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CHAPTER 2

Learning, cognition and Memory


1.- The brain continues to change and learn over the course of a
life time.
2.-Much of human learning involves a process of actively
constructing knowledge, rather than passively absorbing it.
3.-Human Memory is a complex, Multifaceted information
processing system that is, to a considerable degree, under a
learners control.
4.- Human memory is fallible: Learners do not remember
everything they learn, and sometimes they misremember what
theyve learned.
5.-Effective teachers help students mentally process new
information and skills in ways that facilitate long-term memory
storage and retrieval
Promoting Effective Cognitive
Processes
Effective teacher help students mentally process new information
and skills in ways that facilitate long-term memory storage and
retrieval.
Relate New ideas to students prior knowledge and experiences
Provide experiences on which students can build
Help students organize ideas by making connections among
them.
Give students time to Think
Facilitate visual imagery
Most learning probably involves changes in
neurons, astrocytes, and their interconnections.
Two neurons, and astrocyte, and their
Cortex Human Brain
interconnections.
Understanding the Brain

1.- Multiple parts of the brain


work closely with one
another.
Knowing how the brain
functions and develops tells
us only so much about
learning and instruction
Learning as a Active Construction

Cognitive Psychology: Theoretical


Perspective that focuses on the mental
process underlying learning and
behavior, including perception,
memory, and reasoning.
Learners create
constantly---rather than
passively absorbmuch of
what they know and
believe about the world.
Learners use what they
already know and believe
to help them make sense
of new experiences.
Memory
1.-Attention: Involves directing not only the appropriate sensory
receptors Attention has limited capacity, allowing only a very
small amount of information stored in the sensory register to move
on to working memory.
2.-Working memory---where the action is in thinking and
learninghas a short duration and limited capacity.
Information stored in working memory dose not last very long---
perhaps 5 to 20 seconds at most
Long Term Memory
1.-Information is interconnected
and organized
A) ROTE LEARNING
B)MEANINGFUL LEARNING
C) ORGANIZATION
D) VISUAL IMAGERY
E)ELABORATION