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cement Rubber friction Pressure

dependence Pressure distribution

Friction Effects in the Contact

Schallamach waves Abrasion

Area of Sliding Rubber:

Based on the original Schallamach-

model we present a generalized

theory that predicts the buckling ef-

a Generalized Schallamach

fects and the tangential stress gra-

dient as the driving force for the

Model

waves of detachement. In contrast

to the original Schallamach-model

the generalized theory considers a

H.-R. Berger, G. Heinrich, Chemnitz, Hannover (Germany)

non-Coulombian rubber friction

coefficient l(p) that depends on the

local normal pressure. Furthermore,

numerical solutions of the general- Visual observations of contact areas be- For example, Koudine et al. observed a

ized theory can be derived for arbi- tween rubber sliders and hard tracks fine structure associated with Schal-

trary symmetrical and non-symme- show that relative motions between the lamach's wave propagation produced

trical pressure distributions p(x) un- two frictional members is often only due by sliding friction of rubber-like materials

der the slider. Some selected exam- to waves of detachment, frequently [3]. Further experiments have shown that

ples are discussed in more detail. called Schallamach waves, crossing the a multiphase complex instability process

The model serves as a basis for contact area at high speed from front occurs in the contact zone during the

foot-print mechanics and friction/ to rear [1]. Buckling is there attributed movement of a glass hemisphere in the

abrasion simulations of slipping to tangential compressive stresses in direction corresponding to sheet thick-

tires. the contact area and the motive force ness decrease [4]. The initially regular

driving the waves is a tangential stress generation of Schallamach's wave is

gradient. It has been pointed out some then replaced by a chaotic generation

Reibungseffekte in der time ago by Schallamach that tensile process.

Kontaktflache bei gleitendem strains near the rear end of a contact Based on the Schallamach-model [1]

Gummi: ein verallgemeinertes area are the source of tensile failure re- we present a generalized theory that pre-

Schallamach-Modell sulting in abrasion. These effects influ- dicts the buckling effects and the tangen-

ence basic tire performance properties tial stress gradient as the driving force for

Gummireibung Tangentiale Ver- like, e. g. wear. In order to realize the basic the waves of detachement. In contrast to

schiebung Druckabhangigkeit vehicle functions of travelling, turning and the original Schallamach-model the gen-

Druckverteilung Schallamach- stopping it is well known that tires must eralized theory considers a non-Coulom-

Wellen Abrieb undergo complex and relentless defor- bian rubber friction coefficient l(p) that

mation. As the tire constituent is in direct depends on the local normal pressure.

In der vorliegenden Arbeit wird ein contact with the road surface when the Furthermore, solutions of the generalized

generalisiertes Schallamach-Modell tire is rolling, the tread has the function theory can be derived for arbitrary sym-

fur die mathematische Beschrei- of ensuring friction between the tire and metrical and non-symmetrical pressure

bung der elastischen Verformungs- road to provide effective braking and distributions p(x) under the slider. Both

wellen und des tangentialen Span- steering. In addition to the tread experi- functions, friction l(p) and pressure distri-

nungsgradienten bei gleitendem encing a compression force from the bution p(x), affect the results. The uniform

Gummi auf einer Reibunterlage vor- vehicle weight, therefore, complex rela- and symmetrical pressure distribution in

gestellt. Dieses verallgemeinerte tive motion arises in the tread rubber be- the contact area is a limiting case of

Modell wurde fur einen beliebigen tween the tread and road surfaces. The the theory.

Druck-abhangigen Reibungs- tread rubber thus undergoes a complex Results of the presented theory are im-

koeffizienten l(p) und eine beliebige pattern of deformation under compres- portant for foot-print mechanics and fric-

lokale Normaldruckverteilung p(x) sion and shear in which the rubber block tion/abrasion studies of slipping tires.

in der Kontaktflache formuliert. edges eventually become detached from

Fur ausgewahlte Beispiele werden the ground. This leads directly to a de- The generalized Schallamach

numerische Losungen vorgestellt crease in ground contact area, and model

und diskutiert. Das Modell kann causes wear through the dynamic slip as-

zum Beispiel Eingang in Simu- sociated with detachement [2]. We consider the two-dimensional case of

lationen des Reibungs- und Ab- There is also a renewal of interest in the a long slider moving perpendicular to its

riebsverhaltens in der Bodenauf- basic mechanisms accompanying the length over a semi-infinite rubber track.

standsflache von schlupfenden slilding of rubber due to some interesting The rubber surface is replaced by the

Reifen finden. effects discovered very recently [3 7]. model of Fig. 1, which consists of equi-

Friction Effects in the Contact Area . . .

xm

px p0 1 8

a

where p0 is the maximum pressure in the

centre, normally m 2 or 4. The value

m 2 corresponds to a parabolic pres-

sure distribution under the slider. The

distribution for m 4 is broader and is

thought to represent the actual pressure

distribution more realistic. Note that

m R 1 describes the limiting case of a

Fig. 1. Model of the uniform pressure distribution in the con-

rubber surface

tact area. Our generalized theory is able

to predict results for any given number

m. Furthermore, we will be able to study

distant vertical ridges connected by Solution of equation (1), after substitution non-symmetrical pressure distributions

springs; indentation by the slider is ne- for f(x) from eq. (4), gives the deflection like, e.g.

glected [1]. The ridges were assumed inside the contact area. The two integra- x xj

px p0 1 1 9

to deform in simple shear and to obey, tion constants are found from the condi- a a

like the connecting springs, Hooke's tion for continuous deflection and slope where j is positive. Equation (9) reduces

law. If the cantilever force per unit length at the two ends of the contact. The gen- for j 1 to the symmetrical parabolic

of trackk is k y (y deflection) and the eral solution is distribution (8) with m 2. The pressure

total spring force is Edy/dx (dy/dx Z x

r x z x is again p 0 for x a and x a.

strain; E elastic modulus), the horizon- yx er er Fz dz er

2 a

It reaches the maximum value at x xmax

tal force in x-direction f and the horizontal Z x (j 1)/(j 1) where one obtains the

deflection y from the undeformed position z

er Fz dz 6 value

are related by the differential equation: a

j1

2 where j 2

d y pmax p0 j 10

f k y r2 : 1 j1

dx2 lx px

Fx 7 Equation (10) yield pmax p0 for the sym-

where k measures the shear stiffness of k r2

metrical case j 1.

the rubber and Putting the origin in the centre of the con-

r The longitudinal strain distribution e in

tact of length 2a, the pressure is given by

E the surface follows from the deflection as

r : 2 [1]

k e dy/dx.

takes in the effect of the connecting

springs. Outside the contact zone of

length 2a, where f 0, the deflection de-

creases exponentially, i.e.

a jxj

y ya exp for jxj a 3

r

where ya is the deflection at x a.

Equation (3) describes the deflection out-

side either end of the contact area.

Inside the contact, f equals the intensity

of the frictional force. If the normal pres-

sure inside the contact area is p(x), we

have

fx l px 4

where l is the friction coefficient. Schal- Fig. 2. Normalized

lamach considered this coefficient as deflection y

constant [1]. Here, we explicitely consider y(x/a) (r k / lopoa)

within the contact

its pressure dependence in the following area for Colulomb

way [8] friction and pres-

sure exponents

px n 1 1 m 2 (solid line)

lx l0 ; n ... 5 and m 4 (dashed

E 3 9

line)

Friction Effects in the Contact Area . . .

Fig. 3. a) Normalized deflection y y(x/a) (r k / lopoa)(E/ po)n within the contact area for the pressure exponent m 2 and Non-Coulomb

friction coefficients n 0 (solid line), n 1/3 (dashed line), n 1/5 (dotted line), and y 1/0 (dashed-dotted line); b) Normalized de-

flection y y(x/a) (r k / lopoa)(E/ po)n within the contact area for the pressure exponent m 4 and non-Coulomb friction coefficients n 0

(solid line), n 1/3 (dashed line), n 1/5 (dotted lilne), and n 1/9 (dashed-dotted line)

Results & Examples Figures 3a and 3b show the tangential ferences in the tangential displacement

displacements of the rubber surface for of the rubber surface.

Figure 2 shows the dependence of the m 2 and m 4 and for different values The special case m 2 and n 0 (no

tangential displacement of the rubber of the pressure exponent n in the friction pressure dependence of the friction coef-

surface by a horizontal force for the pres- law. ficient) leads to the original Schallamach

sure exponents m 2 and m 4. In both The results show no qualitative result [1]:

cases simple Coulomb friction n 0 is changes but significant quantitative dif-

assumed. lpo r2 x2

yx 12 2 2 11

k a a

r

r a=r x

2 1 e cosh

a a r

for a x a.

Figure 4 visualizes the deflection in and

around the contact area. The lower part

of this figure is a plan view of a longitudi-

nal strip of the rubber surface distorted by

a slider moving to the right. The deforma-

tion is shown by the displacement of ori-

ginally equidistant lines marked on the

surface. The contact area is represented

by the shaded area. The slope of the

dotted lines connecting the reference

lines of the deformed rubber surface

with their undeformed position is ob-

viously proportional to the local shear

strain. The crowding of the reference lines

near the front edge of the contact clearly

indicates a compressive stress. As the

theory predicts that the contact length

is unchanged by sliding, a tensile strain

must occur in the rear part of the contact.

Fig. 4. Visualization of tangential displacement of the model rubber surface by a force with Fig. 5a and b show the general results

parabolic distributed intensity (m 2, n 0) inside the contact area of length 2a n 6 0 for r a, m 2 and m 4. The

Friction Effects in the Contact Area . . .

Fig. 5. a) Normalized strain distribution y 0 y 0 (x/a) (r2 k / lopoa)(E/ po)n within the contact area for the pressure exponent m 2 and Non-

Coulomb friction coefficients n 0 (solid line), n 1/3 (dashed line), n 1/5 (dotted line), and n 1/9 (dashed-dotted line); b) Normal-

0 y 0 (x/a) (r2 k / lopoa)(E/ po)n within the contact area for the pressure exponent m 4 and Non-Coulomb friction

ized strain distribution y

coefficients n 0 (solid line), n 1/3 (dashed line), n 1/5 (dotted line), and n 1/9 (dashed-dotted line)

Fig. 6. a) Normalized deflection y y(x/a) (r k / lopoa) within the contact area for the nonsymmetric pressure distribution with j 1 (solid line,

j 2 (dashed line), j 3 (dotted line); b) Normalized strain distribution y 0 y 0 (x/a) (r2 k / lopoa) within the contact area for the nonsymmetric

pressure distribution with j 1 (solid line), j 2 (dashed line), j 3 (dotted line)

Friction Effects in the Contact Area . . .

pressure dependence of the friction coef- part. Extreme sliding speeds occur References

ficient (decreasing pressure exponent n) where the surface strain has stationary [1] A. Schallamach, Wear 17 (1971) 301.

leads to a slight increase of the amount values. [2] T. Akasada, S. Kagami, A. Hasegawa, H. Shio-

of the two extreme strain values and a Together with the results in Fig. 5 we bara, Int. Polym. Sci. and Technol. 20 (1993) T/

51.

shift to the ends of the contact area. predict that the assumption of Coulomb [3] A. A. Koudine, M. Barquins, C. R. Acad. Sci.

This effect is larger in the case of para- friction always underestimates tensile Paris, t. 320, Serie II b (1995) 373.

bolic pressure distribution (m 2) in strains near the rear end of contact [4] M. Barquins, A. A. Koudine, D. Vallet, C. R. Acad.

Sci. Paris, t. 323, Serie II b (1996) 433.

comparison with the elliptic distribution area and, possibly underestimates tensile [5] A. A. Koudine, M. Barquins, J. Adhesion Sci.

m 4. Obviously, it will vanish for uniform failure resulting in friction. Although the Technol. 10 (1996) 951.

[6] A. A. Koudine, M. Lambert, M. Barquins, Int. J.

pressure distribution (m 1). It has been magnitude of the difference between Adhesion and Adhesives 17 (1997) 359.

pointed in literature out that tensile strains Coulomb and non-Coulomb friction is [7] A. A. Koudine, M. Barquins, Int. J. Adhesion and

near the rear end of a contacst area are approximately one order smaller than Adhesives 17 (1997) 107.

[8] H. Uetz, J. Wiedemeyer, Tribologie der Polymere,

the source of tensile failure resulting in the basic effect, it should be taken into Carl Hanser Verlag, Munchen, Wien, 1985.

abrasion. A consequence of the strain account in simulations and predictions

distribution along the contact is that the of frictional losses (e.g., abrasion) of slip-

The authors

local sliding speed vs varies along the ping tires over long distances where the

contact: effect accumulates. Dr. rer. nat-habil H.-R. Berger is Assistance Profes-

sor at the Institute of Physics/Technical University

vs v dy=dt v 1 dy=dx 12 Figures 6a and b demonstrate the ef- Chemnitz (Germany).

fect of non-symmetrical parabolic pres-

where v is the imposed overall velocity. sure distribution (m 2) for the simplest Dr. rer. nat-habil Gert Heinrich works for Continental

Thus, vs equals v only in the centre of AG, Hannover (Germany)

case of Coulomb friction n 0. The

the contact, but is smaller than v in (non-symmetrical) enhancement of the Corresponding author

the front part, and greater in the rear extreme strain values is clearly seen. Continental AG

Dr. G. Heinrich

P.O. Box 169

D-30001 Hannover

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