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Energy Management (TEE 543 )

Manajemen Energi di Bangunan


Outline

Heating Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC)

Indoor Air Quality (IAC)

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Heating Ventilation and Air Conditioning
(HVAC)

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Introduction
The heating ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC)
systems in most buildings are normally the largest
consumer of energy in the building.

Source : US Energy Information Administration (EIA) Commercial Building Energy Consumption Survey 2003.

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Example of AC Construction

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Factor of Total Energy Consumed by HVAC

1. Climate
2. Type and efficiency of building envelope (Shading,
Percentage of fenestration Area, Quality of wall & roof
insulation, and Orientation of building)
3. Amount of internal heat gain requiring cooling
4. Amount of fresh air which must be introduced to the
spaces in the building
5. Amount of minimum air changes
6. Space temperature and humidity requirements for
heating and cooling
7. Types of HVAC systems selected to serve thebuilding
loads
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Factor of Total Energy Consumed by HVAC
(contd)

8. Hours of operation of the systems


9. Actual occupied hours of the building spaces
10. Mechanical equipment efficiencies
11. Distribution energy requirements
12. System thermal losses
13. Equipment condition, including cleanliness of heat
transfer elements, duct leaks, etc.

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Mechanical Equipment Efficiency

The relative efficiency of cooling equipment is usually


expressed as a coefficient of performance (COP).
Air-conditioning equipment is also commonly rated by its
energy efficiency ratio (EER) or seasonal energy
efficiency ratio (SEER).

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Kriteria Pemilihan AC Split

COP 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.0 4.0 4.0 6.0

EER 6.8 8.5 - 10 11- 14 > 14 20

KRITERIA Sangat
Buruk Baik Baik Sekali Superior
EVALUASI Buruk

CATATAN Existing (Indonesia) Market Indonesia Jepang

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Manajemen Energi (TEE 543)
HVAC System Goal

1. Provide sensible heating to each of several spaces in


the building to offset heat loss from the building
envelope.
2. Provide humidification at the system level.
3. Provide sensible and latent cooling to each of several
spaces in the building to offset heat gain from the
building envelope and internal gains (from lighting,
equipment, people).
4. Provide ventilation for each space to maintain good
ventilation effectiveness for human comfort

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HVAC System Goal (contd)

5. Provide pressurization control for the building to the


outside elements.
6. Provide outside air for the building for dilution of odors,
to makeup for building exhaust and to provide desired
indoor air quality.
7. Provide filtration of air to maintain good indoor air
quality and/or to meet specific process.
8. Provide regulation and automated control of system
components to maintain desired space temperatures as
environmental and operating conditions change.

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ECO (Energy Conservation Opportunities)
Project Interactions

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ECO (Energy Conservation Opportunities)
Project Interactions (contd)

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HVAC System Discussion

Decentralized Heating and Cooling Systems


Air Handlings and Distribution Systems
Single Duct Systems
Single Zone Systems
Multiple Zone Systems
Multizone Systems
Dual Duct Systems
Air and Water Systems and All-water Systems
Radiant Heating
Fan-coil Systems
Closed-loop Heat Pump Systems
Unit Heaters
Infrared Radiant Heating

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Relative Energy Efficiency of HVAC Systems

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Decentralized Heating and Cooling Systems

These systems have their own fans, self-contained


controls, filters, and self-contained refrigerant systems.

Vertical Self-Contained Unit Packaged Terminal Air Conditioner (PTAC)


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Decentralized Heating and Cooling Systems

Advantages :
1. The systems serve single zones; therefore,
simultaneous heating and cooling is usually
eliminated.
2. Heating or cooling can be provided to individual
zones having different operating hours than the
remainder of building zones.
3. Each building zone can have different operating
temperatures and humidity conditions, with no effect
on other zones.
4. Simple operation.

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Decentralized Heating and Cooling Systems

Disadvantages :
1. Cooling and heating equipment has a much poorer
coefficient of performance (COP) or energy efficient
ratios (EER) than central cooling or heating equipment.
2. Generally air-cooled or water cooled economizers are not
provided with this type of equipment.
3. These systems generally cannot adequately dehumidify
or filter outdoor air.
4. Normal temperature control of these systems will result in
poor space humidity control if outdoor air is introduced to
these systems.
5. These systems, which are through the wall or window
systems, provide poor ventilation effectiveness to the
space.

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Air Handlings and Distribution Systems

Systems which moderate the air temperature of the


occupied space by providing a supply of heated or
cooled air from a central source via a network of air
ducts.
The components of an all-air HVAC system include :
An air-handling unit (AHU) with a fan or fans
Heat transfer coils to preheat, heat, or cool the air
passing
Filters to clean the air
Elements to humidify the air

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Air Handlings and Distribution Systems
Illustrates of typical features in a single zone air handling
unit when an air-side economizer is used, and it identifies a
number of common air handler components.

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Air Handlings and Distribution Systems
Illustrates a constant volume terminal reheat system

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Air Handlings and Distribution Systems
Illustrates a variable volume system

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Single Duct Systems

Single duct systems can either be single zone systems


or multiple zone systems.
A single zone system : single zone of temperature
and humidity control
Multiple zone systems : multiple zones of
temperature and humidity control

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Multizone Systems

Specific type of HVAC system that is a variation of the


single-duct Constant Air Volume (CAV) reheat system.
Each zone is served by a dedicated supply duct which
connects it directly to the air handling unit.
The AHU produces warm air at a temperature of 100F
(38C) and cool air at about 55F (13C).

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Dual Duct Systems
Both cool supply air and warm supply air are produced by a
central AHU.

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Fan Coil Unit

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HVAC SYSTEM ELECTRICAL DISTRIBUTION
ENERGY

Distribution energy is the electrical energy consumed to


operate fans and pumps, with fan energy typically being
far greater than pump energy.
Fan Energy Consumption :

Where:
Hp = Horsepower
CFM = Cubic feet per minute
TSP = Total static pressure, in. w.c.

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HVAC SYSTEM ELECTRICAL DISTRIBUTION
ENERGY (contd)

Pump Energy Consumption :

Where:
Hp = Horsepower
GPM = Gallons per minute
HEAD = Flow resistance, ft. head

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Energy Recovery Technologies

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Building Automation System ECOs

1. Operating Schedule Modifications


2. Unoccupied Period Set-back and Set-up Temperatures
3. Warm-up and Cool-down Cycles

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Fault of AC Installation

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Fault of AC Installation

Outdoor unit AC diblokir

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Fault of AC Installation

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Indoor Air Quality (IAC)

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IAQ Defined

ASHRAE defines acceptable indoor air quality in its


Standard 62.1-2004 as air in which there are no known
contaminants at harmful concentrations as determined by
cognizant authorities and with which a substantial majority
(80% or more) of the people exposed do not express
dissatisfaction (underlining added for emphasis).

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Health and Comfort Issues

Example : the US OSHA regulated threshold for carbon


dioxide levels is 5,000 parts per million (ppm)
The main points are these :
1. Building occupants expect IAQ that will keep them
healthy and comfortable.
2. The threshold of indoor contaminant concentrations
needed to maintain comfort is generally well below
regulatory levels.

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IAQ Fundamentals

Mechanics of The Problem

Cause(s)

Investigation

Solutions

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IAQ Mechanics: People, Pathways, and
Pollutants

IAQ = P1 + P2 + P3
(P1) People
Engineers can design ventilation rates, filtration levels,
humidity, and temperature controls for the building that they
know will satisfy most of the people most of the time.
(P2) Pathways
VentilationInterruptions or reductions in the delivery of clean
outdoor air can result in incre.ased levels of airborne pollutants.
TemperatureVariability in indoor temperature usually does not
cause IAQ problems, although it can play a significant role in
occupants perceptions of indoor air quality.
HumidityProlonged elevated humidity in buildings can result
in mold growth.

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IAQ Mechanics: People, Pathways, and
Pollutants (contd)

FiltrationInadequate filtration can result in increased levels of


indoor airborne pollutants by ineffective cleansing of outdoor air
or inadequate removal of pollutants from indoor sources.
Air SpeedAs with temperature, air speed does not directly
cause elevations in indoor contaminant levels, but it can affect
occupants perception.
Fresh Air IntakeThe location of fresh air intakes can be
critical with regard to the ingestion of outdoor air pollutants into
the HVAC system.
Building Envelopethe building envelope (exterior walls,
windows, and roofing system) can serve as a pollutant pathway
system.

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IAQ Mechanics: People, Pathways, and
Pollutants (contd)

(P3) Pollutants
ParticulatesParticles dispersed in the air are referred to as
aerosols.
Bioaerosolsare airborne particles with a biological origin.
They include viruses, bacteria, fungal spores (mold), pollen, and
animal dander.
Gases and VaporsThe gaseous class covers airborne
chemical contaminants. They can exist as gases that are
naturally gaseous under ambient conditions.
Outdoor Air Contaminantsinclude both natural and man-
made impurities.
Indoor Air ContaminantsIndoor air pollutant sources include
people (carbon monoxide, tobacco smoke), building products
(volatile organic compounds, formaldehyde),etc.

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Control Strategies for Indoor Pollutants

Source removal : obviously the best long term


approach, as it eliminates the need (and cost) to
continually filter or ventilate the airborne pollutants.
Filtration : the best approach to cleansing airborne
particulates from the outdoor air.
Dilution ventilation : It is used when the pollutant
sources cannot be removed (such as people or some
building products). It is the most expensive control
strategy since the outdoor ventilation air needs to be
heated or cooled and dehumidified and filtered.

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IAQ Investigations

Main questions that any IAQ investigation must answer :


What is the IAQ issue of concern? What are the affected occupants
complaints?
What new or elevated contaminant sources exist?
Is the HVAC system performing as designed (ventilation, humidity,
and temperature control, pressurization)?
How are the airborne pollutants being transported to the affected
occupants area(s)?
Are these findings consistent with the occupants symptoms?
The results of the IAQ investigation :
Identify the occupants who are affected
Their location(s) in the building
The nature of their complaints/symptoms
The offending airborne pollutant(s)
Their source(s), and their route(s) of travel throughout the building.

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Reference

Doty,Steve .2009. Energy Management Handbook


Seventh Edition. USA : The Fairmont Press,Inc.
(Chapter 10 & 17)
Net Zero and Beyond by Jim Schwartz (Director Global
Strategic Marketing Johnson Controls Building
Efficiency) October 2013.

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