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FST 2313: Fats and Oils Technology

Course purpose
The aim of this course is to help the students gain knowledge on various sources of fats and oils, fats and
oils value added products and their processing methods.

Learning outcomes
On the completion of the course the student should be able to:
Differentiate between fats and oils in terms of both physical and chemical properties.
Describe the processing of fats and oils.
Demonstrate an understanding of the mechanisms of spoilage of fats and oils.
Explain the differences between saturated and unsaturated fats and their health effects on
Course description
Fats and oils definition. Sources of fats and oils in Kenya, contribution of fats and oils to the countries
economy, importance of fats and oils in human nutrition, nutritional and health aspects of dietary lipids.
Oil seeds: importance of oil seeds processing in Kenya. Chemical, physical and functional properties of
fats and oils. Commercial oil resources. Basic processing of fats and oils - oil extraction, degumming,
refining, bleaching, hydrogenation, fractional crystallization, inter-esterification, glycerolysis, molecular
distillation, plasticizing and tempering. Chemical adjuncts-lecithins, monoglycerides and derivatives,
propylene glycol esters, polyglycoesters. Shortening; introduction, manufacturing and uses of
shortening, types of shortening. Margarine-manufacturing process and its uses. Mayonnaise and salad
dressings. Confectionery coatings. Immitation dairy products - peanut butter and vegetable ghee.
Packing and storage of fats and oils, cocoa butter and fat substitutes. Regulatory considerations for oil
seed processors and oil refiners. Environmental considerations in fats and oils technologies, by-product
Teaching methods
Practical exercises
Factory visits
Course assessment
Written examinations shall constitute 70%, and coursework assessments, practicals and tests
the remaining 30% of the final marks.
Recommended literature
OBrien, R.D., Farr, W.E. and Wan, P.J., 2000 (2nd edition). Introduction to fats and oils
technology. AOCS Press.
Further reading
OBrien, R .D., 2000. Fats and oils formulating and processing for application (2nd edition). CRC
Press London. UK.
AOAC, 1995. Official methods of analysis. Association of official
analytical chemists, Arlington
Hui, Y. H, 1996. Baileys industrial oils and fat products. Vol. 1-5. John
Wiley and Sons, Inc New York.
Lawson, H.W., 1995. Food oils and fats: Technology, utilization and nutrition (1st edition).
Journal of the American Oil Chemists Society (JAOCS)

Chemically fats and oils are either simple or mixed glyceryl esters of organic acids belonging to
the fatty-acid series
Types of fats: simple lipids, compound lipids, composite lipids, spingolipids, derived lipids.
Simple lipids --- A triglyceride molecule of fat: 3 fatty acid molecules connected to (or
esterified) a glycerol molecule.

Triglycerides are the major components of fat, butter, shortening & oil.

The structure of fatty acids determines the properties of fats (ex. solid/liquid state in room

Most fats and oils consist of triacylglycerides (recently also denoted as triacylglycerols) which
differ in their fatty acid compositions to a certain extent. Other constituents which make up less
than 3% of fats and oils are the unsaponifiable fraction and a number of acyl lipids; e. g., traces
of free fatty acids, mono- and diacylglycerols.
Fatty acids: chains of 4 28 carbon atoms with the carbon chain joined by single or double
bonds, depending on the number of hydrogen atoms attached.
Types of fatty acids: Saturated and unsaturated fatty acids.

Saturated has no double bond on the omega end

Unsaturated FA has double bond on the omega end
The acid portion of a fatty acid (FA) is represented by COOH.

If a FA contains a double bond, the H atom/other group attached to the carbon atoms involved
in the double bond may have different orientation, as cis or trans forms (isomers) Cis and trans
forms show different geometrical arrangement and give a fatty acid different chemical and
physical properties.

The term fat generally designates a solid at room temperature and oil a liquid. The
designations are rather imprecise, since the degree of firmness is dependent on climate and,
moreover, many fats are neither solid nor liquid, but are semi-solid.

Fats and oils are a group of organic substances that form an important part of the diet and also
are useful in many industries. The fats are usually solid, the oils generally liquid at ordinary
room temperatures. Some tropical products, liquids in their sites of origin, become solids in
cooler climates; in commerce these often retain the name originally given, e.g., palm oil and
coconut oil.

Lipids are formed from structural units with a pronounced hydrophobicity. This solubility
characteristic, rather than a common structural feature, is unique for this class of compounds.
Lipids are soluble in organic solvents but not in water. Water insolubility is the analytical
property used as the basis for their facile separation from proteins and carbohydrates. Some
lipids are surface-active since they are amphiphilic molecules (contain both hydrophilic and
hydrophobic moieties). Hence, they are polar and thus distinctly different from neutral lipids.
The majority of lipids are derivatives of fatty acids. In these so-called acyl lipids the fatty acids
are present as esters and in some minor lipid groups in amide form. The acyl residue influences
strongly the hydrophobicity and the reactivity of the acyl lipids (fatty acids)

Some lipids act as building blocks in the formation of biological membranes which surround
cells and subcellular particles. Such lipids occur in all foods, but their content is often less than
2%. Nevertheless, even as minor food constituents they deserve particular attention, since their
high reactivity may strongly influence the organoleptic quality of the food. Primarily
triacylglycerols are deposited in some animal tissues and organs of some plants. Lipid content in
such storage tissues can rise to 1520% or higher and so serve as a commercial source for
isolation of triacylglycerols. When this lipid is refined, it is available to the consumer as edible
oil or fat. The nutritive/physiological importance of lipids is based on their role as fuel
molecules (37 kJ/g or 9 kcal/g triacylglycerols) and as a source of essential fatty acids and
vitamins. Apart from these roles, some other lipid properties are indispensable in food handling
or processing.

These include their melting behavior and the pleasant creamy or oily taste. Fats also serve as
solvents for certain taste substances and numerous odor substances. On the whole, fats enrich
the nutritional quality and are of importance in food to achieve the desired texture, specific
mouthfeel and aroma, and satisfactory aroma retention. In addition, foods can be prepared by
deep frying, i. e. by dipping the food into fat or oil heated to a relatively high temperature. The
lipid class of compounds also includes some important food aroma substances or precursors
which are degraded to aroma compounds. Some lipid compounds are indispensable as food
emulsifiers, while others are important as fat- or oil soluble pigments or food colorants.


Oil bearing materials used as raw materials in fats and oils manufacturing may be of either plant
(seed or fruit) or animal (land or marine animal) origin.
Plants used to produce edible products: Soybean, cottonseed, sunflower seed, safflower
seed, corn germ, peanut, olive, rice bran, rapeseed (canola), coconut, palm fruit,
linseed, castor bean, tung nut, and jojoba seed.
Animal sources and animal fat products: Cattle, sheep, pigs, fish Butter, lard, tallow,
whale oil and fish oil.
In Kenya main raw materials are: Corn germ, palm fruit (imported), sunflower

The oil and fat products used for edible purposes can be divided into two distinct classes:

i. liquid oils, such as olive oil, peanut oil, soybean oil, or sunflower oil;
ii. Plastic fats, such as lard, shortening, butter, and margarine.
The physical nature of the fatty material is unimportant for some uses, but the consistency is a
matter of consequence for other products. As a dressing on green salads, for example, liquid oil
is used to provide a coating on the ingredients; a plastic fat such as lard or butter would be
unsuitable. Spreads for bread, foods that require a highly developed dough structure, or icings
and fillings with a plastic structure require plastic fats rather than liquid oils.
2.1. Contribution of fats and oils to the Kenyan economy,

With the increasing use of publicity campaigns raising awareness about the health issues
surrounding the use of oils and fats, vegetable and seed oils is bound to continue increasing in
popularity throughout the country. Growth in healthier types of oils and fats is expected to
offset the declines expected in consumption of oils and fats which are perceived as being less
healthy. These changes are expected to emerge gradually as the majority of the Kenyan
population is low-income consumers with little choice about the types of oils and fats they use.

Rising health awareness, the increasing adoption of Western cooking methods and strong
growth in Kenyas middle class have all led to the greater adoption of cooking oils. These are
perceived as healthier, such as olive and seed oils, and there is an increasingly obvious shift
towards healthier vegetable fats and oils. Increasing numbers of Kenyans are paying closer
attention to what they eat and what is contained in their food, with oils and fats among the
ingredients which are receiving the most scrutiny.

Competitive landscape

Bidco Oil Refineries Ltd has a strong leading position in oils and fats in 2014 with a
value share of 46%.
Kapa Oil Refineries Ltd follows in second position with a 24% value share in 2014
Unilever Kenya is in third position with a 15% value share.
Unilevers Blue Band spreadable oils and fats brand is the leading oils and fats brand
overall in Kenya in 2014.
Bidcos Elianto corn oil brand is the second biggest brand overall with a projected value
share of 9% in 2014.
Kapa Oils Rina vegetable and seed oil brand and Prestige margarine brand account for
8% and 7% of total oils and fats retail value sales respectively in 2014.


3.1. Physical Properties
Thermal properties:
crystallization & melting
the formation of solid and liquid
the behaviour of plastic fats that are mixtures of solid and liquid components
Mandatory, example:
salad oils do not contain lipids that will crystallize during storage in a refrigerator.
Most frying oils and oils used as food coatings (and lubricants) should also be free of
solid components
depends on having appropriate levels of solid fat at refrigerator temperature, at
ambient temperature and at mouth temperature.
The solid fat content at 4 C should not exceed 30 40 % (to be spreadable from the
refrigerator); at 10 C it should be 1020 %

3.2. Chemical properties

Oxidative stability - determined by the peroxide value of fats/oils. This indicates the degree of
oxidation that has been taken place in a fat/ oil.

Iodine value express the degree of unsaturation of the FAs in the fat (the amount of iodine
absorbed by a fat/100 g basis). The higher iodine value indicates the greater the degree of

Hydrolytic rancidity refers to the rancidity that occurs under conditions of moisture, high
temperature, and natural lipolytic enzymes. The acid value represents free fatty acids in fat
that were released during hydrolysis.

Saponification value indicates the average molecular weight of fatty acids in a fat.

3.3. Nutritional Properties

This refers to the total level of fat in a food

Dietary fat has long been recognized as an essential component of the diet, due to its
concentrated source of energy and essential fatty acids and is a carrier for other essential
nutrients such as fat soluble vitamins. The bioavailability of lipid-soluble compounds in the diet
depends on fat absorption.
An appropriate balance between saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated acids is

The content of saturated fatty acids --- SFA raise the serum cholesterol levels
Among monounsaturated acids a clear distinction must be made between cis and trans
isomers with the former being cholesterol-lowering and the latter cholesterol-raising
The quota for polyunsaturated fatty acids. In particular, the ratio of omega-6 to omega-
3 acids should be between 5:1 and 10:1 (or less). Since the presence of -linolenic acid
leads to oxidative instability and reduced shelf life.
Fats and oils have a high caloric value, 2.25 times more energy than carbohydrates or
proteins. Each gram of fat contains 9 kcal of energy.
Fats and oils carry the fat soluble vitamins.
3.4. Functional Properties
Textural qualities (body and mouthfeel)
Shortening or tenderizers
Medium for transferring heat
Aeration and leavening
Spray oils
Producing satiety (fullness after eating)
Adding flavor
Decreasing temperature shock in frozen desserts
Solubilizing flavors and colors


The major vegetable oils are pressed and/or extracted from seeds or pressed from fruits.
The major sources come from soybean, palm, rapeseed/canola, sunflower seed, coconut and

4.1. Sunflower seed

Healthy, natural sunflower oil is produced from oil type sunflower seeds (Helianthus annuus).
Sunflower oil is light in taste and appearance and supplies more Vitamin E than any other
vegetable oil. It is a combination of monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats with low
saturated fat levels.

Sunflower oil is available in three ranges of fatty acid composition. The traditional and still
major sunflower oil is linoleic-rich, but two other forms have been produced by conventional
seed breeding; these are high oleic oil and a mid-oleic oil. All are developed with standard
breeding techniques, AND differ in oleic levels and each one offers unique properties

Crude sunflower oil contains phospholipids (0.70.9%), tocopherols (630700 ppm), sterols (~
0.3 %) and carotenoids (1.11.6 ppm).

The seeds are also a rich source of selenium compared to most other seeds and nuts.

Sunflower seed oil contains some wax (esters of long chain alcohols and long-chain acids)
coming from an outer protective seed coat, which makes the oil appear cloudy.

The oil is to be used as a salad oil.

Mid-oleic sunflower oil

It is lower in saturated fat (less than 10%) than linoleic sunflower oil and has higher oleic levels
(55-75%) with the remainder being linoleic (15-35%).

Linoleic sunflower oil

Linoleic sunflower oil is the original sunflower oil and until recently has been the most common
type of sunflower oil.

It is a polyunsaturated oil with low saturated fat levels. This type of sunflower oil is
predominantly (65%) polyunsaturated. The type of polyunsaturated oil it contains is linoleic
acid (an omega-6 acid) and is one of two essential fatty acids. Our bodies need this essential
nutrient but cant make it. It must be supplied by food sources.
The balance of this sunflower oil is monounsaturated fats (oleic) at 21% and a low saturated fat
level of 11%.

Linoleic sunflower oil is available as a liquid salad oil and is used in margarine and shortening
applications. Because of the high levels of polyunsaturated fats in linoleic sunflower oil, the oil
is susceptible to oxidation during commercial usage, especially frying. Like other highly
polyunsaturated oils, such as soybean and canola, it can be hydrogenated to a more stable
f o rm.

High oleic sunflower oil

High oleic sunflower oil is very high in oleic (monounsaturated) acid. High oleic sunflower oil is
usually defined as having a minimum 80 percent oleic acid.
The oil provides excellent stability without hydrogenation. High oleic sunflower oil offers a trans
free oil solution for customers. The oil has many uses including bakery applications, spray
coating oils for cereal, crackers and dried fruit; it is used in non-dairy creamers, many types of
frying and other uses.
Types of Sunflower Oil and Their Fatty Acid Profiles
C 18:1 C 1 8 :2 C 1 8 :0
Linoleic 20% 69% 11 %
High-oleic 82% 9% 9%
Mid-oleic 65% 26% 9%

4.2. Cotton seed

Like the name suggests, cottonseed oil is extracted from cottonseed. Cottonseed is mainly an
unsaturated oil, as 70% of this oil is unsaturated (18% monounsaturated (oleic acid), and 52%
polyunsaturated (from linoleic acid).

Cottonseed oil is often preferred over many other oils that would have to be hydrogenated (like
soybean oil).

4.3. Soybean

The soybean (U.S.) or soya bean (UK) (Glycine max) is a species of legume native to East Asia.

The major fatty acids in soybean oil are linoleic (53 %), oleic (23 %), palmitic (11 %), linolenic (8
%) and stearic (4 %)

A healthy oil, low in saturated acids and rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), especially
linoleic acid.

Soybean oil in its native but refined form or in some partially hydrogenated form is widely
used for food purposes such as frying and salad oils, margarine and shortening, and
mayonnaise and salad dressing.The oil and protein content together account for about 60% of
dry soybeans by weight; protein at 40% and oil at 20%. The remainder consists of 35%
carbohydrate and about 5% ash. Soybean cultivars comprise approximately 8% seed coat or
hull, 90% cotyledons and 2% hypocotyl axis or germ.

Soybean composition
Protein 40 %
Oil (dry basis) 20 %
Cellulose and hemicellulose 17 %
Sugars 7%
Crude fiber 5%
Ash (dry basis) 6%
4.4. Rapeseed

Traditionally, rapeseed is used for birdseed or industrial purposes.

Rapeseed and canola are terms describing the seed and extracted oil from Brassica species
including B. napus (formerly B. campestris), B. rapa and B.juncea.

The seed oil from these species was typically rich in erucic acid (22:1), and the seed meal had
an undesirably high level of glucosinolates.

Typically it contains palmitic (4 %), stearic (2 %), oleic (62 %), linoleic (22 %) and linolenic (10 %)
acids and has less saturated acids than any other commodity oil.

Industrial varieties of rapeseed contain about 55 percent erucic acid and are used to make
lubricants and diesel fuel substitutes and to manufacturer plastics.These varieties have high
levels of toxic glycosinolates along with high erucic-acid levels, which renders the processed
meal unsuitable for human or livestock consumption.

New varieties of rapeseed, developed in Canada and Europe, are low in erucic acid and
glycosinolates. These varieties are the so-called double low types and sometimes are
marketed as Canola. The extracted oil is used as an edible vegetable oil. Domestic markets are
expected to increase because previousrestrictions are being relaxed.

With its low level of saturated acids, its high level of oleic acid and the presence of linoleic and
linolenic acids at a favourable ratio (~ 2:1) rapeseed oil rates highly in the classification of
healthy oils.

The oil is used as a salad oil and salad dressing and mayonnaise, in margarine and other
spreads, as a frying oil, and in many minor food applications.

4.5. Corn germ

Corn oil is oil extracted from the germ of corn (maize). Its main use is in cooking, where its high
smoke point makes it a valuable frying oil. It is also a key ingredient in some margarines.

One bushel of corn contains 3% of oil. Corn agronomists have developed high-oil varieties,
however, these varieties tend to show lower field yields, so they are not universally accepted by
growers. Refined corn oil is 99% triglyceride, with proportions of approximately 59%
polyunsaturated fatty acid, 24% monounsaturated fatty acid, and 13% saturated fatty acid.

Corn oil is also one source of biodiesel. Other industrial uses for corn oil include soap, paint,
rustproofing for metal surfaces, inks, textiles, and insecticides. It is sometimes used as a carrier
for drug molecules in pharmaceutical preparations.

4.6. Hazelnut

Hazelnuts are rich in protein and unsaturated fat. Moreover, they contain significant amounts
of thiamine and vitamin B6, as well as smaller amounts of other B vitamins.

Hazelnut oil, pressed from hazelnuts, is strongly flavoured and used as a cooking oil.

In the fatty acid composition of hazelnut oil, there is around 71-91% of oleic acid.
Hazelnut oil also contains linoleic acid at a rate of around 2-21%.
Hazelnut oil is rich in calcium and vitamin E.
4.7. Olves

The Olive (Olea europaea) is a species of small tree in the family Oleaceae, native to coastal
areas of the eastern Mediterranean region, from Syria and the maritime parts of Asia Minor
and northern Iran at the south end of the Caspian Sea. Its fruit, the olive, is of major agricultural
importance in the Mediterranean region as the source of olive oil.

4.8. Palm fruts

The palm fruit is the source of both palm oil (extracted from palm fruit) and palm kernel oil
(extracted from the fruit seeds). Palm oil itself is reddish because it contains a high amount of
beta-carotene. It is used as cooking oil, to make margarine and is a component of many
processed foods. Boiling it for a few minutes destroys the carotenoids and the oil becomes
colourless. Palm oil is one of the few vegetable oils relatively high in saturated fats (such as
coconut oil) and thus semi-solid at room temperature.

Malaysia and Indonesia are the major producing and exporting countries of palm oil.

Palm oil is considered as a saturated fat in comparison to the more highly unsaturated

vegetable oils.

The oil is rich in nutritionally important minor components.

Because of its fatty acid composition and its minor components which act as antioxidants, palm
oil has high oxidative stability.

It is also an important component of many soaps, washing powders and personal care products,
and has controversially found a new use as a feedstock for biofuel.

Palm oil is used for a wide range of food purposes including frying, in spreads and in

Palm olein is a major frying oil, and palm stearin finds increasing use as hard stock in fat blends
which are interesterified to produce spreads with nohydrogenated oil and therefore containing
little or no ans acids.

Fatty acids composition

P a lm o il Palm kernel oil
C8 0 3
C10 0 6
C12 0 50
C14 1 16
C16 50 6
C18 3 1
C18:1 40 17
C18:2 6 1

Palm oil is rich in carotenoids and its deep red color. The major component of its glycerides is
the saturated fatty acid, palmitic acid.

4.9. Oleic acid content of vegetable oil


Processing removes the components of edible oils which may have negative effects on taste,
stability, appearance or nutritional value. To the extent possible, processing should preserve
tocopherols and prevent chemical changes in the triacyglycerols.

5.1. Rural vegetable oil production

Rural oil extraction usually occurs near the areas of raw material production. This provides the
small-scale processor with access to raw materials, helps to ensure that perishable oil crops are
processed quickly, and reduces transport costs. For rural communities and the urban poor,
unrefined vegetable oils contribute significantly to the total amount of oil consumed. Crude oils
are affordable to low-income groups and serve as important sources of b -carotene and

To maintain the quality of the raw material, care is needed during and after the harvesting of
oil-bearing fruits that are perishable and susceptible to fat breakdown. Bruising of fresh oilseed
or fruits accelerates lipase activity leading to fat degradation. Oil-bearing crops such as
sheanuts are prone to mould infestation during storage. This is curtailed by heat treatment:
steaming or boiling, coupled with sun-drying to reduce the moisture content.

Storage.: The moisture content of oil seeds influences the quality of raw materials over time. In
most rural operations, sun-drying reduces the moisture content of oil seeds to below 10
percent. Adequate ventilation or aeration of the seeds or nuts during storage ensures that low
moisture levels are maintained and microbial development is avoided. This is important in the
storage of groundnuts which are highly susceptible to aflatoxin contamination. Since aflatoxins
and pesticides are not removed by rural extraction techniques, microbial contamination and
the application of insecticides should be avoided. There is a need for storage practices which
are affordable and available to the small-scale processor. Perishable raw materials such as palm
fruits should be processed as soon as possible after harvesting.

In humid developing countries, the sun-drying of oil seeds with a high moisture content, such as
mature coconut, is slow and inefficient. Such conditions promote mould growth which results in
high free fatty acid levels and poor organoleptic qualities. Coconut oil for human consumption
should be obtained soon after harvest.

Pre-treatment: The first operation after harvesting involves sterilization and heat treatment by
steaming or boiling, this inactivates lipolytic enzymes which could cause rapid degradation of
the oil and facilitates the pulping of the mesocarp for oil extraction. "Sterilised" palm fruits are
pulped in a wooden pestle and mortar or mechanised digestor.
Decortication or shelling separates the oil-bearing portion of the raw material and eliminates
the parts that have little or no nutritional value. Small-scale mechanical shellers are available
for kernels and nuts although manual cracking is still prevalent.

Most oil seeds and nuts are heat-treated by roasting to liquify the oil in the plant cells and
facilitate its release during extraction. All oil seeds and nuts undergo this treatment except
palm fruits for which "sterilization" replaces this operation.

To increase the surface area and maximize oil yield, the oil-bearing part of groundnuts,
sunflower, sesame, coconut, palm kernel and sheanuts is reduced in size. Mechanical
discattrition mills are commonly used in rural operations.

Extraction: In oil extraction, milled seed is mixed with hot water and boiled to allow the oil to
float and be skimmed off. The milled oil seed is mixed with hot water to make a paste for
kneading by hand or machine until the oil separates as an emulsion. In groundnut oil extraction,
salt is usually added to coagulate the protein and enhance oil separation.

A large rotating pestle in a fixed mortar system can be powered by motor, humans or animals
to apply friction and pressure to the oil seeds to release oil at the base of the mortar. Other
traditional systems used in rural oil extraction include the use of heavy stones, wedges, levers
and twisted ropes. For pressing, a plate or piston is manually forced into a perforated cylinder
containing the milled or pulped oil mass by means of a worm. The oil is collected below the
perforated chamber. A variety of mechanical expellers have been designed. The pre-heated raw
material is fed into a horizontal cylinder by a wormshaft. By means of an adjustable choke,
internal pressure which is built up in the cylinder ruptures the oil cells to release the oil.

Dehydration: By boiling in shallow pans, traces of water in crude oil are removed after settling.
This is common in all rural techniques which recognize the catalytic role of water in the
development of rancidity and poor organoleptic qualities.

Pressed cakes: A by-product of processing, the pressed cake, may be useful depending on the
oil extraction technique applied. Cakes from water-extracted oil are usually depleted of
nutrients. Other traditional techniques, for instance, those used for groundnut and copra
ensure that the by-products, if handled with care, are suitable for human consumption.

Traditional technologies: In many countries, traditional processes for producing oil are very
important, especially among communities which have easy access to raw oleaginous materials.
Traditional processing tends to be environmentally sound and the skills required are family or
group activities, involving women in particular. In a changing industrial atmosphere, these
positive features have been outweighed by the negative aspects of traditional processing such
as small production capacities, poor economies of scale, high expenditures of energy and time,
and the cost of transporting oils to markets.

5.2. Large-scale production

Storage: Many steps in industrial processing find their origin in the traditional processes. In
large-scale operations, oilseeds are dried to less than 10 percent moisture. They may be stored
for prolonged time periods under suitable conditions of aeration with precautions against
insect and rodent infestation. Such storage reduces mould infection and mycotoxin
contamination and minimizes biological degradative processes which lead to the development
of free fatty acids and colour in the oil.

Oil-bearing fruits such as olive and palm are treated as quickly as possible. Palm is sterilized as a
first step in processing. Adipose tissues and fish-based raw materials (that is, the body or liver)
are rendered within a few hours by boiling to destroy enzymes and prevent oil deterioration.

Processing: Oilseeds are generally cleaned of foreign matter before dehulling. The kernels are
ground to reduce size and cooked with steam, and the oil is extracted in a screw or hydraulic
press. The pressed cake is flaked for later extraction of residual fat with solvents such as "food
grade" hexane. Oil can be directly extracted with solvent from products which are low in oil
content, that is, soybean, ricebran and corn germ.

After sterilization, oil-bearing fruits are pulped (digested) before mechanical pressing often in a
screw press. Palm kernels are removed from pressed cakes and further processed for oil.
Animal tissues are reduced in size before rendering by wet or dry processes. After autoclaving,
tissues of fish are pressed and the oil/water suspension is passed through centrifuges to
separate the oil.

Oil Refining. Refining produces an edible oil with characteristics that consumers desire such as
bland flavour and odour, clear appearance, light colour, stability to oxidation and suitability for
frying. Two main refining routes are alkaline refining and physical refining (steam stripping,
distillative neutralisation) which are used for removing the free fatty acids.

i. Alkaline refining method

Step 1.
Degumming with water to remove the easily hydratable phospholipids and metals.

Step 2.
Addition of a small amount of phosphoric or citric acid to convert the remaining non-hydralable
phospholipids (Ca, Mg salts) into hydratable phospholipids.

Step 3.
Neutralising of the free fatty acids with a slight excess of sodium hydroxide solution, followed
by the washing out of soaps and hydrated phospholipids.

Step 4.
Bleaching with natural or acid-activated clay minerals to adsorb colouring components and to
decompose hydroperoxides.

Step 5.
Deodorising to remove volatile components, mainly aldehydes and ketones, with low threshold
values for detection by taste or smell. Deodorisation is essentially a steam distillation process
carried out at low pressures (2-6 mbar) and elevated temperatures (180-220C).
In order to remove most of the volatile contaminants, steam is bubbled through the oil. Usually
a partial vacuum is applied to facilitate the stripping process. Colors, flavours, and some other
contaminants, such as pesticides, are taken off and discarded.

For some oils, such as sunflower oil or rice bran oil, a clear table product is obtained by a
dewaxing step or crystallization of the wax esters at low temperature, followed by filtration or

The alkaline neutralization process has major drawbacks, the yield is relatively low and oil
losses occur due to emulsification and saponification of neutral oil. Also, a considerable amount
of liquid effluent is generated. The soaps are generally split with sulphuric acid to recover free
fatty acids along with sodium sulphate and some fat-containing acid water steam.

ii. Physical refining method

The fatty acids are removed by a steam distillation (stripping) process similar to deodorization.
The low volatility of fatty acids (depending upon chain length) requires higher temperatures in
physical refining than those required for only deodorization. In practice, a maximum
temperature of 240-250C is sufficient to reduce the free fatty acid content to levels of about
0.05-0.1 percent.

A prerequisite for physical refining is that phosphatides be removed to a level below 5 mg

phosphorus/kg oil. In the alkaline refining process, this level is easily achieved during the
neutralization stage, but special degumming processes may be required for physical refining of
high-phosphatide seed oils. These procedures rely on improved hydration of phospholipids by
intimate contact of the oil with an aqueous solution of citric acid, phosphoric acid and/or
sodium hydroxide, followed by bleaching.

It is unlikely that the mild reaction conditions during degumming and neutralization will induce
any significant undesirable changes in the oil composition. On the contrary, several impurities
including oxidized components, trace metals and coloring materials are partially removed by
entrainment with the phospholipids and soapstock. These impurities are further reduced during
bleaching. Neutralisation also contributes significantly to the removal of contaminants such as
aflatoxin and organophosphorous pesticides. Organochlorine pesticides and polycyclic aromatic
hydrocarbons, if present, must be removed during the deodorisation/stripping stage and by
active carbon treatment. Some loss of tocopherols and sterols during alkaline neutralisation
usually occurs, however, under wellcontrolled conditions (minimising air contact) this need not
exceed 5-10 percent.

5.3. Animal fat processing

Edible fats are produced from fresh slaughter by-products that were declared fit for human
consumption after a veterinary inspection and are all gained from healthy slaughtered animals.
Their production is normally species specific. Typical edible fats are beef tallow, pork lard,
goose or duck fat.

Some beef tallow producers subdivide their production even further, e.g. into adipose material
from the abdomen (like kidney fat) and subcutaneous fat. Those beef tallows have different
properties because of their different fatty acid composition.

In general there are two different rendering systems established worldwide.

dry rendering
wet rendering

There is no general rule when and where wet or dry rendering is preferred, but it can be
observed that wet rendering is mostly used where heat sensitive, high value products like fish
oils, edible fats or poultry fats are produced.

The fat melting and rendering processes aim at three important goals -

Removal of water to get stable products which are fat and solids, e.g. proteins
Separation of the dry product into fat and solids (protein)
Sanitation, i.e. the reduction of possible pathogenic loads, which is the less important the
fresher the processed material is.
5.3.1. Types of animal fats

Tallow: It is hard fat rendered from the fatty tissues of cattle that is removed during processing
of beef.

Types of tallow:

Edible tallow: The Codex Alimentarius recognizes standard for this as rendered
from certain organs of healthy bovine animals. It is also known as dripping.
Oleo-stock: It is high grade tallow that is obtained by low temperature wet
rendering of the fresh internal fat from beef carcass. It has light yellow color,
mild pleasant flavor and free fatty acid content is less than 0.2% [1]
Inedible tallow and greases: These are the main inedible animal fats which are
produced in many grades. Inedible tallow and greases produced by meat packing
meat industry may contain either hog or beef fat. These are described in terms
of their hardness.

Lard: It is defined as the fat rendered from clean, sound edible tissues of hogs in good health at
the time of slaughter. Its production is limited to certain killing and cutting fats from the hog.
Leaf fat: It is the fat lining the abdomen and kidneys of hog that used to make the lard.

killing fats - Depot fats such as those surrounding the kidney portion are
Cutting fats - fats which are obtained when the hog is cut into its various wholesale or
retail cuts.

Caul fat: It is the fatty membrane which surrounds internal organs of some animals, such as
cow, sheep, and pigs also known as the greater omentum. It is often used as a natural casing. It
is also known as Lace Fat.
Rendered pork fat: It is the fat other than the lard, rendered from clean, sound carcasses or
edible organs from hogs in good health at the time of slaughter, with certain parts of the animal
specifically excluded.

It includes bacon skins, fleshed skins, cheek meat trimmings, sweet pickle fats and fats obtained
from skimming the rendered tanks.

Butter fat/Clarified Butter

Butter is a water-in-oil emulsion resulting from an inversion of the cream, an oil-in-water
emulsion. Melting butter produces clarified butter or ghee, which is almost entirely butterfat.
Butter fat can be produced from milk from any species.

Fish oil
Fish oil is rich in omega -3 fatty acids that are beneficial to human health.

Omega-3 fatty acids (also called -3 fatty acids or n-3 fatty acids) are polyunsaturated fatty
acids (PUFAs) with a double bond (C=C) at the third carbon atom from the end of the carbon
chain. The fatty acids have two ends, the carboxylic acid (-COOH) end, which is considered the
beginning of the chain, thus "alpha", and the methyl (CH3) end, which is considered the "tail" of
the chain, thus "omega." The nomenclature of the fatty acid is taken from the location of the
first double bond, counted from the methyl end, that is, the omega (-) or the n- end.

The three types of omega-3 fatty acids involved in human physiology are:

ALA (found in plant oils),

EPA, and DHA(both commonly found in marine oils).

Marine algae and phytoplankton are primary sources of omega-3 fatty acids.

Common sources of plant oils containing the omega 3 ALA fatty acid include walnut, edible
seeds, clary sage seed oil,algal oil, flaxseed oil, Sacha Inchi oil, Echium oil, and hemp oil
Sources of animal omega-3 EPA and DHA fatty acids include fish oils, egg oil, squid oils, and krill

Omega-3 fatty acids are important for normal metabolism. Mammals have a limited ability to
synthesize omega-3 fats when the diet includes the shorter-chain omega-3 fatty acid ALA (-
linolenic acid, 18 carbons and 3 double bonds) to form the more important long-chain omega-3
fatty acids, EPA (eicosapentaenoic acid, 20 carbons and 5 double bonds) and then from EPA, the
most crucial, DHA (docosahexaenoic acid, 22 carbons and 6 double bonds) with even greater
inefficiency. The ability to make the longer-chain omega-3 fatty acids from ALA may also be
impaired in aging. In foods exposed to air, unsaturated fatty acids are vulnerable
to oxidation and rancidity.

Origin of the fish oil

All fish oil processing starts with fishing. Today the most preferred place to catch omega-3rich
fish is in the South Pacific, close to the shore of Peru and Chile. In this area the cold, unpolluted
waters come up from the Antarctic and ensure low levels of contaminants in the fish oil. This
does not mean that oils from other areas of the world cannot be adequately decontaminated,
but it is preferable to handle fish oil that starts with low levels of contamination. Today
standards and requirements for purity are so high that even cleanoils from the South Pacific
undergo a decontamination process before they are sold.
The best fish oil is from blue fish, or in other words, fatty or oily fish. Blue fish include sardines,
anchovies, tuna, mackerel, etc. The very tasty white fishare unfortunately a very poor source
of omega-3.
The shorter the life cycle of the fish, the less time it has to accumulate heavy metals, pesticides,
PCBs, dioxins and other environmental pollutants. Larger fish, given their longer life span,
typically accumulate higher levels of environmental contaminants which then end up in the oil.
Additionally, larger fish are much more valuable as food, therefore, only the inedible portions
(i.e. eyes and intestines) of large fish such as salmon and tuna are available for oil production.
Generally, fish oil producers are looking for small, short life-cycle fish like sardines, anchovies,
and menhaden. Due to the short life cycle of these fish and their rapid reproduction capability,
a sustainable annual catch can be managed. Furthermore, these small fish offer both fish meal
and fish oil.
Today 90% of all fish oil is a by-product of fish meal production.
The vast majority of fish oils and omega-3 concentrates originate from cold water sardines,
anchovies or menhaden caught off the shores of Peru, Chile and in case of the Menhaden, in
the Gulf of Mexico and the Atlantic coast (USA).
Fish oil processing
After sourcing, the fish is boiled and press ed to extract raw oil rich in omega-3s.
Oxygen-free processing environment ensures that the oils remain protected from the oxidation
that causes the fishy smell and rancidity.
Fish oils are purified (i.e. stripped) of heavy metals, pesticides, and PCBs through the process of
molecular distillation. All quality manufacturers employ this technique prior to any chosen
concentration methodbe it further molecular distillation, enzymatic processing, or CO2
Molecular Distillation
Modern molecular distillation is very gentle and efficient way to produce moderately
concentrated EPA and DHA products. This technology makes use of the fact that the free
fatty acids and fatty acid ethyl esters have relatively low evaporation temperatures
when placed under a strong vacuum. By heating the oil under vacuum to temperatures
of 140C and 160C, a good separation between smaller C-18 fatty acids and larger C-18
fatty acids can be achieved.
This separation concentrates the initial EPA and DHA content from 30% to
approximately 55% and produces oil which is readily available on the market today.
Advantages of molecular distillation of fish oil
Concentrate the Omega-3 in fish oil
Purify the oil from contaminants and pollutants
Reduce the fishy odour of crude fish oils
Disadvantages of molecular distillation

increasing the EPA and/or DHA concentration using MD can result in a substantial drop in
lack of selectivity - producing EPA or DHA concentrates with more than 70% of each
individual fatty acid is typically not possible
necessity to repeatedly run the oil through the process thereby exposing the oil to several
rounds of heating, causing EPA and DHA, to encounter shortened stability and

Finally, as separation with molecular distillation is based on the chain length of a given
molecule every EPA-fraction will also contain C20:4n3, C20:4n6, C20:3n6 and probably
C21:5n3 while all DHA concentrates will also carry their share of C22:5n3, C22:5n6, C22:4n6 and
probably C21:5n3.

Molecular distillation is an excellent tool to purify fish oil from cholesterol and traces of heavy
metals, pesticides, PCBs, and dioxins.
Esterification and Concentration
In order to concentrate fish oil, it must first go through the process of converting its molecular
form from natural triglycerides to ethyl esters. During this process, the glycerol backbone of
these long-chain fatty acids is removed in order to concentrate them to levels beyond what is
normally found in fish.
Purified fish oil is concentrated to yield high percentages of the omega-3s EPA and DHA.
Enzymatic or CO2 concentration techniques can also be employed.
After concentration, the purified oils are carefully returned to their natural triglyceride form
the only form in which they exist in fish and can be metabolized by the human body.
The fish oil should not be marketed as ethyl esters.


6.1. Hydrogenation
Hydrogenation process is carried out in a three-phase system (hydrogen gas, liquid oil and solid
catalyst) at temperatures ranging from about 120C to about 220C max in the final stages of
the reaction.

The catalyst consists of small nickel crystallites supported by an inorganic oxide, usually silica or
alumina. After the reaction, the catalyst is filtered off and any traces of residual nickel are
removed in post-refining to a level of about 0.1 mg/kg or below.

Hydrogenation is a series of consecutive reactions

i. Reduction of unsaturation - In nearly all hydrogenations, linolenic acid is transformed

into compounds which are less saturated.
ii. Isomerisation of double bonds - geometric isomerisation (cis-trans) and positional

Commonly, the natural oils are hydrogenated by passing hydrogen through the oil in the
presence of a nickel catalyst, under controlled conditions. The addition of hydrogen to the
unsaturated bonds (alkenic double C=C bonds) results in saturated C-C bonds, effectively
increasing the melting point of the oil and thus "hardening" it. This is due to the increase in van
der Waals' forces between the saturated molecules compared with the unsaturated molecules.
However, as there are possible health benefits in limiting the amount of saturated fats in the
human diet, the process is controlled so that only enough of the bonds are hydrogenated to
give the required texture.

6.2. Winterization

This process is generally applied to oils used by consumers, such as salad oils. By removing high
melting fractions, the oil remains clear when stored in the refrigerator for long periods.
Winterization consists of holding the bulk oil at low temperatures until the high melting
molecules form solid particles large enough to be filtered out. In addition to removing
triglycerides having the longer-chain fatty acids, winterization takes out some resins and waxes.
6.3. Interesterification

Involves the random rearrangement of the fatty acids in the triglyceride molecule under the
influence of a moderately alkaline catalyst. This modifies the melting behaviour of the fat
without changing the nature of the fatty acids.

6.4. Fractionation

Involves controlled separation of oil/fat fractions by low temperature (dry fractionation), or

solvents (solvent fractionation). In this process, there are no changes in the chemical nature of
the fatty acids. Palm oil is fractionated into palmolein and palmstearin.

6.5. Glycerolysis
Glycerolysis is used to prepare mono-glycerides via reactions of fatty acids and glycerin, or
mono-glycerides from glycerin reactions with tri-glycerides. Mono-glycerides have been used as
emulsifying agents in foods for humans and animals, in cosmetics, and many other products.
They are also used as lubricants in the textile industry and function as internal lubricants in the
production of PVC.
Mono-glycerides are fatty acid monoesters of glycerol. They are generally available as a mixture
containing large amounts of diglycerides and small amounts of fats and glycerol. Mono- and
diglycerides comprise nearly 70% of the emulsifier usage in food industry, as food additives.
Types of glycerolysis processes
Batch processes at high temperatures (220260C) in the presence of an inorganic
catalyst such as sodium, potassium, or calcium hydroxide.
Continuous alkaline-catalyzed glycerolysis process using near-stoichiometric quantities
of glycerol and 510% recycle of the product.
Enzymatic synthesis of mono-glycerides by various lipase catalysts - although this
process offers perhaps the greatest potential for future production, the relatively slow
rate of enzymatic reactions and the high cost of enzymes have made the enzymatic
processes economically unfavorable.
Simplified chemical equation for fat glycerolysis (R=alkyl chain of fatty acid, which may be same
or different in the fat molecule).

Simplified chemical equation for fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) glycerolysis (R=alkyl chain of
fatty acid).

6.6. Interrelationships of fat modification technologies.

Industry uses various oils and fats interchangeably while retaining constant quality. Generally,
the least expensive combination of raw materials compatible with the required quality is
chosen. Hydrogenation greatly extends the number of fats available with specified melting
behaviour and this increases interchangeability and lowers costs. In non-hydrogenation
situations, a combination of interesterification, fractionation and selection of the starting oil
may be acceptable solutions for limiting the formation of isomers in terms of product quality;
however, the costs are higher. While the actual specific modification, for example,
hydrogenation or interesterification, is relatively inexpensive, the costs of losing flexibility can
be significantly higher. The processes for oil modification may change as new compositions
become available through plant biotechnology.


Fats are the primary constituents of margarines, butterfat, shortenings, and oils for salad and
cooking. In addition to the visible fat contained in food, fats and oils are found in high quantities
in many bakery goods, infant formulas, and dairy products and some sweets. Oils, butter or
margarine are sometimes used directly on food.

The range of food uses requires a variety of fats and oils with characteristics tailored to meet
these needs. Efforts to modify the composition of fats and oils may be limited by these various
technical requirements.

7.1. Cooking oils

The major use of cooking oil is in frying, where it functions as a heat transfer medium and
contributes flavour and texture to foods. One requirement of a cooking oil is that it be stable
under the very abusive conditions of deep-fat frying, namely, high temperatures and moisture.
In general, oil should be kept at a maximum temperature of 180C during frying. Frying food at
a temperature which is too low results in increased fat uptake. Water, which is contributed by
the foods that are fried in an oil enhances the breakdown of fatty acids which occurs during
heating. Hydrolysis results in a poor-quality oil that has a reduced smoke point, darkened colour
and altered flavour. During heating, oils also polymerize, creating viscous oil that is readily
absorbed by foods and that produces a greasy product. The more saturated (solid) the oil, the
more stable it is to oxidative and hydrolytic breakdown, and the less likely it is to polymerize.

Oils rich in linolenic acid, such as soybean and canola oils, are particularly susceptible to these
undesirable changes. When soybean oil is partially hydrogenated to reduce the linolenic acid
from about 8 percent to below 3 percent, it is a relatively stable frying oil and it is used in
processed fried foods, pan and griddle frying, and sauces. Stability is increased by using
cottonseed, corn oil, palm oil or palmolein or by more hydrogenation of soybean oil.

Foods that are fried and stored before eating, for example, snack products, require an even
more stable oil. More saturated oils improve stability; however, if the frying fat is solid at room
temperature it will produce a dry dull surface that is undesirable on some fried products. When
oils are used continuously, as in restaurants, a frying fat which can withstand very heavy use is
needed. In these cases, more solid shortenings are used to maximize the stability of the fat for
many hours of frying.

Frying oils made from sunflower and safflower have lower stability because of their high
polyunsaturated fatty acids and low -tocopherol content; however, high-oleic safflower and
sunflower oils that have been genetically developed are suitable frying oils.

For optimal use of cooking oils, it is necessary to distinguish between different frying
conditions. The most important parameters to be monitored are duration of use and nature of
the foods to be fried. If food fats enter the frying oil, food components could destabilize the oil
and the water content of the material could influence the frying operation. Whether the use is
continuous or intermittent is relevant, continuous use provides a protective water vapour
blanket that protects against oxidation. Finally, temperature must be considered.

Industrial use of fats and oils is usually well-monitored. The continuous operation (implying the
constant addition of fresh oil) and quality requirements for the products normally ensure good
quality control of the oil. In homes, where oils are normally used for much shorter periods of
time and are discarded after being used once or twice, stability problems play a lesser role.
Stability of frying oils is a more important factor in catering operations, where heating is
intermittent and oils may be used for long periods.

7.2. Margarines

Margarine is an imitation butter spread used for spreading, baking, and cooking. It was
originally created from beef tallow and skimmed milk in 1869 in France by Hippolyte Mge-
Mouris, as a result of a challenge proposed by Emperor Louis Napoleon III, as a substitute for
butter which would later be renamed margarine.

Whereas butter is made from the butterfat of milk, modern margarine is made mainly of
refined vegetable oil and water, and may also contain milk.

Margarine, like butter, consists of a water-in-fat emulsion, with tiny droplets of water dispersed
uniformly throughout a fat phase which is in a stable crystalline form.Margarine has a minimum
fat content of 80%, the same as butter, but unlike butter, reduced-fat varieties of margarine
can also be labelled as margarine (in some countries).

Margarine can be used for spreading, baking, and cooking. It is also commonly used as an
ingredient in other food products, such as pastries and cookies, for its wide range of

Margarines must have some crystalline structure to maintain a semisolid consistency at

refrigerator and room temperatures. Sharp melting at body temperature is needed so that the
margarine will melt rapidly in the mouth leaving no waxy feeling.

Oleic acid melts at 16C, whereas elaidic acid melts at 44C, so that the presence of some trans
isomers may vastly raise the melting point and stability of a product. Stick-type margarines
contain 10-29 percent trans fatty acids while tub-type margarines have 10-21 percent trans
fatty acids. In addition to partial hydrogenation, the correct consistency of a margarine can be
obtained by blending soft and hard fats. Lower fat spreads, for example, 40 percent or 60
percent fat, contain less trans fatty acids.

Another important feature in solidifying oil for margarines is the type of crystal formed.

Triglycerides melting properties are affected by fatty acid composition and their distribution
within the glycerides molecule. Mono-, di- and triglycerides are polymorphic, i. e. they
crystallize in different modifications, denoted as , _ and . These forms differ in their melting
points and crystallographic properties.

The crystals are the tiniest, forming a smooth but unstable crystal. The _ crystals are
medium in size, still they are generally desirable in margarines because they impart a smooth
texture, are fairly stable, and ensure plasticity of the product. The largest crystals are the
types which are stable and grainy, and generally undesirable. Also, the, form is readily
converted to a hard and brittle structure. Products such as liquid shortenings and coating fats
sometimes require the crystal.

The lengths of fatty acids and their positions on the glycerol backbone determine the type of
crystal formed. The triacylglycerols in certain fat or solidified oil always form the same type of
crystals unless other ingredients are added to alter crystal formation. To produce a margarine
with enhanced , _ stability, it is necessary to have a variety of triacylglycerols with different
fatty acid chain lengths. Palm and hydrogenated cottonseed oils contain a fair amount of C16:0
and can be added to other oils to enhance _ structure.
Manufacturing process

Margarine is made by emulsifying a blend of vegetable oils and fats, which can be modified
using fractionation, interesterification, and/or hydrogenation, with skimmed milk, chilling the
mixture to solidify it and working it to improve the texture.

Partial hydrogenation of a typical plant oil to a typical component of margarine.

Most of the C=C double bonds are removed in this process, which elevates the melting point of
the product.
Margarines made in this way are said to contain hydrogenated fat. This method is used today
for some margarines although the process has been developed and sometimes other metal
catalysts are used such as palladium. If hydrogenation is incomplete (partial hardening), the
relatively high temperatures used in the hydrogenation process tend to flip some of the carbon-
carbon double bonds into the "trans" form. If these particular bonds aren't hydrogenated
during the process, they will still be present in the final margarine in molecules of trans fats,
the consumption of which has been shown to be a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. For
this reason, partially hardened fats are used less and less in the margarine industry. Some
tropical oils, such as palm oil and coconut oil, are naturally semi solid and do not require

Modern margarines can be made from any of a wide variety of animal or vegetable fats, mixed
with skim milk, salt, and emulsifiers.Margarines and vegetable fat spreads found in the market
can range from 10 to 90% fat. Depending on its final fat content and its purpose (spreading,
cooking or baking), the level of water and the vegetable oils used will slightly vary. The oil is
pressed from seeds and refined. It is then blended with solid fat. If no solid fats are added to
the vegetable oils, the latter undergo a full or partial hydrogenation process to solidify them.
The resulting blend is mixed with water, citric acid, carotenoids, vitamins and milk powder.
Emulsifiers such as lecithin help disperse the water phase evenly throughout the oil, and salt
and preservatives are also commonly added. This oil and water emulsion is then heated,
blended, and cooled. The softer tub margarines are made with less hydrogenated, more liquid,
oils than block margarines.

Three types of margarine are common:

Soft vegetable fat spreads high in mono- or polyunsaturated fats, which are made from
safflower, sunflower, soybean, cottonseed, rapeseed, or olive oil.
Margarines in bottle to cook or top dishes
Hard, generally uncolored margarine for cooking or baking. (Shortening)

7.3. Shortenings
Shortening refers to edible fats or vegetable or animal origin used in baked goods primarily to
improve the eating qualities of the finished product through making it tender and 'short'. There
is a variety of shortenings available. These differ mainly in their origin, flavor, and consistency.
With the exception of butter, lard and margarine, practically all shortenings preferable for
bakery products are practically neutral in flavor.

The types of shortenings generally used in cake making are solid at room temperature. Some,
however, possess a higher melting point and are harder than others. The modern manufacturer
of shortening aims to produce a shortening of the desired plasticity or degree of hardness best
suited to the needs of the average cake baker.

Composition of shortenings

While the various shortenings commonly used may be quite different in their consistency,
melting points and other physical properties, they are very similar in chemical composition.
Thus ordinary shortenings when analyzed are found to be mixtures containing some of the
following substances in various proportions:

1. STEARINa hard fat, naturally of animal origin. Vegetable stearin may be secured by
saturating vegetable oils with hydrogen gas as described later under the subject of
Hydrogenated Vegetable Shortenings.
2. PALMITINa fat, secured from both animal and vegetable sources.
3. OLEINoil secured from both animal and vegetable sources.
4. LINOLINoil present in cottonseed oil.

Although the four substances mentioned above are similar in composition, they are not
identical, and the actual difference in their composition, while very small, is responsible for the
fact that stearin and palmitin are solid fats while olein and linolin are oils. This explains why
suitable mixtures of the above constituents, such as the ordinary shortenings, are of soft and
plastic consistency.
Classification of Shortenings
Shortenings may be conveniently and briefly classified in three groups:.

Animal Shortenings

As the name implies, animal shortenings are of animal origin. Although little used in cake
making, one of the best known shortenings in this group is lard which is produced from selected
fat of the pig through a rendering.

Vegetable Shortenings

Among the shortenings of vegetable origin we have the well known hydrogenated fats, which
are solid and semi-solid shortenings produced by the proper treating of certain vegetable oil
with hydrogen. Through this process, a fat of practically any desired degree of hardiness may be
secured. A high degree of perfection has been reached in the manufacture of hydrogenated
shortenings which are very popular for cake work, and which possess excellent qualities.

Compound Shortenings

Compounds, as the name signifies, represent that group of shortenings made by compounding
of blending a vegetable oil with a hard fat in proper proportions so as to give a resulting
product of desirable consistency similar to that of lard. Margarine, sometimes called 'artificial
butter', is a mixture of fats, usually refined oleo oil churned in with some butter, neutral lard,
and milk. Sometimes, vegetable oils, such as cottonseed oil, are also used. Coconut oil is often
used in the preparation of various kinds of so-called 'nut butter' or 'nut margarine'.

Important Characteristics of Shortening

a) Color: For white cakes, the absence of color in the shortening employed is considered
desirable, so that the color of crumb of the finished cake will not be adversely
b) Flavor: With the exception of margarine, the shortening used in cake making should
possess either a neutral or extremely mild flavor that it will not mask or interfere with
the natural flavor of the cake created by the blending of the other ingredients, including
any definite flavoring which may be used in the mix.
c) Keeping Qualities: Shortenings in storage should be kept tightly covered in a cool, dark,
dry, place free from all odors. However, some of the well-known high grade types of
hydrogenated vegetable shortenings available today pose remarkably good keeping
qualities. The ability of any shortening to retain its freshness and sweetness is of utmost
importance in the manufacture of quality baked goods, for it any fat becomes slightly
rancid and is used, it will impart to the finished product a disagreeable taste and odor
which is even more objectionable to the consumer than ordinary staleness.
d) Creaming Power and Stability: Shortening used in cake making should be of such
consistency and character that it will cream up well with sugar and eggs, forming with
them a smooth, light mass of good volume that will maintain its structure during the
addition of the other cake ingredients without breaking down or curdling. The
shortening used should not be lumpy or unduly hard.
e) Shortening Power and Uniformity: The ability of a shortening to impart that desirable
eating or chewing quality known as shortness is naturally of importance in connection
with its use in cake making. Uniformity is also an essential factor. Uniformity in all
ingredients and uniformity in the manner of handling these ingredients mean uniformity
in the finished product.
7.4. Frying fats

Fats used for frying snack products must have different properties from the fats intended for
use as shortenings or as coatings. A high smoke point and excellent stability to hydrolysis and
oxidation at elevated temperatures are essential characteristics. In most markets, the frying fat
is expected to contribute little flavor of its own to the finished product, although some regions
are accustomed to the flavor of lard. Hydrogenated cottonseed oil is the most common frying
fat, and it is bland.
The fresh fat, as it is received, may not be completely satisfactory for frying because the heat
transfer characteristics-partly a function of the viscosity-are not optimal. If the kettle is
replenished from time to time with small additions of fresh fat, an equilibrium state can be
maintained in which the finished product always has satisfactory properties. When the frying
equipment contains all fresh fat, it must be "broken in" by heating the fat at frying
temperatures in contact with product until a free fatty acid content of about 0.4% is reached, or
until the product is being cooked as desired.

Fat is broken down to free fatty acids, glycerine, etc., by steam from the product, by oxygen
from the air, and by heat. Excessive deterioration is evidence by smoking, darkening, and
foaming. Methyl silicone is often effective in reducing foaming. Filtration is effective in
removing particles that can char and discolor product, but it does not retard oxidation and it
does not affect the free fatty acid composition or the viscosity of shortening.

Copper ions greatly accelerate the development of oxidative rancidity, so fats should be
prevented from contacting copper, brass, or bronze utensils at any time.

7.5. Salad oils

A major use of salad oils is in pourable salad dressings. Traditional salad dressings, some of
which are emulsified, consist of a two-phase system of oil and water with 55-65 percent oil. A
salad oil coats the salad ingredients, spreading the flavour of the dressing that improves the
palatability of the salad. The other major use of salad oils is in mayonnaise and thick salad
dressings, which contain 80 and 35-50 percent oil, respectively. The oil in mayonnaise is
responsible for viscosity, whereas the oils in thick salad dressings help to modify the mouthfeel
of the starch paste that thickens the product.

A salad oil must not contain solid crystals that, when refrigerated, would impart a waxy, tallowy
texture, would break the emulsion formed between water and oil, or would give the product a
cloudy appearance. Oils can be winterized, a process that removes solid crystals formed at
refrigerator temperatures.
Typically, unhydrogenated or partially hydrogenated soybean, canola, winterized cottonseed,
safflower, sunflower, and corn oils are used. Olive oil has a unique flavour, although it forms
crystals at refrigerator temperature, it is often served at room temperature as a salad oil.

7.6. Medium-chain triglycerides (MCT)

In addition to the common dietary fats, lipid fractions such as medium-chain triglycerides (MCT
oil) are used in specialized therapeutic preparations. MCT oil is a fraction of coconut oil
containing fatty acids of 8-10 carbon atoms in triacylglycerols. MCT oil is used in formulas for
enteral feeding and in diets for patients with malabsorption syndromes.

7.7. Mayonnaise

Mayonnaise is a thick, creamy sauce often used as a condiment. It is a stable emulsion of oil,
egg yolks and either vinegar or lemon juice, with many options for embellishment with other
herbs and spices. Lecithin in the egg yolk is the emulsifier.

Mayonnaise varies in color, but is often white, cream, or pale yellow. It may range in texture
from that of light cream to a thick gel. Mustard can also acts as an additional emulsifier.

Commercial egg-free mayonnaise-like spreads are available for people who want to avoid
animal fat and cholesterol, or who are allergic to eggs
Preparation: Mayonnaise can be made by hand with a mortar and pestle, whisk or fork,
or with the aid of an electric mixer or blender. Mayonnaise is made by slowly adding oil
to an egg yolk, while whisking vigorously to disperse the oil. The oil and the water in
yolks form a base of the emulsion, while lecithin and protein from the yolks are the
emulsifiers that stabilize it. Additionally, a bit of a mustard may also be added to
sharpen its taste, and further stabilize the emulsion. Mustard contains small amounts of
lecithin. If vinegar is added directly to the yolk it can emulsify more oil, thus making
more mayonnaise.

For large-scale preparation of mayonnaise where mixing equipment is being employed the
process typically begins with the dispersal of eggs, either powdered or liquid, into water. Once
emulsified, the remaining ingredients are then added and vigorously mixed until completely
hydrated and evenly dispersed. Oil is then added as rapidly as it can be absorbed. Though only a
small part of the total, ingredients other than the oil are critical to proper formulation. These
must be totally hydrated and dispersed within a small liquid volume, which can cause
difficulties including emulsion breakdown during the oil-adding phase. Often a long agitation
process is required to achieve proper dispersal/emulsification, presenting one of the trickiest
phases of the production process.

Composition: Homemade mayonnaise can approach 85% fat before the emulsion breaks
down; commercial mayonnaise is more typically 70% to 80% fat. "Low fat" mayonnaise
products contain starches, cellulose gel, or other thickeners to simulate the texture of
real mayonnaise.

Commercial producers either pasteurize the yolks, freeze them and substitute water for most of
their liquid, or use other emulsifiers. They also typically use soybean or rapeseed oil, for its
lower cost, instead of olive oil. Some recipes, both commercial and homemade, use the whole
egg, including the egg white.


As with most ingredients, the most nearly definitive test for fats and oils is a performance test
under actual conditions of use and consumption. Since tests of this sort are often impractical
and are too expensive and time-consuming for routine use, other procedures have been
developed to evaluate characteristics of shortening likely to affect the quality of the finished
i. Melting Point
Capillary melting point: the temperature at which a sample of the fat contained in a small glass
tube becomes completely clear.
Open tube melting point slip point: or softening point, is the temperature at which a solidified
sample in an open tube immersed in water will soften sufficiently to rise under the buoyant
effect of the water.
Wiley melting point test: a molded tablet of fat is allowed to float at the interface of a water
and alcohol bath. The temperature of the bath is gradually raised and the end point is taken to
be the temperature at which the tablet assumes a spherical form.
Ordinarily each of these "melting points" will be different for a given fat. The closed-tube
melting point will be the highest of the three temperatures, whereas the open-tube will be the
lowest, in most cases. The congealing point, determined by cooling liquid fat until it becomes
cloudy, then transferring it to a 68F air bath and observing the highest temperature reached as
the fat congeals, will be different from any of the melting points.

The following table shows the influence of the size of FA & saturation on the melting point

Fatty acid No. Of carbon atoms Melting point (0C)

Saturated fatty acid
Butyric 4 -7.9
Caproic 6 -3.9
Caprylic 8 16.3
Capric 10 31.3
Lauric 12 44.0
Myristic 14 54.4
Palmitic 16 62.8
Stearic 18 69.6
Unsaturated fatty acids
Palmitoleic 16 -0.5-0.5
Oleic 18 13.0
Linoleic 18 -5-(-12)
Linolenic 18 -14.5
Arachidonic 20 -49.5
A longer carbon chain increases the melting point.
The more double bonds, the lower the melting point.
Cis fatty acids have a lower melting point than trans.
ii. Stability Tests

The degree of resistance to rancidity development is an extremely important characteristic of

fats and oils. The fresh product can be tested for free fatty acids or peroxides to get a general,
rough idea of the extent to which deterioration has already occurred. Tests based on bringing
the sample to a stage of detectable rancidity by controlled heating are perhaps more
meaningful from a practical point of view.

iii. Active oxygen method or AOM test

Widely used for determining stability to oxidative deterioration. In this procedure, air is
bubbled through fat held at 208F. The end point is the time at which a peroxide value of 100
mEq/kg is reached. Other peroxide-value end points may be specified for certain fats to give a
better correlation with sensory perception of rancidity. A modification of the AOM test using a
temperature of 230F is widely used because deterioration occurs more than twice as fast at
the higher temperature, so that results are available much sooner than they would be using the
lower temperature.

iv. Schaal test

Consists of holding a sample of the fat, or a product containing it, in an oven maintained at
145F. Other temperatures can also be used. The sample is examined daily, or more frequently,
and the time required to reach a condition of detectable rancidity is recorded. Ground or
crumbled snacks made with the fat in question can be tested in this manner and the results can
frequently be related to problems associated with distribution and shelf-life. The interaction of
product and packaging can also be estimated by placing strips of the packaging material in
contact with crumbs of the product.

v. Keeping quality

Peroxide value: Determined by reacting a sample of the fat with potassium iodide and titrating
the excess iodide with potassium thiosulfate. It is expressed as milliequivalents (mEq) of oxygen
per kilogram of fat.

Peroxide value is an indication of the extent to which the fat has already reacted with oxygen
and thus indicates approximately how much storage life remains. The deodorization process
applied to shortenings reduces the

Peroxide value is an indication of the extent to which the fat has already reacted with oxygen
and thus indicates approximately how much storage life remains. The deodorization process
applied to shortenings reduces the peroxide value to zero.

Peroxide value is an indication of the extent to which the fat has already reacted with oxygen
and thus indicates approximately how much storage life remains. The deodorization process
applied to shortenings reduces the

The free fatty acid content of a fat or oil is essentially a measure of the amount of hydrolysis
that has occurred. Free fatty acid is determined by titration with a standard solution of alkali.

Since hydrolysis and oxidation are the reactions leading to rancidity, the peroxide value and
free fatty acid content together give a reasonably good picture of current status and future
prospects of a shortening.

vi. Solids Fraction Index (SFI)

The proportion of solid to liquid fat in a shortening at a given temperature has an important
relationship to the performance of shortening at that temperature. This proportion cannot be
deduced from the melting point of the fat or from the consistency of the shortening at the
given temperature. However, it can be accurately determined by a technique called
dilatometry. The principle of the test is measurement of the change in volume of samples of
constant mass held at a series of temperatures. The density of a liquid glyceride will differ from
that of the solid form, so, as the temperature of a fat is progressively raised, additional
molecular species will liquefy and lead to changes in volume of the total sample. The situation is
complicated somewhat by the mutual solubility of the various glycerides, which also varies with

The sample of melted fat is placed in a chamber attached to a calibrated and graduated
capillary tube, then solidified. The instrument containing the solidifed fat is allowed to stand
(temper) at certain standard temperatures and is then heated gradually to melt the sample.

Fats with a wide plastic range will produce a flatter curve with small differences in the SFI at
each temperature. Fats having a shorter plastic range will have a steep curve that is generally
high at the low temperatures and low at the high temperatures.
Fat Solid fat index at 0C Melting point
10 21 27 33 38 (0C)
Butter 32 12 9 3 0 36
Cocoa butter 62 48 8 0 0 29
Coconut oil 55 27 0 0 0 26
Lard 25 20 12 4 2 43
Palm oil 34 12 9 6 4 39
Palm kernel oil 49 33 13 0 0 29
Tallow 39 30 28 23 18 48

vii. Flavor and Odor

Except for butter and lard, it is generally desired that shortenings have a bland flavor, although
all shortenings do have a characteristic flavor even though it is usually faint. Taste panels
consisting of 2 to 10 experienced members can be used to verify the absence of off-flavors in
samples of shortenings received for use as ingredients.
viii. Iodine value

This is a measure of the number of double bonds present in the fatty acids. It indicates the
degree of unsaturation of the fat or oil and is a rough measure of the storage stability. If the
material is unhydrogenated, the iodine value is evidence of the type of oil. Hydrogenation
decreases the iodine value, as does oxidation of the double bonds.

ix. Smoke point, flash point, and fire point

These are valuable tests for frying fats. They involve gradual heating of the fat in standard
equipment under rigidly specified conditions and noting the temperature at which the material
emits smoke or catches fire.


Emulsifiers are natural or synthesized substances that promote the formation and improve the
stability of emulsions, e.g., dispersions of fat droplets in water or vice versa. In some cases they
can be used to improve the wetting properties of water or aqueous solutions. Snack food
manufacturers sometimes find it advantageous to employ emulsifiers in their processes.

The unifying characteristic of emulsifiers is presence of a hydrophilic group (dissolving in

aqueous solutions) and a lipophilic group (dissolving in lipids) on the same molecule, but not all
such molecules have practical effects as surface-active agents. It is not necessary that the
hydrophilic and lipophilic groups have equal effectiveness, and, as a matter of fact, it is usual to
find that one or the other dominates the actions of the emulsifier.

The variability in performance of different emulsifiers is due to:

the relative potency of the two kinds of regions,

their spatial relationship,
the size of the entire molecule,
9.1. Lecithin
Lecithin, a mixture of phospholipids, is found widely distribtited in nature but is commercially
prepared almost exclusively from soybean oil at the present time.

Lecithin is a generic term to designate any group of yellow-brownish fatty substances occurring
in animal and plant tissues composed of phosphoric acid, choline, fatty acids, glycerol,
glycolipids, triglycerides, and phospholipids (e.g., phosphatidylcholine,
phosphatidylethanolamine, and phosphatidylinositol).
Lecithin can easily be extracted chemically (using hexane, ethanol, acetone, petroleum ether,
benzene, etc.) or mechanically. It is usually available from sources such as soybeans, eggs, milk,
marine sources, rapeseed, cottonseed, and sunflower. It has low solubility in water, but is an
excellent emulsifier. In aqueous solution, its phospholipids can form liposomes, bilayer sheets,
micelles, or lamellar structures, depending on hydration and temperature. This results in a type
of surfactant that usually is classified as amphipathic. Lecithin is sold as a food supplement and
for medical uses. In cooking, it is sometimes used as an emulsifier and to prevent sticking, for
example in non-stick cooking spray.

An example of a phosphatidylcholine, a type of phospholipid in lecithin. Red - choline and

phosphate group; Black - glycerol; Green - unsaturated fatty acid; Blue - saturated fatty acid
Production: Commercial lecithin, as used by food manufacturers, is a mixture of
phospholipids in oil. The lecithin can be obtained by water degumming the extracted oil
of seeds. It is a mixture of various phospholipids, and the composition depends on the
origin of the lecithin. A major source of lecithin is soybean oil. Because of the EU
requirement to declare additions of allergens in foods, in addition to regulations
regarding genetically modified crops, a gradual shift to other sources of lecithin (e.g.,
sunflower oil) is taking place. The main phospholipids in lecithin from soya and
sunflower are phosphatidyl choline, phosphatidyl inositol, phosphatidyl ethanolamine,
and phosphatidic acid. They often are abbreviated to PC, PI, PE, and PA, respectively.
Purified phospholipids are produced by companies commercially.

Properties: Lecithin has emulsification and lubricant properties, and is a surfactant. It can
be totally metabolized by humans, so is well tolerated by humans and nontoxic when

The major components of commercial soybean-derived lecithin are:

3335% Soybean oil

2021% Inositol phosphatides
1921% Phosphatidylcholine
820% Phosphatidylethanolamine
511% Other phosphatides
5% Free carbohydrates
25% Sterols
1% Moisture

Lecithin is used for applications in human food, animal feed, pharmaceuticals, paints, and other
industrial applications.

Applications in food industry:

a) Food additive

The nontoxicity of lecithin leads to its use with food, as an additive or in food preparation. It is
used commercially in foods requiring a natural emulsifier or lubricant.

In confectionery, it reduces viscosity, replaces more expensive ingredients, controls

sugar crystallization and the flow properties of chocolate, helps in the homogeneous
mixing of ingredients, improves shelf life for some products, and can be used as a
In emulsions and fat spreads, it stabilizes emulsions, reduces spattering during frying,
improves texture of spreads and flavour release.
In doughs and bakery, it reduces fat and egg requirements, helps even distribution of
ingredients in dough, stabilizes fermentation, increases volume, protects yeast cells in
dough when frozen, and acts as a releasing agent to prevent sticking and simplify
It improves wetting properties of hydrophilic powders (e.g., low-fat proteins) and
lipophilic powders (e.g., cocoa powder), controls dust, and helps complete dispersion in
Lecithin keeps cocoa and cocoa butter in a candy bar from separating.
It can be used as a component of cooking sprays to prevent sticking and as a releasing
In margarines, especially those containing high levels of fat (>75%), lecithin is added as
an 'antispattering' agent for shallow frying.

Research studies show soy-derived lecithin has significant effects on lowering serum cholesterol
and triglycerides, while increasing HDL ("good cholesterol") levels in the blood of rats.

b) Dietary supplement

Because it contains phosphatidylcholines, lecithin is a source of choline, an essential nutrient.

c) Compatibility with special diets

Egg-derived lecithin is not usually a concern for those allergic to eggs since commercially
available egg lecithin is highly purified and devoid of allergy-causing egg proteins. Egg lecithin is
not a concern for those on low-cholesterol diets, because the lecithin found in eggs markedly
inhibits the absorption of the cholesterol contained in eggs.

9.2. Monoglycerides and Diglycerides

These emulsifiers consist of fatty acids chemically combined either 1 or 2 on a glycerol residue.
The uncombined OR groups on the glycerol moiety provide the hydrophilic portion of the
molecules. It has been shown that monoglycerides are far more effective than diglycerides in
reducing surface tension, but the nature of the manufacturing process is such that some
diglycerides (and, for that matter, some triglycerides, or fats, plus free glycerol) are inevitably
included in the reaction mixture. Diglycerides are said to be helpful in dispersing the

The common basic raw materials for monoglyceride manufacture are lard and vegetable oils
such as cottonseed oil (usually hydrogenated). These results in a mixture of fatty acid moieties
combined in random fashion with glycerol. Special mixtures and more or less purified fatty
acids can be used to give monoglycerides of specific composition:

Commercial blends of mono- and diglycerides contain 35 to 55% monoester, with the balance
being predominantly diglycerides, with a smaller amount of triglycerides. The physical forms
vary from semiliquid or plastic to flaked or beaded products. High-vacuum distillation
techniques can be used to prepare pure (i.e., 96 to 98%) monoglycerides, but at a considerable

9.3. Other Surfactants

Ethoxylated monoglycerides prepared by reacting ethylene oxide with monoglycerides to give

a stronger affinity for water than is seen in normal monoglycerides. Glycerin can be
polymerized to get molecules 3 to 10 units in length and then reacted with fatty acids (stearic
or oleic) or fat.

The key characteristics are

polyglycerol chain length,

iodine value,
The number of fatty acid esters per molecule.

Propylene glycol monostearate (PGMS) can be made by reacting propylene glycol with stearic

Propylene glycol monoester is made by substituting glycerine and fats for the stearic acid in
this process.

When sorbitol is dehydrated and then reacted with stearic acid, a useful emulsifier called
sorbitan monostearate is formed. This can be further reacted with ethylene oxide to form
polysorbate 60, which has increased water affinity and modified functionality.

Sodium stearoyl lactylate is a very effective and versatile surfactant prepared by reacting
stearic acid with lactic acid and converting the product to the sodium salt. A calcium salt is also
commercially available.


All fats and oils are subject to oxidative and hydrolytic rancidity, which can cause the
development of objectionable odor and flavor.

Antioxidants are materials that can retard the development of rancidity during storage of foods
containing fat. Natural antioxidants are found in many "nonpurified" fats, such as cocoa butter,
and certain chemical compounds can be added to fats to accomplish this purpose.
From a chemical standpoint, rancidity is of two types:

(1) hydrolytic rancidity, which can lead to the occurrence of soapy flavors,
(2) oxidative rancidity, which causes the pungent or acrid odor characteristic of
badly deteriorated fat.

When hydrolytic rancidity occurs, oxidative deterioration is facilitated.

Oxidative rancidity is unquestionably the most important of these two mechanisms as food
acceptability is concerned.

The susceptibility of a fat to oxidation depends to a considerable extent on the number of

unsaturated bonds in the fatty acid moiety. Polyunsaturated fats are very prone to the
development of oxidation, whereas fully saturated fats and oils are much more resistant.

In hydrolytic rancidity, moisture and enzymes cause splitting of the triglyceride molecule into
glycerol and free fatty acids. The rate of lipolysis of the fat is strongly influenced by

Hydrolytic rancidity can be controlled by inactivation of the enzymes through sterilization, low
moisture content, and low storage temperatures.

The four chemical compounds commercially important as antioxidants used in fats and oils are:

Butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA),

Butylated hydroxy toluene (BHT),
Tertiary butylhydroquinone (TBHQ),
Propyl gallate (PG).

The permitted concentration must be such that the combined total of BHA, BHT, propyl gallate,
and TBHQ does not exceed 0.02% of the weight of the fat and oil, including essential oil.

Antioxidants are commonly added to frying oil.


1) Storage, transport and packaging of oils.

Oils and fats must be protected against oxidative deterioration, contamination with water, dirt,
or other fats, absorption of foreign odours and tastes, thermal deterioration, and entry of
foreign substances from packaging and lining materials. Temperatures, oxygen pressure,
oxidation products, trace metals, oxidative and lipolytic enzymes, reduction in natural
antioxidants and visible and ultraviolet light are all factors in such deterioration. The use of low
storage temperatures, nitrogen or vacuum packaging; the avoidance of copper, copper alloys
and iron as construction material of storage vessels; and the use of synthetic or natural
antioxidants and metal sequestrants as additives, work to prevent deterioration of oil during

2) Selection of oil processing technology.

The use of oil processing technology and its application in products is influenced by several
factors. For example, the demand for triacylglycerols with specific fatty acids in the 1, 2 and 3
positions of the molecule can be met through enzymatic interesterification which uses lipases
as catalysts in the interesterification process. The more readily absorbed fatty acid in the 2-
position can provide for specific triacylglycerols with medical benefits. For example, essential
fatty acids can be supplied to patients with various types of fat malabsorption or energy can be
given to infants with palmitic acid in the 2-position. Another is the increased use of physical
refining because of consumer pressure for less "chemical" processing.

3) Product quality

Rural refining of oil-bearing plants can produce fats and oils of good quality which provide
needed energy and fat soluble vitamins.
Commercial refining produces fats and oils that can be of high quality and have the
characteristics of bland taste, clear colour, good keeping quality and frying stability.
Commercially-refined fats and oils are free from known contaminants extracted from the raw
agricultural products. Refining may remove nutritionally valuable carotenoids to yield oils of
low colour, but retains substantial proportions of tocols, and does not change fatty acid nor
triacylglycerol compositions. Temperature, time and pressure must be carefully controlled
during industrial refining. Oil products should be properly stored, transported and packaged to
maintain quality and consumers must assume responsibility for not abusing oils and fats within

Industry can design almost any fat or oil for a specific application by the use of various
modification processes, such as hydrogenation, interesterification, fractionation or blending.
Hydrogenation typically reduces essential fatty acid content and creates various fatty acid
isomers, both cis and trans. The wide flexibility available to industry through the selection of
raw materials and different modification processes allows for the production of oils at the
lowest cost possible, an important aspect of food production.

4) Waste characteristics in refining

Dust: Dust is generated in materials handling and in the processing of raw materials, including
in the cleaning, screening, and crushing operations.

Waste water / effluent: For palm fruit, about 2-3 cubic meters of wastewater is generated per
metric ton of crude oil (m3 / t).

The wastewater is high in organic content, resulting in

a biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) of 20,000-35,000 milligrams per liter (mg/l)

a chemical oxygen demand (COD) of 30,000-60,000 mg/I.
high in dissolved solids (10,000 mg/l),
oil and fat residues (5,000-10,000 mg/l),
organic nitrogen (500-800 mg/l),
ash residues (4,000- to 5,000 mg/l).

Seed dressing and edible fat and oil processing generate approximately 10-25 m3 of wastewater
per metric ton (t) of product.

Most of the solid wastes (0.7-0.8 t/t of raw material), which are mainly of vegetable origin, can
be processed into by-products or used as fuel.

Molds may be found on peanut kernels, and aflatoxins may be present.

5) Pollution Prevention and Control

Good pollution prevention practices in the industry focus on the following main areas
(Pollution Reduction Targets);

Prevent the formation of molds on edible materials by controlling and monitoring air
Use citric acid instead of phosphoric acid, where feasible, in degumming operations.
Where appropriate, give preference to physical refining rather than chemical refining of
crude oil, as active clay has a lower environmental impact than the chemicals generally
Reduce product losses through better production control.
Maintain volatile organic compounds (VOCs) well below explosive limits. Hexane should
be below 150 mg/m3 of air (its explosive limit is 42,000 mg/m3).
Provide dust extractors to maintain a clean workplace. recover product, and control air
Recover solvent vapors to minimize losses
Optimize the use of water and cleaning chemicals.
Recirculate cooling waters.
Collect waste product for use in by-products such as animal feed, where feasible
without exceeding cattle-feed quality limits.

Wastewater loads are typically 3-5 m3/t of feedstock; plant operators should aim to achieve
lower rates at the intake of the effluent treatment system. Hexane, if used, should be below 50
mg/l in wastewater. The BOD level should be less than 2.5 kg/t of product, with a target of 1-1.5

Continuous sampling and measuring of key production parameters allow production losses to
be identified and reduced, thus reducing the waste load.

Odor problems can usually be prevented through good hygiene and storage practices.
Chlorinated fluorocarbons should not be used in the refrigeration system.

6) Treatment Technologies

Pretreatment of effluents comprises screening and air flotation to remove fats and solids: it is
normally followed by biological treatment. If space is available, land treatment or pond systems
are potential treatment methods. Other possible biological treatment systems include trickling
filters, rotating biological contactors, and activated sludge treatment.

Pretreated effluents can be discharged to a municipal sewerage system, if capacity exists, with
the approval of the relevant authority. Proper circulation of air, using an extractive and cleaning
system, is normally required to maintain dust at acceptable levels. Dust control is provided by
fabric filters. Odor control is by ventilation, but scrubbing may also be required.

Regulatory/ Emissions Guidelines

Emissions levels for the design and operation of each project must be established through the
environmental assessment (EA) process on the basis of country legislation. E.g. NEMA in Kenya

The guidelines given below, present emissions levels normally acceptable to the World Bank
Group in making decisions regarding provision of World Bank Group assistance. Any deviations
from these levels must be described in the World Bank Group project documentation. The
emissions levels given here can be consistently achieved by well-designed, well-operated, and
well-maintained pollution control systems.

The guidelines are expressed as concentrations to facilitate monitoring. Dilution of air

emissions or effluents to achieve these guidelines is unacceptable.

All of the maximum levels should be achieved for at least 95% of the time that the plant or unit
is operating, to be calculated as a proportion of annual operating hours.

Air Emissions: Odor controls should be implemented where necessary to achieve acceptable
odor quality for nearby residents. Fabric filters should be used to control dust from production
units to below 50 milligrams per normal cubic meter (mg/Nm3).

Liquid Effluents: The effluent levels presented in the table below should be achieved.

Effluents from Vegetable Oil processing (milligrams per liter, except for pH and temperature)
Parameter Maximum value
pH 6-9
BOD 50
COD 250
TSS 50
Oil and grease 10
Total nitrogen 10
Temperature increase 30Ca

a. The effluent should result in a temperature increase of no more than 3 0C at the edge of the
zone where initial mixing and dilution take place. Where the zone is not defined, use 100
meters from the point of discharge.

Ambient Noise: Noise abatement measures should achieve either the levels given below or a
maximum increase in background levels of 3 decibels (measured on the A scale) [dB(A)].
Measurements are to be taken at noise receptors located outside the project property
Maximum allowable log equivalent (hourly
measurements), in dB(A)
Receptor Day (07:00 22.00) Night (22.00 07.00)

Residential, institutional, educational 55 45

Industrial, commercial 70 70

7) Monitoring and Reporting

Monitoring of the final effluent for the parameters listed above should be carried out at least
weekly, or more frequently, if the flows vary significantly.

Monitoring data should be analyzed and reviewed at regular intervals and compared with the
operating standards so that any necessary corrective actions can be taken. Records of
monitoring results should be kept in an acceptable format. The results should be reported to
the responsible authorities and relevant parties, as required.

Key Issues

The key production and control practices that will lead to compliance with emissions
requirements can be summarized as follows:

Monitor key production parameters to reduce product losses.

Prefer citric acid to phosphoric acid in degumming operations.
Give preference to physical refining over chemical refining of crude' oil, where
Hold levels of hexane, if used, below 150 mg/ m3
Design and operate the production system to achieve recommended wastewater
Recirculate cooling waters.
Collect wastes for use in by-products or as fuel.


Research on the production of the following products:

Group 1: Confectionery coatings

Group 2 - Imitation dairy products

Group 3 - peanut butter

Group 4 - vegetable ghee.

To report on second week of January.