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JOURNAL OF APPLIED BEHAVIOR ANALYSIS 1968, 1, 1-12 NUMBER I (SPRING, 1968

)

EFFECTS OF TEACHER ATTENTION ON
STUDY BEHAVIOR'
R. VANCE HALL, DIANE LUND, AND DELORIS JACKSON
UNIVERSITY OF KANSAS

The effects of contingent teacher attention on study behavior were investigated. Individual
rates of study were recorded for one first-grade and five third-grade pupils who had high
rates of disruptive or dawdling behavior. A reinforcement period (in which teacher attention
followed study behavior and non-study behaviors were ignored) resulted in sharply increased
study rates. A brief reversal of the contingency (attention occurred only after periods of
non-study behavior) again produced low rates of study. Reinstatement of teacher attention
as reinforcement for study once again markedly increased study behavior. Follow-up observa-
tions indicated that the higher study rates were maintained after the formal program
terminated.

A series of studies carried out in preschools tematic research in the application of social
by Harris, Wolf, and Baer (1964) and their col- reinforcement by teachers in the regular
leagues demonstrated the effectiveness of con- school classroom beyond the successful case
tingent teacher attention in modifying be- studies reported by Becker, Madsen, Arnold,
havior problems of preschool children. In and Thomas (1967) in which no attempt was
these studies inappropriate and/or undesir- made to evaluate the reliability of these pro-
able rates of isolate play (Allen, Hart, Buell, cedures through experimental reversals.
Harris, and Wolf, 1964), crying (Hart, Allen, The present studies analyzed experimen-
Buell, Harris, and Wolf, 1964), crawling (Har- tally the reliability with which teachers could
ris, Johnston, Kelley, and Wolf, 1964), and a modify the study behavior of children of
number of other problem behaviors were poverty-area classrooms by systematic manipu-
modified by systematically manipulating lation of contingent attention.
teacher-attention consequences of the behav-
iors. Similarly, teacher and peer attention GENERAL PROCEDURES
were manipulated by Zimmerman and Zim-
merman (1962), Patterson (1965), and Hall and Subjects and Setting
Broden (1967) to reduce problem behaviors The studies were carried out in classrooms
and increase appropriate responses of chil- of two elementary schools located in the most
dren enrolled in special classrooms. economically deprived area of Kansas City,
To date, however, there has been little sys- Kansas.2 Teachers who participated were
recommended by their principals. The teach-
'The authors wish to express appreciation to Dr. ers nominated pupils who were disruptive or
0. L. Plucker, Ted Gray, Alonzo Plough, Clarence dawdled. They were told that one or two ob-
Glasse, Carl Bruce, Natalie Barge, Lawrence Franklin,
and Audrey Jackson of the Kansas City, Kansas Public servers would come regularly to their class-
Schools and Wallace Henning, University of Kansas, rooms to record behavior rates of these pupils.
without whose cooperation and active participation
these studies would not have been possible. Special
tribute is due to Dr. Montrose M. Wolf and Dr. 2The research was carried out as part of the Juniper
Todd R. Risley for their many contributions in de- Gardens Children's Project, a program of research on
veloping research strategy and for their continuing the development of culturally deprived children and
encouragement. We are also indebted to Dr. R. L. was partially supported by the Office of Economic Op-
Schiefelbusch, Director of the Bureau of Child Re- portunity: (OEO KAN CAP 694/1, Bureau of Child
search, and administrative director of the project, who Research, Kansas University Medical Center) and the
provided essential administrative support and counsel. National Institute of Child Health and Human De-
Reprints may be obtained from R. Vance Hall, 2021 velopment: (HD-00870-(04) and HD 03144-01, Bureau
North Third St., Kansas City, Kansas 66101. of Child Research, University of Kansas).
1
2 R. VANCE HALL, DIANE LUND, and DELORIS JACKSON

EXPERIMENTAL CONDITIONS
Observation
The observers used recording sheets lined Baseline
with triple rows of squares, as shown in Fig. Rates of study were obtained for the se-
1. Each square represented an interval of 10 lected pupils. Thirty-minute observations
sec. The first row was used to record the be- were scheduled at a time each day when the
havior of the student. (The definition of pupils were to be working in their seats. In
study behavior was somewhat different for most cases observations were made two to four
each student and depended on the subject times per week. After obtaining a minimum
matter taught. Generally, study behavior was of two weeks of baseline, the students' study
defined as orientation toward the appropri- rates were presented graphically to the teach-
ate object or person: assigned course mate- ers. Then, selected studies (Hart et al., 1964;
rials, lecturing teacher, or reciting classmates, Allen et al., 1964; Hall and Broden, 1967)
as well as class participation by the student were presented to the teachers, the funda-
when requested by the teacher. Since each mentals of social reinforcement were dis-
pupil was observed during the same class pe- cussed, and a pupil was selected for system-
riod, however, the response definition was atic study.
consistent for each student throughout the
course of an experiment.) Teacher verbaliza- Reinforcement1
tions to the student were recorded in the sec- During reinforcement sessions the observer
ond row. The third row was used to record held up a small square of colored paper in a
occasions when the teacher was within a 3-ft manner not likely to be noticed by the pupil
proximity to the student. whenever the pupil was engaged in study.

SECONDS ONE MINUTE
0 0 0 0 0 0
-_ " m do m I'

N N N N IN jN N 'S S S N N S S S S IN N N N IN N NIN
T TIT I
T I I I T F

ROW 1 N Non-Study Behavior. S Study Behavior.
ROW 2 T Teacher Verbalization directed toward pupil.
ROW 3 / Teacher Proximity (Teacher within three feet).
Fig. 1. Observer recording sheet and symbol key.

These observations were made during each Upon this signal, the teacher attended to the
10-sec interval of each session. The observers child, moved to his desk, made some verbal
sat at the rear or the side of the classroom, comment, gave him a pat on the shoulder, or
and avoided eye contact or any other interac- the like. During weekly after-school sessions,
tion with pupils during observation sessions. experimenters and teachers discussed the rate
Inter-observer agreement was analyzed by of study achieved by the pupil and the effec-
having a second observer periodically make a tiveness of attention provided by the teacher,
simultaneous observation record. Agreement and made occasional adjustments in instruc-
of the two records was checked interval by tions as required.
interval. The percentage of agreement of the
records [# agreements x 100 . (# agree- Reversal
ments + # disagreements)] yielded the per- When a satisfactory rate of study had been
centage of inter-observer agreement. achieved, the observer discontinued signaling
EFFECTS OF TEACHER ATTENTION ON STUDY BEHAVIOR 3

and (as much as possible) the teacher returned INDIVIDUAL EXPERIMENTS
to her former pattern, which typically con-
sisted of attending to non-study behavior. Robbie
Robbie was chosen because he was consid-
Reinforcement2 ered a particularly disruptive pupil who
When the effect of the reversal condition studied very little. Figure 2 presents a record
had been observed, social reinforcement of of Robbie's study behavior, defined as having
study was reinstituted. When high study rates pencil on paper during 5 sec or more of the
were achieved again, the teacher continued 10-sec interval. During baseline, study behav-
reinforcement of study behavior without the ior occurred in 25% of the intervals observed
observer's signals. during the class spelling period. The behav-
iors which occupied the other 75% of his
Post Checks time included snapping rubber bands, play-
Whenever possible, periodic post-checks ing with toys from his pocket, talking and
were made through the remainder of the year laughing with peers, slowly drinking the half-
to determine whether the new levels of study pint of milk served earlier in the morning,
were being maintained. and subsequently playing with the empty
carton.
Correlated Behavioral Changes During the baseline period the teacher
Where possible, other behavioral changes, would often urge Robbie to work, put his
including teacher reports, grades, and other milk carton away, etc. In fact, 55% of the
records of academic achievement were re- teacher attention he received followed non-
corded. Because such data are difficult to study behavior. Robbie engaged in continu-
evaluate, their importance should not be un- ous study for 60 sec or more only two or three
duly stressed. times during a 30-min observation.

Robbie
100 r CUEING DISCONTINUED
0
I '
so F 0

I 0 . 0

LU
60 - I

0 I
D I
40 1 I
I
(I II I

LL
0 20 F
z
LUi 0 r
U - II '
.SI.&.L
5 10 15 20 25 30 35
POST
LUJ BASELINE REINFORCEMENTI REVERSAL REINFORCEMENT2I CHECKS
a.
SESSIONS
Fig. 2. A record of study behavior for Robbie. Post-check observations were made during the fourth, sixth, sev-
enth, twelfth, and fourteenth weeks after the completion of Reinforcement, condition.
4 R. VANCE HALL, DIANE LUND, and DELORIS JACKSON

Following baseline determination, when- dition of the experiment revealed that agree-
ever Robbie had engaged in 1 min of continu- ment of observation ranged from 89% to
ous study the observer signaled his teacher. 93%.
On this cue, the teacher approached Robbie, Robbie's teacher reported behavior changes
saying, "Very good work Robbie", "I see you correlated with his increased rate of study.
are studying", or some similar remark. She During Baseline, she reported that Robbie
discontinued giving attention for non-study did not complete written assignments. He
behaviors including those which were disrup- missed 2 of 10, 5 of 10, and 6 of 10 words on
tive to the class. three spelling tests given during Baseline. By
Figure 2 shows an increased study rate dur- the final week of Reinforcement2, she re-
ing the first day of the first reinforcement ported that he typically finished his initial
period. The study rate continued to rise assignment and then continued on to other
thereafter and was recorded in 71% of the assigned work without prompting. Disruptive
intervals during this period. behavior had diminished and it was noted
During the brief reversal period, when re- that he continued to study while he drank
inforcement of study was discontinued, the his milk and did not play with the carton
study rate dropped to a mean of 50%. How- when finished. He missed 1 of 10 words on his
ever, when reinforcement for study was rein- weekly spelling test.
stituted, Robbie's study rate again increased,
stabilizing at a rate ranging between 70% Rose
and 80% of the observation sessions. Subse- Rose was a classmate of Robbie. Baseline
quent follow-up checks made during the 14 observations were made during the math
weeks that followed (after signaling of the and/or spelling study periods. The mean rate
teacher was discontinued) indicated that of study during Baseline was 30%, fluctuating
study was being maintained at a mean rate of from 0% to 71 T. Her non-study behaviors
79%. Periodic checks made during each con- included laying her head on the desk, taking

Rose
100
0
2:
LU so
I
60
(IL
40
0
(H
LLn
20
Lii

0~ 0
5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40

llJ BASELINE REINFORCEMENTI REVERSAL REINFORCEMENT2

SESSIONS
Fig. 3. A record of study behavior for Rose.
EFFECTS OF TEACHER ATTENTION ON STUDY BEHAVIOR 5

off her shoes, talking, and being out of her forcement1, study behavior ranged between
seat. 74% and 92%, the mean rate for the entire
On the day her teacher was first to rein- period being approximately 71%. A high rate
force Rose's study behavior, Rose did not of study was maintained after the observer
study at all, and the teacher was thus unable discontinued signaling after the thirteenth re-
to provide reinforcement. Therefore, begin- inforcement session.
ning with the second reinforcement session, During the four reversal sessions, study was
the teacher attended to behavior that ap- recorded in only 29% of the intervals. How-
proximated study (e.g., getting out pencil or ever, a return to attention for study immedi-
paper, or opening her book to the correct ately increased study behavior and during the
page). Once these behaviors were reinforced, second reinforcement period study was re-
study behavior quickly followed, was in turn corded in 72% of the observed intervals. Ob-
reinforced, and had risen to 57% by the third server agreement measured under each con-
reinforcement session. dition ranged from 90% to 95%.
During the fourth session, however, study An analysis of the attention provided Rose
dropped to 25%. An analysis of the data indi- by her teacher demonstrated that it was not
cated Rose had increased in out-of-seat be- the amount of attention, but its delivery con-
havior, to have her papers checked and to ask tingent on study which produced the changes
questions. Consequently her teacher there- in this behavior. Figure 4 shows these
after ignored Rose when she approached but amounts, and the general lack of relationship
attended to her immediately if she raised her between amount of attention and experi-
hand while seated. There was an immediate mental procedures.
drop in out-of-seat behavior and a concurrent In fact these data show that when teacher
increase in study behavior. As can be seen attention occurred primarily during non-
in Fig. 3, during the last 10 sessions of Rein- study intervals there was a low rate of study.

z Rose
0 : DURING STUDY
F- 40
r I DURING NON-STUDY
z
Ld
30
F-
Li
I

I
20 a

a
a
r a
Lli a

I
*a a U
F- U * gI .

LL 10 I
*
*
*

::*U:
*
*U U
U
U
U
:
a: :
:
1l.
im

Il.
I.
0 I m
: *a
U
U
U
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:E

(I) ~I U
U : : :' I 1-

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:
U

-J 0
--MIL- M m i U|I|1
UA 'L~t m L
AR-EL -it AL
Ii
U
U
U
:I
n- - sL
5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40
REINFORCE-
BASELINE REINFORCEMENT REVERSAL MENT2
z SESSIONS
Fig. 4. A record of teacher attention for Rose.
6 R. VANCE HALL, DIANE LUND, and DELORIS JACKSON

When teacher attention occurred primarily behavior ranged from 10% to 60%, with a
during study intervals there was a higher rate mean rate of 37%, as seen in Fig. 5.
of study. Figure 4 also shows that the mean Reinforcement of study behavior was be-
rate of total teacher attention remained gun at the same time for both Ken and Rose.
relatively stable throughout the various ex- The observer used different colored cards to
perimental phases, rising somewhat in the signal when the behavior of each pupil was
Reinforcement, and Reversal phases and de- to be reinforced. Ken's study increased to a
clining to baseline levels in the Reinforce- mean rate of 71% under reinforcement con-
ment2 phase. ditions. However, during his brief reversal,
Rose's grades at the end of the baseline Ken's rate of study was again about 37%. The
phase were D in arithmetic and D in spelling. re-introduction of the reinforcement for
Her grades for the reinforcement phase of study recovered study behavior in 70% of
the experiment were C- in arithmetic and B the observed intervals. Agreement between
in spelling. observers measured during each of the con-
ditions ranged from 90% to 92%.
Ken Ken's teacher reported several correlated
Ken was one of the other 41 pupils in Rose's behavior changes. Before the experiment she
class. He had a wide range of disruptive be- had stated that he rarely, if ever, finished an
haviors including playing with toys from his assignment. His grades for the baseline pe-
pockets, rolling pencils on the floor and desk, riod included D in math, D in spelling and
and jiggling and wiggling in his seat. His U (unsatisfactory) in conduct. After rein-
teacher had tried isolating him from his forcement was instituted his teacher reported
peers, reprimanding by the principal, and a marked decrease in disruptive behavior and
spanking to control his behavior. These ef- stated, "He's getting his work done on time
forts apparently had been ineffective. Study now." Ken's report card grades subsequently

Ken
lo° r CUEING
0
5
solF
I
Lli 603

0
J
401-
(I)
LL
0
I- 20 1

z
IL 0
U 5 10 is 20 25 30

LUI BASELINE REINFORCEMENT1 REVERSAL REINFORCEMENT2
a.
SESSIONS
Fig. 5. A record of study behavior for Ken.
EFFECTS OF TEACHER ATTENTION ON STUDY BEHAVIOR 7
were C in spelling, C in arithmetic and S observer thus signaled the teacher whenever
(satisfactory) in conduct. Gary had engaged in study for six consecu-
tive 10-sec intervals, and he was attended to
Gary by the teacher only on those occasions.
Gary, a third-grade boy in another class- As shown in Fig. 6, reinforcement produced
room of 39 pupils was chosen as a subject be- a marked increase in studying. With the rise,
cause he failed to complete assignments. The almost all disruptive behavior disappeared.
course of Gary's program is shown in Fig. 5. He still talked out of turn in class but typi-
Observations made during the 30-min morn- cally to say "I know how to do it", "He's
ing math period indicated that Gary engaged wrong", "Can I do it, teacher?", "Oh, this is
in study during 43% of the 10-sec intervals easy." Gary engaged in study during approxi-
observed. Non-study behaviors included beat- mately 77% of the 10-sec intervals observed
ing his desk with a pencil, chewing and lick- during Reinforcement,.
ing pages of books, moving his chair back After the twentieth session a reversal was
and forth in unison with a classmate, bang- programmed, and the teacher was signaled
ing his chair on the floor, blowing bubbles whenever Gary engaged in non-study behav-
and making noises while drinking his milk, ior for 30 sec. When this occurred, the teacher
and punching holes in the carton so that gave Gary a reminder to get back to work.
milk flowed onto the desk. He would also No attention was given for study behavior.
gaze out the window or around the room and As can be seen, this resulted in a fluctuat-
would say "This is too hard", "Shoot, I can't ing but declining rate of study during the 30-
do this", and "How did you say to work it?" min math period. At this point it was noted
Gary had been observed to engage in ap- that Gary's rate of study was again rising, and
propriate study for 60 sec or more at least one that the teacher was in fact providing inter-
to three times during most study periods. The mittent reinforcement for study. Therefore,

Gary
100

00
60

S

40
ol 2

so

0 2

20 I a a l A L I a I a I I a a a a I I I I I aI I I6

0
I~~5 1 0 2 2 0 5 4 45
I

W ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~REVER-
REIN- POST
IUj BASELINE REINFORCEMENTI REVERSAL FOR SESSION ONLY SAL FOR FOR.
0.. ALL DAY 2 CHECKS
SESSIONS
Fig. 6. A record of study behavior for Gary. Post-check observations were made during the first, fourth, and
tenth weeks after completion of Reinforcement. condition.
8 R. VANCE HALL, DIANE LUND, and DELORIS JACKSON

on two occasions the procedures for reversal servation measured during each condition
were gone over once again in conference with ranged from 92% to 96%.
the teacher and a subsequent slow but steady
decline in study rate was achieved. There also Joan
appeared to be an increase in disruptive be- Joan, one of Gary's classmates, did not dis-
havior. The mean rate of study at this point rupt the class or bother other pupils but was
of Reversal was about 60%. selected because she dawdled. Typically, dur-
It was then noted that a more rapid re- ing arithmetic study period, she would lay
versal effect had been brought about in the her head on her desk and stare toward the
previous studies, probably because that windows or her classmates. At other times
teacher had carried out reversal procedures she would pull at or straighten her clothing,
for the entire day whereas Gary's teacher dig in her desk, pick or pull at her hair, nose
practiced reversal only during the 30-min ob- or fingernails, draw on the desk top or play
servation period. Reversal of reinforcement with her purse. During baseline her study
conditions was, therefore, extended to the en- rate was approximately 35%.
tire day. The mean rate for these sessions was During the Reinforcement, phase, after the
approximately 42%. However, resumption of observer signaled that 60 sec of continuous
reinforcement immediately recovered a study study had occurred, the teacher made com-
rate of 60% which increased as reinforcement ments such as, "That's a good girl", and often
continued. After the first day of this reinforce- tugged lightly at Joan's hair or patted her
ment phase the teacher expressed confidence shoulder. As can be seen in Fig. 7 this resulted
in being able to work without cues from the in an immediate increase in study behavior.
observer. Signaling was therefore discontin- The observer discontinued signaling after Ses-
ued without loss of effect. Periodic checks sion 20 when the teacher stated it was no
made during subsequent weeks indicated longer necessary. Though the study rate fluc-
study behavior was being maintained at a tuated in subsequent sessions it generally re-
level higher than 70%. The reliability of ob- mained higher than in Baseline. The lowest

Joan
W.
0
r
LU
0
D
I-
0
zLL
REINFORCE-
LU BASELINE REINFORCEMENT1 REVERSAL MENT2
(I
SESSIONS
Fig. 7. A record of study behavior for Joan.
EFFECTS OF TEACHER ATTENTION ON STUDY BEHAVIOR 9
rate of study came in Session 26 when Joan turbed the class by making loud noises, by
was without a pencil through the first part getting out of his seat, and by talking to other
of the session. Study was observed in 73% of students. The school counselor suggested us-
the intervals of the Reinforcement, phase. ing reinforcement techniques after counsel-
During Reversal, Joan's study rate declined ling with the pupil and teacher brought about
markedly and play with clothes, pencils, and no apparent improvement in Levi's behavior.
head on desk behaviors appeared to increase. The counselor was trained in the observa-
The mean study rate for the reversal sessions tion procedures and he obtained baseline
was approximately 43%. Reinstatement of re- rates of Levi's study and disruptive behaviors
inforcement for study, however, resulted in a during seatwork time. A second observer was
rapid return to a study rate of approximately used to supplement data gathering. During
73%. No post-checks were obtained because Baseline, Levi's rate of study was approxi-
of the close of school. Observer agreement mately 68%, ranging from 34% to 79%. An
ranged from 93% to 97%. analysis of teacher attention during baseline
Joan's arithmetic-paper grades provided in- showed that although Levi had a relatively
teresting correlated data. During Baseline a high rate of study, he received almost no
sampling of her arithmetic papers showed an teacher attention except when he was disrup-
average grade of F. During Reinforcement1 tive (i.e., made noise or other behaviors which
they averaged C. All her arithmetic papers overtly disturbed his neighbors and/or the
graded during Reversal were graded F. In teacher).
Reinforcement2 the average grade on arith- During Reinforcement, the teacher pro-
metic papers was C-. vided social reinforcement for study and, as
much as possible, ignored all disruptive be-
Levi havior. No signals were used since Levi had
Levi was a first-grade boy who was selected a relatively high study rate and the teacher
because of his disruptive behaviors. Although was confident she could carry out reinforce-
he achieved at a fairly high level, he often dis- ment without cues. Figure 8 shows that study
Levi
MO0 r
0
so F
I
0
60 -

40 -
L(I
F-
II-
0 201-
U.
0~ 0
5 10 15 20 25
REINFORCE-
BASELINE REINFORCEMENTI REVERSAL MENT2

SESSIONS
Fig. 8. A record of study behavior for Levi.
10 R. VANCE HALL, DIANE LUND, and DELORIS JACKSON

occurred in approximately 88% of the inter- ported at the conclusion of the experiment
vals of Reinforcement, and at no time went that in their opinion Levi was no longer a
below that of the highest baseline rate. A disruptive pupil.
brief reversal produced a marked decrease
in study to a mean rate of 60%. However, DISCUSSION
when reinforcement for study was reinstated
study again rose to above the baseline rate These studies indicate clearly that the con-
(approximately 85%). tingent use of teacher attention can be a
Figure 9 presents the disruptive behavior quick and effective means of developing de-
data for the four periods of the experiment. sirable classroom behavior. Effective teachers
Disruptive behavior was defined to occur have long known that casually praising de-
when Levi made noises, got out of his seat or sired behaviors and generally ignoring dis-
talked to other students and the response ap- ruptive ones can be useful procedures for
peared to be noticed by the teacher or another helping maintain good classroom discipline.
student. During Baseline the mean rate of What may appear surprising to school per-
disruptive behavior was 7%. During Rein- sonnel, however, is the degree to which stu-
forcement1 the mean rate declined to 2.2%. dent behavior responds to thoroughly system-
During the brief Reversal phase the mean atic teacher attention.
rate rose to 3.2%. In Reinforcement2 the rate One purpose of these studies was to deter-
declined to an almost negligible 0.25%. No mine whether the procedures could be car-
follow-up data were obtained because of the ried out by teachers in public school class-
close of the school year. Observer agreement rooms. Although these teachers were initially
measured under each condition was consist- unfamiliar with reinforcement principles and
ently over 80%. had had no prior experience with the pro-
The teacher and the school counselor re- cedures, they were clearly able to carry them

Levi
0 100

5 12

I WoI
LU
>
a F
a-
LU
I-
(I) 4
5
U-
0 2

zLU 0 a a I a I I a I a a a a I I a a I a I
-
a a a - a A I a

0 5 10 15 20 25
REINFORCE-
BASELIPHE REINFORCEMENTI REVERSAL MENT2

0wLU. SESSIONS
Fig. 9. A record of disruptive behavior for Levi.
EFFECTS OF TEACHER ATTENTION ON STUDY BEHAVIOR 11

out with important effect. The fact that they crease in disruptive behaviors in the class-
were carried out in crowded classrooms of room.
schools of an urban poverty area underscores Two teachers reported they were able to
this point. In such areas one would expect a utilize systematic attention to increase ap-
high incidence of disruptive behaviors and propriate study of other pupils in their class-
low interest in academic achievement, condi- rooms who were not included in these studies.
tions generally conceded to make teaching No corroborative data were collected to
and motivation for study difficult. Yet, with verify their reports. Investigation of the de-
relatively slight adjustment of the social envi- gree to which this kind of generalization oc-
ronment, it was possible to increase rates of curs should be a goal of further research,
study with comparative ease. however, since such a result would be highly
The teachers in these studies did not have desirable.
poor general control of their classrooms. Most In the first five subjects, cueing of the
of their pupils seemed to apply themselves teacher was initially used to make certain that
fairly well, although a few did not. When the teacher could discriminate when study be-
their baseline data were analyzed, it became havior was occurring. Later, cueing was dis-
clear that these pupils were in effect being continued without loss of effectiveness. In the
motivated not to study. It became apparent case of Levi, cueing was never used. Further
that for these pupils, most teacher attention research will be needed to determine how
was received during non-study intervals ra- often cueing contributes to the efficiency of
ther than when they were studying. This was the procedures.
not surprising since many of the non-study In one classroom, a teacher was unable to
behaviors were disruptive and thus seemed carry out the procedures in spite of the fact
to the teacher to require some reprimand. that the same orientation and training proc-
Several aspects of the teacher training pro- esses were used which had previously proved
gram appear worthy of mention. During successful. Although the teacher seemed sin-
baseline, as far as the teacher was concerned, cere in her efforts to reinforce study, she ob-
the primary purpose was to determine study servably continued to give a high rate of at-
rates. After baseline, a simple procedure de- tention for non-study behaviors. Observations
signed to increase those study rates was em- indicated that the teacher gave almost no
phasized (rather than the fact that the teacher praise or positive attention to any member of
had in all probability been reinforcing the the class. Virtually her entire verbal reper-
very behaviors which were causing concern). toire consisted of commands, reprimands, and
The teacher was constantly informed of the admonitions. Consequently the teacher was
results of each day's sessions and its graphed instructed to provide positive verbal rein-
outcome. These daily contacts, plus weekly forcement for appropriate behavior of all
conferences in which the procedures were dis- class members. This did result in a measur-
cussed and the teacher was praised for bring- able increase in the number of positive state-
ing about the desired behavioral changes, ments made to individuals and to the class.
may have been central to the process of a suc- According to both the teacher and the observ-
cessful study. ers, this greatly improved general classroom
The teachers readily accepted the advisa- behavior. Only slight increases in study were
bility of carrying out a brief reversal when it recorded for the two pupils for whom data
was presented as a means of testing for a were available, however, and the close of the
causal relationship between teacher attention school year prevented further manipulations.
and pupil behavior. All, however, felt reversal This failure prompted the authors to begin
sessions were aversive and were glad when developing a system for recording appropri-
they were terminated. ate behavior rates for an entire class. It also
These procedures did not seem to interfere indicates that there may be certain teachers
greatly with ongoing teaching duties. For who need different or more intensive train-
one thing they did not necessarily result in ing to carry out these procedures effectively.
more total teacher attention for a pupil. In Finally, it should be noted that the pupils
fact, the teachers had more time for construc- of this study did have at least a minimal level
tive teaching of all pupils because of the de- of proficiency in performing the academic
12 R. VANCE HALL, DIANE LUND, and DELORIS JACKSON

tasks and thus seemed to profit from the in- brain-injured children through social reinforce-
creased time they spent in study. The teachers ment. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology,
1967, 5, 463-479.
apparently assigned study tasks within the Harris, F. R., Johnston, M. K., Kelley, C. S., and Wolf,
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Hall, R. V. and Broden, M. Behavior changes in Received 8 November 1967.