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State-Space Representation (page 8~17)

1 2

(equation of motion) 1

mu (t ) cu (t ) ku (t ) p (t ) (1)

(transfer function)(state-space
equation)(FRF)

(state equation)
(observer equation)

z(t ) Az(t ) Bu(t ) ( state equation)


(2)
y (t ) Cz(t ) Du(t ) (observer equation)

z (t ) : ( state vector ) z (t ) n
y (t ) : (output vector ) y (t ) q
u(t ) : ()(input or control vector ) u(t ) p
A : ( state matrix or system matrix) dim[ A()] n n
B : (input matrix) dim[B()] n p,
C : (output matrix) dim[C()] q n
D : ( feedthrough matrix) dim[D()] q p


1. A,B,C D
2.
(2)
3. n

4.
(1)(state variable)

z1 (t ) u (t )
z2 (t ) u (t ) z1 (t ) (3)
k c p (t ) k c p (t )
z2 (t ) u (t ) u (t ) u (t ) z1(t ) z2 (t )
m m m m m m

z(t ) Az(t ) Bp(t ) ( state equation)


(4)
y (t ) Cz(t ) Dp(t ) (observer equation)

0 1 0
z1 (t ) u (t ) u ( t )
z (t ) k c 1 p(t )
z2 (t ) u (t ) u (t )
m m m
z (t ) z (t )
A B

(5)
u (t ) 1 0 0
u (t )
y (t ) u (t ) 0 1 0 p(t )
u (t ) k u (t )
c
z (t )
1

m m m
C D

()(complex exponential) ()(Fourier transform) ()


(Laplace transform)()

z
= i A B
-1
H zp,21 () (6)
p

y
C i A B D
-1
H yp,31 () (7)
p

()(complex exponential)

p (t ) peit
z (t ) Az (t ) Bp(t )
it
i zeit Azeit Bpeit
z (t ) ze
z
i A z Bp = i A B
-1
p
p (t ) peit
y (t ) Cz (t ) Dp(t )
it
yeit Czeit Dpeit
y (t ) ye

z i A B p
-1
y C i A Bp Dp
-1

y C i A B D p C i A B D
-1 y -1
p
()(Fourier transform)


z (t ) Az (t ) Bp(t )
i z () Az () Bp()

z ()
i A z () Bp() = i A B
-1
p()

y (t ) Cz (t ) Dp(t )
y () Cz () Dp()

z i A B p ()
-1

y () C i A -1 Bp() Dp()
y ()
y () C i A B D p() C i A B D
-1 -1
p()

()(Laplace transform)


z (t ) Az (t ) Bp(t ) s z (s ) Az (s ) Bp (s )

z (s)
sI A z (s) Bp(s) = sI A B
-1
p(s )

y (t ) Cz (t ) Dp(t ) y (s) Cz (s) Dp(s)

z (s ) i A B p (s )
-1

y (s ) C sI A -1 Bp(s) Dp(s)
y (s ) C sI A B D p (s )
y (s)
C sI A B D
-1 -1
p(s )

base motion( 2)
(relative)

mw(t ) cw(t ) kw(t ) mz (t ) (8)

( y )

0 1
w(t ) w(t ) 0
z (t ) k c z(t )
w(t ) w(t ) 1
m m
z (t ) z (t ) B
A

(9)
w(t ) 1 0 0 w(t ) 1 0 0
w(t ) w(t )
y (t ) w(t ) 0 1 0 z(t ) y (t ) w(t ) 0 1 0 z(t )
c
w(t ) k w(t ) u (t ) k w(t ) 0
1 c
z (t ) z (t )
m m D m m D
C C
(absolute)

mu (t ) cu (t ) ku (t ) cz (t ) kz (t ) (10)

( y )

0 1 0 0
u (t ) u (t ) z (t )
z (t ) k c k c
u (t ) u (t ) z (t )
m m m m
z (t ) z (t )
A B

u (t ) 1 0 0 0
u (t ) z (t )
y (t ) u (t ) 0 1 0 0
u (t ) k c u (t ) k z (t )
z (t )
c

m m m m
C D

w(t ) 1 0 1 0
u (t ) z (t )
y (t ) w(t ) 0 1 0 1
u (t ) k u (t ) z (t )
c
z (t )
k c
(11)
m m m m
C D