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International Journal of Engineering Research ISSN:2319-6890 (online),2347-5013(print)

Volume No.6, Issue No.7, pp : 366-370 1 July 2017

Power Transformer Protection using Fuzzy Logic based Controller

Vikramsingh R. Parihar, Sagar D. Nimkar, Snehal Warudkar, Rajvi Deshmukh, Manisha Thakare
Department of EEE, PRMCEAM, Badnera- Amravati, India
Corresponding Email:

Abstract : The Power Transformer is one of the most To mitigate these problems, a number of protection criteria
expensive and important electrical equipment of a Power have been developed which support the traditional differential
Transmission System, the loss of this equipment through characteristics. They include the differential principle, direct
catastrophic failure can be very costly. To avoid this, wave shape identification, protective algorithms based on
methods and systems for monitoring and protecting of Power electromagnetic equations of the protected transformer, and
Transformers in service are being developed. Since many adaptive approaches, to name just some of the recognition
mal-operation cases of transformer differential protection techniques introduced in recent decades. The measuring units
are caused by inrush current problems and thus, the rapid of contemporary relays are also improved by the use of
discrimination of inrush current from internal fault is most Fourier methods, Kalman filtering techniques and optimal
essential to avoid the inadvertent operation of the protective state observers.
relay. Therefore, measures must be taken to ensure that the Research work in the above areas naturally focuses on a multi-
Power transformer differential relay operates precisely to criteria approach to power transformer relaying. One result of
differentiate between fault and non-fault conditions to which has been the development of a general fuzzy logic
ensure service reliability. This differential relay must based platform for a multi-criteria transformer relay that
restrain from tripping during magnetizing inrush and introduces several new artificial intelligence (AI) related
rapidly operate the tripping during internal faults. This concepts [2]. Fuzzy Logic systems (FL) are well suited for
paper presents a new relaying algorithm to enhance the fault solving various decision-making problems, especially when
detection sensitivities of conventional techniques by using the precise analytical model of the process/object to be tracked
fuzzy logic approach of MATLAB/Simulink. The proposed is not known or is very complicated (e.g. non-linear); Power
fuzzy-based relaying relies on the principle of harmonic- Transformer protection belongs to the family of tasks that can
current restraint, where the magnetizing-inrush current is be quite well carried out with use of FL based decision
characterized by large second harmonic contents that are not modules or classifiers. [3]
noticeably present in fault currents. II. Design of Fuzzy Logic Based Protective Relay
Keywords : Transmission system, fuzzy logic, internal
faults, magnetizing inrush, Power Transformer, protective 2.1 The Design Objectives
relay. The design of the fuzzy logic based protective relay is to
overcome the three main difficulties which handicap the
I. Introduction conventional differential protection. These difficulties induce
A Power Transformer is one of the important elements in the differential relay to release a false trip signal without the
power system. It is a piece of electrical equipment that needs existence of any fault. The fuzzy logic based relay makes
continuous monitoring and fast protection since it is very differential relaying very reliable by overcoming the
expensive and an essential element for a power system to following complications [15], [13]:
perform effectively. Magnetizing inrush current during initial energization,
Power transformer internal faults may cause extensive damage CTs Mismatch and saturation,
or power system instability. Thus, different transformer Transformation ratio changes due to Tap changer.
protection schemes are used to avoid interruptions of the power
supply and catastrophic losses. The tasks of protecting (even 2.2 The Design Considerations
the tasks of operating and planning) these systems can no The proposed digital differential relay is designed using a
longer be held in the traditional form because Electrical Power simulation technique in Matlab/Simulink environment. The
Systems have grown so big to meet a growing demand for aim is to protect the power transformer against internal faults
electrical power. and avert interruption due to inrush currents. This algorithm is
Protective relaying principle exhibits certain limitations in built on the principle of harmonic-current restraint, where the
applications with power transformers. This is because the magnetizing-inrush current is characterized by large harmonic
detection of a differential current does not clearly distinguish components content that are not noticeably present in fault
between internal faults and other possible conditions. This currents. Due to the saturated condition of the transformer
brings the application of Artificial Intelligence methods as an iron, the waveform of the inrush current is highly distorted.
alternative or improvement to the existing protective relaying The amplitude of the harmonics, compared with the
functions. fundamental is somewhere between 30% to 60% and the third
harmonic 10% to 30%. The other harmonics are progressively

DOI : 10.5958/2319-6890.2017.00039.3 Page 366

International Journal of Engineering Research ISSN:2319-6890 (online),2347-5013(print)
Volume No.6, Issue No.7, pp : 366-370 1 July 2017

less [4], [7], [13]. Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) is used to inrush current or an external fault, and the simulation goes
implement this approach. In general, any periodic signal f (t) back to step two to start the calculation again for the next
can be decomposed to its sine and cosine components as sample.
follows: In this algorithm the output currents of the CTS
undergo over two analytic processes, amplitude comparison
process and harmonic content calculation process.

Fig. 2.2: Matlab/Simulink Model of the proposed system

Fig. 2.1: Flow Chart of the proposed Fuzzy-based

Differential Relay Scheme

The software is implemented according to the following steps Fig. 2.3: The differential relay block contents
Step 1: Reading data from the CTs.
Step 2: Data calculation, which is given as follows;
For the amplitude calculation, if the absolute difference (|Id1
Id2|) between the CTs output currents is greater than zero, the
logic (1) takes place, which indicates the case of an inrush
current or an internal fault. Otherwise, the logic
(0) takes place, which indicates a detection of an external
In the meantime, the harmonic calculation is performed. If the
percentage value of the second harmonic amplitude is in the
range of (0.3 to 0.7) of the fundamental component amplitude,
then the logic (0) occurs, that means recognition of inrush
current. Otherwise, the logic (1) takes place, which indicates a
detection of an internal or external fault.
Step 3: Taking the final decision:
If the logic cases received from both cases (a & b) in step two
are both (1), that indicates a detection of an internal fault.
Then a trip signal is released to stop the simulation. For the
other logic options of (0, 1) means an external fault, (1, 0) Fig. 2.4: The comparator block contents
means an inrush current, or (0, 0) indicate an occurrence of an

DOI : 10.5958/2319-6890.2017.00039.3 Page 367

International Journal of Engineering Research ISSN:2319-6890 (online),2347-5013(print)
Volume No.6, Issue No.7, pp : 366-370 1 July 2017

Fig. 2.5: The amplitude comparator block contents

Fig. 2.8: Rules Aggregation from the Rule Base for the

III. Results and Tables

The results is given for different cases:
Case 1: magnetizing inrush current,
Case 2: magnetizing inrush with adding load,
Case 3: Three phase to ground fault at loaded transformer,
Case 4: Phase A to ground external fault at loaded
Other cases of different types of faults and inrush currents
such as single line to ground fault, line-to-line fault, line to
line to ground fault and three phase fault in both cases loaded
and unloaded transformer are illustrated.

Fig. 2.6: The harmonic comparator block contents

Fig. 3.1: Case 1: Inrush currents waveforms of the three

Fig. 2.7: The ratio block contents phases at the primary side of the power transformer.

DOI : 10.5958/2319-6890.2017.00039.3 Page 368

International Journal of Engineering Research ISSN:2319-6890 (online),2347-5013(print)
Volume No.6, Issue No.7, pp : 366-370 1 July 2017

Fig. 3.2: Case 1: Harmonic comparator result: the 2nd Fig. 3.5: 2nd harmonic and the fundamental component
harmonic and the fundamental component. for the 2nd case.

Fig. 3.3: Case 1: Amplitude comparator results

Fig. 3.6: Increase of phase A, B & C currents due to the
occurrence of the fault at 0.5 sec for loaded transformer

Fig. 3.4: Normal load current starts flowing at 0.3sec.

Fig. 3.7: Zoomed trip signal, trip time is around 0.57msec

DOI : 10.5958/2319-6890.2017.00039.3 Page 369

International Journal of Engineering Research ISSN:2319-6890 (online),2347-5013(print)
Volume No.6, Issue No.7, pp : 366-370 1 July 2017


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