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Waste Management 55 (2016) 238248

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Leachates draining from controlled municipal solid waste landfill:

Detailed geochemical characterization and toxicity tests
Bienvenu K. Mavakala a, Sverine Le Faucheur b, Crispin K. Mulaji a, Amandine Laffite b,
Naresh Devarajan b, Emmanuel M. Biey c, Gregory Giuliani d, Jean-Paul Otamonga e,
Prosper Kabatusuila e, Pius T. Mpiana a, John Pot a,b,e,
University of Kinshasa (UNIKIN), Faculty of Science, Department of Chemistry, B.P. 190, Kinshasa XI, Democratic Republic of the Congo
Faculty of Science, F.-A. Forel Institute and Institute of Environmental Sciences, University of Geneva, 66, Boulevard Carl-Vogt, CH 1205 Geneva, Switzerland
University of Kinshasa (UNIKIN), Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Sciences, B.P. 190, Kinshasa XI, Democratic Republic of the Congo
University of Geneva, Institute for Environmental Sciences, enviroSPACE Lab., Uni Carl-Vogt, 66 Boulevard Carl-Vogt, CH 1205 Geneva, Switzerland
Universit Pdagogique Nationale (UPN), Croisement Route de Matadi et Avenue de la Libration, Quartier Binza/UPN, B.P. 8815, Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of the Congo

a r t i c l e i n f o a b s t r a c t

Article history: Management of municipal solid wastes in many countries consists of waste disposal into landfill without
Received 22 December 2015 treatment or selective collection of solid waste fractions including plastics, paper, glass, metals, electronic
Revised 22 April 2016 waste, and organic fraction leading to the unsolved problem of contamination of numerous ecosystems
Accepted 26 April 2016
such as air, soil, surface, and ground water. Knowledge of leachate composition is critical in risk assess-
Available online 10 May 2016
ment of long-term impact of landfills on human health and the environment as well as for prevention of
negative outcomes. The research presented in this paper investigates the seasonal variation of draining
leachate composition and resulting toxicity as well as the contamination status of soil/sediment from
Municipal solid waste
Landfill leachate
lagoon basins receiving leachates from landfill in Mpasa, a suburb of Kinshasa in the Democratic
Tropical conditions Republic of the Congo. Samples were collected during the dry and rainy seasons and analyzed for pH,
Toxic metals electrical conductivity, dissolved oxygen, soluble ions, toxic metals, and were then subjected to toxicity
Ecotoxicity test tests. Results highlight the significant seasonal difference in leachate physicochemical composition.
Risk assessment Affected soil/sediment showed higher values for toxic metals than leachates, indicating the possibility
of using lagoon system for the purification of landfill leachates, especially for organic matter and heavy
metal sedimentation. However, the ecotoxicity tests demonstrated that leachates are still a significant
source of toxicity for terrestrial and benthic organisms. Therefore, landfill leachates should not be dis-
carded into the environment (soil or surface water) without prior treatment. Interest in the use of macro-
phytes in lagoon system is growing and toxic metal retention in lagoon basin receiving systems needs to
be fully investigated in the future. This study presents useful tools for evaluating landfill leachate quality
and risk in lagoon systems which can be applied to similar environmental compartments.
2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

1. Introduction 2014; Wijesekara et al., 2014). Consequently, landfill leachates

may contain several types of contaminants including toxic metals,
Management of municipal solid waste (MSW) is a problem in persistent organic pollutants, pathogenic organisms, and pharma-
many parts of the world and can pose risks to human health and ceutical drugs which can cause major environmental concerns
the environment in both industrialized and developing countries. and risks to human health (Kjeldsen et al., 2002; Huang et al.,
In many countries landfills are considered to be disposal sites for 2009).
solid and liquid wastes from municipal refuse collection, commer- Uncontrolled urban landfills, hospital effluents, and urban run-
cial activities, hospitals, hazardous mining, energy generation resi- off in most developing countries represent a significant source of
dues, and industry (Augustin and Viero, 2012; Cutruneo et al., toxic elements in the aquatic environment because the effluents
are discharged into drainage systems, rivers, and lakes without
prior treatment and then accumulate in sediments, which can have
Corresponding author at: University of Geneva, Faculty of Sciences, Earth and serious environmental effects and threaten human health
Environmental Sciences, 66, Boulevard Carl-Vogt, CH 1205 Geneva, Switzerland. (Pritchard et al., 2008; Mubedi et al., 2013; Atibu et al., 2013;
E-mail address: (J. Pot).
0956-053X/ 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
B.K. Mavakala et al. / Waste Management 55 (2016) 238248 239

Mwanamoki et al., 2015). The main risk is posed by accumulation bottom, 4 m deep) and each is composed of a sloping bottom with
of toxic substances in soils, input into surface water by runoff, PVC pipes perforated to drain fluid from the percolation of rainwa-
accumulating in sediment receiving systems and living organisms ter through the mass of garbage and inclined walls covered with
as well as infiltrating into groundwater followed by remobilization geomembrane (plastic film) (Fig. 1). The polyethylene pipes in
of the contaminants and their return to the food chain (Wildi et al., the draining system leachate collection have a diameter of
2004; Pot et al., 2008; Ngelinkoto et al., 2014). One way of 110 mm with a flow rate of 7.2 m3/day in the rainy season. The
preventing the potential risks of landfill to the surrounding envi- landfill leachates are collected via a draining system and stored
ronment is to practice selective collection of the different fractions in three lagoon basins (receiving system) interconnected by pipes.
of urban solid wastes such as plastics, paper, glass, metals, elec- The leachate residence time is 50 days for the first lagoon basin
tronic wastes, and organic fraction favoring reuse of recycled mate- and 40 days for the second and third. No appropriate treatment
rials from the different fractions and only disposing of unrecycled is performed for leachate from landfill. Lastly, there is an experi-
materials in landfill. Therefore, as receiving systems are affected by mentation using macrophytes planted in the second and third
contaminated leachates, analyses of contaminants such as toxic lagoon basins for possible metal bioaccumulation (Fig. 2A). How-
hazardous elements as well as sediment toxicity are important ever to date no result is available from this experimentation.
for understanding and prevention of further risks (Kjeldsen et al.,
2002; Mantis et al., 2005; Melnyk et al., 2014). 2.2. Landfill leachates and soil/sediment collection
Kinshasa is the capital and largest city of the Democratic Repub-
lic of the Congo (DRC) and has an estimated population of more Leachate and soil/sediment samples were collected between
than 10 million. In the two decades up to the time of writing the May and August 2014 (dry season) and from January to April
largest cities in the DRC have been characterized by rapid increases 2015 (rainy season) with leachates being collected during each
in urbanization and industrialization which constitute the greatest season from: (i) B0 (n = 3): directly from the outlet pipe discharge
problem of environmental compartment pollution by toxic metals into the first basin; (ii) B1 (n = 9): basin-1, surface area of
and pathogenic organisms (Mwanamoki et al., 2014a,b, 2015). 1080.86 m2 (water depth 1 m maximum during the dry season
Municipal and industrial waste management systems are very sample collection); (iii) B2 (n = 9): basin-2, surface area
limited and it is very difficult to estimate what exactly the waste 504.40 m2, water depth 0.5 m; and (iv) B3 (n = 9): basin-3, surface
production rate is. MSW production rate is variously estimated at area 541.61 m2, water depth 0.5 m. The frequency of leachate sam-
0.51 kg/person/day depending on the standard of living (Parau, pling from each basin was three times per month/season, that is, at
2015). Public spaces and urban rivers are customarily considered the beginning (first week), in the middle (at the end of second
as possible landfill sites (Mwanamoki et al., 2015; Tshibanda week), and during the last week of each month. The sediment sam-
et al., 2014). Moreover, there is a controlled municipal landfill in ples labeled AS1 (n = 9), AS2 (n = 4), and AS3 (n = 4) were respec-
Mpasa which has been in operation since the year 2010. tively collected manually (Fig. 2B) from basins B1, B2, and B3.
Little information is available on the assessment of contami- The number of samples collected from lagoon basins was deter-
nants or about ecotoxicological aspects of landfill leachates in mined according to the dimension and form of lagoon basin
receiving systems in developing countries (under tropical condi- (Fig. 1). Water and sediment were sampled from the same points.
tions). Consequently, there is little data regarding the characteriza- Water samples (250 mL sealed in sterile plastic bottles) were trip-
tion of both leachates and soil/sediment from lagoon basins licated from each sampling point, and retrieved at 1050 cm water
receiving draining leachates under tropical condition in developing depth and a maximum of 1 m from the shore. Approximately 100
countries. The aim of the research presented in this paper was to 250 gr of sediment were also taken from each point in triplicate.
assess the quality of leachates draining from the Mpasa landfill The soil sampling point ES1 located outside the landfill was used
and stored in the receiving system (lagoon basins receiving drain- as control as it has no contact with waste and landfill leachates.
ing leachates). The assessment is based on (i) the physicochemical Samples were collected in triplicate and the sampling distance
characterization of leachates including pH, electrical conductivity, between each replicate in the lagoon basins was approximately
dissolved oxygen, soluble ions, and toxic metal content (Cr, Co, 15 cm.
Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Cd, Pb) according to seasonal variation, (ii) evalua- Once collected, samples were stored at 4 C and transported to
tion of the pollution status of soil/sediment from lagoon basins the analytical platform of the University of Geneva for analysis
by determination of enrichment factor (EF) and the geoaccumula- within 72 h.
tion index (Igeo), and (iii) leachate and soil/sediment ecotoxicolog-
ical analysis in order to evaluate potential environmental risks.
2.3. Leachate physicochemical analysis

2. Materials and methods Physicochemical parameters of leachates including tempera-

ture (T), pH, dissolved oxygen (O2) and electrical conductivity
2.1. Study site description (EC) were measured in situ using a Multi 350i (WTW, Germany).
The dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and total organic carbon
The Mpasa landfill (named CET) is an exceptional active and (TOC) measurements were performed using Shimadzu High Tem-
controlled landfill site in Kinshasa City (capital of the Democratic perature Total Organic Carbon Analyser (5000 GmbH, Switzerland)
Republic of Congo) which mainly serves 9 of the 24 communes on acidified samples (200 lL of 2 M HCl in 30 mL samples). The
(municipalities) of Kinshasa. The landfill activity started in May concentration of dissolved ions, cations (Na+, K+, Mg2+, Ca2+) and
2010. The CET is located about 35 km from Kinshasa city center anions (Cl, SO2  
4 , NO3 , NO2 ) was measured using Ion Chromatog-
(Latitude 4220 0400 South-west and Longitude 15320 0800 ) and raphy (Dionex ICS-3000, Canada) according to the method
extends over an area of 135 ha of which 50 ha have been used to described by Graham et al. (2014). The reference material (certified
date. The site has a capacity of 7,000,000 m3 for disposal of domes- water CRM, Ontario-99) from the National Water Research Insti-
tic and commercial waste at an average of 420,000 tons per year tute, Canada was used to verify the accuracy of the instrument.
(Parau, 2015). The landfill is composed of inverted trapezoidal All CRM results were within the acceptance range on the CRM
compartments (30 m high base, 14 m small base which forms the certificate.
240 B.K. Mavakala et al. / Waste Management 55 (2016) 238248

Fig. 1. Study site of Mpasa landfill location map (adapted from Google Maps Data). A: Africa outline, Democratic Republic of Congo marked in red. B: Map of Democratic
Republic of the Congo approximate location of study area marked in red (the City of Kinshasa). C: Location map of Mpasa landfill. D: Preparation of dumping sites at Mpasa
landfill. E and F: Landfill leachate residual in lagoon ponds during dry and rainy season respectively (photos taken by Bienvenu Mavakala, E in July 2014 and F in February
2015). G: B1, B2 and B3, lagoon pond receiving systems (blue dots represent sediment and leachate sampling point. (For interpretation of the references to color in this figure
legend, the reader is referred to the web version of this article.)

Fig. 2. A: Experimentation test for phytoremediation of metals in leachate using macrophytes; B: Technic performed for sediment sampling from lagoon ponds (basins); C:
Uncontrolled landfill near Ndjili River, Kinshasa; D: Pump of leachate evacuation from basins and discarding into the environment without treatment. (A, B, D photos taken
by Crispin Mulaji in June 2015 and C photo taken by John Pot in June 2014.)
B.K. Mavakala et al. / Waste Management 55 (2016) 238248 241

2.4. Sediment grain size, organic matter and total phosphorous nized and weighted according to the manufacturers instructions.
analysis In brief, benthic Ostracod crustacean (Heterocypris incongruens)
cysts were hatched in standard fresh water at 25 C with perma-
The particle grain size was measured with a laser Coulter LS- nent illumination (approximately 30004000 lx) 54 h before the
100 diffractometer (Beckman Coulter, Fullerton, CA, USA), following tests. Neonates were placed in test wells after the initial measure-
5-min ultrasonic dispersal in de-ionized water according to the ment for length. Each test well consisted of 1 mL test sediment,
method described by Loizeau et al. (1994). Sedimentary organic 2 ml standard fresh water, 2 ml algal food suspension and ca. 10
matter content was estimated from loss on ignition at 550 C for living Ostracods. Test plates containing 6 wells were sealed with
1 h in a Salvis oven (AG Emmenbrcke, Luzern, Switzerland). Total parafilm, covered with a lid, and incubated at 25 C in the dark
phosphorus concentration (TP) was measured with a spectropho- for 6 days. At the end of the test, the mortality (%) of the organisms
tometer (Helios Gamma UVVis Thermo Electroporation, Thermo was determined using the formula % Mortality = B/A 100, where
scientific, USA) at 850 nm. 50 mg of dry sediments was diluted in B = total number of dead Ostracods and A = total number of Ostra-
5 mL HCl 1 N and introduced in centrifuge tubes. The mixture cods added to the test plate. In addition, the length of the surviving
was ultrasonicated at ambient temperature for 16 h and cen- Ostracods was measured using a micrometric strip placed at the
trifuged (4000 rpm) for 20 min. The supernatants were mineralized bottom of the glass microscope plate. Growth Inhibition was calcu-
for 45 min at 130 C after addition of K2S2O8 solution (5%). TP con- lated using the following formula (Oleszczuk, 2007):
centration was performed by measuring the absorbance of the blue
complex obtained after reduction of molybdophosphoric acid
Growth inhibition % 100  growth in test sediment=
according to the method described by Pot et al. (2008). growth in reference sediment  100

2.5. Metal analysis in leachate and sediment samples

2.7. Toxicity assessment of the leachate samples
The concentration of metals (Cr, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Cd and Pb) in
Acute toxicity bioassays were performed on leachate samples
landfill leachate was determined using the method described pre-
using the Rapidtoxkit test provided by Microbiotest Inc. (Belgium).
viously by Chai et al. (2007). Briefly, 5 mL of landfill leachate,
That test uses the particle uptake inhibition of the crustacean larvae
0.7 mL of 65% HNO3 and 0.1 mL of 30% H2O2 were added to the ves-
Thamnocephalus platyurus as a toxicity endpoint. Prior to exposure
sel and incubated overnight at 100 C. Digestion mixture was fil-
experiments, the crustacean cysts were hatched in 10 mL of stan-
tered through a 0.45 lm membrane (Millipore, Darmstadt,
dard freshwater (moderately hard EPA medium) in controlled con-
Germany) and used for further analysis after appropriate dilution.
ditions of temperature (25 C) and light (4000 lx). After 42 h, the
For soil/sediment samples, around 1015 mg of lyophilized and
larvae were exposed to the leachate samples w/o dilution and
homogenized powder samples was completely digested with pure
diluted by 10, 100 and 1000 with the standard medium. After 1 h
acids in Teflon bombs and a glass ceramic hotplate. The procedure
exposure, 200 lL of a concentrated red bead solution was added
involves three heating steps followed by evaporation with (i) 1 mL
to the exposure media and left in contact with T. platyurus for
HNO3 (suprapur, 65%), (ii) a mixture of 0.5 mL of HClO4 (suprapur,
30 min. The microorganisms were then fixed and examined using
70%) with 0.5 mL HF (suprapur, 40%) and (iii) one additional treat-
a stereomicroscope for the number of total exposed organisms
ment with 0.5 mL of HNO3 (suprapur, 65%). The samples were com-
(Ntot) and the number of organisms, which had ingested the given
pletely evaporated between each step, and finally diluted to 10 mL
red beads (Nred). The percentage of stressed organisms (Nstress) in
with 1% HNO3 solution for the measurement (Thevenon et al.,
each treatment were then calculated using the following formula:
2012). Digested samples were subjected to analysis by Inductive
Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectroscopy (Agilent 7700x series ICP-MS N red  100
developed for complex matrix analysis, Santa Clara, CA, USA). A %Nstress
collision/reaction cell (Helium mode) and interference equations
were utilized to remove spectral interferences that might other- and the percentage of particle uptake inhibition (%I) was calculated
wise bias results. Multi-element standard solutions at different using the following equation:
concentrations (0, 0.02, 1, 5, 20, 100 and 200 lg L1) were used %Ic  %It
for calibration. The certified reference materials LKSD-2, STSD-2, %I
SLRS-3 were used for sediment, soil and leachate analysis, respec-
tively in order to verify the sensibility of the instrument and the with
reliability of the results. Metal concentrations in soil/sediment % Ic: percentage of stressed organisms in the control
samples were expressed in mg kg1 dry soil/sediment and lg L1 % It: percentage of stressed organisms in the treatment
for leachate samples. Standard deviations of three replicate mea-
surements were below 5%, and chemical blanks for the procedure 2.8. Enrichment factor (EF) and Geoaccumulation index (Igeo)
were less than 1% of the sample signal.
Total Hg analysis in sediment samples was carried out using the The enrichment factor (EF) and geoaccumulation index (Igeo) in
Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS) for mercury determi- soil/sediment samples were calculated as described by Maanan
nation (Advanced Mercury Analyser; AMA 254, Altec s.r.l., Czech et al. (2004), Varol et al. (2011), Thevenon et al. (2012, 2013) and
Rep.) following the method described by Hall and Pelchat (1997) Mwanamoki et al. (2015).
and Ross-Barraclough et al. (2002). The method is based on sample The enrichment factor (EF) is calculated using the following
combustion, gold amalgamation, and AAS. The detection limit (3 SD equation, and Scandium (Sc) was used for normalization according
blank) was 0.005 mg kg1 and the reproducibility better than 5%. to our previous study performed in the region (Mwanamoki et al.,
2.6. Toxicity assessment in soil/sediment samples
EF Metal=Sc Sample=Metal=Sc Background
TK36-Ostracodtoxkit F (MicroBio Tests Inc., Belgium) was used EF: Enrichment factor
to perform sediment toxicity test, following manufacturers recom- Metal: Concentration of metal in analyzed samples
mendations. Before analysis, the sediment samples were homoge- Sc: Concentration of Scandium in analyzed samples
242 B.K. Mavakala et al. / Waste Management 55 (2016) 238248

The geoaccumulation index (Igeo) is defined by the following ranged from 25.2 to 29.6 C (T), 7.8 to 8.7 (pH), and 0.20 to
equation: 0.36 mg L1 (O2) while rainy season values ranged from 12.6 to
19, 1 C (T), 6.7 to 12.3 (pH), and 0.25 to 0.61 mg L1 (O2). The
Igeo Log2 Cn =1:5Bn values of electrical conductivity ranged from 19.8 to 27.4 mS/cm
Cn = Concentration of metals (n) examined in the sediment during the dry season and from 0.147.70 mS/cm during the rainy
samples season. Leachates are characterized by highly variable concentra-
Bn = Concentration of the metal (n) geochemical background tions of dissolved ions according to the seasons. For example, the
1.5 = Lithospheric effect background correlation matrix factor concentration of Na+, K+, NO 2
3 , and SO4 during the dry season ran-
ged from 3440 to 4740, 7140 to 7880, 140 to 400, and 460 to
These values were calculated using the metal mean and litho- 680 mg L1, respectively. On the other hand, the rainy season
genic background values (Mwanamoki et al., 2015). values observed were 29806420, 11248320, 142460, and
27003724 mg L1, respectively. These results indicate that
dissolved ion concentrations in leachates are higher during the
2.9. Statistical analysis rainy season than those observed during the dry season, which is
probably explained by rainwater percolation.
All analyses were conducted in triplicate for each set of condi- Metal concentration in leachate samples is reported in Table 2.
tions. Data were analyzed descriptively by means of t-test analysis, Metal concentration (in lg L1) during the dry season varied from
with a significance level difference set at P < 0.05. Two way ANOVA 721.1886.3, 26.448.8, 31.738.4, 2.93.4, 6.36.9, and 1.82.8
statistical analysis was done to compare the obtained data during for Fe, Zn, Cr, Cu, Co, and Pb, respectively. The values (in lg L1)
different sampling periods. A confidence level a of 0.05 was cho- during the rainy season varied from 1519.33380.4, 570.6714.2,
sen. The statistical treatment of the data has been realized using 9.3169.8, 316.4461.2, 0.862.2, and 70.587.2 for Fe, Zn, Cr,
SigmaStat 11.0 (Systat Software, Inc., USA). Cu, Co, and Pb, respectively. These results demonstrate that these
metal concentrations in landfill leachates during the rainy season
3. Results and discussion were 2040 times higher than those in the dry season. The concen-
tration for other metals (Sc, Mn, Ni, As, Mo, Ag, Cd, Sn, and Sb) in
3.1. Physicochemical parameters and metal content in leachate leachate was also higher during the rainy season than in the dry
samples season (but less than 20 times). A few studies carried out in similar
environments have demonstrated that leachate parameters
The physicochemical composition of landfill leachate according fluctuate according to seasonal variation and have demonstrated
to seasonal variation is reported in Table 1. The leachate from out- that total Cu and Zn concentrations during the rainy season are
let pipe as well as stored in lagoon basins (ponds) is characterized respectively approximately 10 and 30 times higher than those in
by a blackish color (Fig. 2B) and unpleasant odor. Dry season values the dry period (e.g. Tsarpali et al., 2012). It has been reported that

Table 1
Average values of physicochemical parameters and dissolved ions of leachates from Mpasa landfill according to the seasonsa. Errors are presented as SD.

Parameter B0 B1 B2 B3
Dry season (MayAugust 2014)
T C 29.6 0.2 29.5 0.3 26.8 1.14 25.2 0.1
pH 7.8 0.1 7.9 0.1 8.7 0.1 8.7 0.1
EC (mS/cm) 27.4 0.9 26.6 1.1 20.9 0.8 19.8 0.7
O2 (mg/L) 0.36 0.01 0.20 0.10 0.22 0.10 0.23 0.10
Na+ (mg/L) 4600 116 4740 128 4640 125 3440 120
K+ (mg/L) 7140 193 7700 208 7880 213 7680 207
Ca2+ (mg/L) n/a n/a n/a n/a
Mg2+ (mg/L) n/a 300 8 220 6 n/a
NO 3 (mg/L) 140 6 160 7 400 17 200 8
NO 2 (mg/L) 80 3 n/a 260 11 n/a
4 (mg/L) 680 27 640 27 460 19 500 21
Cl (mg/L) 5640 237 5940 249 5860 246 5720 240
DOC (mg/L) 12,395 1066 11,286 971 9365 805 6981 600
TOC (mg/L) 19,476 1675 18,469 1588 15,869 1365 11,759 1011
Rainy season (JanuaryApril 2015)
T C 19.1 0.7 14.9 0.1 18.8 0.8 12.6 1.6
pH 12.3 0.0 7.9 0.0 9.8 0.1 6.7 0.0
EC (mS/cm) 7.7 0.1 6.9 0.7 6.1 0.1 0.14 0.00
O2 (mg/L) 0.61 0.01 0.45 0.02 0.28 0.03 0.25 0.03
Na+ (mg/L) 6420 173 5940 160 3260 88 2980 80
K+ (mg/L) 8320 225 1368 370 1286 347 1124 303
Ca2+ (mg/L) 10,320 279 2800 76 360 10 180 5
Mg2+ (mg/L) 820 22 680 18 540 15 360 10
NO 3 (mg/L) 440 18 460 19 320 13 142 6
NO 2 (mg/L) 380 16 240 10 188 8 168 7
4 (mg/L) 3724 156 3260 137 3140 132 2700 113
Cl (mg/L) 6440 270 6260 263 5480 230 4560 192
DOC (mg/L) 13,797 1187 11,937 1027 12,748 1096 7843 674
TOC (mg/L) 24,676 2122 21,816 1876 18,389 1581 12,189 1048
Physicochemical parameters (T, pH, EC and O2) were performed about twice per month. The analysis of dissolved ions, DOC and TOC was performed with samples of July
and August 2014 (dry season), and January and February 2015 (rainy season); SD: Standard deviation (statistically significant coefficients P < 0.05). B0: leachate directly from
the outlet pipe discharge to the first basin; B1, B2, B3: lagoon basins 1, 2 and 3 respectively. n/a: analysis no performed.
B.K. Mavakala et al. / Waste Management 55 (2016) 238248 243

Table 2
Average metal concentration (in lg L1 sd) in leachates from outlet pipe and lagoon receiving systems. Errors are presented as SD.

Dry season (MayAugust 2014) Rainy season (JanuaryApril 2015)

Sample B0 B1 B2 B3 B0 B1 B2 B3
Sc 0.13 0.02 0.26 0.00 0.12 0.02 0.20 0.00 0.33 0.01 14.34 0.27 8.29 0.15 6.24 0.11
Cr 38.36 0.72 29.37 0.55 31.72 0.60 29.30 0.55 169.81 3.22 123.44 2.34 124.91 2.37 9.30 0.17
Mn 39.12 1.10 21.05 0.58 14.75 0.41 13.77 0.38 123.70 3.46 87.46 2.44 100.55 2.81 35.19 0.98
Fe 866.30 39.10 886.43 39.90 721.60 32.40 613.8 27.6 3380.4 152.1 2531.3 113.9 2930.6 131.9 1519.3 68.4
Co 6.90 0.13 6.69 0.12 6.88 0.13 6.03 0.11 62.23 1.18 22.47 0.42 52.36 0.99 0.77 0.01
Ni 24.40 0.46 24.70 0.46 26.85 0.51 25.02 0.47 116.38 2.21 78.29 1.48 115.64 2.19 10.88 0.20
Cu 3.44 0.06 3.33 0.06 2.26 0.04 2.98 0.05 461.16 8.76 317.17 6.02 395.5 7.51 316.38 6.01
Zn 48.96 0.93 40.85 0.77 28.00 0.53 26.37 0.50 714.18 13.56 529.10 10.05 1148.2 21.8 570.55 10.84
As 3.95 0.07 2.19 0.04 2.14 0.04 2.03 0.03 7.07 0.13 0.56 0.01 n/a 5.71 0.10
Mo 0.57 0.01 0.48 0.00 0.47 0.01 0.80 0.01 0.01 0.01 2.31 0.04 2.15 0.04 1.67 0.03
Ag 0.09 0.001 0.11 0.02 0.08 0.01 0.16 0.003 0.86 0.01 3.74 0.07 1.63 0.03 0.84 0.01
Cd 0.21 0.003 0.20 0.03 0.20 0.03 0.18 0.003 1.04 0.01 0.53 0.01 0.58 0.01 0.21 0.03
Sn 5.79 0.11 6.31 0.11 5.61 0.10 5.27 0.10 38.95 0.74 24.71 0.46 22.98 0.43 11.96 0.22
Sb 1.65 0.03 1.67 0.03 1.75 0.03 2.40 0.04 15.43 0.29 14.95 0.28 12.08 0.22 9.87 0.18
Pb 2.78 0.05 3.12 0.05 2.07 0.03 1.78 0.03 87.22 1.65 79.72 1.51 132.88 2.52 70.48 1.33

Metal analysis in leachate was performed with samples of July and August 2014 (dry season), and January and February 2015 (rainy season); SD: Standard deviation
(statistically significant coefficients P < 0.05). All analyses from sampling points were performed in triplicate and the standard deviation was less than 2% of average. B0:
leachate directly from the outlet pipe discharge to the first basin; B1, B2, B3: lagoon basins 1, 2 and 3 respectively.

rainwater percolating through the waste layers in a landfill is a leachates can be explained by the presence of soluble organic mat-
major factor in the generation of landfill leachate. Therefore, land- ter (OM) runoff from landfill, indicating the eventual predomi-
fill leachate composition varies according to waste composition, nance of organic matter in landfill. Similar observations were
waste age, landfilling technology, and climatic conditions reported in other studies carried out in tropical conditions (e.g.
(temperature and precipitation) (Kjeldsen et al., 2002). Mangimbulude et al., 2009; Kiddee et al., 2014).
Consequently, monitoring the landfill leachate requires several
samplings programmed according to seasonal variation. 3.2. Lagoon sediment characteristics and metal content
Assessing the impact of a functional landfill leachate may be
difficult to interpret because a variety of waste types deposited Sediment characteristics including OM, grain size, carbonate
in landfills cause the penetration of several substances into surface (CaCO3), and total phosphorus are reported in Table 3. Sediment
and ground waters that are not subject to periodic analytical stud- samples from B1 (AS1) receiving the leachate directly from the
ies nor covered by continuous monitoring (Wijesekara et al., 2014; landfill outlet pipe present OM content values of approximately
Melnyk et al., 2014). In the study presented in this paper, the 11% (measured by loss on ignition at 550 C). Sediments from B1
assessment of landfill leachate was performed during one dry are generally soft, muddy, and black in color with a mean grain size
and one rainy season. The results obtained agree with the above- of 177.6 lm and a strong odor. Coarser sediments of a mean grain
mentioned previous studies that leachate composition of physico- size of 188.5 and 215.3 lm were respectively observed in samples
chemical parameters (pH, EC, O2), dissolved ions, and toxic metals from B2 and B3. Sediments were classified as sandy sediments
vary seasonally. In general, higher concentrations of elements in with wide variations in OM content and particle grain sizes. High
leachates were observed during the rainy season (mainly during concentration of TP was observed in sediment samples from B1
the first rains). However, as reported in several previous studies, with mean values of 2410.5 mg kg1. The sediment samples from
a significant temporal variation in the concentration of physico- B2 and B3 present identical values (approximately 270 mg kg1)
chemical parameters and solute ions present in leachates was of TP content. The values of sediment characteristics including
found in Mpasa (Chu et al., 1994; Ben Salem et al., 2014). Landfill OM, grain size, and TP are similar to those observed in sediments
leachate is generated by rainwater percolating through the landfill of river receiving untreated wastewater (Mubedi et al., 2013;
mass and mixed with water released during waste decomposition Mwanamoki et al., 2014a,b; 2015). Soil control samples are gener-
(Huang et al., 2009). The relationship between flow and concentra- ally sandy with average values of 95% sand, 1.55% (OM), 0.4%
tions of all parameters measured in leachate samples has been (CaCO3), and 165 mg kg1 (TP), with a mean grain size of
found to have decreasing concentrations with increasing flow rates 232.8 lm.
during the rainy season (Chai et al., 2007; Kiddee et al., 2014). A Concentrations of Sc, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Mo, Ag, Cd,
similar observation has been made by other researchers in similar Sn, Sb, Pb, and Hg in sediment samples are reported in Table 4,
environments (e.g. Tsarpali et al., 2012; Wijesekara et al., 2014). where they are compared to the Sediment Quality Guidelines for
Compared to other studies as summarized by Al-Wabel et al. the Protection of Aquatic Life (SQGs) as recommended by the CCME
(2011) and Bouzayani et al. (2014) among others, leachates from in 1999. The trend in mean metal concentration in lagoon basins is
other landfills present higher values of physicochemical parame- B1 > B2 > B3. Results indicate sedimentation mechanisms espe-
ters, dissolved ions, and toxic metals equal to or greater than those cially during the dry season. The average Cu values were 303.5,
observed at the CET landfill study site. For example, TOC and DOC 2.0, and 1.8 mg kg1 for sediment samples from B1, B2, and B3,
can reach values of 36,955 and 28,493 mg L1, respectively, while respectively. On the other hand, values observed during the rainy
the soluble Cl and SO2 4 values ranged from (5503 to 11,530) to season were 351.6, 142.8, and 14.5 mg kg1 respectively for sedi-
(981 to 1944) mg L1, respectively (Al-Wabel et al., 2011). The ment samples from B1, B2, and B3. Metal concentrations in sedi-
DOC and TOC values observed during the dry season in the study ment collected from lagoon basins were 10100 times higher
presented in this paper ranged from 2871 to 12,395 and 8746 to than those measured in leachate samples, indicating the abate-
19,476 mg L1, respectively whereas the values during the rainy ment of lagoon systems in purifying landfill leachates, especially
season ranged from 3720 to 13,797 and 6378 to 24,676 mg L1 for metal sedimentation (Guigue et al., 2013; Ben Salem et al.,
for DOC and TOC, respectively. High values of DOC and TOC in 2014). The evaluation of the potential deleterious effects of metals
244 B.K. Mavakala et al. / Waste Management 55 (2016) 238248

Table 3
Soil/sediment characteristics including organic matter (OM), carbonate, grain size and total phosphorus (TP).a

OM (%) CaCO3 (%) Clay (%) Silt (%) Sand (%) Median grain size (lm) TP (mg kg1)
B-1 (AS1) 10.86 1.30 15.12 1.40 0.2 28.5 71.3 177.6 2410.5 123.7
B-2 (AS2) 3.36 0.70 1.57 0.30 1.3 11.3 87.4 188.5 272.2 16.2
B-3 (AS3) 2.20 0.20 0.73 0.11 0.9 4.4 94.6 215.3 273.5 14.9
ES1 1.55 0.20 0.40 0.12 0.5 4.3 95.1 232.8 165.0 18.3
Total organic matter (OM) and total phosphorus (TP) average values during dry season (MayAugust 2014) from B-1(AS1, n = 9), B-2 (AS2, n = 4) and B-3 (AS3, n = 4). The
values presented for sediment grain size analysis were performed with samples of July 2014 (no great difference of the values of sediment characteristics was observed for
samples from the same points during rainy season).

Table 4
Metal content (mg kg1 dry weight soil/sediment) of soil/sediment analyzed by ICP-MS and by AMA for total mercurya. Errors are presented as SD.

Dry season (July 2014) Rainy season (February 2015)

Sample B-1 (AS1) B-2 (AS2) B-3 (AS3) B-1 (AS1) B-2 (AS2) B-3 (AS3) ES1 Rec. Max. Concb
Sc 2.57 0.04 1.13 0.02 0.63 0.01 5.13 0.09 1.17 0.02 0.86 0.01 0.81 0.01
Cr 325.8 6.2 11.61 0.22 8.98 0.17 307.40 5.80 123.49 2.34 14.87 0.28 8.27 0.15 37.30
Mn 818 23 11.76 0.32 9.29 0.26 420.9 11.8 82.53 2.31 46.02 1.28 7.50 0.21
Fe 22,197 499 5394 243 4177 188 53,007 885 9090 409 6161 277 4684 210
Co 3.87 0.07 0.12 0.00 0.18 0.03 8.67 0.16 2.24 0.04 1.28 0.02 0.37 0.02
Ni 196.42 3.73 1.49 0.02 1.24 0.02 156.71 2.97 70.95 1.34 4.23 0.08 1.27 0.02
Cu 303.47 5.76 2.02 0.03 1.75 0.03 351.59 6.68 142.80 2.70 14.49 0.27 1.92 0.03 35.70
Zn 498.40 9.46 6.35 0.12 7.29 0.13 748.2 14.2 309.9 5.88 216.44 4.11 3.57 0.06 123.00
As 2.42 0.04 0.21 0.00 0.18 0.03 10.17 0.19 1.60 0.03 0.79 0.01 0.23 0.04
Mo 0.54 0.01 0.40 0.00 0.06 0.01 4.07 0.07 0.81 0.01 0.42 0.07 0.40 0.07
Ag 0.13 0.02 0.20 0.00 0.20 0.03 0.51 0.01 0.21 0.03 0.30 0.02 0.20 0.03
Cd 0.71 0.07 0.50 0.01 0.30 0.01 28.52 0.54 9.94 0.18 9.50 0.18 0.54 0.06 0.60
Sn 1.06 0.02 0.06 0.01 0.08 0.01 26.41 0.50 4.15 0.07 2.76 0.05 0.30 0.05
Sb 0.25 0.04 0.04 0.01 0.06 0.01 5.25 0.09 1.53 0.02 1.15 0.02 0.30 0.01
Pb 163.31 3.10 1.29 0.02 1.16 0.02 191.93 3.64 105.90 2.10 42.43 0.80 1.00 0.01 35.00
Hg 0.85 0.01 0.10 0.01 0.11 0.02 0.91 0.01 0.13 0.02 0.15 0.02 0.05 0.01 0.17
Metal content (mg kg1 dry weight soil/sediment) of soil/sediment from the lagoon basins B-1(AS1, n = 9), B-2 (AS2, n = 4) and B-3 (AS3, n = 4). The values in bold
represent the concentration of toxic metals above the recommended concentration according to the Sediment Quality Guidelines for the Protection of Aquatic Life rec-
ommendation (CCME EPC-98E, 1999).
Recommendation maximum concentration Sediment Quality Guidelines for the Protection of Aquatic Life recommendations.

toward benthic fauna, which is based on consensus-based guideli- Zn was observed in AS1 (dry season) and AS2 and AS3 (rainy sea-
nes for sediment quality, provides an estimate of the hazard that son). Other elements present moderate or no enrichment in
sediments may represent to the local biota (Long et al., 2006; lagoon basins according to season. The Igeo classification of ex-
MacDonald et al., 2000). These authors proposed a Threshold tremely polluted was observed for Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, and Pb. Cr and
effect concentration (TEC) for specific metals above which a cer- Zn in all samples from lagoon B1 (rainy and dry season) and ex-
tain effect (or response) is produced in a living organism and below tremely polluted were also observed in samples from B1, B2,
which there are no effects, and a probable effect levels (PELs) is a and B3 during both dry and rainy seasons. Furthermore, an ex-
contaminant level that is likely to cause an adverse effect on biota. tremely polluted level of Pb was observed in samples from B1,
Sediment samples have contrasting metal contamination levels. B2, and B3 during the rainy season and from B1 during the dry sea-
Many metals are present in relatively high concentrations (espe- son. No Hg pollution was observed according to the Igeo classifica-
cially in lagoon B1 during both dry and rainy seasons). For exam- tion values. Based on the values from Igeo and EF calculations, the
ple, values between 307.4325.8, 420.9818.0, 22,19753,007, lagoon basins receiving leachate from CET landfill can be consid-
303.5351.6, and 498.4748.2 mg kg1 for Cr, Mn, Fe, Cu, and Zn ered to be polluted with toxic metals including Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, and
respectively were recorded. These values are higher than SQGs Pb. No enrichment or pollution was observed for the ES1 soil (con-
and PELs, indicating the potential threat for environmental risks. trol) samples.
Hg values were relatively low ranging from 0.85 to 0.91 mg kg1
in B1 but were higher than the recommended value in sediment 3.4. Toxicity assessment in lagoon sediment
(0.17 mg kg1).
Toxic metals accumulated in sediments are a good indicator for
3.3. Enrichment factor (EF) and Geoaccumulation index (Igeo) predicting the toxicity of a contaminated environment. However,
to fully evaluate the toxicity of receiving systems, chemical analy-
EF and Igeo values for selected metals in sediment samples from sis needs to be combined with ecotoxicological aspects (Mantis
lagoon basins receiving systems are reported in Table 5. The EF and et al., 2005; Pablos et al., 2011; Mubedi et al., 2013). Ostracods
Igeo indices are important in discriminating between anthro- (H. incongruens) and various other species such as the brine shrimp
pogenic metals and provide a quantitative criterion for character- (Artemia franciscana) are usually included as useful bioindicators in
izing the sediment according to the degree of metal pollution changing environmental conditions including soil and sediment
(Adamo et al., 2005). EF values of Cu above 50 indicating ex- receiving systems in relation to climatic conditions (Anadon
tremely severe enrichment were observed in the samples AS1 et al., 2002; Boomer and Eisenhauer, 2002; Tsarpali et al., 2012;
(B1 dry season), AS1, AS2, and AS3 (respectively rainy season B1, Devarajan et al., 2015). The study presented in this paper used
B2, B3). Very severe enrichment of Ni was observed in samples the potential of the group Ostracods as a possible bioindicator of
AS1 (dry season) and AS2 (rainy season); severe enrichment of environmental changes to the lagoon sediments receiving systems
B.K. Mavakala et al. / Waste Management 55 (2016) 238248 245

Table 5
EF and Igeo values for selected metals in the sediment samples from lagoon basins.

induced by landfill effluent waters according to seasonal variation. 20%. So all of the tests carried out in this study were validated
The percentage of growth inhibition and the mortality rate of because the percentage mortality of the Ostracods was less than
Ostracods are presented in Table 6. 8%.
The percentage rate of mortality in the sediment samples col- Consequently, the impact on both mortality and/or growth inhi-
lected from the three lagoon basins ranged from 28.4 to 100% dur- bition of Ostracods is notable. These ecotoxicological results indi-
ing the dry season. All sediment samples present a mortality rate of cate a potential risk to organisms exposed to the sediment
100% during the rainy season. The growth inhibition calculated for samples from lagoon basins.
samples with less than 30% mortality rate (as per the manufac-
turers instructions) was only observed in two sediment samples 3.5. Assessment of toxicity in leachate samples
from lagoon basin B-3 during the dry season (values of 51.9% and
64.2%). In comparison with samples from lagoon basins, the soil Exposure of T. platyurus to leachate samples led to 100% of par-
samples from the control site of the study area (ES1) showed the ticle uptake inhibition at all studied sites and during both seasons
smallest effect on benthic Ostracods with a mortality rate of (Table 7). Although the test applied is a pass-fail test used for
approximately 18% and growth inhibition of 14%. However, accord- rapid detection of toxic compounds in water samples, a series of
ing to the manufacturers recommendation for the validation of the dilutions of leachate samples was performed in order to obtain
results, the percentage mortality of the Ostracods in the TK36- information concerning their toxicity level. Samples collected dur-
Ostracodtoxkit reference sediment should not be higher than ing the dry season did not further impact on the crustacean when
246 B.K. Mavakala et al. / Waste Management 55 (2016) 238248

Table 6
Percentages of mortality and growth inhibition of Ostracods (Heterocypris incongruens) exposed to the lagoon sediments.

Samplea Dry season (July 2014) Rainy season (February 2015)

% Mortality % Growth Inhibition % Mortality % Growth Inhibition
Basin-B1: AS1 AS11 100 n/d 100 n/d
AS12 100 n/d 100 n/d
AS13 100 n/d 100 n/d
AS14 100 n/d 100 n/d
Basin-B2: AS2 AS21 100 n/d 100 n/d
AS22 100 n/d 100 n/d
AS23 100 n/d 100 n/d
AS24 100 n/d 100 n/d
Basin-B3: AS3 AS31 97.6 n/d 100 n/d
AS32 27.9 51.9 9.0 100 n/d
AS33 28.4 64.2 7.0 100 n/d
AS34 100 n/d 100 n/d
Soil control: ES1 ES11 18.3 13.9 4.0 n/a n/a
ES12 17.9 14.2 5.0 n/a n/a

n/d: Growth Inhibition not determined if the mortality rate is more than 30% according to the manufacturers recommendation.
n/a: no analysis performed, nd: no detected.
Four samples were used from each lagoon basin (Basin-B1: AS11-4; Basin-B2: AS21-4; Basin B-3: AS31-4). Two samples form control soil (ES1: ES11-2).

diluted 10 times whereas samples collected during the rainy sea- rainy season. That latter concentration is very close to the range
son had to be diluted 100 times to demonstrate no further inhibi- of concentrations (between 410 and 4600 lg L1) reported as
tion. These results confirmed those found with H. incongurens and LC50 measured for T. Platyurus exposed to CuSO4 for 24 h
the sediments collected in basin B3, i.e. samples (sediments and (Blinova et al., 2010). Regardless of the season, the leachates are
leachates) collected during rainy seasons are more toxic to organ- classified as very toxic (Santiago, 2002). A good correlation has
isms than those collected during dry seasons. Extremely high con- been reported between the response of the rapidtoxkit (applied
centrations of salts (Cl concentration at 6 g/L) and DOC (10 g/L) in the present study) and 24 h exposure tests also performed with
in both seasons may explain the severe effects of leachates on the T. platyurus and with the rotifer Brachionus calyciflorus both of
crustacean larvae. Indeed, a value of 147 mg/L has been reported as which have mortality as endpoint (Nalecz-Jawecki and Persoone,
EC50 for T. Platyurus exposed to NH4Cl for 24 h, which is about 2006; Jaweski et al., 2011). An understanding of the ranges of tox-
40 times lower than the concentrations measured in the leachates icity of landfill emissions is crucial in determining the degree of
(Centeno et al., 1995). However, the conductivity (proxy of the concern about the potential effects they could have upon nearby
total dissolved solid) of the leachates decreased by 4 times in populations and the surrounding environment (Koshy et al.,
basins 1 and 2, and by 140 times in basin 3 during the rainy season 2007). The results of this study indicate that leachates from munic-
compared to the dry season but without positive consequences on ipal landfill contain very high concentrations of organic matter,
their toxicity. One plausible explanation is the greater desorption salts, and contaminants including metals, which are lethal to
of contaminants from the wastes during the rain observed with organisms and whose toxicity is exacerbated during rainy seasons.
the increase of dissolved metal concentrations which could lead
to the greater toxicity of the leachates. For example, Cu concentra- 4. Conclusion
tions in Basin 1 increased by approximately 100 fold between the
two seasons, from 3 lg L1 in the dry season to 317 lg L1 in the The main aim of this study was to characterize the composition
and toxicity of leachates drained from a controlled municipal solid
waste landfill under tropical conditions according to seasonal vari-
Table 7 ations. The results demonstrated high and seasonal variation of
Percentage of the particle uptake inhibition of Thamnocephalus platyurus exposed to landfill composition in terms of electrical conductivity, dissolved
the leachate samples (30% inhibition is the threshold value, which represents a
ions, and toxic metals. In general, concentrations of these parame-
significant effect).
ters in leachates during the rainy season are higher than the values
Sample Dilution Dry season Rainy season observed during the dry season. Therefore, greater attention
factor (July 2014) (February 2015)
should be paid to rainy season leachate discharges. The analysis
B1 1 100 100 of toxic metals distribution in lagoon basin receiving systems
10 16 100
showed relative high levels of Cu, Pb, Zn, Cd, and Cr accumulated
100 0 13
1000 0 7
in the lagoon sediments, which were many times higher than SQGs
and PLEs, and so represent potential environmental risks. The eco-
B2 1 100 100
10 0 100
toxicity analysis performed in leachates and sediments from the
100 0 7 lagoon basins demonstrated the potential toxicity of leachates for
1000 0 0 terrestrial and benthic organisms.
B3 1 100 81 Quantity of municipal wastes in the city of Kinshasa continues
10 20 100 to increase according to the growing of population. There is no
100 10 6 appropriate policy of waste management, and there is only one
1000 n.d. 8
controlled municipal landfill (Mpasa, studied area). Consequently,
B0 1 100 100 public spaces and urban rivers are customarily considered as pos-
B0: leachate directly from the outlet pipe discharge to the first basin; B1, B2, B3: sible landfill sites (Fig. 2C) that result in potential human and envi-
lagoon basins 1, 2 and 3 respectively. ronmental risks.
B.K. Mavakala et al. / Waste Management 55 (2016) 238248 247

According to the results of this research, there is a need for new accumulation of toxic metals in the sediment receiving system of the Cauvery
River, Tiruchirappalli, Tamil Nadu, India. Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res. 22, 12941
strategies of waste management including selective collection and
recycling of solid wastes, which will reduce the amount of waste Graham, N.D., Stoll, S., Loizeau, J.L., 2014. Colloid characterization at the sediment-
deposition into landfill and so their potential environmental water interface of Vidy Bay, Lake Geneva. Fund. Appl. Limnol. 184, 87100.
impacts. On the other hand, it is important to apply new technol- Guigue, J., Mathieu, O., Leveque, J., Denimal, S., Steinmann, M., Milloux, M.J., Grisey,
H., 2013. Dynamics of copper and zinc sedimentation in a lagooning system
ogy to landfill leachate treatment rather than discharging it into receiving landfill leachate. Waste Manage. 33, 22872295.
the environment without previous treatment (Fig. 2D). The Hall, G.E.M., Pelchat, P., 1997. Evaluation of a direct solid sampling atomic
attempt at using macrophytes in lagoon basins (Fig. 2A) to treat absorption spectrometer for the trace determination of mercury in geological
samples. The Analyst 122, 921924.
any metal bioaccumulation is encouraging. Therefore, further stud- Huang, J.H., Ilgen, G., Vogel, D., Michalzik, B., Hantsch, S., Tennhardt, L., Bilitewski, B.,
ies are recommended in order to evaluate the effect of macro- 2009. Emissions of inorganic and organic arsenic compounds via the leachate
phytes on metal retention in lagoon basins. pathway from pretreated municipal waste materials: a landfill reactor study.
Environ. Sci. Technol. 43, 70927097.
Jawecki, G.N., Szczesny, L., Solecka, D., Sawicki, J., 2011. Short ingestion tests as
Conflict of interest alternative proposal for conventional range finding assays with
Thamnocephalus platyurus and Brachionus calyciflorus. Int. J. Environ. Sci.
Technol. 8, 687694.
The authors declare no conflict of interest. Kiddee, P., Naidu, R., Wong, M.H., Hearn, L., Muller, J.F., 2014. Field investigation of
the quality of fresh and aged leachates from selected landfills receiving e-waste
in an arid climate. Waste Manage. 34, 22922304.
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Present and long-term composition of MSW landfill leachate: a review. Crit.
Rev. Environ. Sci. Technol. 32, 297336.
This research was supported by Institute F.-A. Forel via the trip- Koshy, L., Paris, M., Ling, S., Jones, T., BruB, K., 2007. Bioreactivity of leachate from
licate collaboration between University of Geneva (Institute F.-A. municipal solid waste landfills assessment of toxicity. Sci. Total Environ. 384,
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help to students from Congo DR during their training in University Maanan, M., Zourarah, B., Carruesco, C., Aajjane, A., Naud, J., 2004. The distribution
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