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Faculty of Civil & Environmental Engineering

Department of Infrastructure & Geomatic Engineering

Subject: Geotechnics I (BFC 21702)

Tutorial: CHAPTER 4 & 5 (Permeability and stress in soil)

1. The results of a constant-head permeability test for a fine sand sample having a diameter
of 150 mm and a length of 300 mm are as follows:
Constant-head difference = 500 mm
Water collected in 5 min = 350 cm3
Void ratio of sand = 0.61
a) Hydraulic conductivity, k (cm/sec)
b) Seepage velocity
2. In a constant-head permeability test, the length of the specimen is 150 mm and the cross-
sectional area is 3167 mm2. If k = 0.062 cm/sec and a rate of flow of 160 cm3/min has to be
maintained during the test, what should be the head difference across the specimen? Also,
determine the discharge velocity under the test conditions.

3. The following data are for a falling-head permeability test:

Length of the soil sample = 150 mm
Area of the soil sample = 1964 mm2
Area of the standpipe = 25 mm2
At time t = 0, head difference = 400 mm
At time t = 8 min, head difference = 200 mm
a) Determine the hydraulic conductivity of the soil (cm/sec).
b) What was the head difference at t = 6 min?

4. A layered soil is shown in Figure 1. Given that;

H1 = 1 m k1 = 10-4 cm/sec

H2 = 1 m k2 = 2.8 x 10-2 cm/sec

H3 = 2 m k3 = 3.5 x 10-5 cm/sec

Estimate the ratio of equivalent permeability, kH(eq)/kV(eq).


Figure 1: Layered soil

5. Refer to Figure 2 for field pumping from a well. For a steady state condition, given:
q = 0.85 m3/min
h1 = 5.65 m at r1 = 60 m
h2 = 4.85 m at r2 = 30 m
Calculate the hydraulic conductivity (cm/sec) of the permeable layer.


6. A soil profile consisting of three layers is shown in Figure 3.
Plot the pressure diagram of , u, and ' at points A, B, C, and D.

Figure 3
What is the change in effective stress at point C if
a) the water table drops by 2 m?
b) the water table rises to the surface up to point A?
c) the water level rises 3 m above point A due to flooding?

7. Refer to Figure 4.
a) Plot the effective pressure diagram at point A, B and C.
b) If the ground water table rises to 2 m below the ground surface, what will be the net
change in effective stress at point C?
c) How high should the groundwater table rise so that the effective stress at C is 120

Figure 4


8. A 10 m thick layer of stiff saturated clay is underlain by a layer of sand. The sand is under
artesian pressure. A 5.75 m deep cut is made in the clay.
a) Determine the factor of safety against heaving at point A.
b) Calculate the maximum depth of cut that can be made in the clay.