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ROHSTOFFE UND ANWENDUNGEN

RAW MATERIALS AND APPLICATIONS

Sliding rubbers  Tangential displa-


cement  Rubber friction  Pressure
dependence  Pressure distribution 
Friction Effects in the Contact
Schallamach waves  Abrasion
Area of Sliding Rubber:
Based on the original Schallamach-
model we present a generalized
theory that predicts the buckling ef-
a Generalized Schallamach
fects and the tangential stress gra-
dient as the driving force for the
Model
waves of detachement. In contrast
to the original Schallamach-model
the generalized theory considers a
H.-R. Berger, G. Heinrich, Chemnitz, Hannover (Germany)
non-Coulombian rubber friction
coefficient l(p) that depends on the
local normal pressure. Furthermore,
numerical solutions of the general- Visual observations of contact areas be- For example, Koudine et al. observed a
ized theory can be derived for arbi- tween rubber sliders and hard tracks fine structure associated with Schal-
trary symmetrical and non-symme- show that relative motions between the lamach's wave propagation produced
trical pressure distributions p(x) un- two frictional members is often only due by sliding friction of rubber-like materials
der the slider. Some selected exam- to waves of detachment, frequently [3]. Further experiments have shown that
ples are discussed in more detail. called Schallamach waves, crossing the a multiphase complex instability process
The model serves as a basis for contact area at high speed from front occurs in the contact zone during the
foot-print mechanics and friction/ to rear [1]. Buckling is there attributed movement of a glass hemisphere in the
abrasion simulations of slipping to tangential compressive stresses in direction corresponding to sheet thick-
tires. the contact area and the motive force ness decrease [4]. The initially regular
driving the waves is a tangential stress generation of Schallamach's wave is
gradient. It has been pointed out some then replaced by a chaotic generation
Reibungseffekte in der time ago by Schallamach that tensile process.
Kontaktflache bei gleitendem strains near the rear end of a contact Based on the Schallamach-model [1]
Gummi: ein verallgemeinertes area are the source of tensile failure re- we present a generalized theory that pre-
Schallamach-Modell sulting in abrasion. These effects influ- dicts the buckling effects and the tangen-
ence basic tire performance properties tial stress gradient as the driving force for
Gummireibung  Tangentiale Ver- like, e. g. wear. In order to realize the basic the waves of detachement. In contrast to
schiebung  Druckabhangigkeit  vehicle functions of travelling, turning and the original Schallamach-model the gen-
Druckverteilung  Schallamach- stopping it is well known that tires must eralized theory considers a non-Coulom-
Wellen  Abrieb undergo complex and relentless defor- bian rubber friction coefficient l(p) that
mation. As the tire constituent is in direct depends on the local normal pressure.
In der vorliegenden Arbeit wird ein contact with the road surface when the Furthermore, solutions of the generalized
generalisiertes Schallamach-Modell tire is rolling, the tread has the function theory can be derived for arbitrary sym-
fur die mathematische Beschrei- of ensuring friction between the tire and metrical and non-symmetrical pressure
bung der elastischen Verformungs- road to provide effective braking and distributions p(x) under the slider. Both
wellen und des tangentialen Span- steering. In addition to the tread experi- functions, friction l(p) and pressure distri-
nungsgradienten bei gleitendem encing a compression force from the bution p(x), affect the results. The uniform
Gummi auf einer Reibunterlage vor- vehicle weight, therefore, complex rela- and symmetrical pressure distribution in
gestellt. Dieses verallgemeinerte tive motion arises in the tread rubber be- the contact area is a limiting case of
Modell wurde fur einen beliebigen tween the tread and road surfaces. The the theory.
Druck-abhangigen Reibungs- tread rubber thus undergoes a complex Results of the presented theory are im-
koeffizienten l(p) und eine beliebige pattern of deformation under compres- portant for foot-print mechanics and fric-
lokale Normaldruckverteilung p(x) sion and shear in which the rubber block tion/abrasion studies of slipping tires.
in der Kontaktflache formuliert. edges eventually become detached from
Fur ausgewahlte Beispiele werden the ground. This leads directly to a de- The generalized Schallamach
numerische Losungen vorgestellt crease in ground contact area, and model
und diskutiert. Das Modell kann causes wear through the dynamic slip as-
zum Beispiel Eingang in Simu- sociated with detachement [2]. We consider the two-dimensional case of
lationen des Reibungs- und Ab- There is also a renewal of interest in the a long slider moving perpendicular to its
riebsverhaltens in der Bodenauf- basic mechanisms accompanying the length over a semi-infinite rubber track.
standsflache von schlupfenden slilding of rubber due to some interesting The rubber surface is replaced by the
Reifen finden. effects discovered very recently [3 7]. model of Fig. 1, which consists of equi-

200 KGK Kautschuk Gummi Kunststoffe 53. Jahrgang, Nr. 4/2000


Friction Effects in the Contact Area . . .

 xm 
px p0 1 8
a
where p0 is the maximum pressure in the
centre, normally m 2 or 4. The value
m 2 corresponds to a parabolic pres-
sure distribution under the slider. The
distribution for m 4 is broader and is
thought to represent the actual pressure
distribution more realistic. Note that
m R 1 describes the limiting case of a
Fig. 1. Model of the uniform pressure distribution in the con-
rubber surface
tact area. Our generalized theory is able
to predict results for any given number
m. Furthermore, we will be able to study
distant vertical ridges connected by Solution of equation (1), after substitution non-symmetrical pressure distributions
springs; indentation by the slider is ne- for f(x) from eq. (4), gives the deflection like, e.g.
glected [1]. The ridges were assumed inside the contact area. The two integra-  x  xj
px p0  1  1 9
to deform in simple shear and to obey, tion constants are found from the condi- a a
like the connecting springs, Hooke's tion for continuous deflection and slope where j is positive. Equation (9) reduces
law. If the cantilever force per unit length at the two ends of the contact. The gen- for j 1 to the symmetrical parabolic
of trackk is k  y (y deflection) and the eral solution is distribution (8) with m 2. The pressure
total spring force is Edy/dx (dy/dx  Z x
r x z x is again p 0 for x a and x a.
strain; E elastic modulus), the horizon- yx  er er Fz dz er
2 a
It reaches the maximum value at x xmax
tal force in x-direction f and the horizontal Z x  (j 1)/(j 1) where one obtains the
deflection y from the undeformed position z
er Fz dz 6 value
are related by the differential equation: a
 j1
  2  where j 2
d y pmax p0 j 10
f k y r2 : 1 j1
dx2 lx  px
Fx 7 Equation (10) yield pmax p0 for the sym-
where k measures the shear stiffness of k r2
metrical case j 1.
the rubber and Putting the origin in the centre of the con-
r The longitudinal strain distribution e in
tact of length 2a, the pressure is given by
E the surface follows from the deflection as
r : 2 [1]
k e dy/dx.
takes in the effect of the connecting
springs. Outside the contact zone of
length 2a, where f 0, the deflection de-
creases exponentially, i.e.
 
a jxj
y ya exp for jxj  a 3
r
where ya is the deflection at x  a.
Equation (3) describes the deflection out-
side either end of the contact area.
Inside the contact, f equals the intensity
of the frictional force. If the normal pres-
sure inside the contact area is p(x), we
have
fx l  px 4
where l is the friction coefficient. Schal- Fig. 2. Normalized
lamach considered this coefficient as deflection y 
constant [1]. Here, we explicitely consider y(x/a)  (r k / lopoa)
within the contact
its pressure dependence in the following area for Colulomb
way [8] friction and pres-
  sure exponents
px n 1 1 m 2 (solid line)
lx l0 ; n ... 5 and m 4 (dashed
E 3 9
line)

202 KGK Kautschuk Gummi Kunststoffe 53. Jahrgang, Nr. 4/2000


Friction Effects in the Contact Area . . .

Fig. 3. a) Normalized deflection y  y(x/a)  (r k / lopoa)(E/ po)n within the contact area for the pressure exponent m 2 and Non-Coulomb
friction coefficients n 0 (solid line), n 1/3 (dashed line), n 1/5 (dotted line), and y 1/0 (dashed-dotted line); b) Normalized de-
flection y y(x/a)  (r k / lopoa)(E/ po)n within the contact area for the pressure exponent m 4 and non-Coulomb friction coefficients n 0
(solid line), n 1/3 (dashed line), n 1/5 (dotted lilne), and n 1/9 (dashed-dotted line)

Results & Examples Figures 3a and 3b show the tangential ferences in the tangential displacement
displacements of the rubber surface for of the rubber surface.
Figure 2 shows the dependence of the m 2 and m 4 and for different values The special case m 2 and n 0 (no
tangential displacement of the rubber of the pressure exponent n in the friction pressure dependence of the friction coef-
surface by a horizontal force for the pres- law. ficient) leads to the original Schallamach
sure exponents m 2 and m 4. In both The results show no qualitative result [1]:
cases simple Coulomb friction n 0 is changes but significant quantitative dif- 
assumed. lpo r2 x2
yx 12 2 2 11
k a a
r  
r a=r x
2 1 e cosh
a a r
for a  x  a.
Figure 4 visualizes the deflection in and
around the contact area. The lower part
of this figure is a plan view of a longitudi-
nal strip of the rubber surface distorted by
a slider moving to the right. The deforma-
tion is shown by the displacement of ori-
ginally equidistant lines marked on the
surface. The contact area is represented
by the shaded area. The slope of the
dotted lines connecting the reference
lines of the deformed rubber surface
with their undeformed position is ob-
viously proportional to the local shear
strain. The crowding of the reference lines
near the front edge of the contact clearly
indicates a compressive stress. As the
theory predicts that the contact length
is unchanged by sliding, a tensile strain
must occur in the rear part of the contact.
Fig. 4. Visualization of tangential displacement of the model rubber surface by a force with Fig. 5a and b show the general results
parabolic distributed intensity (m 2, n 0) inside the contact area of length 2a n 6 0 for r a, m 2 and m 4. The

KGK Kautschuk Gummi Kunststoffe 53. Jahrgang, Nr. 4/2000 203


Friction Effects in the Contact Area . . .

Fig. 5. a) Normalized strain distribution y  0 y 0 (x/a)  (r2 k / lopoa)(E/ po)n within the contact area for the pressure exponent m 2 and Non-
Coulomb friction coefficients n 0 (solid line), n 1/3 (dashed line), n 1/5 (dotted line), and n 1/9 (dashed-dotted line); b) Normal-
 0 y 0 (x/a)  (r2 k / lopoa)(E/ po)n within the contact area for the pressure exponent m 4 and Non-Coulomb friction
ized strain distribution y
coefficients n 0 (solid line), n 1/3 (dashed line), n 1/5 (dotted line), and n 1/9 (dashed-dotted line)

Fig. 6. a) Normalized deflection y y(x/a)  (r k / lopoa) within the contact area for the nonsymmetric pressure distribution with j 1 (solid line,
j 2 (dashed line), j 3 (dotted line); b) Normalized strain distribution y  0 y 0 (x/a)  (r2 k / lopoa) within the contact area for the nonsymmetric
pressure distribution with j 1 (solid line), j 2 (dashed line), j 3 (dotted line)

204 KGK Kautschuk Gummi Kunststoffe 53. Jahrgang, Nr. 4/2000


Friction Effects in the Contact Area . . .

pressure dependence of the friction coef- part. Extreme sliding speeds occur References
ficient (decreasing pressure exponent n) where the surface strain has stationary [1] A. Schallamach, Wear 17 (1971) 301.
leads to a slight increase of the amount values. [2] T. Akasada, S. Kagami, A. Hasegawa, H. Shio-
of the two extreme strain values and a Together with the results in Fig. 5 we bara, Int. Polym. Sci. and Technol. 20 (1993) T/
51.
shift to the ends of the contact area. predict that the assumption of Coulomb [3] A. A. Koudine, M. Barquins, C. R. Acad. Sci.
This effect is larger in the case of para- friction always underestimates tensile Paris, t. 320, Serie II b (1995) 373.
bolic pressure distribution (m 2) in strains near the rear end of contact [4] M. Barquins, A. A. Koudine, D. Vallet, C. R. Acad.
Sci. Paris, t. 323, Serie II b (1996) 433.
comparison with the elliptic distribution area and, possibly underestimates tensile [5] A. A. Koudine, M. Barquins, J. Adhesion Sci.
m 4. Obviously, it will vanish for uniform failure resulting in friction. Although the Technol. 10 (1996) 951.
[6] A. A. Koudine, M. Lambert, M. Barquins, Int. J.
pressure distribution (m  1). It has been magnitude of the difference between Adhesion and Adhesives 17 (1997) 359.
pointed in literature out that tensile strains Coulomb and non-Coulomb friction is [7] A. A. Koudine, M. Barquins, Int. J. Adhesion and
near the rear end of a contacst area are approximately one order smaller than Adhesives 17 (1997) 107.
[8] H. Uetz, J. Wiedemeyer, Tribologie der Polymere,
the source of tensile failure resulting in the basic effect, it should be taken into Carl Hanser Verlag, Munchen, Wien, 1985.
abrasion. A consequence of the strain account in simulations and predictions
distribution along the contact is that the of frictional losses (e.g., abrasion) of slip-
The authors
local sliding speed vs varies along the ping tires over long distances where the
contact: effect accumulates. Dr. rer. nat-habil H.-R. Berger is Assistance Profes-
sor at the Institute of Physics/Technical University
vs v dy=dt v  1 dy=dx 12 Figures 6a and b demonstrate the ef- Chemnitz (Germany).
fect of non-symmetrical parabolic pres-
where v is the imposed overall velocity. sure distribution (m 2) for the simplest Dr. rer. nat-habil Gert Heinrich works for Continental
Thus, vs equals v only in the centre of AG, Hannover (Germany)
case of Coulomb friction n 0. The
the contact, but is smaller than v in (non-symmetrical) enhancement of the Corresponding author
the front part, and greater in the rear extreme strain values is clearly seen. Continental AG
Dr. G. Heinrich
P.O. Box 169
D-30001 Hannover

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