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EVALUATING THE EFFECTIVENESS OF USING STRATEGIC INTERVENTION

MATERIAL IN IMPROVING THE ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE IN SCIENCE


STRATEGIC INTERVENTION MATERIAL

Kristine Joan DA. Barredo


Teacher II
Tunasan Elementary School
Muntinlupa City

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION

Elementary school students are naturally curious, which makes science an ideal

subject for them to learn. Science allows students to explore their world and discover

new things. It is also an active subject, containing activities such as hands-on- labs and

experiments. This makes science well-suited to active younger children. Science is an

important part of the foundation for education for all children. (Jessica Cook, eHow)

Science teaches children necessary skills that they can use in other areas of

their lives. Kidsource.com reports, Early experiences in science help children develop

problem-solving skills and motivate them toward a lifelong interest in the natural world.

Consequently, science is included as a core element in elementary and

secondary levels despite conceptual complexity and high cost of implementation.

(Batomalaque, 2009) Another justification for the inclusion of science in school curricula

is that all citizens need to achieve a degree of scientific literacy to enable them to

participate effectively as citizens in modern societies.


Studies indicate however, that many of our Filipino learners are not attaining

functional literacy, without which they find it too difficult to meet the challenges posed by

our rapidly changing world.

BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

Students performance in the National Achievement Test shows that Science

continues to be the most difficult field of study in basic education. The results are

intended to guide the Department of Education in its efforts towards the improvement of

the quality of education in public schools and to provide appropriate intervention for the

students.

According to the Basic Education Curriculum Primer 2002, Science and Health

aims to help the Filipino child gain a functional understanding of science concepts and

principles linked with real life situations, acquire science skills as well as scientific

attitudes and values needed in solving everyday problems. These pertain to health and

sanitation, nutrition, food production, and the environment and its conservation. There is

no Science and Health for Grades I and II but simple science and health concepts which

include the childs interaction to his immediate environment are contents of

English. These concepts reinforce the sensory-perceptual activities introduced in the 8-

week ECD Curriculum. Likewise, process skills may be developed in

Makabayan subject like Sibika at Kultura. Teaching Science and Health will formally

start in Grade III using English as medium of instruction. In Grades IV-VI, more

complex study of Science concepts will be taken up in preparation for High School
work. The goal of Science is to demonstrate understanding how science, technology

and health relate to the comprehension of the environment and application of skills,

attitudes and values in solving varied life situations.

But with the problems persisting today in Philippine education system, our stand

for functional literacy to empower learners is at stake. The scarcity of teachers, poor

classrooms and dearth of instructional materials, low student achievement and

increasing number of out-of-school children hamper our learners to be active makers of

meaningful life. The Trends in Mathematics and Science Survey (TIMSS) alone which

was conducted five years ago revealed unsatisfactory results, the Philippines ranked

41st in Math and 42nd in Science out of 45 countries that were tested (Manila Times

2004). This proved that vast majority of Filipino students have performed way below par

in all national achievement tests, and below the levels of most students from other

countries in the international tests. Thus, education managers must focus on reforming

and delivering quality instruction so that the Basic Education Curriculum will not be

overwhelmed by the crisis. Students must be provided with maximum opportunities to

become functionally literate in science.

This reflects the high dropout rates of children before the start of Grade 4 (or by

age 10). Department of Education (DepEd) data show that for every 100 children who

enter Grade 1, close to 15 do not make it into Grade 2, and roughly one-quarter (24

percent) have dropped out before Grade 4.

It is for these reasons that the researcher embarks on developing strategic

intervention materials in Science for Grade 4 students that will enhance learning and
remedy the least mastered skills of the students, thus attain growth in their academic

performance.

STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

This study aimed to develop strategic intervention materials in Science that will

enhance learning and remedy the least mastered skills of the students, thus attain

growth in their academic performance.

Specifically, it attempted to answer the following questions:

1. What is the level of academic performance of the pupils based on the pre-test

and post test results using the two strategies in teaching Science:

1.1 Traditional Method

1.2 Strategic Intervention Material

2. What significant difference that exists between the pre-test and post-test

results between:

1.1 Traditional Method

1.2 Strategic Intervention Material


SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

People who work with the students should clearly understand the nature of the

learner in order to be more effective in their dealings with them and with their problems.

With these findings, it is hoped that a vivid picture of their nature, needs and aspirations

can be seen and therefore become foundations for a good teacher-student relationship.

In particular, the study is important to the following:

School Administration. The findings of the study may help them plan appropriate

interventions to fit students needs, especially to students with learning difficulty. and

provide necessary instructional aids, to uplift quality education in public schools.

Curriculum Makers. Through this study, curriculum makers may able to devise the

curriculum in strengthening the academic performance of the students to achieve quality

education.

Science Supervisors. The result of the study may serve as the catalyst in improving

instructional methods and identify the needs that caused the weakness in achieving

good scientific skill. Implementing of the strategies and other measures necessary to

obtain quality education could be devised by them.

Science Teachers. They may find the result of the study helpful in planning and

initiating appropriate strategic intervention materials in teaching Science at any learning

level inside the classroom and encourage other teachers to upgrade their methods and

techniques in the teaching-learning process.


Parents. The findings of the study may enhance parents active participation in

supporting the needs of their child and improve their relationship as supporters and

partners of the school in achieving high academic performance of their children.

Pupils. This study may be a great help to pupils. It could give them motivation on how

to cope with their difficulty and motivate them to study hard to overcome their weakness

in Science.

Future Researchers. This study may serve as valuable source of data while

conducting their studies.

POPULATION AND SAMPLING SIZE

The sample respondents of the study covered all 330 Grade Four pupils (165

males and 165 females) currently enrolled in Tunasan Elementary School during the

School Year 2011-2012. The grade four pupils were tested which consists of eight

sections. Four sections were taught using the traditional method (155 pupils) while the

remaining 4 sections were taught using the Strategic Intervention Materials (175 pupils).

The following showed the distribution of the population:

Table 2
Distribution of Population

Gr. And Sec. No. of Male No. of Female Total Teaching Method Used

Gr IV-1 21 24 45 Using S.I.M

Gr IV-2 23 21 44 Traditional Method


Gr IV-3 16 28 44 Using S.I.M

Gr IV-4 21 20 41 Traditional Method

Gr IV-5 16 25 41 Using S.I.M

Gr IV-6 16 27 43 Traditional Method

Gr IV-7 32 13 45 Using S.I.M

Gr IV-8 20 7 27 Traditional Method

DESCRIPTION OF RESPONDENTS

This study was composed of respondents from pupils who are currently enrolled

in Tunasan Elementary School. In this manner, the respondents were grouped by grade

level with eight sections. Each section had diverse qualities in terms of intellect and

scientific ability.

The sample respondents of this study covered the 330 randomly selected pupils

(165 males and 165 females) of Tunasan Elementary School enrolled during the School

Year 2010-2011.

INSTRUMENTATION

The following were the research instruments used in the study.

1. Strategic Intervention Materials

They were intervention materials which designed to help teachers provide the

students a needed support to make progress. They tried to increase and deepen their
skills, knowledge and understanding from concrete science to what is more abstract.

They gave the students the opportunity to explore their understanding and make sense

of these new scientific ideas. They helped the students what they know and understand

from the teacher to formalize their thinking. Furthermore, they were instructional

materials meant to reteach the concept (s) and skill (s) to help the learners master a

competency-based skill which they were not able to develop during classroom teaching.

Each intervention material has five parts such as the guide card, activity card,

assessment card, enrichment card and reference card. The guide card stimulated the

students interest on the topic discussed and gave a preview of what they would learn. It

presented the skill focus that mentioned the learning competency, the three subtasks or

activities and the concrete outcome or product students are expected to demonstrate or

produce. This cited the activities and challenged the learner in performing the tasks

which were competency-oriented and can be done individually or per group. The activity

card followed the guide card where it translated the focus skills in at least three

activities. It provided activities that were organized based on the sequence of the focus

skills written in the guide card and included examples to concretize the concepts,

particularly those drawn from real life experience. The activities included in the activity

allowed students to make discoveries and formulate ideas on their own, guide and

challenge their thinking and learning and use local data and situations like interacting

with people in the community. It also provided transition statements that reorganized

students accomplishments. Likewise, the intervention materials provided questions that

guided students to develop concepts and focus skills, elicited the message or meaning

that a student can take away from an activity and established the relationship between
the topic/lesson and what students already know or are familiar to them. The

assessment card provided exercises, drills or activities that allowed students to assess

their understanding of what they have learned correct errors when appropriate and

monitor their learning and use feedback about their progress. This card was formulated

icvln standard test formats to give students practice in test taking techniques. It

therefore has a separate card that includes the answer key. The enrichment card

provided activities that reinforced the content of the lesson and provided opportunities

for students to apply what they have learned to other subject areas or in new contexts. It

.also encouraged students to work independently or in a group to explore answers to

their own questions. The reference card provided reading to students. It related the

content with the students life experiences. It included a carefully and well-researched

list of resources that helped students reinforce concepts and skills that they learned. It

also included additional useful content not found in the books.

In a nutshell, the strategic intervention materials ensured alignment of activities

with the tasks/objectives, kept the activities short and simple, provided a variety of

activities to cater to the diverse learning styles; provided number of activities so that the

learner can have enough practice in developing the skill and lastly focus on the least

mastered skills, simple, easy to understand and reproduce.

2. PRE-TEST/ POST-TEST

It was a 20-items teacher-made test which was designed to measure the mastery

level of the students on the lesson chosen by the researcher. The items in the test were

analyzed and the difficulty/discrimination indices were taken to discard or reject the

item. Items which were not within the range of 0.20 to 0.80 difficulty index and 0.30 to
0.80 discrimination index were discarded and items fall within the prescribe limit were

retained. Furthermore the validated test was finalized and a pilot pretest was

administered to two groups of respondents before the experiments. The experimental

group was exposed to the use of SIM while the control group used the traditional way of

teaching. Likewise, a pretest was given to both groups before the introduction of the

lesson and a posttest after the end of the lesson. Both pretests and posttests given to

the experimental and control group were the same.

ACTION PLAN

COMP ON KE Y ST R AT E G IE S R E SOUR CE S P E R SONS T IME E X P E CT E D


E NT S IMP ROVEME NT S R E QUIR E D INVOLVE FR AME OUT P UT
1. Pupil Identify and target
Developm Targets set in MPS
pupils with minimum Performance
ent are met.
growth (slow learners) Target
Set targets for pupil Monitoring
achievement (by the Chart, Reported pupil's
end of each grading practice tests, achievement
period) Least
MTs,
Mastered Pupils test
Conduct on-the spot Science
Increase MPS in Skills, Year- performances were
tests Coordinato
Science by 10% Round measured.
r, Science
Pupil's profile, Teachers
strategic
intervention Pupils-at-risk and
Develop personalized
materials, below minimum
intervention programs
monitoring performance
for slow learners
and decreased.
evaluation
report
Activity
Pupils participation
Allow pupils to do sheets,
in science
hands-on activities to laboratory
programs
learn more materials,
MTs, increased.
Engage pupils in others
Science
meaningful scheduled Year-
Coordinato
activities that field trips, Round
Conduct educational r, Science An increased in
stimulate learning. consent form,
field trips in museums, Teachers pupil's learning
endorsement
observatories or outcomes is
from Division
science exhibits. evident.
Office and
School
DATA GATHERING PROCEDURES

Had been permitted by the School Principal, Mr. Antonio C. Gagala and the

School Science Coordinator, the researcher conducted the study in Tunasan

Elementary School. The researcher informed the School Science Coordinator, grade

chairman, and the teacher-advisers of each section.

The researcher together with other Science teachers of Tunasan Elementary

School had identified the least mastered skills in Grade Four Science and found out that

mastery level was not achieved by the students in the previous years and current year.

Thus, the researcher chose the least skill of all the least mastered in all the

competencies given by the Department of Education which was the content of the

strategic intervention material.

A pilot pretest was administered to two groups of respondents before the

experiments. The experimental group was exposed to the use of SIM while the control

group used the traditional way of teaching. Likewise, a pretest was given to both groups

before the introduction of each lesson and a posttest after the end of each lesson. Both

pretests and posttests given to the experimental and control group were the same.

The lesson in the intervention was read and studied by the students and the

researcher directed the students to learn in the context of their own personal

experiences. Furthermore, the control group was given the same lesson, same number

of contact time and rules with the experimental group. They were given the same

pretests and posttest after the treatment. And their scores in every treatment were
tallied and interpreted by the researcher to determine whether there were significant

differences on their mean scores in the pretests and posttests.

PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA

This chapter discusses the results of the study on the comparative analysis of

academic performance of pupils in Science using traditional method vs. the use of

strategic intervention material. Statistically, the problems of the study were answered by

the following data gathered by the researcher.

1. Level of academic performance of the pupils based on the pre-test and post test

results using the two strategies in teaching Science in terms of:

1.1 Traditional Method

Table 3
Results of the Pre-Test and Post-Test Results Using Traditional Method of Teaching

Grade & TRADITIONAL METHOD Learning


Section Difference
N PRE-TEST POST-TEST Level
Gr. IV-2 44 51.89 84.09 32.2 Mastery
Gr. IV-4 41 42.42 73.17 30.75 Nearing
Mastery
Gr.IV-6 43 36.82 62.02 25.2 Nearing
Mastery
Gr. IV-8 27 27.77 55.55 27.78 Nearing
Mastery
155 39.73 68.71 28.98

It could be seen from Table 3 that all of the sections in Grade Four has an MPS

increase between the pre-test and post-test results. However, only Grade IV-2 got the

Mastery Level of 84.09 % MPS among the other sections in Grade IV. Most of them got

nearing mastery and beyond the DepED Target which is 75% passing scores.
a. Using Strategic Intervention Material

Table 4
Results of the Pre-Test and Post-Test Results Using Strategic Intervention Material

Grade & USING S.I.M. Learning


Section Difference
N PRE-TEST POST-TEST Level
39.01 Mastery
Gr. IV-1 45 57.40 96.41 Level
52.15 Mastery
Gr. IV-3 44 40.65 92.80 Level
50.40 Mastery
Gr.IV-5 41 38.75 89.15 Level
56.11 Mastery
Gr.IV-7 45 31.29 87.40 Level
175 42.02 91.44 49.42

Table 4 showed evident results after Strategic Intervention Material was

implemented in teaching Science. Post-tests results got a remarkable improvement.

(49.42%) Grade IV-7 got the highest increase (56.11%). Posttests indicated that

students who were taught with material employing the causal style of discourse had

significantly better retention of facts and concepts and were superior in applying this

knowledge in problem-solving exercises. They gained mastery level of the lesson

presented.

2. Significant difference that exists between the pre-test and post-test results

between:

2.1Traditional Method

2.2 Strategic Intervention Material


Table 5

T-Test on the Significant Difference between the Pre-Test and Post-Test Results
Between Traditional Method against Strategic Intervention Material

Variable T-Value P-Value Decision Interpretation

Traditional Method VS Strategic Intervention Material

Pre-Test 0.476 0.00855 Accept Ho NS

Post-Test 8.93 0.0046 Reject Ho S

0.05 Level of Significance S= significant

NS= not significant

It could be gleaned in Table 5 that there is no significant difference in the pre-test

results between the two teaching method. This means that pupils from both groups had

the same understanding of the lesson before it was taught. But during the Post-test

periods of the two teaching method after the lesson was taught, it showed significant

difference. This means that the experimental group which used the Strategic

Intervention Material significantly better retention of facts and concepts and were

superior in applying this knowledge in problem-solving exercises.


FINDINGS, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

The researchers findings agreed with the findings of Hogan (2000) and

Woodward (2004), who found out that intervention materials contributed to better

learning of the concepts among students. Posttests and maintenance tests indicated

that students who were taught with material employing the causal style of discourse had

significantly better retention of facts and concepts and were superior in applying this

knowledge in problem-solving exercises. Furthermore, students learn best when they

can build on past experience, relate what they are learning to things that are relevant to

them, have direct "Hands-on" experience, construct their own knowledge in

collaboration with other students and faculty, and communicate their results effectively.

Findings

The study came up with the following findings:

1. There was no significant difference on the performance of the experimental group

and control group in the pretests. They were of the same level of intelligence and

mastery before they were exposed to experiment. Although there was slight difference

on their mean score, it was not that significant based on the computed t-value of 0.476

at 0.05 significance level. This attested that both groups of respondents had the same

level of mastery before an intervention was introduced to the experimental group and

conventional method to the control group.

3. There was significant difference on the performance of the experimental group in the

pretest and posttest. The difference in the mean scores of posttest and pretest of 8.93

was indeed significant. There was a positive transfer of learning in the two groups.
However, higher mean was observed from the experimental group after the

presentation of the intervention materials.

4. The strategic intervention materials were effective in mastering the competency

based skills in science based on the mean gain scores in the posttests of the

experimental and control groups.

Conclusions

In the light of the findings, the following conclusions were drawn:

1. The experimental and control groups performed at the same level before the

experiment.

3. The experimental group performed better in the posttest than the control group.

4. The strategic Intervention materials were effective in teaching competency-based

skills. There was significant difference between the mean scores in the posttests of the

experimental and control groups.

Recommendations

Based on the outcomes and implications of the study, the following are recommended:

1. Science teachers can use the strategic intervention materials made by the researcher

to re-teach the concepts and skills and help the students master the competency-based

skill

2. Seminars and in-service training should be conducted in the division level regarding

development and implementation of the strategic intervention materials in the

classroom.
3. Science teachers should develop more strategic intervention materials for the

remaining lessons which were not included in researchers SIMS.

4. Strategic intervention materials for other subjects should be made to address the

least mastered skills.

5. A similar study may be conducted covering a bigger number of respondents in

another venue.

References

Bureau of Elementary Education 2004 Annual Report. http://bee-


deped.tripod.com/bee2004annualreport

Das, R C.( 2004) Science Teaching in Schools. Sterling Publishers Private Limited

De La Cruz, Eduardo. (1990, March). Development of the Work-Text in Algebra, PCU

March 1990

Ediger, Marlow.(2005) Teaching Science Successfully, Discovery Publishing House

Garcia, Maan V.( 2003, September). Educator, Magazine for Teachers, Manila

Philippines

Llewellyn, D. (2005) Teaching High School Science Through Inquiry: A Case Study Approach
Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.

Manila Times, Tuesday, July 6, 2004. The Sorry State of RP Public Education

Manila Bulletin. (2003, September). Educators Speak. Manila Philippines

Panorama. (2004, May). Giving Quality Education to our children, Manila Philippines