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Interpersonal Problems -
Examples
Communication problems
Fundamental Interpersonal
Loss of motivation
Relationships Orientation
Behavior (FIRO-B) Indiscriminate opposition

Problems in group functioning


Difficulty in reaching decisions
Inefficient division of labor
Presence of problem members
Task distortions
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FIRO-B FIRO-B Theory


Created by Dr. Will Schutz (1958)
Helps you become more aware of your People need people for:
interpersonal behavior habits Inclusion
Control
Affection
They need:
Examines the way you typically act with People to receive from
other people (wanted behaviour)
People to give to
(Expressed behaviour)

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Basic needs - Inclusion Key Words Associated With


The need to establish and maintain satisfactory interactions
Inclusion
and associations with other people. Belonging Acceptance
Centers on the question: Am I in or out? Attention Join
Involvement Contact
Indicates amount of interaction
Interest Membership
Extent of prominence and significance a person seeks
Visibility In Out

Ultimate realization: FAME / CONNECTEDNESS

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Basic needs - Control


Control
The degree to which one desires to influence or
direct the behaviour of others. Centers on the question: Am I on top or
on the bottom in relationship to you?
Describes the behaviour with respect to
responsibility, power, influence and decision Indicates need for control of interaction
making.

The extent to which a person wants to be seen Driven by feelings of respect and
competence
as competent, decisive and in charge.
Ultimate realization: POWER
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Key Words Associated With Basic Needs - Affection


Control Describes a persons behaviour in forming
close, personal relationships with others. It
Authority Decisiveness
applies primarily to one-to-one interaction.
Structure Dominance
Achievement Competitiveness Describes the extent to which people need to
feel liked and appreciated.
Influence Organise
Goal-attainment Persuasion It determines the degree of openness, warmth
and personal connection one seeks.

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Key Words Associated With


Affection Affection
Centers on the question: Am I close or far
in relationship to you? Warmth Empathetic
Affirming Sharing
Indicates depth of interaction Caring Intimacy
Personal Supportive
Driven by feelings of likeability and Commitment Reassuring
openness

Ultimate realization: LOVE


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Three Basic Needs: Two Three Basic Needs: Two


Dimensions Dimensions
Expressed Wanted
How much I demonstrate the behavior Internal expectations

Active, easily seen How much I desire to receive the behavior

Initiation: towards others by words or actions Something I rely on others to do, say or convey
(actual behaviours) to me

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FIRO-B Table
What do the scores mean?
Inclusion Control Affection You are pretty selective and display/want these
recognition influence closeness 0-2 behaviors on rare occasions to a few people (Low)
belonging leading warmth
participation responsibility sensitivity
Expressed
Behavior
what I prefer to do
eI eC eA TOTAL
EXPRESSED
eI+eC+eA 3-6
You are pretty situational in these behaviors,
how much I initiate
observable action
displaying/wanting them with some people
Wanted TOTAL (Moderate)
Behavior wI wC wA WANTED
how much I want
others to initiate
wI+wC+wA 7-9 You express/want these behaviors with many
how much I prefer
TOTAL TOTAL TOTAL
people, much of the time (High)
to be the recipient OVERALL
INCLUSION CONTROL AFFECTION expressed+
eI+wI eC+wC eA+wA wanted

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Expressed Inclusion Wanted Inclusion


How much I connect with others in activities How much I want others to include me
or ideas
Low
Low Selective about who he/she associates
Tends to move away from people with

High High
Tends to move towards people Strong need to belong and to be accepted
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Expressed Control Wanted Control


How much I take charge directly or indirectly How much I want others to be in the drivers seat

Low Low
Selective about letting others make decisions
Tends to avoid making decisions and for him/her
taking on responsibility
High
High Wants others to assume responsibility for
Can and does take on responsibility him/her

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Expressed Affection Wanted Affection


How much I share about myself with others How much I want others to reach out to me

Low Low
Cautious about initiating close personal Selective about who he/she forms close
relationships relationships

High High
Readily establishes close personal Wants others to initiate close relationships
relationships with others with him/her
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Your FIRO-B Results

Inclusion Control Affection


recognition influence closeness
belonging leading warmth

Expressed
participation responsibility sensitivity
TOTAL
Interpreting the Scores
Behavior
what I prefer to do
eI eC eA EXPRESSED
eI+eC+eA
how much I initiate
observable action
Wanted TOTAL
Behavior
how much I want
wI wC wA WANTED
wI+wC+wA
others to initiate
how much I prefer
TOTAL TOTAL TOTAL OVERALL
to be the recipient
INCLUSION CONTROL AFFECTION expressed+
eI+wI eC+wC eA+wA wanted

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Interpreting the Scores Overall Need Score


Summarises your need for general interpersonal contact and interaction
Look at:
0-15 Low
Step 1: Overall Need score Interpersonal involvement NOT primary source of need satisfaction.
Step 2: Total Expressed & Wanted scores Intellectual stimulation or solitary pursuits predominate
Step 3: Compare these 16-26 Medium Low
Step 4: Total Need scores Involvement sometimes a source of satisfaction, depending on people &
Step 5: Compare these (highest/lowest) context
Step 6: Interactions between middle 6 cells
27-38 Medium High
Involvement usually a source of satisfaction

39-54 High
Involvement with others enjoyable & satisfying
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Total Expressed Score Total Wanted Score


0-7 Low
0-7 Low
Selective about relying on others for need;
Selective about initiating social behaviour
independent
8-19 Medium
8-19 Medium
Situational varies with person or context
Situational varies with person or context
20-27 High
20-27 High
Enjoy initiating social behaviour
Rely on others, comfortable accepting
behaviour from others
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Expressed Needs > Wanted Expressed Needs < Wanted


Needs Needs
More comfortable taking the initiative than More comfortable relying on others than
relying on others taking the initiative

May keep others at a distance to avoid May be dissatisfied not getting what you
unwanted behaviours want

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Strength of your
Total Need (I, C, A) Scores Interpersonal needs
Total Inclusion Total Control Total Affection
0-5 Low
Indifferent to satisfying this need, or very Highest score =
selective Most comfortable interpersonal area
6-12 Medium Need area you are LEAST willing to sacrifice in social
situations
Often express or elicit behaviours to satisfy your You will return to those situations that satisfy this need
need The need you will focus on in new situations
13-18 High
Will consistently pursue satisfaction of this need
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Whats More Important for Me? FIRO-B


INCLUSION CONTROL AFFECTION
AUTOCRAT
OVERSOCIAL OVERPERSONAL
I like making decisions
EXPRESSED I like to be with people I tend to get quite close and
and taking
Inclusion Needs Control Needs Affection Needs and when I can I
responsibility. Taking
personal with others,
HIGH generally seek out their deeply involving myself with
charge is no problem
company. them.
for me.
Regular contact Authority, goals Loyalty to one UNDERSOCIAL ABDICRAT UNDERPERSONAL
with others & targets another Im not very comfortable Id prefer to avoid, as I am very cautious about
with others; I prefer to much as I can, making getting too close to others. I
LOW
Contribution A stream of Frankness, stay by myself unless I
have to mix.
decisions and taking
charge of things.
tend to avoid personal
involvement.
from everyone decisions & candor,
SOCIAL-COMPLIANT
& chance to get sense of feedback, WANTED
I have a very strong SUBMISSIVE
PERSONAL-COMPLIANT
I like getting close to others,
involved moving forward exchange of need to be accepted by I tend to allow others to
but I prefer them to take the
others and feel bad have their way me.
options HIGH
when I am left out.
first step in getting friendly.
Finding Challenges,
common ground rivalry & Serving & COUNTERSOCIAL REBELLIOUS
COUNTER-PERSONAL
Im very choosy about I dont like others
competition nurturing others my acquaintances. I deciding things for me
Im quite selective in my
LOW choice of friends. Few if any
dont want everybody and I resist their
can get really close to me.
knocking at my door. attempts to control me.
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Exploring expressed needs

FIRO-B Applications How would you go about joining a new


group?

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Exploring expressed needs Exploring wanted needs

Your highest Expressed Need score indicates Answer the following question
the face you show first to a group.

It represents the social arena where you feel What is it that my boss must do to win
more comfortable taking action my respect?

You rely on this area when presenting


yourself to a group
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Exploring wanted needs Leadership Applications


FIRO-B profiles can indicate level of initiation
Your highest Wanted Need can be used to and visibility a person is likely to demonstrate
predict the leader/boss you are most likely to as a leader.
be satisfied with
Using Total Expressed behaviour score:
Your highest Wanted Need will be best 0-7 = low visibility
matched by a leader whose highest 8-19 = moderate visibility
Expressed Need Score is on the same 20-27 = high visibility
dimension

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Leadership Applications

Expressed needs represent a base from which a


person relates to others in a leadership role.
Expressed Inclusion = Collaborative
Team applications using the
Expressed Control = Authoritative FIRO-B instrument
Expressed Affection = Empathetic

Combinations of styles are possible:


E.g., Inclusion & Control = Collaborative-Authoritative

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Compatibility Theory Compatibility Theory


Originator (In)compatibility: How much two
FIRO-B results can be used to determine people will come into conflict about who initiates
types of compatibility between team and who receives behaviours (especially for
members. control)
E.g.
Schutz stated compatibility is the dominant
I C A I C A
factor in explaining the productivity of groups e - H - e - H -
w - L - w - L -

Three types of compatibility based on FIRO-B Result: Competition or conflict


results.
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Compatibility Theory
Compatibility Theory
Reciprocal Compatibility: Is an index of whether As
expressed behavior matches what B wants and
I C A I C A
whether Bs expressed behavior matches what A wants
e - L - e - H -
w - H - w - L -
RC = ( Ae - Bw ) + ( Be - Aw )
0 = Complete Compatibility Subordinate: What do you think I ought to do?
18 = Extreme Incompatibility Superior: Dont worry I will tell you exactly what to do?
Equal to & greater than 6 indicates Incompatibility Result
First person will take charge and the other will let them
assume responsibility

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Compatibility Theory Compatibility Theory


Interchange Compatibility: how much
I C A I C A
individuals share the same need strengths
(especially for inclusion, affection) e - - H e - - L
w - - H w - - H
IC = ( Ae + Aw ) - ( Be + Bw )
0 = Complete Compatibility HUSBAND: Do you still care for me?
18 = Extreme Incompatibility WIFE: Isnt it obvious.

Equal to & greater than 6 indicates


Incompatibility

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Compatibility Theory Team Applications


People play many roles in groups depending
Example. on FIRO-B scores
I C A I C A
e - - H e - - H
High Expressed Inclusion Clarifier
w - - H w - - H creates ways for everyone to participate
Result High Expressed Control Director offers
Both see and engage in Affection behaviours as the structure & decision making
basis of the relationship.
High Expressed Affection Encourager
Birds of a feather flock together fosters harmony
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Scores Role Description


High Expressed Clarifier Presents issues or solutions for clarification,
Inclusion summarises discussion, FIRO-B & Team Application
High Wanted Tension- Helps move the team along by joking at
Inclusion Reducer appropriate moments, redirects group at tense
moments Schutz posited that all groups must deal with
Low Wanted Individualist Not an active team player, meetings are distracting the issues of Inclusion, Control and Affection
Inclusion
High Expressed Director Offers structure & decision making
in that order.
Control
High Wanted Questioner Seeks orientation and clarification, is a
Control constructive critic Different issues will be emphasised at
Low Wanted Rebel Challenges the status quo, may refuse to comply different points in the life of a group.
Control with group decisions
High Expressed Encourager Friendly, responsive, warm, diplomatic
Affection If the issues are not resolved it can result in
High Wanted Listener Maintains participative attitude and interest non-
Affection verbally, is involved in group goals, impaired group functioning.
Low Wanted Cautioner Expresses concern about direction of the group
Affection 51 52

FIRO-B
Limitation
Deterministic, does not take into account behavioural
changes over time

Not a judgement on behaviour Thank you!


Helps increase self-awareness

When you are aware of behavior patterns you can


better decide when to act in your normal way and
when it seems more appropriate to act differently.

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