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Turbo Machinery (ME-605C)

Time Allotted: 3 Hours Full Marks: 70
The figures in the margin indicate full marks
(Multiple Choice Type Questions)
1. Choose the correct alternatives for the following (any ten):

(i) The right sequence for specific speed is

a) Pelton>Kaplan>Francis
b) Kaplan>Francis>Pelton
c) Francis>Pelton>Kaplan
d) Francis> Kaplan > Pelton
(ii) The use of draft tube in a reaction turbine helps to
a) Provide safety to the turbine
b) Increase the flow rate
c) Transport water to the tailrace without eddies
d) Convert residual kinetic energy to pressure energy
(iii) Parallel operation of centrifugal pumps results in
a) Increased head
b) Increased flowrate
c) Decreased flowrate
d) Decreased head
(iv) Which turbine has the best part load efficiency
a) Francis
b) Pelton
c) Deriaz
d) Kaplan
(v) The expression for unit speed is given by

(vi) Operating characteristic curves of a turbine means
a) Curves drawn at constant speed
b) Curves drawn at constant efficiency
c) Curves drawn at constant head
d) None of the above
(vii) Which area of a hydraulic turbine is most susceptible to cavitation?
a) Inlet of the turbine
b) Inlet of the draft tube
c) Exit of the draft tube
d) Guide vanes
(viii) In a compressible flow situation, Mach number is 0.931 and temperature is -50C. Calculate
the stagnation temperature if .
a) 400C
b) 440C
c) 41.440C
d) 44.410C
(ix) Higher specific speeds (160 to 500) of centrifugal pump indicate
a) Radial flow pump
b) Axial flow pump
c) Mixed flow pump
d) Reciprocating pump
(x) A centrifugal pump with radial vane tips at the outlet has an impeller of 100 mm outer
diameter. If the rotational speed is 3000 rpm and manometric efficiency 80%, the net head
developed is
a) 10m
b) 20m
c) 30m
d) 40m
(xi) If pump NPSH requirements are not satisfied
a) It will consume excessive power
b) It will cavitate
c) It will not develop head
d) Efficiency will be low
(xii) The difference between a fan and a blower is
a) Fan is of axial type but blower is of radial type
b) Fans deal with cold air but blowers deal with hot air
c) Fans deal with air but blowers deal with water
d) Total pressure rise across a fan is much lower compared to blower


(Short Answer Type Questions)

Answer any three of the following 35=15

2. The velocity of water at the outlet of a conical draft tube attached to a Francis turbine is 1.4m/s.
The velocity of water at the inlet of the draft tube, which is 4.5m above the tail race level, is 5m/s. If
the loss of head due to friction in the draft tube is 40% of the velocity head at outlet of the tube, find
pressure head at inlet to the draft tube. 5

3. Why backward curved vanes are preferred for centrifugal pumps? A reservoir has a head of 40m
and a channel leading from the reservoir permits a flow rate of 34m3/s. If the rotational speed of the
rotor is 150 rpm, what is the most suitable turbine to use? 2+3

4. Differentiate between velocity compounding and pressure compounding with neat sketches.

5. What do you understand by stagnation pressure and temperature? Differentiate between supersonic
nozzle and subsonic nozzle. =5

6. What do you understand by cavitation in pumps? What are its possible causes? How it is
prevented? 5

(Long Answer Type Questions)
Answer any three of the following. 315=45

7. (a) The diameter of the runner of a vertical shaft turbine is 450 mm at the inlet. The width of the
runner at the inlet is 50 mm. The diameter and the width at the outlet are 300 mm and 75 mm
respectively. The blades occupy 8 % of the circumference. The guide vane angle is 24 0, the inlet angle
of the runner blade is 950 and the outlet angle is 300. The fluid leaves the runner without any whirl.
The pressure head at inlet is 55 mm above that at exit from the runner. The fluid friction losses
account for 18% of the pressure head at inlet. Calculate the speed of the runner and the output power
(use mechanical efficiency at 95%). 10

(b) A turbine operating under a head of 32 m develops 9000 KW at the speed of 100 rpm. Determine
the speed and power developed by the turbine when the head on the turbine is reduces to 16 m.

8. For rotordynamic fluid machines of a given shape, and handling an incompressible fluid, the
relevant variables involved are D (the rotor diameter), Q (the volume flowrate through the machine),
N (The rotational speed of the machine), gH (the difference of head across the machine, i.e. energy
per unit mass), (the density of fluid), (the dynamic viscosity of the fluid) and P (the power
transferred between the fluid and the rotor). Show with the help of Buckinghams -theorem that,


9. (a) Air at 300C is stored in large tank under a pressure of 1500kN/m2. A nozzle is provided to
discharge the air. If the pressure at the outlet of the nozzle is 1150kN/m2, find the velocity of air
flowing at the outlet of the nozzle. Take R=287J/kg-K and k=1.4 5

(b) A centrifugal pump 1.3 m in diameter delivers 3.5m3/min of water at a tip speed of 10 m/s and a
flow velocity of 1.6 m/s. The outlet blade angle is 300 to the tangent at the impeller periphery.
Assuming zero whirl at inlet, and zero slip, calculate the torque delivered by the impeller.

(c) In a vertical-shaft Francis turbine the available head at the inlet flange of the turbine is 150 m and
the vertical distance between the runner and the tailrace is 2.0 m. The critical Thomas coefficient is
0.09. Atmospheric pressure is 1.013 bar and the water is at 25C. Determine the NPSH for the turbine.
Hence, using Thomas coefficient determine whether cavitation is likely to occur. 5

10. (a) The jet velocity in a pelton turbine is 65 m/s. The peripheral velocity of the runner is 25 m/s.
The jet is defleted by 160 by the bucket. Determine the power developed and hydraulic efficiency of
the turbine for a flow rate of 0.9 m3/s. The blade friction coefficient is 0.9. 7
(b) The diameter and width of a centrifugal pump impeller are 50 cm and 2.5 cm. The pump runs at
1200 rpm. The suction head is 6 m and the delivery head is 40 m. The frictional drop in suction is 2 m
and in the delivery 8 m. The blade angle at out let is 30. The manometric efficiency is 80% and the
overall efficiency is 75%. Determine the power required to drive the pump. Also calculate the
pressures at the suction and delivery side of the pump. 8

11. Write short notes (any three) 53=15

(i) Eulers turbo machinery equation

(ii) Surging and choking of compressors
(iii) Degree of reaction
(iv) Supersaturated flow in steam turbines
(v) Muschel curves for centrifugal pumps