho nh˜ u
.
ng diˆe
`
u kiˆe
.
n bˆo

sung. Dˆo´i v´o
.
i phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh Laplace
nh˜ u
.
ng diˆe
`
u kiˆe
.
n bˆo

sung d´o du
.
o
.
.
c ph´at biˆe

u du
.
´o
.
i da
.
ng diˆe
`
u kiˆe
.
n biˆen,
t´ u
.
c l`a cho nh˜ u
.
ng hˆe
.
th´ u
.
c m`a nghiˆe
.
m cˆa
`
n t`ım pha’ i tho’a m˜an trˆen biˆen.
Diˆe
`
u kiˆe
.
n do
.
n gia’ n nhˆa´t trong sˆo´ d´o l`a cho gi´a tri
.
cu’ a h`am diˆe
`
u h`oa
cˆa
`
n t`ım ta
.
i mˆo
˜
i diˆe

m biˆen cu’ a miˆe
`
n. Ngu
.
`o
.
i ta go
.
i b`ai to´an n`ay l`a b`ai
to´an biˆen th´ u
.
nhˆa´t hay b`ai to´an Dirichlet.
B`ai to´an biˆen cu’ a phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh Laplace du
.
o
.
.
c d˘a
.
t ra nhu
.
sau. Gia’
su
.
’ miˆe
`
n D ⊂ R
2
v´o
.
i biˆen ∂D l`a du
.
`o
.
ng cong d´ong. H˜ ay t`ım h`am
u(x, y) liˆen tu
.
c trong D = D ∪ ∂D sao cho
a) Tho’a m˜an phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh Laplace trong D.
b) Tho’a m˜an diˆe
`
u kiˆe
.
n biˆen
u(x, y)

(x,y)∈∂D
= f(x, y),
15.3. C´ ac phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh vˆa
.
t l´ y to´an co
.
ba’ n 321
trong d´o f(x, y) l`a h`am du
.
o
.
.
c cho trˆen biˆen ∂D.
B`ai to´an v` u
.
a nˆeu c`on du
.
o
.
.
c go
.
i l`a b`ai to´an Dirichlet. Trong gi´ao
tr`ınh n`ay ta chı ’ x´et b`ai to´an Dirichlet dˆo´i v´o
.
i h`ınh tr` on.
Bˆo

dˆe
`
1. Trong to
.
a dˆo
.
cu
.
.
c (r, ϕ) phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh Laplace (15.23) c´ o
da
.
ng

2
u
∂r
2
+
1
r
2

2
u
∂ϕ
2
+
1
r
∂u
∂r
= 0. (15.24)
L`o
.
i gia’ i cu’ a b`ai to´an Dirichlet dˆo´i v´o
.
i h`ınh tr`on (c˜ ung t´ u
.
c l`a l`o
.
i
gia’ i cu’ a phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh Laplace (15.23) hay (15.24)) v´ o
.
i diˆe
`
u kiˆe
.
n biˆen
cho tru
.
´ o
.
c du
.
o
.
.
c mˆo ta’ trong di
.
nh l´ y sau dˆay.
D
-
i
.
nh l´ y. Gia’ su
.
’ S l`a h`ınh tr`on do
.
n vi
.
mo
.
’ v´o
.
i tˆam ta
.
i gˆo´c to
.
a dˆo
.
v` a
gia’ su
.
’ trˆen biˆen ∂S cho h`am 2π-tuˆ a
`
n ho` an liˆen tu
.
c f(θ), trong d´ o θ
l`a g´oc cu
.
.
c cu’ a c´ac diˆe

m biˆen cu’ a ∂D.
Khi d´o trong miˆe
`
n S = S +∂S tˆo
`
n ta
.
i h` am duy nhˆa´t u(x, y) liˆen
tu
.
c trˆen S v`a diˆe
`
u h`oa trˆen S sao cho u(x, y)

(x,y)∈∂S
= f(θ). Trong
to
.
a dˆo
.
cu
.
.
c (r, θ) h`am u(r, θ) biˆe

u diˆe
˜
n du
.
o
.
.
c du
.
´o
.
i da
.
ng chuˆ o
˜
i
u(r, θ) =
a
0
2
+
¸
n1
r
n
(a
n
cos nθ +b
n
sinnθ)
trong d´o
a
n
b
n
¸
=
1
π
π

−π
f(θ)

cos nθ
sinnθ
¸
dθ, n = 0, 1, 2, . . .
l`a c´ac hˆe
.
sˆ o´ Fourier cu’ a h`am f(θ).
H`am diˆe
`
u h`oa c´o t´ınh chˆa´t d˘a
.
c biˆe
.
t l`a tho’a m˜an Di
.
nh l´y vˆe
`
gi´ a tri
.
trung b`ınh
D
-
i
.
nh l´ y. Nˆe
´
u h`am u(x, y) liˆen tu
.
c trong h`ınh tr` on d´ong tˆ am O(0, 0)
v`a b´an k´ınh R v`a diˆe
`
u h`oa trong h`ınh tr` on d´o th`ı gi´ a tri
.
cu’ a h` am
322 Chu
.
o
.
ng 15. Kh´ai niˆe
.
m vˆe
`
phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh vi phˆan da
.
o h`am riˆeng
u(x, y) ta
.
i tˆam h`ınh tr`on b˘ a
`
ng trung b`ınh cˆo
.
ng c´ ac gi´a tri
.
cu’ a n´ o trˆen
du
.
`o
.
ng tr`on, t´ u
.
c l`a
u(0, 0) =
1
2πR

x
2
+y
2
=R
2
u(x, y)ds
V´ı du
.
1. Ch´ u
.
ng to’ r˘a
`
ng h`am u(x, y) = a(x
2
−y
2
) +bxy trong d´o a, b
l`a c´ac h˘a
`
ng sˆo´ t` uy ´ y, l`a h`am diˆe
`
u h`oa.
Gia’ i. Ta c´o
∂u
∂x
= 2ax +by,

2
u
∂x
2
= 2a;
∂u
∂y
= −2ay +bx,

2
u
∂y
2
= −2a

⇒∆u = 0.
V´ı du
.
2. Ch´ u
.
ng minh Bˆ o

dˆe
`
1.
Gia’ i. X´et u(x, y) = u(r cos ϕ, r sinϕ). Ta c´o
∂u
∂r
= cos ϕ
∂u
∂x
+ sinϕ
∂u
∂y
,
∂u
∂ϕ
= −r sinϕ
∂u
∂x
+r cos ϕ
∂u
∂y


∂u
∂x
= cos ϕ
∂u
∂r

sinϕ
r
∂u
∂ϕ
,
(15.25)
∂u
∂y
= sinϕ
∂u
∂r
+
cos ϕ
r
∂u
∂ϕ

15.3. C´ ac phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh vˆa
.
t l´ y to´an co
.
ba’ n 323
´
Ap du
.
ng (15.25) dˆe

t´ınh

2
u
∂x
2
v`a

2
u
∂y
2
. Ta c´o

2
u
∂x
2
= cos ϕ

∂r

cos ϕ
∂u
∂r

sinϕ
r
∂u
∂ϕ


sinϕ
r

∂ϕ

cos ϕ
∂u
∂r

sinϕ
r
∂u
∂ϕ

= cos
2
ϕ

2
u
∂r
2
−2
sin ϕcos ϕ
r

2
u
∂r∂ϕ
+
sin
2
ϕ
r
2

2
u
∂ϕ
2
+
2 sin ϕcos ϕ
r
2
∂u
∂ϕ
+
sin
2
ϕ
r
∂u
∂r

2
u
∂y
2
= sin
2
ϕ

2
u
∂r
2
+
2 sin ϕcos ϕ
r

2
u
∂r∂ϕ
+
cos
2
ϕ
r
2

2
u
∂ϕ
2

2 sin ϕcos ϕ
r
2
∂u
∂ϕ
+
cos
2
ϕ
r
∂u
∂r

T` u
.
d´o suy r˘a
`
ng
∆u =

2
u
∂x
2
+

2
u
∂y
2
=

2
u
∂r
2
+
1
r
∂u
∂r
+
1
r
2

2
u
∂ϕ
2

V´ı du
.
3. H˜ay t`ım gi´a tri
.
cu’ a h`am diˆe
`
u h`oa u(x, y) ta
.
i tˆam h`ınh tr`on
x
2
+y
2
R
2
nˆe
´
u
u(x, y)

x
2
+y
2
=R
2
= xy +x −1.
Gia’ i.
´
Ap du
.
ng di
.
nh l´ y trung b`ınh d˜a ph´at biˆe

u o
.
’ trˆen ta c´o
u(0, 0) =
1
2πR

x
2
+y
2
=R
2
u(x, y)ds.
Chuyˆe

n sang to
.
a dˆo
.
cu
.
.
c: x = Rcos ϕ, y = Rsinϕ ta thu du
.
o
.
.
c
u

x
2
+y
2
=R
2
= f(ϕ); ds = Rdϕ
v`a do d´o
u(0, 0) =
1

0
f(ϕ)dϕ.
324 Chu
.
o
.
ng 15. Kh´ai niˆe
.
m vˆe
`
phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh vi phˆan da
.
o h`am riˆeng
Theo gia’ thiˆe
´
t
f(ϕ) = Rcos ϕ Rsinϕ +Rcos ϕ −1 =
R
2
sin2ϕ
2
+Rcos ϕ −1
v`a do d´o
u(0, 0) =
1

0

R
2
sin2ϕ
2
+Rcos ϕ −1


=
1


R
2
4
cos 2ϕ +Rsinϕ −ϕ


0
= −1.
V´ı du
.
4. T`ım h`am u(x, y) diˆe
`
u h`oa trong h`ınh tr`on x
2
+y
2
< R
2
v`a
trˆen biˆen h`ınh tr`on n´o nhˆa
.
n c´ac gi´ a tri
.
u

x
2
+y
2
=R
2
= x
2
−y
2
+
1
2
y.
Gia’ i. B`ai to´an d˘a
.
t ra l`a b`ai to´an Dirichlet dˆo´i v´o
.
i h`ınh tr`on.
Chuyˆe

n sang to
.
a dˆo
.
cu
.
.
c ta c´o
u

x
2
+y
2
=R
2
= u(R, ϕ) = R
2
cos
2
ϕ −R
2
sin
2
ϕ +
1
2
Rsinϕ
= R
2
cos 2ϕ +
R
2
sinϕ. (15.26)
Trong l´ y thuyˆe
´
t phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh Laplace ngu
.
`o
.
i ta d˜a ch´ u
.
ng minh
r˘a
`
ng nˆe
´
u gi´a tri
.
cu’ a h`am diˆe
`
u h`oa u(r, ϕ) trˆen du
.
`o
.
ng tr`on b´an k´ınh
R c´o khai triˆe

n Fourier da
.
ng
u(R, ϕ) = f(ϕ) =
¸
n0
R
n
(A
n
cos nϕ +B
n
sinnϕ)
th`ı trong h`ınh tr`on ta c´o
u(r, ϕ) =
¸
n0
r
n
(A
n
cos nϕ +B
n
sinnϕ) (15.27)
A
0
=
1

π

−π
f(ϕ)dϕ, A
n
=
1
πR
n
π

−π
f(ϕ) cos nϕdϕ,
B
n
=
1
πR
n
π

−π
f(ϕ) sin nϕdϕ.
15.3. C´ ac phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh vˆa
.
t l´ y to´an co
.
ba’ n 325
T` u
.
diˆe
`
u kiˆe
.
n biˆen (15.26) thu du
.
o
.
.
c
u(R, ϕ) = R
2
cos 2ϕ +
1
2
Rsinϕ
=
¸
n0
(R
n
A
n
cos nϕ +R
n
B
n
sin nϕ)
So s´anh c´ ac hˆe
.
sˆo´ cu’ a cos 2ϕ v`a sinϕ ta thu du
.
o
.
.
c R
2
= R
2
A
2
,
1
2
R =
R B
1
. Do d´o A
2
= 1, B
1
=
1
2
; tˆa´t ca’ c´ac sˆo´ c`on la
.
i dˆe
`
u b˘a
`
ng 0. Thˆe
´
c´ac gi´a tri
.
t`ım du
.
o
.
.
c n`ay v`ao (15.27) ta thu du
.
o
.
.
c nghiˆe
.
m
u(r, ϕ) = r
2
cos 2ϕ +
1
2
r sinϕ = r
2
(cos
2
ϕ −sin
2
ϕ) +
1
2
r sinϕ
= x
2
−y
2
+
1
2
y ⇒u(x, y) = x
2
−y
2
+
1
2
y.
B
`
AI T
ˆ
A
.
P
Ch´ u
.
ng minh r˘a
`
ng c´ac h`am d˜ a cho l`a nh˜ u
.
ng h`am diˆe
`
u h`oa
1. u = ln
1
r
. Chı ’ dˆa
˜
n.
´
Ap du
.
ng v´ı du
.
2.
2. u = r
n
cos nϕ, v = r
n
sinnϕ.
3. u −x
3
−3y
2
x.
4. u =

x +

x
2
+y
2
. Chı ’ dˆa
˜
n. D˘a
.
t t = x +

x
2
+y
2
.
5. u = arctg
y
x
.
T`ım gi´a tri
.
cu’ a h`am diˆe
`
u h`oa u(x, y) ta
.
i tˆam h`ınh tr`on x
2
+y
2
R
2
nˆe
´
u trˆen biˆen h`ınh tr`on n´o nhˆa
.
n c´ac gi´ a tri
.
chı ’ ra:
6. u(x, y) =
y
2
R
2
. (DS. u(0, 0) =
1
2
)
7. u(x, y) = R +x. (DS. u(0, 0) = R)
8. u(x, y) = [x[ +[y[. (DS. u(0, 0) =
4R
π
)
326 Chu
.
o
.
ng 15. Kh´ai niˆe
.
m vˆe
`
phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh vi phˆan da
.
o h`am riˆeng
9. u(x, y) = 2 + 3y. (DS. u(0, 0) = 2)
Gia’ i b`ai to´an Dirichlet dˆo´i v´o
.
i h`ınh tr`on x
2
+y
2
R
2
nˆe
´
u cho c´ ac
diˆe
`
u kiˆe
.
n biˆen du
.
´o
.
i dˆay (10-11):
10. u

r=R
=
3x
R
. (DS. u(r, ϕ) =
3
R
r cos ϕ =
3x
R
)
11. u

r=R
= 3 −5y. (DS. u = 3 −5y = 3 −5r sinϕ)
T`ai liˆe
.
u tham kha

o
[1] R. Ph. Apatenok. Co
.
so
.
’ Da
.
i sˆ o´ tuyˆe
´
n t´ınh, Minsk, 1977 (tiˆe
´
ng
Nga)
[2] Ia. S. Bugrov, S. M. Nikolski. Co
.
so
.
’ Da
.
i sˆ o´ tuyˆe
´
n t´ınh v` a H`ınh
ho
.
c gia’ i t´ıch, M. 1988 (tiˆe
´
ng Nga)
[3] Ia. S. Bugrow, S, M. Nikolski. B`ai tˆ a
.
p To´an cao cˆa´p, M. 1987
(tiˆe
´
ng Nga)
[4] P. E. Danko v`a c´ac t´ac gia’ kh´ac. B`ai tˆ a
.
p to´an cao cˆa´p T1, 2. H`a
Nˆo
.
i 1983.
[5] V˜ u V˘an Khu
.
o
.
ng. Da
.
i sˆo´ tuyˆe
´
n t´ınh, H`a Nˆo
.
i 2002.
[6] M. L. Krasnov v`a c´ ac t´ac gia’ kh´ac. B`ai tˆ a
.
p phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh vi phˆan
thu
.
`o
.
ng, M. 1978 (tiˆe
´
ng Nga)
[7] L. D. Kudriasev v` a c´ac t´ac gia’ kh´ac. B`ai tˆ a
.
p gia’ i t´ıch. T1, 2, M.
1985 (tiˆe
´
ng Nga)
[8] L. Ia. Okunev. B`ai tˆa
.
p da
.
i sˆo´ cao cˆ a´p, M. 1964 (tiˆe
´
ng Nga)
[9] L. B. Sneperman. B`ai tˆa
.
p da
.
i sˆ o´ v`a l´y thuyˆe
´
t sˆo´, Minsk 1982
(tiˆe
´
ng Nga)
[10] V. S. Sipatchev. B`ai tˆa
.
p to´an cao cˆa´p, M. 1997 (tiˆe
´
ng Nga)
328 T`ai liˆe
.
u tham kha’ o
[11] I. Ia. Vilenkin v`a c´ac t´ac gia’ kh´ac. B`ai tˆ a
.
p gia’ i t´ıch, T1, 2, M.
1971 (tiˆe
´
ng Nga)
[12] D. K. Phadeev, I. S. Sominski. B` ai tˆ a
.
p da
.
i sˆo´ cao cˆ a´p, M. 1977.
[13] Nguyˆe
˜
n Thuy’ Thanh. B` ai tˆ a
.
p gia’ i t´ıch, NXBGD, H`a Nˆo
.
i 2002.
[14] Nguyˆe
˜
n Thuy’ Thanh, Dˆo
˜
D´ u
.
c Gi´ao. Hu
.
´ o
.
ng dˆa
˜
n gia’ i b`ai tˆ a
.
p gia’ i
t´ıch to´an ho
.
c. T1, 2, DHQG H` a Nˆo
.
i 1999.