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I dedicate this piece to God almighty whose unflinching support made it

possible for me to complete this report and through whose guidance I was able
to complete and succeed in my industrial training at PPMC, Ph. Zone, off
refinery road, Eleme, Port Harcourt.

I owe my profound gratitude to the almighty God who favoured me and for his
grace, mercy and protection throughout my entire period of internship. My
heartfelt gratitude goes to my parents Mr. & Mrs E.I OBANI, my siblings for
their prayers and support especially in my academic pursuit and also during

My sincere gratitude goes to the EX DeputyManager, Operations (PPMC) Engr.

Mrs. Emetuche for her guidance and assistance which contributed to the
successful completion of my training and report.

My special thanks go to my lecturers, as their lectures helped me tremendously

during the industrial training. I also want to acknowledge the efforts of Engr.
Ekwueme (superintendent. Oil Movement), Mr. Bayo (Area Chemist), the entire
Oil Movement staff, my colleagues and others too numerous to mention, may
the Almighty God bless you all.









1.1 Student industrial work experience scheme

1.2 Objectives of student industrial work experience scheme (SIWES)
1.3 Brief history of Pipelines and Product Marketing Company (PPMC)
1.4 Organizational chart of pipelines and product marketing company


2.0 Safety

2.1 Safety precautions taken in the laboratory

2.2 Composition of wastewater

2.3 Properties of wastewater

2.4 Industrial wastewater treatment

2.5 Activated sludge proccess


3.1 Modelling of system 2E line pumpstations

3.2 Port Harcourt pumpstation

3.3 Pump design

3.4 Driver selection


4.1 Oil movement

4.1.1Pumping order

4.1.2 Interface information

4.1.3 Logging down pumping activity data

4.1.4Oil movement Am operations report

4.2Steps taken before a product is pumped

4.4 PH to Aba process flow diagram on system 2E line

4.5Tank farm and storage tanks

4.5.1Containment basin
4.5.2 Types of storage tanks
5.1 problems encountered
5.2 relevance of the SIWES program

6.1 Conclusion

6.2 Recommendation

6.3 References
1.1 Pipeline systems and their characteristics
1.2 Area offices and their control depots and jetties


1.1 NNPC crude oil & products pipeline network

1.2 Dgdg
1.3 Types of pigs
1.4 Example of a multi-stage horizontal pump
1.5 Schematic diagram of an impeller and volute
1.6 Sgtdgd
1.7 Floating roof tanks in a tank farm
1.8 Fixed roof tanks


Training is a key factor in enhancing the efficiency and expertise of the

workforce, the students industrial work experience scheme (SIWES) program
prepares students for labour markets and it has become an innovative
phenomenon in human resources development and training in Nigeria.

The SIWES as one of the instrument of human resource in Nigeria has since its
inception been a welcome development in exposing students to real life working
condition. It employs concept of training as a continuous process for a workers
active life and skill acquisition as an enabling factor in achieving economic
growth and development in the country. Today, I am proud to say that I am one
of the students that has benefited greatly from the programme in 2015 and so, I
can confidently say that SIWES, in its relevance to the completion of my study,
has given me an exposure which is not just an opportunity to learn new practical
ideas but a road map to achieving greater potential in the very near future, a
potential that will be revealed in my service to the community and the nation as
a whole during my training as a microbiologist. I did my industrial training at
PPMC, Eleme Port Harcourt. I was assigned to Quality control laboratory in

Furthermore, most of the things written in this report were learnt through
careful observations, asking questions, tour visits, lectures by the staffs,
contributions and detailed documentation in the line of field work.

To provide avenue for students in institutions of higher learning to

acquire industrial skills and experience in their course of study.
To provide students with an opportunity to apply their knowledge in real
work and practice, thereby bridging the gap between theory and practice
To prepare students for the work situation they are to meet after
To make the transition from school to the world of work easier and to
enhance students contact for later job placement.
To expose students to work methods & technique in handling equipment
and machinery not available in their institutions.



Pipeline and product marketing company (PPMC) is one of the subsidiaries of

Nigerian National Petroleum Corporation (NNPC). It was created in November,
1988 with the aim of easing the distribution of petroleum products to all parts of
the country at low cost. It has five (5) area offices and twenty four (24)
petroleum depots including Port Harcourt, Kaduna and Warri refineries
acrossthe country.


Quality control (laboratory): This unit carries out all the analysis in the
laboratory and record the results obtained. It also determines if a particular
product has attained its required specification before introducing into the
The Quality control unit is in charge of analysing petroleum products and water
(effluent) that are gotten out of crude in the refinery before consumption.
Therefore I was involved in the analysis of effluent water i.e. waste water

Waste water produced by the various processes of the refinery includes

Waste water from the refinerys main production units, as well as from
the utility units.
Tank drainage.
Waste water from truck loading terminal and from the port facilities.
This water may possess undesirable constituents such as salts, trace
elements, organic compounds, pathogens e.t.c which may affect soil,
environment, public health and hygiene.


Safety simply means taking precautions before an accident occurs. Pipelines

and Products Marketing Company (PPMC) on the basis of policy will hold each
manager, supervisor and employee accountable for the safe performance of a
job and will measure their achievement in preventing occupational injuries,
illnesses and accidental losses to personnel and equipment.

Safety in PPMC is everybodys business so long as you perform your job on

any PPMC facility anywhere. The management of the company ensures that,
whether it is an employee, a short term or long term contract staff, contractor,
etc. such people are abreast with the rules, regulations and principles guiding its
operations to carry out this great tasks diligently and professionally, the
company organizes an orientation on safety for all new employees, industrial
attachs, contractors as well as visitors by the Health Safety Security and
Environment (HSE) department.

1. Sweep the laboratory in the morning and mop with detergents.

2. Wear gloves and clean the benches with disinfectant.
3. Wearing of laboratory coat is important.
4. If you are collecting samples from a tank, label the tank and sample
bottles containing sample.
5. Anytime test is performed no discussions until the procedure is over to
avoid mistakes.
6. Before leaving the lab switch off all electrical appliances.
7. Products like PMS (premium motor spirit), AGO, DPK and Effluent
water should be handled with care.

The composition of waste water depends upon the nature of area sewered, the
amount of industrial waste and the type of industries.

The typical component of waste water is water (99.9%), together with relatively
small concentration of suspended and dissolved organic and inorganic solids

Some of the organic solids contain microorganisms, many of which are

pathogenic but some are beneficial. Most pathogenic microorganisms can be
classified into the following categories:

Bacteria: Vibro cholerae, Salmonella spp., Shigella spp.,

Protozoa: Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia lambia.

Helminthes: Ascaris lumbricoides (round worm), Necor americana


Viruses: hepatitis virus.


The properties or characteristics of waste water are derived from the analysis of
the physical, chemical, biological characteristics which enables the pollution of
waste water to be quantified and also treated.


This includes the nature of suspended or dissolved solids in the liquid waste,
temperature, odour, colour and flow variation.


The gases found in raw waste water includes Nitrogen, Oxygen, Carbon
dioxide, Hydrogen sulphide, Ammonia and Methane.The measurement of
Oxygen demands is expressed in terms of:

BOD level: Biochemical Oxygen Demand is defined as the amount of oxygen

required by the microorganisms in stabilizing biologically degradable organic
matter under aerobic conditions.

COD level: This is obtained by oxidizing the waste with a boiling mixture of
chromic and sulphuric acid. This test does not give information on the fraction
of waste that can be oxidized by bacteria and the rate at which bio-oxidation
may occur.


In the presence of oxygen, aerobic bacteria convert soluble organic matter into
new cells and simple inorganic elements. The material acts as food for
organisms such as algae which have a main role in waste water treatment as
oxygen producers. Bacteria and algae are the most important organisms in waste
water treatment.


Industrial waste water treatment, covers the processes used to treat waste water
that is produced as a by- product of industrial or commercial activities. After
treatment, the treated effluent water may be reused or released to surface water
in the environment.

In the refinery, the waste water flows through a gutter leading to the community
stream, in this gutter oil beds are fixed as points to absorb oil or grease from the
water. Many oils can be recovered from open water surfaces by skimming
devices. It is a cheap and dependable way of removing oil.
The waste water from the refinery commonly contain large amount of oil and
suspended solids. Therefore, a device known as API oil- water separator which
is designed to separate oil and solids from waste water effluents

The API separator is a gravity separation device. In these the suspended solids
settles to the bottom of these separator as a sediment layer, the oil rises to the
top of the separator and the cleansed wastewater is the middle layer between the
oil layer and the solids.

1. Trash trap

2.oil retention baffles

3. flow distributors

4. Oil layer

5. slotted pipe skimmer

6. adjustable overflow weir

7. Sludge sump

8. Chain and flight scraper

A TYPICAL API oil-water separator


activated sludge is a biochemical process for treating industrial wastewater that

uses air(oxygen) and microorganisms to biologically oxidize organic pollutants,
producing a waste sludge containing the oxidized material. in general,an
activated sludge process includes:

. an aeration tank where oxygen is ingected and thoroughly mixed with waste

. a settling tank( usually referred to as clarifier) to allow the waste sludge to

settle. part of the waste sludge is recylced to the aeration tank and the remaining
waste sludge is removed for further treatment and ultimate disposal.


an aeration tank is a place where a liquid is held in order to increase the amount
of air within it. the most common uses of aeration tanks are in WASTEWATER
recovery, the higher the oxygen level the higher the speed at which the water is

There are 2main methods of aerating liquid, forcing air through the liquid or
forcing liquid through air, both methods are common.

Wastewater reclamation using an aeration tank is very common. the water is

mixedwith biological agents and then aerated, the increased oxygen promotes
the growth of the beneficial material. that material will consume unwanted
waste products held in the water finally, the beneficial material will grow due to
the increased oxygen and food which makes it easier to filter from the clean

There are 2main types of aeration tanks. When a tank has air forced through it,
it becomes shallow and wide, tanks that put water into air are usually tall and
take less ground space than other tanks, in both cases they are promoting
additional natural aeration.


Waste water, depending on its origin and the nature of the contaminants, can be
treated in intermediate units or treated directly in the refinerys Effluent
Treatment Plant.

Waste water containing acids gases and alkaline are collected from all units of
the refinery via a separate network, recycled and sent to the effluent treatment
plant for further treatment.


In addition to fixed firefighting systems, there are other firefighting appliances
readily available in case of fire outbreak. These are hose reels, water/foam
compounds, hydrants and portable hand-held fire extinguishers. On observing a
fire, the following should be done;

Raise an alarm (switch on alarm signals)

Attempt to extinguish the fire by using portable fire extinguisher, to the
minimal stage as possible.


The following are the alarm code in operation in PPMC facilities;

a) Fire Alarmone continuous blast of siren for 60 seconds.

b) All Clear signal three short blasts, each lasting for 10 seconds with 5
seconds interval.
c) Test Alarm five short blasts, each lasting for 5 seconds with 7 seconds
interval. It is sounded on Fridays at mid-day.

On hearing an alarm for an emergency situation, all personnel that are not with
the emergency crew are expected to gather at the assembly point. An assembly
point is a personnel-gatheringpoint at the blast of an emergency alarm. It is
located in front of the administrative section of PPMC area office.


Every despatcher in oil movement in PPMC must have a good general
understanding of the permit to work system and various procedures. A permit is
usually a license to perform any work on PPMC property. A permit provides
checklists of conditions, equipment and safety wears that must be satisfied prior
to starting work. The permit system is designed to help ensure that all potential
hazards have been evaluated and precautions taken to prevent accidents from
happening. A permit does not prevent an accident because it is just a piece of
paper, but it is the mannerly way the permit is handled by a qualified employee
that prevents accident.


Pigging is done in the oil field to clean the internal of pipelines of accumulated
debris and also to ascertain the condition of the pipelines in the facility. PPMC
has a pig launcher facility in its premises through which a pig can be inserted in
the mainline pipe to clean the inside of the pipe and retrieved at terminal outlet.
The pigging tools are made of several materials to suit the situation of their
planned application. Some of the pig in operation includes:

FOAM PIG: They are cylindrical shaped, made with foam covered with
rubber material. They are used in the initial stage of pigging operations to
check how free the pipeline is and to check the pig fitting that will disturb
the free movement of other solid pigs which is indicated by abrasion and
scratches on the body of the foam pig. Non-abrasion and scratches on the
pig body indicates no obstruction in the pipeline.
SCRAPPER BI-DIRECTIONAL PIG: As the name implies, they are
mainly used to scrap off waxed material from the inner surface of a
pipeline. They are normally launched after a foam pig must have
confirmed a free line.
INTELLIGENT PIG: it is a computerized piece of equipment
consisting of mainly Integrated Circuit (IC) and rays emitting and
receiving gadgets. The pig is capable of detecting the extent of corrosion
and cracks in the pipeline.
PIG LAUNCHER: It is pipeline equipment with different pigging
configurations which allows the insertion of pig into the line and
thereafter aligning the pipe to allow fluid to flow behind the pig driving it
to its destination.
Fig 1.3 Types of pigs


Desired material throughput values as well as circumstantial factors along the

pipeline route are considered in designing and locating pump stations. As with
storage tanks, pump stations require an infrastructure of their own. They require
waste handling, such as nearby sewer facilities or holding facilities for transfer
in batches to an off-site waste-handling facility. Because there are multitudes of
ways in which the desired operating conditions can be obtained and sustained,
the outfitting and location of pump stations are also often influenced by
economics, typically representing a compromise between few large-capacity
pump stations and a greater number of smaller-capacity stations. The overall
length of the pipeline (to its terminal destination) and the flexibility needed to
add or remove materials along the course of the pipeline also dictate pump
station placement. Depending on location, power may be an issue. In the event
of power failures or other significant upset conditions, pump stations are
typically equipped with sufficient emergency power generation to support
monitoring and control systems to accomplish an immediate safe
shutdown.System 2E line is 390km in length and thus need multiple pump
stations along the line to effectively move products from end to end due to its
long length. Two (2) large capacity pumps are located on system 2E line to
obtain and sustain desired operating conditions and also for effective movement
of product throughout the entire pipeline. Each of these pump stations are
strategically located at Port Harcourt and Enugu respectively. As a fluid moves
further from the pump station where it is pumped, its pressure decreases from its
initial pressure (pressure it left the pump with). Thus with the absence of a
receptive end (Depot or another pump station) on the line, the fluid farthest
from the pump will lose all its momentum and become stagnant at some point
which will oppose the pressure of the pump and cause it to damage from
overloading (same effect as pumping fluid through a closed pipe). Pumping a
product from Port Harcourt pump station to the terminal of 2E line (Makurdi
depot) will be impossiblein the sense that the product will not reach the terminal
because the pump power cant push the fluid that distance. Thus another pump
station is need at a strategic location (Enugu) to boost the low energy fluid in
the pipeline from Port Harcourt for it to reach the terminal of the line. Also, due
to the irregular terrain of the pipeline right of way (PROW) which features
elevation changes (dips and inclinations), sharp bending of the pipeline, and
other characteristics, more than one pump station is need on system 2E line to
overcome these obstacles. Lastly, since most pump stations serve as pig
launching and receiving stations, there is need for more than one pump station
on a pipeline system were this pigs can be launched to clean the pipe and
removed at the other end.


The Port Harcourt pump station contains two (2) pump houses (one for 2E line
and the other for 2EX line) each of which contains a diesel and electric driven
pumps. Two (2) meter skids (one for line 2E and the other for line 2EX), a pig
launcher facility and a sewage outlet for the disposal of waste product are also
contained in the pump station. The pump station is fully automated with a
system 2E and system 2EX control panels in its control room which are used to
operate the pumps.


Fig 1.4 Example of a multi-stage horizontal centrifugal pump

Pumps of various designs are used in crude oil and petroleum product pipelines.
Selection of pump design is based on desired efficiency as well as the physical
properties of the materials being moved, especially viscosity and specific
gravity. The pumps head pressure, or the pressure differential it can attain, is
critical for selecting pumps that are capable of moving fluids over elevation
changes. Port Harcourt pump station uses amulti-stage horizontal centrifugal
pump (electric and diesel pumps) in each pump house because less viscous and
lower specific gravity fluids (DPK, AGO, PMS) compared to crude oil are the
pumping products and also large volume of products are needed to be moved at
moderate pressure. Theses pumps consist of two main components; the impeller
and volute. The impeller is the rotating component of a centrifugal pump,
usually made of iron, steel, bronze, brass, aluminium or plastic, which transfers
energy from the motor that drives the pump to the fluid being pumped by
accelerating the fluid outwards from the centre of rotation. The velocity
achieved by the impeller transfers into pressure when the outward movement of
the fluid is confined by the pump casing. Impellers are usually short cylinders
with an open inlet (called an eye) to accept incoming fluid, vanes to push the
fluid radially, and a splined, keyed or threaded bore to accept a drive-shaft. The
volute on the other hand is the casing that receives the fluid being pumped by
the impeller, slowing down the fluid's rate of flow. A volute is a curved funnel
that increases in area as it approaches the discharge port. The volute converts
kinetic energy into pressure by reducing speed while increasing pressure,
helping to balance the hydraulic pressure on the shaft of the pump.

Fig 1.5 Schematic diagram of an impeller and volute

These multi-stage centrifugal pumps consists of a number of closed impellers

arranged in series and fixed rigidly to the shaft of the pump to make a rotating
assembly in order to achieve higher pressures at the outlets.


The component that actually provides power to the pump is referred to as the
prime mover. A wide variety of prime movers are in use, including electric
motors, gas turbines, and diesel internal combustion engines. In recent years,
most long-distance transmission pipelines have begun using electric motors or
gas turbines. Virtually any prime-mover pump design combination is possible,
with decisions resting primarily on the physical properties of the fluids being
pumped, the desired throughputs, operating pressures, and transport speeds for
the pipeline and for logistical needs such as meeting operating parameters,
availability of power or fuel for the prime mover, Initial costs, maintenance, and
compatibility with SCADA systems in use and the sensors they rely on.The Port
Harcourt pump station uses both electric driven and diesel internal combustion
engine prime mowers for its two pump houses (2E & 2EX). The electric pump
(which is the cheapest option in terms of initial cost) is the main pump used in
both pump houses because it is more efficient and requires less overhauls over
time as compared to the diesel engine pump. The diesel internal combustion
engine pump on the other hand is constantly offline and in stand-by in case the
electric driven pump develops a fault, is under maintenance or there is public
power outage, where the diesel pump is then used so as not to disrupt pumping
activities and meet operating conditions.



Oil movement department is one of the sub section under operations department
in PPMC area office Port Harcourt. Those who work in this department are
called despatchers, who answer to a superintendent that heads this sub
section, who in turn answers to the head of the operations department. The main
duty of a despatcher apart from giving the go ahead to pump a product(s) or to
stop pumping is the monitoring of the movement of a product(s) from the tank
farm where it is stored to the pump station where it is pumped and finally to the
depot were the pumped product will be received and also to monitor the
shipment of crude and products from vessels into their respective tanks and
finally monitoring the loading of these products to consumers. In order to fully
and effectively carry out his/her duties, a number of activities must be carried
out of which a few includes;

I. Preparing pumping order

II. Preparing interface information
III. Logging down pumping activity data
IV. Preparation of the oil movement operations am report


A pumping order is a paper that shows the following information;

I. The type of product to be pumped

II. The nominated tank to be pumped from
III. The batch of product to be pumped
IV. The volume of product given up for pumping
V. The time to commence pumping
VI. The depot to pump to
Any operator who reads a pumping order should know what to do without being
told so.It is the duty of a despatcher to prepare a pumping order and hand it over
to the pump station operator so that pumping activity can commence. Without
the provision of a pumping order the operator or anyone else is not authorized to
start the pumping of any product.


Product pipelines are unique, since they are typically used to transport a variety
of petroleum distillate products concurrently in a batch-wise manner. The
petroleum products jointly carried in the same pipeline are always chemically
compatible with each other, but may differ in physical properties such as
density. Some intermixing occurs at the interface of two products sequentially
introduced into the pipeline. Operating methods allow for minimizing the
interface between products. Regardless of how the commodities are separated
while in the pipeline, any mixtures of two commodities are segregated from the
rest of the flow at terminals and handled by downgrading (i.e., marketing them
as product mixtures of lower quality than the original individual products) or by
recovering and refractionating each mixture into the two original petroleum
products. In some instances, a sphere or a specially designed pig can be inserted
between batches to reduce the amount of mixing.

For the smooth movement of operations and the reception of a 100% of a

product into its tank in a depot from a pump station where it was pumped, an
interface information showing the volume of products being pumped and the
time of interface arrival must be prepared and distributed to the reception depot.
The despatcher is in charge of preparing interface information as soon as
pumping data has stabled and give it up for distribution to the reception depot.
The steps in preparing interface information are as follows;

I. Calculate the average flow rate of the product being pumped by summing
each flow rate of the product being pumped excluding the initial flowrate as
the pumping operations hasnt stabled by then and dividing the sum by the
number of flowrates added together.
II. Divide the average flowrate obtained above by the line fill of the mainline
pipe between the pumping and receiving stations to get the time of the
interface arrival at the depot.
III. Fill in a radio telex for stating the interface time, the average flowrate,
volume and type of pumped products and most importantly advising the
receiving station to start sampling for interface two (2) hours before the
interface time calculated as pipeline vandalism repairs has rendered the
pipeline capacity unreliable.
IV. Submit this telex form to the radio station where it would be transferred
through radio to the receiving depot station.


Pipelines run from a few kilometres to several hundred kilometres connecting

neighbouring states as well as geographical zones. The products pumped
through pipelines are highly explosive; therefore, pipelines are run underground
and through remote areas which makes inspecting the stretch of the pipeline at
the same time impossible and technically unwise.
The movement of product and the integrity of the pipeline can be monitored
from the data collected from pumping activity. These data like suction pressure,
discharge pressure, mainline pressure, flowrate and so on helps the despatcher
to know what is happening to the pipeline and the product it is transporting. For
instance, in the case of a leakage in the pipeline or an act of vandalism on the
pipeline, the despatcher will be aware because of the significant drop of the
mainline pressure. On the other hand, a blockage in the pipeline flow, like a
closed valve in the direction of fluid flow, will cause spike in mainline pressure,
therefore, calling the attention of the despatcher.

The pumping activity data is logged down by the despatcher in the despatcher
log sheet. It is a large piece of paper with printed headings and columns were
these data can be filled.


The Am report is an operational report prepared daily by the oil movement

despatcher to the area manager and also the manager of OMQC at NNPC
headquarters, Abuja. It is a piece of paper that shoes the following information
in details;

I. Activities on system 2E and 2EX pipelines.

II. Reception status at each depot along 2e and 2EX pipeline
III. Line fills of each system pipeline
IV. Okrika and Calabar jetty status
V. Product status at each depot on system 2E and 2EX pipelines.
VI. Crude oil status at the refinery
VII. Port Harcourt refinery plants & utility status
VIII. Water volume in each water tanks (59H, 57I, 57M and so on)
IX. Remarks
This report informs the area manager of PPMC Port Harcourt and the manager
OMQC of all activity going on in the pipelines, at the depots, refinery and Jetty
as well as other critical issues.



I. Collect depot stock report from Calabar, Aba and Port Harcourt depot
through voice (mobile phone). This stock report shows the volume of each
product in its tank, water level, loading information, reception information,
pumping information and also Calabar jetty status.
II. Collect Okrika jetty status from the jetty operator via voice.
III. Collect crude oil and PPU (power plant and utilities) status via voice.
IV. Collect water tank level from pump station operators.
V. Open the am operations excel spreadsheet template file which helps to make
some calculations like ullage, loadable stock and days sufficiency
programmed in the excel spreadsheet.
VI. Insert the data from the stock report collected earlier in the blanks available
in the columns under the required field in sheet 2 of the spreadsheet. Data
needed to input is the gross and net volumes of each products in its available
tanks. After inputting these data, the excel spreadsheet will calculate the
ullage, loadable stock and days sufficiency of each product at a depot.
VII. Move over to sheet 1 the spreadsheet and input the loaded volume and
number of trucks data in the blank space available in the column under the
required field.
VIII. Open the am operations report Microsoft word template and copy all the
tabulated data only in the excel spreadsheet sheet 1 to it under their
respective columns.
IX. Insert the pumping status, reception status, and line fill for each location to
their available required fields in the MS word template. This information can
be gotten from the despatchers log sheet.
X. Insert the jetty status, crude oil and PPU status collected earlier in their
available fields respectively.
XI. Calculate the water volume from the water level collected earlier by using
the formula below;

Where; L is the level of water in the tank at a particular time

d is the dead stock level of the tank
f is the tank factor
X. Input the water volumes of each tank calculated above in the available
required field in the MS word template.

After preparing the am report, a copy is taken to the DM operations for signing
and afterwards which several copies are made to be distributed to the area
managers office and other offices copied in the report.


I. Issue out the pumping order to the pump station operators
II. Secure the programmed/nominated tank from the refinery oil movement
III. Carry out a joint manual tank dip (refinery and PPMC oil movement)
IV. Opening of nominated tank base valve by refinery oil movement with close
supervision/confirmation by PPMC operators.
V. Open the PPMC line outside tank farm bond-wall
VI. Open the manifold valve to the booster pump
VII. Ensure booster inlet/outlet valves are open before starting booster pump.
VIII. Open mainline pump suction valve and confirm availability of enough
suction pressure (read the pressure gauge promptly).
IX. Prime the mainline pump to expel air
X. Open the PCV (pressure control valve) (10-15% for a start)
XI. Open the discharge of mainline pump as it is in the case of 2E MPI
XII. Start the mainline pump upon the green light from the duty despatcher.
NB:The valves at the metering skid are expected to be left open for pressure
monitoring even when the system is inactive but confirm their positions before
kick starting the mainline pump.


I. Stop the mainline pump
II. Shut the PCV
III. Shut the discharge valve
IV. Shut the suction valve
V. Shutdown the booster pumps
VI. Shut the manifold valve to the booster and the suction/discharge valve also
VII. Shut the PPMC valve outside the bond-wall
VIII. Ask refinery oil movement to shut the tank based valve
IX. Allow tank to settle down for at least 20-30 minutes and carry out final joint
dip with refinery oil movement.


Before any product is being pumped to a certain depot, a lot of factors come to
play, with oil movement and pump station as well as the refinery working hand
in hand. A process flow diagram of a product shows the process a product
passes through from its nominated tank through a pump station where it is
pumped to a depot where it is received or another pump station respectively.

A batch of a product which can be DPK, AGO, PMS or water is selected for
pumping from its nominated tank. The product moves under gravity through the
open valve of the tank to the booster pump through its suction valve. The
booster pump (located at the refinery Area five) accelerates the flow of the
product out of its discharge valve and through the meter skid which consists of
two meter banks (primary meter bank 1 or secondary meter bank 2) and then
through the bypass valve (valve 10) to the mainline pumps. The meter bank
calculates the parameters like amperage, pressure and so on of the moving fluid
through it. The valves of the prover loop are opened and the bypass valve closed
when an operator wants to prove the readings of the meter bank in case he/she is
unsatisfied with the readings of the meter bank due to a fault it may have
developed or he/she just wants to be sure of the reading. The product is received
at the suction valve of the mainline pump1 or mainline pump2. If the mainline
pump1 (electric) is to be used, the suction valve of the MLP2 is closed and that
of the MLP1 is opened and vice versa. The product is pumped out of the
discharge valve of the selected mainline pump and through the pressure control
valve (PCV). The PCV is manipulated in order to regulate the discharge
pressure, amperage and flowrate of the moving product to its recommended
values. The fluid then flows through the PCV to Aba. The operator at Aba depot
closes the bypass valve (valve 16) to Enugu pump station so they can receive
the pumped product. The pumped product from Port Harcourt then passes
through the suction valve of the meter skid then through the meter banks which
helps Aba depot to know the volume of product they are receiving. The product
then passes through the bypass valve(valve 17) and then to the nominated
receiving tank.

If more than one product is being pumped simultaneously, as soon as the first
batch of the product to be pumped at PPMC from its tank is exhausted, the
valve of the second nominated product tank is opened. It passes through the
same process till it reaches Aba depot where the interface between the two
immiscible products is collected in a slop tank where the two products settle out
to two distinctive layers and is then separated. This switching from the leading
product tank to the slop tank to collect the interface and then to the trailing
product tank is done calculatedly so as not to contaminate the leading product
with the trailing product. After the pumping of a batch of product(s) is
successful, water is then pumped to push the product from the pipeline so all of
it can be received at the reception depot.

Storage tanks are large containers used for the storage of crude oil and its
products for short or long term before transporting it to the marketers and
finally consumers.
Tank farms are large expanses of land containing cluster of tanks arranged
together in the same area.

Most storage tanks are designed and built to the American Petroleum Institute
API 650 specifications. These tanks can have different sizes, ranging from 2
60m diameter or more. They are generally installed inside containment basin in
order to contain spills in case of rupture of the tank. Industries where storage
tanks can be founded include; petroleum producing and refining industries,
petrochemical and chemical manufacturing industries, bulk storage and transfer
operations, depot etc.


A containment basin is built around tanks and is made of bricks or concrete with
a lining that is impervious to liquid stored to prevent further spills that can cause
fire, property damage or contaminate the environment. The minimum capacity
of the basin volume should be equal to the capacity of the largest tanks plus
10% of the sum of the capacities of others. To prevent spill or other emergency,
the walls of the containment basin must be resistant to the product and must be
able to withstand considerable pressure.


Basically, there are two types of storage tanks based on their design. They are;
fixed roof tanks and floating roof tanks, others include: pressure tank, horizontal
tanks, variable vapour space tanks, liquefied natural gas (LNG) tanks etc.
For the purpose of this report, I will limit my discussion to the two major
classifications of tanks i.e. fixed roof tanks and floating roof tanks.
Fixed-roof tanks: Of currently use tank design, the fixed-roof tank is the
least expensive to construct and is generally considered the minimum
acceptable equipment for strong liquids. A typical fixed roof tank consists
of a cylindrical steel shell with a cone or dome-shaped roof that is
permanently affixed to the tank shell. Storage tanks are usually fully
welded and designed to be both liquid and vapour tight.
A breather value (pressure-vacuum value) which is commonly installed
on many fixed-roof tanks, allow the tank to operate at a slight internal
pressure or vacuum. This valve prevents the release of vapours during
only very small changes in temperature, barometer pressure or liquid
level. The emission from a fixed-roof tank can be appreciable.
Floating roof tanks: Is a storage tank is commonly used to store large
quantities of petroleum products such as crude oil or condensate. It
comprises of an open-tapped cylindrical steel shell equipped with a roof
that floats on the surface of the stored liquid. The roof rises and falls with
the liquid level in the tank.
As opposed to fixed-roof tank, there is no vapour space (ullage) in the
floating roof tank (except for very low liquid level situation). As such,
this eliminates breathing losses and greatly reduces the evaporative loss
of the stored liquid.
Fig 1.7 Floating roof tanks in a tank farm

Fig 1.8 Fixed-roof tanks

The challenges facing the pumping of products to depots include the problem of
failure of the system 2E machine and the booster pump due to excess running
and worn out of some parts. In a nut shell, the pumping machine is old and
working below its original capacity; it needs replacement as it has been serving
PPMC since the creation of PPMC. Also vandalization of pipelines by vandals
also causes a huge problem which results in wastage of the product.

Another important observation which calls for great concern is the nature and
rate of gas flaring in the refinery and how it has contributed to greenhouse effect
to the earths atmosphere. This is a result of non-utilization of the gas obtained
from crude separation after processing as fuel. This gas flare is a serious and
unnecessary contributor to climate change considering its composition of toxins
such as benzene which pollutes air and therefore renders the environment
unconducive. It is therefore recommended that various expansion project should
be made by PHRC such as the new gas turbine which will increase the capacity
of the plant to accept oil-associated gas which currently is wasted through

Furthermore, the government should strictly enforce a ban of gas flaring. In the
case of pipeline vandalism, security measures should be put in place to prevent
it occurrence. Also, the booster pump and system 2E pumping machine should
be replaced with a new one to prevent further re-occurrence of these problems.


The trainee was exposed to the outside world in areas of self-development,
safety, and the practical operations of the downstream petroleum engineering in
terms of pumping and loading of products, practical understanding of the
process flow of products between a pump station and a depot, calculation of
interface information and also reading and interpretation of pumping data.
In the course of training with PPMC, the trainee also gained knowledge in the
areas of appreciation of courses done in school, sound human relationship,
practical exposure and knowledge needed in the contemporary world of
engineering profession to boost the manpower of our country. Also, the trainee
was also privileged in familiarizing himself in handling equipment and


The industrial training has availed the trainee the opportunity of working with
and learning from skilled and experienced engineers and technologists in
various fields of engineering and technology.

As the company moulds the trainee to be competent, he was also able to make a
good impact while planning; showed competence and compliance to job
accorded to him and rendered excellent and dedicated services throughout the
period of his attachment.

The programme has provided the opportunity to see, initiate and control
practically some of the unit operations which the trainee studied theoretically in
the university, and also the challenges likely to be encountered in his career
practice in future. The training, though strenuous was really worth doing as it
was a source of experimental knowledge to the trainee.


In view of the prime benefits of SIWES and in order to maximize SIWES

potentials, it is imperative for all stakeholders to review their current
performance and improve upon it in line with the specification of the
comprehensive SIWES policy. The scheme should not be allowed to be
hijacked by over-zealous employers who see the scheme only as a source of
cheap labour. Also, institutions and coordinating agency should maintain good
relationship with the employer of labour with a view to assist the students in
placement of SIWES and students in their effort should not give up at the
instance of not finding placement or fright at the thought that he/she might not
get the knowledge intended as no knowledge ever gotten in life is lost.
There is also need for ITF to increase her sensitization programmes in order to
prepare stakeholders in advance for SIWES. Despite the challenges, the SIWES
programme is a blessing to every student. It is beneficial to the students, it
facilitates the process of tertiary education, and it completes the requirements of
the coordinating agencies and provides a productive and competent work force
for our nation.

It is based on this prime benefits to students that I say that SIWES programme
should be sustained in the national policy on education and if for any reason it is
tampered with, it should be improved upon only and never scrapped or reduced
in value.


3rd quarter 2013, NNPC pipelines magazine pg. 4, 7 & 8

Handbook on quantitative analysis of system 2E pumping machine by Audu,

Eliazar Elisha

(2008) Oil movement/ pump station handbook PHRC. Pg. 18-19