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Asylum and Migration

Glossary 3.0
a tool for better comparability
produced by the European
Migration Network
October 2014

Home Affairs
European Migration Network
EUROPEAN COMMISSION

Asylum and Migration


Glossary 3.0

a tool for better comparability


produced by the European
Migration Network
October 2014

2014 European Migration Network


Disclaimer
This EMN Glossary has been developed by the European Migration Network (EMN). The European Commission and the EMN National
Contact Points, which collectively constitute the EMN, accept no responsibility or liability whatsoever with regard to the use made of
the information contained in this Glossary or of the content of the websites from which some terms are extracted.

Reproduction is authorised, except for commercial purposes, provided the source is acknowledged and the following text accompanies any reproduction: 'This EMN Glossary
has been developed by the European Migration Network (EMN). The European Commission and the National Contact Points, which collectively constitute the EMN,
acceptnoresponsibility or liability whatsoever with regard to the use made of the information contained in this Glossary or of the content of the websites from which some
terms are extracted.'

The European Migration Network serves to meet the information needs of European Union institutions and of Member States authorities and institutions by providing
up-to-date, objective, reliable and comparable information on asylum and migration, with a view to supporting policy-making in the European Union in these areas. TheEMN
also serves to provide the general public with such information. Further information on the EMN, including its other outputs, as well as this Glossary, may be obtained from
www.emn.europa.eu
Table of contents

Foreword  4

A tool for better comparability  5


1. Introduction 5
2. The European Migration Network 6
3. Method and approach followed fordeveloping the EMN Glossary 7
4. Format ofthe EMN Glossary 7

Glossary Terms  10

Indexes in:
English 315
French 322
German  326
Italian 330
Portuguese 334
Spanish  337

3
Foreword

Migration and asylum are complex and multifaceted policy fields. The opening of the EU to talented and highly skilled migrants to
meet EU labour demand, international protection for those in need, and to ensure safe borders against organised crime, trafficking
and smuggling in human beings and irregular migration have all taken on increased significance in recent years.

To ensure effective legislative and policy responses to this significant demands, legislators and policy-makers at EU and national
levels must have at their disposal up to date, reliable, factual information. The European Migration Network (EMN), coordinated by
the European Commission, and active in all Member States and Norway, plays a significant role as a reliable source of such
information across a wide range of contemporary topics. The EMN Glossary helps to facilitate coherent discussions across all of these
actors by presenting information on specific topics that is underpinned by a common vocabulary, allowing a better understanding and
comparability of migration and asylum phenomena, on the basis of a shared understanding.

The EMN Glossary, both as a publication and on-line has been very well received by legislators, policymakers and practitioners alike
across the EU. This third, revised edition contains almost 400 terms, with translations, taken principally from the EU acquis, of which
almost 100 are new and more than 120 have been received, reviewed and revised to improve their clarity and comparability.

A key priority for the coming years is to ensure coherent and effective implementation of existing instruments and to enhance
practical cooperation between EU Member States. In order to support this objective, the EMN is a key instrument to for collecting and
exchanging best practices on the implementation of the Home Affairs acquis. The Glossary version 3.0 will, without doubt, facilitate
this role, and represents a tangible and practical tool to help the EU to address immigration challenges.

This has been a significant achievement for the European Migration Network and I would like to personally extend my appreciation
to the members of the Glossary and Thesaurus Working Group who have steered the development of this Glossary Version 3.0,
andtoall the National Contact Points in the EMN for their support in verifying and validating the information presented.

Matthias Ruete
Director General for Migration and Home Affairs
ASYLUM AND MIGRATION GLOSSARY 3.0

4
A tool for better comparability

1. Introduction
The purpose ofthe European Migration Network (EMN) Glossary Each glossary entry iscomprised ofapreferred term 3, adefi-
ofterms relating toAsylum and Migration isinter alia toimprove nition ofthe concept that this term represents, the source ofthe
comparability between EUMember States through the use and definition, plus notes and relationships toother terms and con-
common understanding ofthe terms and definitions contained cepts included inthe Glossary. Inthis third version, many defini-
herein. The Glossary isintended toserve asauseful European tions and some preferred terms have thus been amended. Many
reference document for EMN National Contact Points (NCPs) notes have been updated and inmany cases elaborated
andtheir national network members, policy-makers and other toprovide up-to-date information, toclarify the scope ofthe
practitioners inthe Member States, aswell asEU institutions, concept (and its understanding indifferent contexts) and
inorder tofacilitate the exchange ofinformation. Itprovides toindicate web sources from which further information can
common terminology for the concepts included and thereby besought. Each glossary entry now illustrates many more rela-
facilitates aprecise discourse onasylum and migration matters, tionships between terms equivalence relations between syn-
including inthe media. onyms, hierarchical relations with terms representing broader
ornarrower terms and associative relations between related
The EMN Asylum and Migration Glossary 3.0 isan updated version terms, thus allowing users toeasily navigate between related
ofthe EMN Glossary that was first published inJanuary 2010 and entries. All the preferred terms, aswell assynonyms, acronyms
later updated inJanuary 2012. This third version contains almost and alternative ordering for the preferred term, can befound
100 new entries and over 120 major amendments toexisting inanindex atthe end ofthe Glossary. Abibliography ofsources
ones toreflect new terminology and expressions, aswell asevo- isprovided asan annex. The bibliography lists terms referenced in
lutions inthe usage ofexisting terms that have been introduced the source field as well as the notes and definitions.
through the new legislation and policy onasylum and migration
inthe EU. Itincludes new terms introduced through the recast The Glossary was developed bythe members ofthe EMN Glossary
asylum acquis 1, the EUStrategy towards the Eradication ofTraf- and Thesaurus Working Group. The EMN would therefore like
ficking inHuman Beings 20122016 2 and the terminology used toacknowledge the extensive efforts ofthe working group
inEMN studies that have been published since the EMN Glossary members and its appreciation for the permission given byother
2.0, amongst other key documents. entities, specifically the International Labour Organisation (ILO),
the International Organisation for Migration (IOM), the Organi-
sation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) and the
United Nations (UN) tothe use ofterms and definitions that they
had developed previously and which are duly referenced inthe
Glossary. Likewise, the EMN would like tothank representatives
ofthe EUs multilingual interinstitutional terminology database
Inter-Active Terminology for Europe (IATE) 4 for their technical
support inupdating theGlossary.

In the subsequent sections, abrief overview ofthe EMN isgiven,


followed byan outline ofthe methodology used todevelop the
Glossary and some guidance asto its presentation and usage.

3 According tothe ISO standard 25964 apreferred term


(descriptor) isaterm used torepresent aconcept. When two
ormore terms representing the same concept inthe same
language exist, one ofthem isdesignated apreferred term
under which the main entry inthe Glossary (with definition,
1 See DGHOME website for further details: www.emn.europa.eu source and notes) islisted; the other(s) are listed under the
same entry assynonyms and inthe index tothe Glossary.
2 www.ec.europa.eu/home-affairs/doc_centre/crime/docs/
trafficking_in_human_beings_eradication-2012_2016_en.pdf 4 www.iate.europa.eu
5
2. The European Migration Network toterms relating tointernational protection and refugees, and
legal migration, aswell asirregular migration and return.
The need toexchange information onall aspects ofmigration Inaddition, terms that are relevant toasylum and migration, which
had already been identified inthe initial development pertain tofundamental rights, integration, equality and cross-
ofacommon EUAsylum and Migration Policy 5. Toimprove the border movement, are also included.
exchange ofinformation between and within Member States
across the wide range ofasylum and migration policy develop- The Glossary includes entries for European institutions, organi-
ments, information must becomparable between the Member sations and processes which play akey role inthe European
States tothe greatest possible extent, and for this aconsistent migration policy, including bodies contributing tothe implemen-
use ofterms isrequired. tation ofthe Global Approach toMigration and Mobility i.e. the
external dimension ofthe EUs policy onasylum and migration
Council Decision 2008/381/EC of14 May 2008 6 established (e.g. Bali Process, Black Sea Synergy).
alegal base for the European Migration Network. The purpose
ofthe EMN isto meet the information needs ofUnion institu- Throughout the Glossary, wherever there isareference toaphe-
tions and ofMember States authorities and institutions bypro- nomenon (e.g. migration), there isalways areference tothe cor-
viding up-to-date, objective, reliable and comparable information responding person (e.g. migrant). Tolimit redundancy for some
onasylum and migration, with aview tosupporting policy- terms, preference has been given tothe term for either aperson
making inthe European Union inthese areas. The EMN also orthe process, depending onwhich term ismore commonly
serves toprovide the general public with such information. Itis used. For example, highly qualified migrant isaterm that
coordinated bythe European Commission, which isassisted ismore commonly used than highly qualified migration.
bytwo Service Providers, incooperation with the National
Contact Points (EMN NCPs) from each EUMember State 7 plus There are some terms inthe Glossary that have been added for
Norway. More information onthe EMN, including its structure, the sake ofcompleteness but which are nolonger considered
activities, reports and studies, may beobtained from its website tobe incurrent use, e.g. guest worker. Insuch instances, the
(www.emn.europa.eu). rationale ishighlighted inthe notes.

One ofthe main objectives ofthe EMN asoutlined inArticle 3.2. Processes followed for updating
2(1c) ofCouncil Decision 2008/381/EC isto improve the con- theGlossary
sistency and comparability ofinformation between Member
States. The development ofacomprehensive glossary that iden- The Glossary was developed bythe EMNs Glossary and The-
tifies and describes different concepts central toasylum and saurus Working Group, which includes representatives from EMN
migration policy inthe EUis one ofthe main activities under- National Contact Points (NCPs) and, insome cases, experts from
taken bythe EMN toachieve this objective. EMN NCP networks, aswell asarepresentative from the
European Commission and the EMN Service Provider. Other
experts from different European institutions, such asthe
3. Method and approach followed European Asylum Support Office (EASO), IATE and the European
ASYLUM AND MIGRATION GLOSSARY 3.0

fordeveloping the EMN Glossary Union Agency for Fundamental Rights (FRA), also participated
onspecific issues.
3.1. Scope ofthe Glossary
The EMN Glossary reflects tothe greatest extent possible the
The EMN Glossary isamultilingual and multidisciplinary glossary most up-to-date developments inthe field ofasylum and
for terms that are important inthe field ofasylum and migration. migration, and the understanding ofterms and concepts. Inthis
Ithas afocus onlegal concepts deriving from the EUacquis, while way, the Glossary and Thesaurus Working Group aims tosupport
atthe same time acknowledging different understandings policy-makers atthe cusp ofdefining new concepts relevant
ofterms inamore global ornational context, orin different disci- tothe field. This published version ofthe Glossary isaccom-
plines (e.g. demography, sociology, economics). Emphasis isgiven panied byan online and interactive version that will beregularly
updated, and which isavailable via the EMN website. Readers
5 Tampere Council Conclusions, available from: are invited tosuggest new terms and/or definitions for the
www.europarl.europa.eu/summits/tam_en.htm Glossary, and tocomment onexisting ones, bycontacting the
6 Available at: EMN at: HOME-EMN@ec.europa.eu
www.eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/?uri=CELEX:32014R0516

7 Except Denmark.

6
3.3. Hierarchy ofsources for defining terms 3.4. Definitions

As existing definitions inthe field ofasylum and migration may Each EMN glossary definition has been formulated according
bevague, controversial orcontradictory, and asthere are, for tothe IATE standard, meaning that they can directly replace the
many terms, nouniversally accepted definitions, the Glossary term inany given text. For example, the term applicant for inter-
and Thesaurus Working Group established a hierarchy of sources national protection can bedirectly replaced inany text with its
from which definitions should be selected, with definitions given definition: third-country national orastateless person who has
in the EU acquis on asylum and immigration being prioritised made anapplication for international protection inrespect
above other definitions. ofwhich afinal decision has not yet been taken. Indue course,
the EMN glossary terms will also beincorporated into the
The hierarchy of sources of the definitions was, therefore as IATEdatabase.
follows:
Some terms are understood differently when they are used
1. EU directives/regulations/decisions and then any definitions inaglobal context, anEU context orspecific legal contexts (e.g.
given inEuropean Commission communications, particularly inthe context ofthe Schengen Convention orDublin Convention).
those with proposals for directives; Insuch cases, the context inwhich aterm should beunderstood
isindicated inthe definition.
2. other EUentities, including Eurostat, the European Agency for
the Management ofOperational Cooperation atthe External Bor- Terms which have aspecific linkage toasylum and migration
ders ofthe Member States ofthe European Union (FRONTEX), issues but which can beunderstood incontexts other than
the European Asylum Support Office (EASO), the European Union asylum and migration (e.g. access tohealthcare, school pupil,
Agency for Fundamental Rights (FRA), the National Contact student, researcher) are defined specifically for the asylum and
Points onIntegration, EUROJUST and the European Police Office migration context. Terms that donot have anobvious link
(EUROPOL); toasylum and migration (e.g. child care, civil war, (environ-
mental) disaster, economic sector, education, language) have
3. European/international conventions, treaties and protocols been omitted from the Glossary.
(e.g. onsmuggling, trafficking and forced labour from the United
Nations, the Council ofEurope and the International Criminal As many definitions are derived from the EUacquis, they are,
Court); inmost cases, valid for all EUand often for all EEA Member
States and Switzerland. Where national definitions deviate from
4. glossaries developed byinternational bodies, such asthe ILO, that ofthe Glossary, this isindicated inthe notes.
IOM, OECD and the United Nations High Commissioner for Refu-
gees (UNHCR); 3.5. Preferred terms and synonyms

5. other relevant (EU) projects/entities (e.g. the European Union Where multiple interchangeable terms (synonyms) were
Observatory onDemocracy 8, THESIM 9). available for asingle concept, apreferred term was selected
and all the other possible terms (including quasi-synonyms and
Some ofthe existing definitions ofglossary entries have been acronyms) were listed assynonyms. Insome cases, the synonym
modified soas tobetter reflect the usage ofthe term inthe ismore common inan EUMember State than the preferred
context ofasylum and migration policy inthe EU; where this term e.g. deportation ismore commonly used than removal
isthe case, itis indicated inthe source that the definition inmany EUMember States, even though removal isthe term
isderived by the EMN. Likewise, some definitions had tobe used inEU legislation. Insuch cases, anexplanatory note has
developed bythe working group itself, asthey could not been added toclarify national specificities.
besourced from the references outlined above; insuch cases the
entry source indicates that the definition was developed by
theEMN.

8 www.eudo-citizenship.eu/databases/citizenship-glossary/glossary

9 Towards Harmonised European Statistics onInternational


Migration (THESIM) project website available onthe
websiteofthe Universit Catholique deLouvain (UCL):
www.uclouvain.be/en-7823.html

7
4. Format ofthe EMN Glossary 4.4. Source ofinformation ofnotes

The development ofthe Glossary also included agreeing Unless indicated tothe contrary, all text appearing inthe note
onacommon approach with regard tothe formatting ofthe has the same source asthe definition.
terms and definitions, asoutlined inthis Section.
4.5. Translations
4.1. Order ofterms
Whilst the Glossary has been developed inEnglish bythe multi-
The preferred terms are listed in(English) alphabetical order. lingual members ofthe working group, another aspect, men-
Where the term isan expression orcompound word (i.e. com- tioned previously, was the need for translations. One feature
prised ofmore than one word), the entry reflects the ordering ofthe EMN Glossary isto have translations ofthe terms into
ofthe term incommon usage e.g. economic migration other EUMember State languages plus Norwegian. Version 3.0
orapplicant for international protection. Inthe previous version contains translations ofterms into 22 ofthe EUs 24 lan-
ofthe Glossary, some terms were ordered insuch away that guages 11. The translations are, tothe greatest possible extent,
kept the same theme together inthe Glossary e.g. migration direct translations ofthe English term, orotherwise atranslation
(economic) and migration (forced). The entry for migration that better reflects the definition given.
(economic) inversion 2.0 can now befound under economic
migration inversion 3.0. Entries are accessible using the pre- For some terms, notranslation was available, either because the
vious alternative word ordering via the index atthe back English term has been borrowed into the language and ismore
ofthisGlossary. commonly used, orbecause the term isnot used inanational
context. Inthe case ofthe former (English term preferred), this
4.2. Nominal agreement and gender isindicated under the field for the translation asno usual trans-
neutrality inthe Glossary lation. Inthe latter case (where the term isnot used atall
inanational context), this isindicated byno translation.
Terms are listed inthe singular (not plural) and, tothe greatest
extent possible, both the terms and their definitions are gender Conversely, some terms have more than one translation
neutral. For consistency with the IATE database, the gen- available inthe national context, depending onwhether ref-
der-neutral plural pronouns they, them, their have been used erence was being made tonational law orthe EUacquis.
throughout, even when referring tothe singular. While some Inthese cases, more translations have been provided, with
EUlanguages employ agender system ofagreement for nouns anindication asto the context (national orEU) inwhich they are
(e.g. inGerman, Migrant for amale migrant and Migrantin for used. Incases where there are nosuch indications, but more
afemale migrant), for simplicity and for consistency with the than one translation isgiven (separated bya/), the translations
EMN Glossary version2.0 only one gender form ofsuch terms can beused synonymously.
(the most generic) isused for these entries.
The acronyms used inthe Glossary for the translations refer
4.3. Use ofISO standards for listing tothe Member State languages. EUMember States having the
ASYLUM AND MIGRATION GLOSSARY 3.0

EUMember States and EUlanguages same nominal language (e.g. AT/DE/LU, BE/FR/LU orBE/NL) are
grouped together under the language DE, FR and NL and any
All reference to EU and EEA Member States (and Switzerland) and national deviations from the translation provided are indicated
their languages, whether inthe definition, notes orsub-heading, between parentheses e.g. the term asylum seeker istranslated
uses abbreviations according tothe country codes ofthe ISO asAsylwerber inAustria (AT), Asylbewerber inGermany (DE) and
standard 3166-alpha 10. All other countries and languages are inthe context ofthe EUacquis, and inLuxembourg (LU), Asylan
mentioned infull. Itshould benoted that the ISO codes for lan- tragsteller. Acomma isused toseparate synonyms ofthe trans-
guages often differ from the countries inwhich they are spoken lation inthe same nominal language 12.
i.e. Sweden isSE whereas Swedish isSV, but both France and
French are abbreviated toFR.

11 All except for Croatian and Danish.

12 Note that when the Norwegian terms differ inthe two official
versions ofwritten Norwegian, the two terms have
10 www.iso.org/iso/country_codes.htm been given inthe following format ...(b) / (n).

8
When there isvariation between countries inthe translation 4.7. References toother terms
ofaterm (e.g. between AT, DEand LU), either the form used intheGlossary
inofficial language versions ofEU law isused orwhere the term
isnot found inthe EUacquis, the most used term ischosen (e.g. Where apreferred term existing and defined elsewhere inthe
used inAT and DE, but not inLU) toavoid there being multiple Glossary isused inaparticular definition orby anindicated (hier-
terms provided per language. archical orassociative) relationship (see 4.6 above), then this
term isindicated inbold the first time itis used inthe definition
4.6. Relationships between terms and inthe notes. For example, the definition for the term
long-term resident isgiven asA third-country national who
Most ofthe entries listed inthe Glossary list anumber ofterms has long-term resident status asprovided for under Articles 4
related tothe preferred term through anequivalence, hierar- to7 ofCouncil Directive 2003/109/EC; third-country national
chical orassociative relationship. isin bold asit isdefined elsewhere inthe Glossary.

An equivalence relationship isarelationship between two


terms that represent the same concept and which are there-
fore (virtually) interchangeable. Inthe Glossary, synonyms
have anequivalence relationship and are understood toalso
include terms that may represent aslightly different concept
(i.e. quasi-synonyms), aswell asacronyms and abbreviations.
All synonyms are listed inthe index.

A hierarchical relationship isarelationship between apair


ofconcepts inwhich one falls within the scope ofthe other
see broader term and narrower term. Abroader term indi-
cates the relationship between amore generic and amore
specific term. For example, economic migrant isabroader
term ofthe term labour migrant, which inturn isthe nar-
rower term.

An associative relationship isarelationship between apair


ofconcepts that are not related hierarchically but which
share astrong semantic orconceptual connection. Such
related terms are not related inahierarchical manner but
have anassociation, which may help users tounderstand
wider contexts and meanings ofthe terms inwhich they have
aninterest.

9
A BG
CS
DE
absconding

skrvn se
Untertauchen
Definition
Action bywhich aperson seeks toavoid legal proceedings bynot
remaining available tothe relevant authorities orto the court.
EL
ES fuga Source
ET krvalehoidumine
Derived byEMN from the definition ofrisk ofabsconding,
FI pakeneminen
Art.3(7) ofDirective 2008/115/EC (Return Directive)
FR fuite
GA al s.; alaitheach a.
Narrower term
HU megszkik
risk ofabsconding
IT fuga
LT pasislpimas
LV aizbgana
MT arba / rib / Kontumaja
NL onderduiken
PL ucieczka
PT fuga / evaso
RO sustragere
SK tek
SL pobeg
SV avvikande
NO unndragelse (b) / unndraging(n)
ASYLUM AND MIGRATION GLOSSARY 3.0

10
accelerated international protection procedure A
B
BG Definition
An expedited procedure toexamine anapplication for interna- C
CS zrychlen zen omezinrodn ochran tional protection which iseither already deemed manifestly
DE beschleunigtes Verfahren fr internationalen Schutz unfounded, which involves serious national security orpublic D
EL order concerns, orwhich isasubsequent application.
ES tramitacin deurgencia E
ET kiirendatud rahvusvahelise kaitse menetlus
Source
FI kansainvlist suojelua koskeva nopeutettu F
Derived byEMN from the Council ofEuropes Guidelines
menettely
onhuman rights protection inthe context ofaccelerated asylum
FR procdure acclre detraitement dune demande
deprotection internationale
procedures 2009 G
GA Ns Imeachta Luathaithe umChosaint Idirnisinta
HU gyorstott menedkkrelmi eljrs
Synonyms H
accelerated procedure for international protection
IT procedura accelerata diprotezione internazionale
LT paspartinta prieglobsio procedra
speedy asylum procedure I
speedy international protection procedure
LV patrinta starptautisks aizsardzbas pieiranas
procedra J
MT Proedura aellerata gall-protezzjoni Notes
internazzjonali 1.Asper the Committee ofMinisters ofthe Council K
NL versnelde asielprocedure ofEuropes guidelines onhuman rights protection inthe context
PL procedura przyspieszona wsprawie oudzielenie ofaccelerated asylum procedures of1July 2009, the procedure L
ochrony midzynarodowej derogates from normally applicable procedural timescales and /
PT or procedural guarantees with aview toexpediting deci- M
RO procedura accelerata sion-making. For more information see https://wcd.coe.int/
SK zrchlen postup posudzovania iadosti ViewDoc.jsp?id=1469829&Site=CM N
omedzinrodn ochranu
SL pospeen postopek zapridobitev statusa 2.Directive 2013/32/EU (Recast Asylum Procedures Direc-
tive) recognises, inRecital 18ofthe Preamble and inArt.31(2)
O
mednarodne zaite
SV pskyndat prvningsfrfarande avanskan that itis inthe interest ofboth Member States and applicants
ominternationellt skydd for international protection for decisions tobe taken assoon
P
NO hurtigprosedyre for behandling avasylsknader (b) / aspossible. This Directive does not provide for minimum ormax-
hurtigprosedyre for handsaming avasylsknader(n) imum time limits for taking adecision onapplications for inter-
Q
national protection nor does itdefine the term accelerated
procedure. However, Art.31(2) does make clear that the speed R
ofthe asylum procedure may not prejudice an adequate and
complete examination ofthe asylum claim. S

3.Accelerated procedures must comply with the basic principles T


and guarantees laid down inChapter IIof Directive 2013/32/EU
and may beconducted only inlimited cases laid down U
inArt.31(8) ofthe Directive.
V
W
X
Y
Z

11
A BG
CS
DE
access to healthcare

pstup kezdravotn pi
Zugang zumedizinischer Versorgung
Synonyms
healthcare benefits
medical benefits
EL
ES acceso ala asistencia sanitaria Broader term
ET ligips tervishoiule social protection benefits
FI oikeus terveydenhuoltoon
FR accs aux soins desant
Notes
GA Rochtain arChram Slinte
1.In EUMember States, the scope ofhealthcare towhich
HU amigrnsok trsadalombiztostsi segszsggyi
athird-country national has access depends ontheir residence
elltsokhoz val hozzfrse
oremployment status. For further information see EMN:
IT accesso allassistenza sanitaria
Migrants access tosocial security and healthcare: policies
LT sveikatos prieiros paslaug prieinamumas
LV piekuve veselbas aprpei and practice, 2014.
MT Aess gas-servizzi tas-saa/ gall-kura sanitarja
NL toegang tot gezondheidszorg 2.According toCouncil Directive 2003/109/EC (Long Term
PL dostp doopieki zdrowotnej Residents Directive), long-term residents enjoy the same access
PT tohealthcare asnationals asdefined bynational law.
RO acces laingrijirea sanatatii / acces lasistemul
medical 3.Directive 2011/95/EU (Recast Qualification Directive)
SK prstup kzdravotnej starostlivosti grants access toadequate healthcare, including treatment
SL dostop dozdravstvenega varstva ofmental disorders when needed, tobeneficiaries ofinterna-
SV tillgng till hlso- och sjukvrd tional protection under the same eligibility conditions asnation-
NO tilgang til helsetjenester (b) / tilgang til helsetenester(n) als ofthe Member State that has granted such protection.

4.Directive 2013/33/EU (Recast Reception Conditions Direc-


tive) establishes minimum standards for access tohealthcare
Definition for applicants ofinternational protection during the asylum pro-
Healthcare entitlements enjoyed bythird-country nationals cedure. Asylum seekers are entitled toabasic treatment for
(migrants, applicants for international protection and refu- emergency care and essential treatment ofillnesses and ofseri-
gees) inEU Member States and intheir countries oforigin. ous mental disorder atno cost inmost countries. However, the
entitlement ofasylum seekers tohealthcare services depends
Source onnational legislation and varies among Member States. See for
Derived byEMN from Art.11ofCouncil Directive 2003/109/EC example, the EMN: Ad-Hoc Query onSystem ofmedical treat-
(Long Term Residents Directive) and Art.30ofDirective ment ofasylum seekers inMember States.
2011/95/EU (Recast Qualification Directive)
5.Access tohealthcare can beakey factor inthe process
ASYLUM AND MIGRATION GLOSSARY 3.0

ofdecision-making onapplications for international protection.


Subsidiary protection may apply ifthe asylum-seeker contends
that areturn tothe country oforigin isimpossible for health
reasons, asthe return ofasick person which isoften connected
with the medical standards inthe country ofreturn could con-
stitute abreach ofArt.3ECHR. Thus case workers have totake
into account whether medical treatment isavailable inthe coun-
try oforigin and whether the available medical treatment would
also be(e.g. financially) accessible tothe concerned person upon
return. For further information see the description ofthe MedCOI
project inthe List ofprojects funded bythe European Refugee
Fund in2011.

12
accommodation centre A
B
BG Definition
CS pobytov stedisko A place used for the collective housing ofapplicants for inter- C
DE Aufnahmeeinrichtung national protection.
EL D
ES centro deacogida Source
ET majutuskeskus
Art.2(i) ofDirective 2013/33/EU (Recast Reception Conditions E
FI vastaanottokeskus
Directive)
FR centre dhbergement F
GA lrionad cirochta (gu & ai: lrionaid chirochta)
Broader term
HU befogad lloms
IT struttura alloggiativa (per richiedenti asilo)
reception facilities G
LT apgyvendinimo centras
LV izmitinanas centrs
Related term H
reception centre
MT entru ta akkomodazzjoni
NL opvangcentrum (syn: asielzoekerscentrum) I
PL orodek dla osb ubiegajcych si ostatus uchodcy Note
PT centro deacolhimento For more information oncategories ofreception facilities availa- J
RO centru decazare iproceduri ble inEU Member States, see EMN: The Organisation ofRecep-
SK pobytov tbor (national law) / ubytovacie zariadenie tion Facilities for Asylum Seekers indifferent Member States, K
SL nastanitveni center 2014.
SV frlggning L
NO asylmottak / mottakssenter
M
N
acculturation O

BG Definition
P
CS akulturace A series ofchanges incultural mores (ideas, words, values,
DE Akkulturation norms, behaviour, institutions) resulting from direct and contin-
Q
EL uous contact and interaction between groups ofdifferent cul-
ES aculturacin tures, particularly through migratory movements oreconomic R
ET kultuuriline kohanemine exchange, the media and other channels.
FI akkulturaatio, sopeutuminen vieraaseen kulttuuriin S
FR acculturation
Source
GA athchultr
Derived byEMN from IOM Glossary onMigration, 2nd ed., T
HU akkulturci
2011and IOM Glossary onMigration, 1st ed., 2004
IT acculturazione U
LT akultracija
LV akulturcija
Synonym
MT Akkulturazzjoni
inculturation V
NL acculturatie
PL akulturacja Narrower terms W
assimilation
PT
RO aculturalizare integration X
SK akulturcia
SL akulturacija Y
SV ackulturation
NO assimilasjon Z

13
A BG
CS
DE
acquisition of citizenship

nabyt sttnho obanstv
Erwerb der Staatsangehrigkeit / Staatsbrgerschaft
Definition
Any mode ofbecoming anational, i.e. bybirth orat any time
after birth, automatic ornon-automatic, based onattribution,
EL declaration, option orapplication.
ES adquisicin yatribucin denacionalidad
ET kodakondsuse omandamine / kodakondsuse saamine
Source
FI kansalaisuuden saaminen
EUDO Online Glossary onCitizenship and Nationality
FR acquisition dela citoyennet
GA saornacht afhil
Broader term
HU llampolgrsg megszerzse
citizenship
IT acquisizione dicittadinanza
LT pilietybs gijimas
LV pilsonbas iegana
Narrower term
naturalisation
MT Ksib ta ittadinanza
NL verkrijging van het staatsburgerschap
PL nabywanie obywatelstwa Related terms
ius sanguinis
PT aquisio denacionalidade
ius soli
RO obtinerea cetateniei / dobandirea cetateniei
SK nadobudnutie ttneho obianstva / zskanie
ttneho obianstva Notes
SL pridobitev dravljanstva 1.Art.3(d) ofRegulation (EC) No. 862/2007 (Migration Statis-
SV frvrv avmedborgarskap tics Regulation) refers orrelates tothe acquisition ofcitizenship
NO erverv avstatsborgerskap (b) / tothose persons having their usual residence inthe territory
ervervavstatsborgarskap(n) ofthe Member State and having acquired during the reference
year the citizenship ofthe Member State and having formerly
held the citizenship ofanother Member State orathird country
orhaving formerly been astateless person.

2.One ofthe possible ways ofacquiring citizenship isthrough


naturalisation, which refers more tothe decision / administra-
tive process bythe relevant authorities for the granting
ofnationality.
ASYLUM AND MIGRATION GLOSSARY 3.0

14
act of persecution A
B
BG Definition
CS akt pronsledovn In the global context, acts ofhuman rights abuses orother seri- C
DE Verfolgungshandlung ous harm, often, but not always, with asystematic orrepetitive
EL element. D
ES actos depersecucin In the EUcontext and within the meaning ofArt.1A ofthe
ET tagakiusamisakt Geneva Convention of1951, acts which are: E
FI vainoksi katsottavat teot
(a) sufficiently serious bytheir nature orrepetition asto consti-
FR actes deperscution F
tute asevere violation ofbasic human rights, inparticular the
GA gnomh garleanna (iolra: gnomhartha
rights from which derogation cannot bemade under Art.15(2)
garleanna)
HU ldz(tet)snek minsl cselekmnyek
ofthe European Convention onHuman Rights; or G
(b) anaccumulation ofvarious measures, including violation
IT atti dipersecuzione
LT persekiojimo veiksmas
ofhuman rights which issufficiently severe asto affect anindi- H
LV vajanas darbba vidual inasimilar manner asmentioned in(a).
MT Att ta persekuzzjoni I
NL daden van vervolging Source
PL przeladowanie Global context: UNHCR Master Glossary ofTerms J
PT actos deperseguio EU context: Art.9ofDirective 2011/95/EU (Recast Qualification
RO act depersecutie Directive) K
SK in prenasledovania / akt prenasledovania
SL dejanje preganjanja Broader term L
SV frfljelse persecution
NO forflgelseshandlinger (b) / forflgingshandlingar(n) M
Related terms
actor ofpersecution N
group persecution
serious harm
O
Note
According toDirective 2011/95/EU (Recast Qualification
P
Directive), acts ofpersecution can, inter alia, take the form of:
Q
(a) acts ofphysical ormental violence, including acts ofsexual
violence; R

(b) legal, administrative, police, and / or judicial measures which S


are inthemselves discriminatory orwhich are implemented
inadiscriminatory manner; T

(c) prosecution orpunishment which isdisproportionate U


ordiscriminatory;
V
(d) denial ofjudicial redress resulting inadisproportionate
ordiscriminatory punishment; W
(e) prosecution orpunishment for refusal toperform military X
service inaconflict, where performing military service would
include crimes oracts falling within the scope ofthe grounds for Y
exclusion asset out inArt.12(2);
Z
(f) acts ofagender-specific orchild-specific nature.

15
A BG
CS
DE
actor of persecution

pvodce pronsledovn
Akteur, von dem eine Verfolgung oder ein ernsthafter
Definition
Any person causing persecution, such as:
(a) the State;
Schaden ausgehen kann (b) parties ororganisations controlling the State orasubstantial
EL part ofthe territory ofthe State;
ES agentes depersecucin (c) non-State actors, ifit can bedemonstrated that the actors
ET tagakiusaja
mentioned in(a) and (b), including international organisations,
FI vainon harjoittajat
are unable orunwilling toprovide protection against persecution
FR acteur dela perscution
orserious harm asdefined inArt.7ofDirective 2011/95/EU
GA gnomha garleanna (iolra: gnomhaithe
(Qualification Directive).
garleanna)
HU ldz(tet)s forrsai / alanyai
IT responsabili dipersecuzione
Source
LT persekiojimo vykdytojas Derived byEMN from Art.6ofDirective 2011/95/EU (Recast
LV vajanas dalbnieks Qualification Directive)
MT Aent / Awtur tatt ta persekuzzjoni
NL daders van vervolging Broader term
persecution
PL przeladowca
PT agentes deperseguio
RO agent depersecutie Related terms
SK pvodca prenasledovania / aktr prenasledovania act ofpersecution
SL storilec preganjanja group persecution
SV aktrer som utvar frfljelse
NO aktrer som eransvarlig for forflgelse / aktrer som
utver forflgelse (b) / aktrar som eransvarlege for
forflging / aktrar som utver forflging(n)

actor of protection
BG Definition
CS no translation Any person (individual orlegal) providing effective and non-tempo-
DE Akteur, der Schutz bieten kann rary protection against persecution orserious harm i.e. the State
EL orparties ororganisations, including international organisations,
ES agentes deproteccin controlling the State orasubstantial part ofthe territory ofthe
ET kaitset tagav isik State provided they are willing and able tooffer protection.
FI suojelun tarjoajat
ASYLUM AND MIGRATION GLOSSARY 3.0

FR acteur dela protection Source


GA gnomha cosanta (iolra: gnomhaithe cosanta) Derived byEMN from Art.7ofDirective 2011/95/EC (Recast
HU a vdelem szerepli Qualification Directive)
IT soggetto che offre protezione
LT apsaugos teikjas Broader term
LV aizsardzbas dalbnieks protection
MT Aent tatt ta protezzjoni
NL actoren van bescherming
PL podmiot udzielajcy ochrony
PT agentes deproteco
RO agent deprotectie
SK aktri ochrany
SL akter nudenja zaite
SV aktrer som ger skydd
NO aktrer som gir beskyttelse (b) /
aktrarsomgjevvern(n)
16
adaptation A
B
BG Definition
CS adaptace Process ofmodifying some orall ofones beliefs and / orattitudes C
DE Anpassung, Adaptation soas tosuit new conditions oflife.
EL D
ES adaptacin Source
ET kohanemine
UNHCR International Thesaurus ofRefugee Terminology E
FI sopeutuminen
FR adaptation F
Narrower terms
GA oirin
economic adaptation
HU adaptci / alkalmazkods
IT adattamento
linguistic adaptation G
occupational adaptation
LT adaptacija
LV pielgoans
school adaptation H
MT Addattament
NL aanpassing Related term I
integration
PL adaptacja
PT adaptao J
RO adaptare
SK prispsobenie / adaptcia K
SL prilagajanje / adaptacija
SV anpassning L
NO tilpasning (b) / tilpassing(n)
M
N
O
admission onto the territory P

BG Definition Q
CS povolen vstupu nazem The lawful entry ofan alien onto the territory ofaState after
DE Zulassung zum Hoheitsgebiet inspection and authorisation byan immigration officer. R
EL
ES entrada legal alterritorio Source S
ET riiki lubamine Derived byEMN from the definition ofadmission inIOM
FI maahantulon salliminen Glossary onMigration, 2nd ed., 2011 T
FR admission sur leterritoire
GA cead isteach sachroch Broader term U
HU egy llam terletre trtn beutazs legal entry
IT ammissione sul territorio V
LT leidimas teritorij Note
LV uzemana teritorij In countries signatory tothe Schengen Agreement, only citizens W
MT Dul fit-territorju
from countries which are not signatory tothe Schengen Agree-
NL toegang tot het grondgebied
PL przyjcie / dopuszczenie naterytorium
ment have togo through the admission process, whereas X
innon-Schengen countries all non-nationals have tobe admitted.
PT
RO admisie peteritoriu Y
SK povolenie vstupu nazemie ttu
SL (zakoniti) vstop naozemlje Z
SV tillstnd att resa inilandet
NO adgang til riket (b) / tilgjenge til riket(n)

17
A BG
CS
DE
adoption (of a child)

osvojen
Adoption
Definition
In the context ofdependants, the statutory process ofterminat-
ing legal rights and duties between the child and the natural
EL parents, and substituting similar rights and duties between the
ES adopcin child and the adoptive parents.
ET lapsendamine
FI adoptio
Source
FR adoption
IOM Glossary onMigration, 2nd ed., 2011
GA ucht; uchtil
HU rkbefogads
Narrower term
IT adozione
adoption of convenience
LT vaikinimas
LV adopcija
MT Addozzjoni
NL adoptie
PL adopcja
PT adopo
RO adoptare
SK osvojenie / adopcia
SL posvojitev
SV adoption
NO adopsjon

adoption (of legal acts)


BG Definition
CS pijet In the context ofaccords, inpublic international law, the formal
DE Adoption act bywhich negotiating parties establish the form and content
EL ofatreaty. The treaty isadopted through aspecific act express-
ES adopcin ing the will ofthe states and the international organisations
ET (igusakti) vastuvtmine participating inthe negotiation ofthat treaty, e.g. byvoting
FI adoptio onthe text, initialling, signing, etc. Adoption may also bethe
FR adoption
mechanism used toestablish the form and content ofamend-
GA glacadh
ASYLUM AND MIGRATION GLOSSARY 3.0

ments toatreaty, orregulations under atreaty.


HU elfogads
IT adozione
Source
LT (susitarimo) primimas
IOM Glossary onMigration, 2nd ed., 2011
LV pieemana
MT Aettazzjoni
NL goedkeuring
PL przyjcie
PT adopo
RO adoptie
SK prijatie
SL sprejetje
SV antagande
NO godkjenning

18
adoption of convenience A
B
BG no translation Definition
CS elov osvojen An adoption (of achild) contracted for the sole purpose ofena- C
DE Scheinadoption bling the person adopted toenter orreside inaMember State.
EL D
ES adopcin deconveniencia Source
ET mugavuslapsendamine
Art.16(2b) ofCouncil Directive 2003/86/EC (Family Reunification E
FI harhautustarkoituksessa toteutettu adoptio
Directive)
FR adoption decomplaisance F
GA ucht ise
Broader term
HU nvleges rkbefogads
IT adozione fittizia
adoption (of a child) G
LT fiktyvus vaikinimas
LV fiktva adopcija
Related terms H
civil
partnership ofconvenience
MT Addozzjoni ta konvenjenza
NL schijnadoptie
marriage ofconvenience I
partnership ofconvenience
PL adopcja fikcyjna
PT J
RO adoptie deconvenienta
SK elov osvojenie K
SL posvojitev izkoristoljubja
SV skenadoption L
NO proformaadopsjon
M
N
adult O

BG Definition
P
CS dospel osoba Every human being aged 18years ormore unless, under the law
DE Erwachsener applicable tothe adult, majority isattained later.
Q
EL
ES adulto Source R
ET tisealine Derived byEMN from the definition ofchild inEMN Glossary
FI aikuinen S
FR adulte
Related terms
GA aosach child T
HU felntt
minor
IT adulto/ maggiorenne U
LT pilnametis
LV pieauguais
Note
MT Adult(a)
Adulthood can bedefined interms ofbiology, psychological V
NL volwassene adult development, law, personal character orsocial status.
PL osoba penoletnia Forthe purposes ofthis glossary, amore legal definition isused. W
PT adulto/ maior deidade
RO adult X
SK dospel osoba
SL odrasel Y
SV vuxen
NO voksen (b) / vaksen(n) Z

19
A BG

CS
Africa Caribbean Pacific Observatory on Migration
,

Observato pro migraci stt Afriky, Karibiku
Definition
A reference network ofmigration research institutions and gov-
ernmental entities dealing with migration inthe six regions
aPacifiku ofthe Africa Caribbean Pacific (ACP) Group ofStates, namely
DE Beobachtungsstelle fr Migration inAfrika, West Africa, Central Africa, East Africa, Southern Africa, the
inderKaribik und impazifischen Raum Caribbean and the Pacific, designed toproduce data onSouth-
EL
South ACP migration flows for civil society and policy-makers,
ES Observatorio sobre Migraciones Africa Caribe Pacfico
and enhance research capacities inACP countries through net-
ET Aafrika, Kariibi mere jaVaikse ookeani piirkonna
working and cooperation among organisations.
riikide rnde vaatluskeskus
FI Afrikan, Karibian jaTyynenmeren alueen
Source
muuttoliikkeiden seurantakeskus
Website ofthe ACP Observatory onMigration
FR Observatoire Afrique, Carabes, Pacifique
surlesmigrations
GA Faireachlann Stit nahAfraice, Mhuir Chairib agus Synonyms
ACP
anAigin Chiin umImirce, Faireachlann ACC
ACP Observatory onMigration
umImirce
HU Afrikai, Karibi sCsendes-ceni Migrcis
Megfigyel Kzpont Related terms
European Migration Network
IT Osservatorio Africa, Caraibi ePacifico sulle
Global Approach toMigration and Mobility
migrazioni
LT Afrikos, Karib irRamiojo vandenyno regiono
migracijos stebsenos tinklas Notes
LV frikas, Karbu jras reiona unKlus okena valstu 1.The ACP was established in2010onthe initiative ofthe Sec-
migrcijas novroanas centrs retariat ofthe ACP Group ofStates, empowered bythe Interna-
MT Osservatorju (L-) tal-Afrika, Karibew uPaifiku fuq tional Organization for Migration (IOM) and funded bythe
il-Migrazzjoni European Union with the financial support ofCH.
NL Africa Caribbean Pacific Observatory on Migration
PL Obserwatorium Migracji pastw Afryki, Karaibw 2.Activities are undertaken in12pilot countries (Angola, Cameroon,
iPacyfiku the Democratic Republic ofthe Congo, Haiti, Kenya, Lesotho,
PT Nigeria, Papua New Guinea, Senegal, Tanzania, TimorLeste and
RO Observator cuprivire lamigratie Africa Caraibe Trinidad and Tobago).
Pacific
SK Observatrium Skupiny africkch, karibskch 3.For more information see: http://www.acpmigration-obs.org/
atichomorskch ttov pre migrciu
SL Afriko - Karibsko - Pacifiki observatorij zamigracije
SV Africa Caribbean Pacific Observatory onMigration
ASYLUM AND MIGRATION GLOSSARY 3.0

(nousual translation)
NO Africa Caribbean Pacific Observatory onMigration
(nousual translation)

20
Africa-EU Migration, Mobility and Employment Partnership A
B
BG , Definition
A partnership that provides comprehensive responses tothe C
CS Partnerstv EU-Afrika pro migraci, mobilitu issues ofmigration, mobility and employment, inthe interest
azamstnanost ofall partners, with the particular objectives tocreate more and D
DE Afrika-EU Partnerschaft inden Bereichen Migration, better jobs for Africa and tobetter manage migration flows.
Mobilitt und Beschftigung E
EL
Source
ES Asociacin frica-UE sobre migracin, F
Website ofthe Africa-EU Partnership
movilidadyempleo
ET Aafrika-EL migratsiooni, mobiilsuse jathive
partnerlus
Synonyms G
Africa-EU MME Partnership
FI Afrikan jaEU:n kumppanuus muuttoliikkeen,
liikkuvuuden jatyllisyyden aloilla
MME Partnership H
FR Partenariat Afrique-UE sur les migrations, lamobilit
etlemploi
Broader term I
Africa-EU Partnership
GA Comhphirtocht anAE agus nahAfraice maidir
lehImirce, Soghluaisteacht agus Fostaocht J
HU Afrika-EU kztti Migrcis, Mobilitsi Related terms
sFoglalkoztatsi Partnersg Dialogue onMediterranean Transit Migration K
Global Approach toMigration and Mobility
IT Partenariato Africa-UE inmateria diMigrazione,
Mobilit eOccupazione L
LT ES-Afrikos partneryst migracijos, mobilumo Notes
iruimtumo srityse 1.The MME Partnership was launched during the 2nd Africa-EU M
LV frikas unES Migrcijas, mobilittes Summit ofHeads ofState and Government inDecember
unnodarbintbas partnerba 2007inLisbon, where the Joint EU-Africa Strategy and the First N
MT Subija bejn l-Afrika ul-UE dwar Migrazzjoni, Action Plan (2008-2010) were adopted.
Mobilit uImpiegi O
NL Afrika-EU-Partnerschap inzake migratie, mobiliteit 2.The partnership aims toensure sustainable development and the
enwerkgelegenheid implementation ofrelevant international agreements and declara-
tions, relying inparticular onthe Tripoli Declaration onMigration
P
PL Partnerstwo UE-Afryka narzecz migracji, mobilnoci
izatrudnienia and Development, the Ouagadougou Action Plan to Combat Traf-
PT Parceria Africa-UE para asmigraes, mobilidade ficking inHuman Beings, especially Women and Children and the
Q
eemprego Ouagadougou Declaration and Plan ofAction for Promotion
RO Parteneriatul Africa-EU cuprivire lamigraie. ofEmployment and Poverty Alleviation. R
mobilitate iangajare
SK Partnesrtvo Afrika - Evoblasti migrcie, mobility 3.Itcovers one ofthe eight areas ofcooperation ofthe Afri- S
azamestnanosti ca-EU (Strategic) Partnership, which isthe formal channel
SL Afrika - EUPartnerstvo zamigracije, mobilnost through which the European Union and the African Union work T
inzaposlovanje together, and which provides the overarching long-term frame-
SV MME-partnerskapet (migration, rrlighet och work for Africa-EU relations. U
sysselsttning)
NO AfrikaEU migrasjons-, mobilitets- ogsysselsettings 4.For more information, see: V
partnerskap (b) / AfrikaEU migrasjons-, mobilitets- http://www.africa-eu-partnership.org/
ogsysselsetjingspartnarskap W
X
Y
Z

21
A BG
CS
DE
age assessment

uren vku
Altersfeststellung
Definition
Process bywhich authorities seek toestablish the chronological
age, orrange ofage, ofaperson inorder todetermine whether
EL anindividual isachild ornot.
ES determinacin dela edad
ET vanuse mramine
Source
FI in mrittminen, in selvittminen
Derived byEMN from EASO: Age assessment practice inEurope,
FR dtermination delge
2013
GA measn aoise
HU kormeghatrozs
Related terms
IT accertamento dellet
child
LT amiaus nustatymas
minor
LV vecuma noteikana
MT Valutazzjoni / Stima tal-et
NL leeftijdsonderzoek Notes
PL ustalenie / ocena wieku 1.Art.4 (3) ofCouncil Resolution of26June 1997onunac-
PT companied minors states that inprinciple, unaccompanied asy-
RO evaluarea varstei lum-seekers claiming tobe minors must produce evidence
SK posdenie veku oftheir age. Ifsuch evidence isnot available orserious doubt
SL ocenjevanje starosti persists, Member States may carry out anage assessment. Age
SV ldersbedmning assessment should becarried out objectively. For such purposes,
NO aldersvurdering Member States may have amedical age-test carried out
byqualified medical personnel, with the consent ofthe minor,
aspecially appointed adult representative orinstitution.

2.According toUN Committee onthe Rights ofthe Child, Gen-


eral Comment No. 6, the identification ofachild asan unac-
companied and separated child (UASC) includes age assessment,
which should take into account physical appearance, but also
psychological maturity. The assessment must beconducted
inascientific, safe, child and gender-sensitive and fair manner,
avoiding any risk ofviolation ofthe physical integrity ofthe
child, giving due respect tohuman dignity.

3.Age assessment can include avariety ofprocesses orproce-


dures either undertaken singularly orin combination, such as:
analysis ofdocumentary evidence, interview, X-ray, physical
ASYLUM AND MIGRATION GLOSSARY 3.0

orother form ofmedical examination.

22
airport transit visa A
B
BG Definition
CS letitn prjezdn vzum A visa valid for transit through the international transit areas C
DE Visum fr den Flughafentransit ofone ormore airports ofthe Member States.
EL D
ES visado detrnsito aeroportuario Source
ET lennujaama transiidiviisa
Art.2(m) ofRegulation (EU) No604/2013 (Dublin III Regulation) E
FI lentokentn kauttakulkuviisumi
FR visa detransit aroportuaire F
Broader term
GA vosa idirthurais aerfoirt
visa
HU repltri tranzit vzum
IT visto ditransito aeroportuale
G
LT oro uosto tranzitin viza
Related terms
LV lidostas tranztvza
long-stay visa H
short-stay visa
MT Via gat-transitu fl-ajruport
NL luchthaventransitvisum I
PL lotniskowa wiza tranzytowa
PT J
RO viza detranzit aeroportuar
SK letiskov tranzitn vzum K
SL letaliki tranzitni vizum
SV visering fr flygplatstransitering L
NO transittvisum for lufthavn (b) /
transittvisumforlufthamn (n) M
N
alien O

BG Definition
P
CS cizinec; cizinec zetet zem In the global context, aperson who isnot anational (native
DE Auslnder orcitizen) ofagiven State.
Q
EL In the EUcontext, aperson who isnot anational ofaMember
ES extranjero State ofthe European Union. R
ET vlismaalane
FI ulkomaalainen Source S
FR tranger
Global context: Derived byEMN from IOM Glossary onMigration,
GA eachtrannach
2nd ed., 2011 T
HU klfldi
EU context: Schengen acquis
IT straniero U
LT usienietis
LV rzemnieks
Synonyms
MT Persuna barranija / gariba
foreigner V
non-citizen
NL vreemdeling
PL cudzoziemiec
non-national W
PT estrangeiro
RO strin Related terms X
non-EU national
SK cudzinec
SL tujec third-country national Y
SV utlnning
NO utlending / utenlandsk borger (b) / utlending / Note Z
utanlandsk borgar(n) The more frequently used term inthe EUcontext isthird-
country national.

23
A BG
CS
DE
alternative to detention

alternativa kzajitn
Alternative zur Inhaftierung / Inhaftnahme,
Definition
Non-custodial measures used tomonitor and / or limit the move-
ment ofthird-country nationals inadvance ofcompulsory
Haftalternative; Alternative zur Schubhaft / return ordeciding onthe individuals right toremain inthe
gelinderes Mittel (AT) Member State, such asregular reporting, the surrender ofafinan-
EL cial guarantee ortravel documents, electronic monitoring.
ES alternativas alinternamiento
ET kinnipidamise alternatiivid
Source
FI silnotolle vaihtoehtoiset turvaamistoimet
Derived byEMN from Art.8(4) ofDirective 2013/33/EU (Recast
FR alternative la dtention / rtention
Reception Conditions Directive)
GA malairt archoinneil (iolra: malairt archoinneil)
HU a fogvatarts alternatvi
IT disposizione alternativa altrattenimento
Related term
detention
LT alternatyvi sulaikymui priemon
LV alternatva aizturanai
MT Alternattiva gad-detenzjoni Notes
NL alternatief voor bewaring 1.Alternatives todetention usually provide more favourable
PL alternatywa wobec zatrzymania (less coercive) conditions for the potential detainee, and may
PT also bemore cost-efficient. They are still subject tohuman
RO alternativa lamasura detentiei rights standards.
SK alternatva kzaisteniu / alternatva zaistenia
SL alternativa kpridranju/ alternativa komejitvi gibanja 2.Reception facilities can beconsidered analternative
SV alternativ till frvar todetention only incases where the individual concerned has
NO alternativ til forvaring toreport regularly tothe competent authorities, orif there are
residency requirements.

3.For further information see EMN: Use ofdetention and alter-


natives todetention inthe context ofimmigration policies,
2014.
ASYLUM AND MIGRATION GLOSSARY 3.0

24
applicant for international protection A
B
BG Definition
CS adatel omezinrodn ochranu A third-country national orastateless person who has made C
DE Antragsteller auf internationalen Schutz anapplication for international protection inrespect ofwhich
EL afinal decision has not yet been taken. D
ES solicitante deproteccin internacional
ET rahvusvahelise kaitse taotleja
Source E
FI kansainvlist suojelua hakeva
Art.2(i) ofDirective 2011/95/EU (Recast Qualification Directive)
FR demandeur deprotection internationale F
GA iarratasir archosaint idirnisinta
Narrower terms
HU menedkkr
IT richiedente protezione internazionale
asylum seeker G
applicant in need of special procedural
LT prieglobsio praytojas
LV pieteikuma iesniedzjs, kas ldz starptautisko
guarantees H
applicant with special reception needs
aizsardzbu
MT Applikant(a) gall-protezzjoni internazzjonali
examination of an application I
NL persoon die ominternationale bescherming verzoekt forinternationalprotection
PL wnioskodawca oudzielenie ochrony midzynarodowej rejected applicant for international protection J
PT requerente de proteco internacional
RO solicitant alprotectiei internationale Related terms K
SK iadate omedzinrodn ochranu (EU acquis) beneficiary of international protection
person eligible for subsidiary protection
SL prosilec zamednarodno zaito L
SV skande avinternationellt skydd
NO person som sker ominternasjonal beskyttelse (b) / M
person som skjer ominternasjonalt vern(n)
N
O
P
Q
R
S
T
U
V
W
X
Y
Z

25
A BG

CS
applicant in need of special procedural guarantees
,

adatel, kter potebuje zvltn procesn zruky
Definition
An applicant whose ability tobenefit from the rights and obliga-
tions provided for inDirective 2013/32/EU (Recast Asylum
DE Antragsteller, der besondere Verfahrensgarantien Procedures Directive) islimited due toindividual circumstances.
bentigt
EL Source
ES solicitante que necesita garantas procedimentales
Art.2(d) ofDirective 2013/32/EU (Recast Asylum Procedures
especiales
Directive)
ET spetsiaalseid menetlustagatisi vajav taotleja
FI hakija, joka tarvitsee erityisi menettelyllisi takeita
Broader term
FR demandeur ncessitant des garanties procdurales
applicant for international protection
spciales
GA iarratasir abhfuil sainrthaochta ns imeachta
dedhth air
Related term
applicant with special reception needs
HU klnleges eljrsi garancikat ignyl krelmez
IT richiedente che necessita digaranzie procedurali
particolari
LT praytojas, kuriam reikia speciali procedrini
garantij
LV pieteikuma iesniedzjs, kuram nepiecieamas paas
procesuls garantijas
MT Applikant(a) bitiea / fil-bonn ta garanziji
proedurali spejali
NL verzoeker die bijzondere procedurele waarborgen
behoeft
PL wnioskodawca wymagajcy specjalnych gwarancji
proceduralnych
PT requerente com necessidade de garantias
processuais especiais
RO solicitant care mecesita garantii procedurale speciale
SK iadate, ktor potrebuje osobitn procesn zruky
(EU acquis)
SL prosilec, kipotrebuje posebna postopkovna jamstva
SV skande ibehov avsrskilda frfarandegarantier
NO sker som har behov for srskilt
saksbehandlingsprosedyre (b) / skjar som treng
srskild sakshandsamingsprosedyre(n)
ASYLUM AND MIGRATION GLOSSARY 3.0

26
applicant with special reception needs A
B
BG Definition
CS adatel sezvltnmi potebami pi pijet A vulnerable person, inaccordance with Art.21ofDirective C
DE Antragsteller mit besonderen Bedrfnissen 2013/33/EU, who isin need ofspecial guarantees inorder
beiderAufnahme tobenefit from the rights and obligations provided for inCouncil D
EL Directive 2013/33/EU.
ES solicitante con necesidades deacogida particulares E
ET taotleja, kes vajab vastuvtu eritingimusi
Source
FI hakija, jolla onerityisi vastaanottotarpeita F
Art.2(k) ofDirective 2013/33/EU (Recast Reception Conditions
FR demandeur ayant des besoins particuliers
Directive)
enmatiredaccueil
GA iarratasir abhfuil sainriachtanais filtithe aige
G
HU klnleges befogadsi ignyekkel rendelkez
Broader terms
krelmez
applicant for international protection H
vulnerable person
IT richiedente con esigenze diaccoglienza particolari
LT speciali primimo poreiki turintis praytojas I
LV pieteikuma iesniedzjs arpam uzemanas Related term
vajadzbm applicant
inneed ofspecial procedural J
MT Applikant(a) bibonnijiet spejali ta akkoljenza guarantees
NL persoon met bijzondere opvangbehoeften K
PL wnioskodawca oszczeglnych potrzebach
wzakresieprzyjmowania L
PT requerente com necessidades de acolhimento
especiais M
RO solicitant cunevoi speciale deprimire
SK iadate sosobitnmi potrebami pri prijman N
(EUacquis)
SL prosilec sposebnimi sprejemnimi potrebami O
SV skande med srskilda mottagandebehov
NO sker som har behov for srskilte
innkvarteringsforhold (b) /
P
skjar som treng srskildeinnkvarteringstilhve(n)
Q
R
S
T
U
V
W
X
Y
Z

27
A BG
CS
DE
application for asylum

dost oazyl
Asylantrag
Definition
An application made byaforeigner orastateless person which
can beunderstood asarequest for protection under the Geneva
EL Convention of1951ornational refugee law.
ES solicitud deasilo
ET varjupaigataotlus
Source
FI turvapaikkahakemus
Derived byEMN from the definition inArt.2 (b) ofCouncil Directive
FR demande dasile
2003/9/EC (Reception Conditions Directive)
GA iarratas arthearmann
HU menedkjog irnti krelem
Synonym
IT domanda dasilo
asylum application
LT praymas suteikti prieglobst
LV patvruma pieteikums
MT Talba / Applikazzjoni gall-ail Broader term
application for international protection
NL asielverzoek (syn.: asielaanvraag)
PL wniosek oazyl
PT pedido deasilo Narrower term
unfounded application for international
RO cerere deazil
SK iados oudelenie azylu / iados oazyl protection
SL pronja zaazil
SV asylanskan Notes
NO asylsknad 1.Inmost Member States this term isunderstood asasynonym
toapplication for international protection following the adop-
tion ofDirective 2011/95/EU (Recast Qualification Directive)
and Directive 2013/32/EU (Recast Asylum Procedures Direc-
tive). However, UKand IE, which have not adopted the single
procedure, continue touse the term application for asylum for
anapplication for protection under the Geneva Convention only.
InDE the term isstill used toinclude, inaddition tothe applica-
tion for international protection according the Qualification
Directive, also the application according tothe national legisla-
tion, Art.16a Basic Law.

2.Outside EU legislation and ineveryday use, the terms asylum


application and application for asylum are often used more
frequently than application for international protection.
ASYLUM AND MIGRATION GLOSSARY 3.0

3.According toProtocol 29ofTFEU onasylum for nationals


ofMember States ofthe European Union (1997), EUMember
States shall beregarded asconstituting safe countries oforigin
inrespect ofeach other for all legal and practical purposes
inrelation toasylum matters. Accordingly, any application for
asylum made byanational ofaMember State isnormally not
taken into consideration. Inpractice, non-EU countries can
receive applications for asylum from EUMember States.

28
application for international protection A
B
BG Definition
CS dost omezinrodn ochranu A request made byathird-country national orastateless per- C
DE Antrag auf internationalen Schutz son for protection from aMember State, who can beunder-
EL stood toseek refugee status orsubsidiary protection status, D
ES solicitud deproteccin internacional and who does not explicitly request another kind ofprotection,
ET rahvusvahelise kaitse taotlus outside the scope ofDirective 2011/95/EU, that can beapplied E
FI kansainvlist suojelua koskeva hakemus
for separately.
FR demande deprotection internationale F
GA iarratas archosaint idirnisinta
Source
HU nemzetkzi vdelem irnti krelem
IT domanda diprotezione internazionale
Art.2(h) ofDirective 2011/95/EU (Recast Qualification Directive) G
LT praymas suteikti prieglobst
LV starptautisks aizsardzbas pieteikums
Narrower terms H
application for asylum
MT Talba gall-protezzjoni internazzjonali
NL verzoek ominternationale bescherming
examination of an application I
PL wniosek oudzielenie ochrony midzynarodowej forinternationalprotection
PT pedido deproteco internacional subsequent application J
RO cerere deprotectie internationala forinternationalprotection
SK iados omedzinrodn ochranu (EU acquis) unfounded application for international K
SL pronja zamednarodno zaito protection
withdrawal of an application
SV anskan ominternationellt skydd L
NO sknad ominternasjonal beskyttelse (b) / forinternationalprotection
sknadominternasjonalt vern(n) M
Notes
1.Inmost Member States this term isunderstood asasynonym N
toapplication for asylum following the adoption ofDirective
2011/95/EU (Recast Qualification Directive) and Directive
2013/32/EU (Recast Asylum Procedures Directive).
O

2.Ineveryday use, the terms asylum application and applica-


P
tion for asylum are often used more frequently than application
for international protection.
Q

3.According toProtocol 29ofTFEU onasylum for nationals R


ofMember States ofthe European Union (1997), EUMember
States shall beregarded asconstituting safe countries oforigin S
inrespect ofeach other for all legal and practical purposes
inrelation toasylum matters. Accordingly, any application for T
asylum made byanational ofaMember State isnormally not
taken into consideration. U
V
W
X
Y
Z

29
A BG
CS
DE
apprehension

zadren
Aufgriff, Ergreifung, Festnahme
Definition
In the EUmigration context, any legal action bythe relevant
national authority(ies) tolimit the freedom ofmovement
EL ofathird-country national found tobe illegally present.
ES aprehensin
ET kinnipidamine
Source
FI kiinniottaminen, pidttminen
Developed byEMN
FR apprhension, arrestation
GA gabhil
Related terms
HU rizetbe vtel
irregular migrant
IT arresto
third-country national found tobe illegally
LT sulaikymas
present
LV aizturana
MT Qbid / Arrest
NL aanhouding
PL zatrzymanie
PT deteco
RO luare incustodie publica
SK zadranie (EU acquis) / predvedenie (national law)
SL prijetje / aretacija
SV kvarhllande
NO pgripelse (b) / pgriping(n)

Asia-Europe Meeting
BG - Definition
CS Asijsko-evropsk setkn An informal process ofdialogue and cooperation bringing together
DE Asien-Europa-Treffen countries ofthe two regions (27EUMember States, two other
EL European countries and 20Asian countries), the European
ES Conferencia Asia-Europa Commission and the Association ofSoutheast Asian Nations
ET Aasia-Euroopa kohtumine (ASEAN) Secretariat which addresses political, economic and cultural
FI Aasian jaEuroopan yhteistyfoorumi issues, with the objective ofstrengthening the relationship between
FR Runion Asie-Europe the two regions, inaspirit ofmutual respect and equal partnership.
GA Cruinni den is agus den Eoraip
HU zsia-Eurpa Tallkoz Source
IT Meeting Asia-Europa
ASYLUM AND MIGRATION GLOSSARY 3.0

Website ofthe ASEM


LT Azijos irEuropos susitikimas
LV zijas unEiropas sanksme Synonym
MT Inkontru (L-) Asja-Ewropa (IAsE) ASEM
NL Asia-Europe Meeting
PL Asia-Europe Meeting
Related term
PT Cimeira sia-Europa
Global Approach toMigration and Mobility
RO Reuniunea Asia Europa
SK Frum zia - Eurpa
SL Azijsko - Evropski sestanek
Notes
1.ASEM was initiated in1996inBangkok.
SV Asia-Europe Meeting
NO Asia-Europe Meeting
2.Inthe political field, areas ofcommon interest include the
fight against terrorism orthe management ofmigration flows;
discussions onhuman rights, onthe protection ofchildren, and
onthe impact ofglobalisation.

3.For more information, see: http://www.aseminfoboard.org/


30
assimilation A
B
BG Definition
CS asimilace The gradual process bywhich aminority group adopts the pat- C
DE Assimilation terns ofbehaviour ofamajority group orhost society and is
EL eventually absorbed bythe majority group / host society. D
ES asimilacin
ET assimileeruma
Source E
FI assimilaatio
Malgesini and Gimnez: Gua deconceptos sobre migraciones
FR assimilation F
racismo einteculturalidad, 2000
GA asamhl
HU asszimilci
IT assimilazione
Synonym G
cultural assimilation
LT asimiliacija
LV asimilcija H
MT Assimilazzjoni Broader term
NL assimilatie
acculturation I
PL asymilacja
PT assimilao J
RO asimilare
SK asimilcia K
SL asimilacija
SV assimilering L
NO assimilering
M
assisted voluntary return N

BG / Definition
O
CS asistovan dobrovoln nvrat Voluntary return orvoluntary departure supported bylogisti-
DE untersttzte freiwillige Rckkehr cal, financial and / or other material assistance.
P
EL
ES retorno (voluntario asistido) Source Q
ET toetatud vabatahtlik lahkumine Developed byEMN
FI tuettu vapaaehtoinen paluu R
FR aide auretour volontaire Broader terms
GA cur ar ais deonach cuidithe voluntary departure S
HU tmogatott nkntes hazatrs voluntary return
IT ritorno volontario assistito T
LT savanorikas grimas (remiamas)
LV atbalstta brvprtga atgrieans U
MT Ritorn volontarju assistit
NL gefaciliteerde vrijwillige terugkeer V
PL wspomagany dobrowolny powrt
PT regresso voluntrio
W
RO returnare voluntar asistat
SK asistovan dobrovon nvrat
SL prostovoljno vraanje spomojo
X
SV sjlvmant tervndande
NO assistert retur Y
Z

31
A BG
CS
DE
asylum

azyl
Asyl
Definition
A form ofprotection given byaState onits territory, based
onthe principle ofnon-refoulement and internationally
EL ornationally recognised refugee rights and which isgranted
ES asilo toaperson who isunable toseek protection intheir country
ET varjupaik ofcitizenship and / or residence, inparticular for fear ofbeing
FI turvapaikka persecuted for reasons ofrace, religion, nationality, membership
FR asile
ofaparticular social group orpolitical opinion.
GA tearmann
HU menedkjog
Source
IT asilo
Developed byEMN
LT prieglobstis
LV patvrums
MT Ail
Narrower term
right ofasylum
NL asiel
PL azyl
PT asilo Related term
international protection
RO azil
SK azyl
SL azil Note
SV asyl The literal translation ofthis term inBulgarian (the word
NO asyl ) refers toaspecific kind ofprotection which isgranted
bythe President ofthe Republic ofBulgaria and differs from the
protection granted onthe basis ofthe Geneva Convention Relating
tothe Status ofRefugees (1951).
ASYLUM AND MIGRATION GLOSSARY 3.0

32
asylum seeker A
B
BG Definition
CS adatel oazyl In the global context, aperson who seeks safety from persecu- C
DE Asylbewerber (EU acquis) / Asylwerber (AT) tion orserious harm inacountry other than their own and
EL awaits adecision onthe application for refugee status under D
ES solicitante deasilo relevant international and national instruments.
ET varjupaigataotleja In the EUcontext, aperson who has made anapplication for pro- E
FI turvapaikanhakija tection under the Geneva Convention inrespect ofwhich afinal
FR demandeur dasile F
decision has not yet been taken.
GA iarratasir arthearmann
HU menedkkr
IT richiedente asilo
Source G
Global context: Derived byEMN from IOM glossary onmigration,
LT prieglobsio praytojas
LV patvruma mekltjs
2nd ed. 2011 H
EU context: Derived byEMN from Art.2(c) ofCouncil Directive
MT Applikant(a) gall-ail
NL asielzoeker 2003/9/EC (Asylum Procedures Directive) I
PL osoba ubiegajca si onadanie statusu
uchodcy(azyl) Synonym J
asylum applicant
PT requerente deasilo
RO solicitant deazil K
SK iadate oudelenie azylu / iadate oazyl Broader term
applicant for international protection
SL prosilec zaazil L
SV asylskande
NO asylsker (b) / asylskjar(n) Related term M
refugee

N
Notes
1.This definition generally refers toall who apply for protection
onan individual basis, irrespective ofwhether they lodge their
O
application onarrival atan airport orland border, orfrom inside
the country, and irrespective ofwhether they entered the terri-
P
tory legally orillegally.
Q
2.Inmost Member States this term isunderstood asasynonym
toapplicant for international protection following the adoption R
ofDirective 2011/95/EU (Recast Qualification Directive) and
Directive 2013/32/EC (Recast Asylum Procedures Directive). S
However, other Member States, such asthe UKand IEwhich
have not adopted the single procedure, continue touse the term T
asylum seeker for anapplicant who requests protection under
the Geneva Convention only. InDE the term isstill used U
toinclude, inaddition tothe provisions ofDirective 2011/95/EU,
those ofthe national legislation, Art.16a Basic Law. V
3.Outside EU legislation, the terms asylum seeker orasylum W
applicant are often used more frequently than applicant for
international protection inthe everyday use ofthe term. X
Y
Z

33
A BG
CS
DE
asylum shopping

asylum shopping
Asyl-Shopping
Definition
In the context ofthe Dublin Regulation, the phenomenon where
third-country nationals apply for international protection inmore
EL than one Member State with orwithout having already received
- international protection inone ofthose Member States.
ES compra deasilo
ET varjupaigaostlemine Source
FI turvapaikkashoppailu, edullisimman kohtelun
Derived byEMN from Commission Staff Working Document
tarjoavan maan etsint
SEC/2008/2029
FR no usual translation
GA siopadireacht tearmainn
Broader term
HU no usual translation
secondary movement ofmigrants
IT asylum shopping
LT iekojimas, kur geriau gauti prieglobst
LV izdevgko patvruma noteikumu meklana Related term
Dublin Regulation
MT Sajda gall-ail
NL asielshoppen
PL asylum shopping /no usual translation Notes
PT asylum shopping 1.The term asylum-shopping has nolegal definition, but
RO asylum shopping isused inan informal sense and also inCommission Communi-
SK zneuvanie azylovho systmu / azylov turizmus cations. Itis often used with anegative connotation, asit implies
SL Azilni oping anabuse ofthe asylum procedure through the lodging ofmore
SV no usual translation than one application for international protection indifferent
NO asylshopping Member States (choosing the Member State which may grant
the most appealing social, humanitarian and economic
standards).

2.Asecond meaning understands asylum shopping asacom-


parison and selection ofone asylum rule among several (see
European University Institute: the Development ofthe
EUAsylum Policy: Revisiting the Venue-shopping Argument).

3.Commission Staff Working Document SEC/2008/2029pro-


vides not only some examples ofwhat asylum shopping means
but also anassessment ofthe impacts ofthe Dublin system
(which comprises the Dublin Regulation and Eurodac Regula-
tion and their implementing regulations).
ASYLUM AND MIGRATION GLOSSARY 3.0

34
au pair A
B
BG Definition
CS au pair A third-country national who istemporarily received byafam- C
DE Au-pair ily inthe territory ofaMember State inexchange for light
EL (au pair) housework and taking care ofchildren inorder toimprove their D
ES au pair linguistic skills and knowledge ofthe host country.
ET au pair lapsehoidja E
FI au pair Source
FR au pair F
Art.2(i) ofProposal for aDirective onthe conditions ofentry and
GA au pair
residence ofthird-country nationals for the purposes ofresearch,
HU au pair
IT persona collocata alla pari
studies, pupil exchange, remunerated and unremunerated training, G
voluntary service and aupairing, COM(2013) 151final
LT au pair aukl
LV viesaukle
H
MT au pair
NL au pair I
PL au pair
PT au pair J
RO lucrator au pair
SK au pair / au-pair K
SL varuka
SV au pair L
NO au pair
M
N
O
P
Q
R
S
T
U
V
W
X
Y
Z

35
B BG
CS
DE
Bali Process

Balijsk proces; Proces Bali
Bali-Prozess
Definition
An international forum dealing with smuggling ofmigrants and
trafficking inhuman beings, participated inby over 50coun-
EL tries inthe Asia-Pacific region and beyond.
ES Proceso deBali
ET Bali protsess Source
FI Balin prosessi Website ofthe Bali Process
FR Processus deBali
GA Priseas Bali
Synonym
HU Bali Folyamat
Bali Process onPeople Smuggling, Trafficking inPersons and
IT Processo diBali
Related Transnational Crime
LT Balio procesas
LV Bali process
MT Proess (Il-) ta Bali
Related terms
Global Approach toMigration and Mobility
NL Bali proces
smuggling of migrants
PL Proces Bali
trafficking in human beings
PT Processo deBali
RO Procesul Bali
SK Balijsk proces Notes
SL Baliski proces 1.The Bali Process was established through aframework agree-
SV Baliprocessen ment that was initiated atthe Regional Ministerial Conference
NO Bali-prosessen onPeople Smuggling, Trafficking inPersons and Related Trans-
national Crime held inBali, Indonesia inFebruary 2002.

2.Itaims tofacilitate discussion and information sharing about


issues relating topeople smuggling, human trafficking, and related
transnational crime and appropriate responses totheseissues.

3.For more information, see: http://www.baliprocess.net/


ASYLUM AND MIGRATION GLOSSARY 3.0

36
A
beneficiary of international protection
B
BG , Definition
A person who has been granted refugee status orsubsidiary C
CS osoba povajc mezinrodn ochrany protection status.
DE Person, der internationaler Schutz zuerkannt wurde D
EL Source
ES beneficiario deproteccin internacional Art.2(b) ofDirective 2011/95/EU (Recast Qualification Directive) E
ET rahvusvahelise kaitse saaja
FI kansainvlist suojelua saava F
Narrower terms
FR bnficiaire dune protection internationale Convention refugee
GA tairbh den chosaint idirnisinta
HU nemzetkzi vdelemben rszesl szemly
person eligible for subsidiary protection G
IT beneficiario diprotezione internazionale
LT prieglobst gavs asmuo
Related terms H
applicant for international protection
LV starptautisks aizsardzbas samjs
MT Benefijarju(-a) tal-protezzjoni internazzjonali
person eligible for subsidiary protection I
NL persoon die internationale bescherming geniet
PL beneficjent ochrony midzynarodowej J
PT
RO beneficiar alprotectiei internationale K
SK osoba spostavenm medzinrodnej ochrany (EU
acquis) / osoba sudelenou medzinrodnou ochranou L
SL upravienec domednarodne zaite
SV person som beviljats internationellt skydd M
NO mottaker avinternasjonal beskyttelse (asyl) (b) /
mottakar avinternasjonalt vern (asyl)(n) N
O
P
biometric data
Q
BG Definition
CS biometrick daje Data relating tothe physical, physiological orbehavioural char- R
DE biometrische Daten acteristics ofan individual which allow their unique identifica-
EL tion, such asfacial images ordactyloscopic data. S
ES datos biomtricos
ET biomeetrilised andmed Source T
FI biometriset tiedot Art.2(11) ofProposal for aDirective onthe protection ofindivid-
FR donnes biomtriques uals with regard tothe processing ofpersonal data bycompe- U
GA sonra bithmhadracha tent authorities for the purposes ofprevention, investigation,
HU biometrikus adat detection orprosecution ofcriminal offences orthe execution V
IT dati biometrici ofcriminal penalties, and the free movement ofsuch data
LT biometriniai duomenys COM(2012) 10final W
LV biometriskie dati
MT Data / Dejta bijometrika Synonym X
NL biometrische gegevens biometrics
PL dane biometryczne
PT
Y
RO date biometrice
SK biometrick daj Z
SL biometrini podatki
SV biometriska data
NO biometriske data
37
B BG
CS
DE
Black Sea Synergy

ernomosk synergie
Schwarzmeersynergie
Definition
An institutionalised forum for EUcooperation encouraging coop-
eration between the EUand the countries surrounding the Black
EL Sea and for tackling common problems while encouraging polit-
ES Sinergia del mar Negro ical and economic reform.
ET Musta mere snergia (koost)
FI Mustanmeren synergia Source
FR Synergie dela mer Noire
Website ofthe Black Sea Synergy
GA Sineirge naMara Duibhe
HU Fekete-tengeri szinergia
Broader term
IT Sinergia del Mar Nero
European Neighbourhood Policy
LT Juodosios jros sinergija
LV Melns jras reiona sinerija
MT Sinerija tal-Baar l-Iswed
Related terms
Eastern Partnership
NL Black Sea Synergy (no usual translation)
Euro-Mediterranean Partnership
PL Synergia Czarnomorska
PT
RO Sinergia Marii Negre Notes
SK iernomorsk synergia 1.The Black Sea Synergy ispart ofthe European Neighbourhood
SL rnomorska Sinergija Policy (ENP) ofthe EUand isintended asaflexible framework
SV Svartahavssynergin complementing existing EUpolicy, seeking totackle the significant
NO Svartehavssynergien opportunities and challenges inthe Black Sea area that require
coordinated action atthe regional level inthe sectors such
asenergy, transport, environment, movement and security.

2.Aconference between EUand Black Sea Foreign Affairs Min-


isters inKiev (Ukraine) in2008initiated the synergy.

3.For more information, see: Black Sea Synergy Anew regional


cooperation initiative, COM(2007) 160final, 11April 2007.
ASYLUM AND MIGRATION GLOSSARY 3.0

38
A
border area
B
BG Definition
CS pohranin oblast An area that extends nomore than 30kilometres from the C
DE Grenzgebiet, Grenzregion border.
EL D
ES zona fronteriza Source
ET piiriala Art.3(2) ofRegulation (EC) No1931/2006 (Local Border Traffic E
FI raja-alue Regulation)
FR zone frontalire F
GA limistar teorann
Related terms
HU hatrmenti terlet
IT zona difrontiera
border resident G
local border traffic
LT pasienio teritorija
LV pierobea
H
MT ona ta mal-konfini
Note
NL grensgebied Subsequent toArt.3(2) ofRegulation (EC) No1931/2006 I
PL strefa przygraniczna (Local Border Traffic Regulation), aMember State may specify
PT zona fronteiria the local administrative districts that are tobe considered part J
RO zon defrontier ofthe border area inabilateral agreements with its neighbour-
SK pohranin oblas (EU acquis) / ing third country(s). Ifpart ofany such district lies between K
prihranin zemie (national law) 30and 50kilometres from the border line, itshall nevertheless
SL obmejno obmoje beconsidered aspart ofthe border area. L
SV grnsomrde
NO grenseomrde M
N
border control O

BG Definition
P
CS pohranin kontrola The activity carried out at a border, in accordance with and for
DE Grenzkontrolle the purposes of Regulation (EC) No 562/2006 (Schengen
Q
EL / Borders Code), in response exclusively to an intention to cross
ES control fronterizo or the act of crossing that border, regardless of any other con- R
ET piirikontroll sideration, consisting of border checks and border surveillance.
FI rajavalvonta S
FR contrle aux frontires
Source
GA rial teorann
Art. 2(9) of Council Regulation (EC) No 562/2006 (Schengen T
HU hatrellenrzs
Borders Code)
IT controllo di frontiera U
LT pasienio kontrol
LV robekontrole
Related terms
MT Kontroll mal-konfini / mal-fruntiera
European Border Surveillance System V
external EU border
NL grenstoezicht (syn.: grensbewaking, grenscontrole)
PL kontrola graniczna
internal EU border W
irregular entry
PT controlo de fronteira
RO control de frontier legal entry X
refusal of entry
SK kontrola hranc
SL nadzor meje Schengen Borders Code Y
SV grnskontroll
NO grensekontroll Z

39
B BG
CS
DE
border crossing

pekroen hranice
Grenzbertritt
Definition
The physical act of crossing a border either at a border crossing
point or another point along the border.
EL
ES cruce de frontera Source
ET piiriletus Developed by EMN
FI rajanylitys
FR franchissement de la frontire
Narrower term
GA trasn teorann border crossing point
HU hatrtlps
IT attraversamento della frontiera
LT sienos kirtimas
LV robersoana
MT Qsim tal-konfini / tal-fruntiera
NL grensoverschrijding
PL przekraczanie granicy
PT passagem de fronteira
RO trecerea frontierei
SK prekroenie hranice / prekroenie ttnej hranice
SL prekanje meje
SV grnspassage
NO grensepassering

border crossing point


BG - Source
CS hranin pechod Any crossing point authorised by the competent authorities for
DE Grenzbergang, Grenzbergangsstelle the crossing of external EU borders.
EL
ES paso fronterizo Source
ET piiriletuspunkt Art. 2(8) of Regulation No 562/2006 (Schengen Borders Code)
FI rajanylityspaikka
FR point de passage frontalier
Broader term
GA pointe trasnaithe teorann
ASYLUM AND MIGRATION GLOSSARY 3.0

border crossing
HU hatrtkelhely
IT valico di frontiera
LT sienos perjimo punktas
LV robersoanas vieta
MT Il-Punt / Il-Post ta' qsim il-fruntiera/ il-konfini
NL grensovergang (syn.: grensdoorlaatpost, grenspost)
PL przejcie graniczne
PT ponto de passagem fronteirio
RO punct de trecere a frontierei
SK hranin priechod
SL mejni prehod
SV grnsvergngsstlle
NO grensepasseringssted (b) / grensepasseringsstad (n)

40
A
border resident
B
BG Definition
CS obyvatel pohranin oblasti In the EUmigration context, athirdcountry national who has C
DE Grenzbewohner been lawfully resident inthe border area ofacountry neigh-
EL bouring aMember State for aperiod specified inabilateral D
ES residente fronterizo agreement between aMember State(s) and neighbouring third
ET piiriala elanik country, which shall beat least one year. E
FI raja-alueen asukas
FR frontalier F
Source
GA cnaitheoir teorann
Art.3(6) ofCouncil Regulation (EC) No1931/2006 (Local Border
HU hatr menti lakos
IT frontaliero
Traffic Regulation) G
LT pasienio gyventojas
LV pierobeas iedzvotjs
Related terms H
border area
MT Resident(a) ta mal-konfini / mal-fruntiera
NL grensbewoner
frontier worker I
local border traffic
PL mieszkaniec strefy przygranicznej
PT residente fronteirio J
RO locuitor din zona defrontier
SK pohranin oblas (EU acquis) / K
prihranin zemie (national law)
SL obmejni prebivalec L
SV grnsboende
NO grenseboer (b) / grensebuar(n) M
N
brain circulation O

BG Definition
P
CS brain circulation The possibility for developing countries todraw onthe skills,
DE Brain Circulation know-how and other forms ofexperience gained bytheir
Q
EL ( ) migrants whether they have returned totheir country ofori-
ES circulacin decerebros gin ornot and members oftheir diaspora. R
ET oskustju ringlus
FI aivokierto Source S
FR circulation des cerveaux
Annex 5ofCommunication onMigration and Development,
GA crsaocht daoine oilte
COM(2005) 390 T
HU there isno widely accepted term: agykrforgs
isused insome documents U
Related terms
IT circolazione dicervelli
brain drain
LT prot apykaita
LV kvalificta darbaspka aprite
brain gain V
brain waste
MT irkolazzjoni ta mu / ta nies bikwalifiki goljin
NL mobiliteit van hoogopgeleide personen
circular migration W
(syn.:braincirculation)
PL cyrkulacja mzgw X
PT circulao decrebros
RO circulaia creierelor Y
SK cirkulcia mozgov
SL kroenje moganov Z
SV kunskapsspridning
NO kunnskapsmobilitet / kunnskapssirkulasjon

41
B BG
CS
DE
brain drain

odliv mozk
Brain Drain
Definition
The loss suffered byacountry asaresult ofthe emigration
ofa(highly) qualified person.
EL ( )
ES fuga decerebros Source
ET oskustju ravool ILO Thesaurus, 6th ed., 2008
FI aivovuoto / aivovienti
FR fuite des cerveaux
Related terms
GA imirce daoine oilte brain gain
HU agyelszvs / brain drain
brain waste
IT fuga dicervelli
brain circulation
LT prot nutekjimas
circular migration
LV kvalificta darbaspka aizplana
MT Telf / Tnixxija ta mu // ta nies bikwalifiki goljin
NL brain drain
PL drena mzgw
PT fuga decrebros / brain drain
RO exodul creierelor / brain drain
SK nik mozgov (EU acquis) / odliv mozgov
SL beg moganov
SV no usual translation
NO kunnskapsflukt / ekspertflukt

brain gain
BG Definition
CS pliv mozk The benefit toacountry asaresult ofthe immigration
DE Brain Gain ofahighly qualified person.
EL ( )
ES captacin decerebros Source
ET oskustju sissevool Derived byEMN from the definition ofbrain drain inthe EMN
FI aivotuonti Glossary
FR afflux decerveaux
GA inimirce daoine oilte
ASYLUM AND MIGRATION GLOSSARY 3.0

Synonym
HU there isno widely accepted term, several can
reverse brain drain
beused: agyvisszaszvs / tudsnyers / brain gain
IT acquisizione dicervelli
LT prot pritraukimas
Related terms
brain drain
LV kvalificta darbaspka piepldums
brain waste
MT Akkwist / Ksib ta mu // ta nies bikwalifiki goljin
brain circulation
NL brain gain
circular migration
PL no usual translation
PT brain gain
RO atragerea creierelor / brain gain Note
SK zskavanie mozgov This can apply to, for example, aEU Member State receiving
SL pridobitev moganov ahighly qualified migrant, aswell asathird-country national
SV no usual translation returning totheir country oforigin.
NO kunnskapsgevinst

42
A
brain waste
B
BG Definition
CS pltvn mozky The non-recognition ofthe skills (and qualifications) acquired C
DE Brain Waste byamigrant outside ofthe EU, which prevents them from fully
EL using their potential. D
ES subempleo
ET oskustju alarakendatus Source E
FI aivotuhlaus Derived byEMN from Footnote 28ofCommunication onMigration
FR gaspillage des cerveaux F
and Development, COM(2005) 390final
GA cur am irime
HU kpessgek elpazarlsa
IT spreco dicervelli
Related terms G
brain drain
LT prot vaistymas
LV intelektul potencila izrdana
brain gain H
brain circulation
MT ela ta mu / ta nies bikwalifiki goljin
NL brain waste I
PL marnotrawstwo mzgw
PT brain waste J
RO brain waste
SK plytvanie mozgami (EU acquis) / mrhanie mozgami K
SL izguba moganov
SV no usual translation L
NO kunnskapsslsing
M
N
O
P
Q
R
S
T
U
V
W
X
Y
Z

43
B BG
CS
DE
Budapest Process

Budapesk proces
Budapest-Prozess
Definition
A consultative forum ofmore than 50governments from the
wider European region and ten international organisations, which
EL aims topromote good governance inthe field ofmigration,
ES Proceso deBudapest todevelop comprehensive and sustainable systems for orderly
ET Budapesti protsess migration and toexchange information and best practices
FI Budapestin prosessi onawide range ofmigration issues (legal migration, irregular
FR Processus deBudapest
migration, asylum, visa, border management, trafficking
GA Priseas Bhdaipeist
inhuman beings and smuggling ofmigrants, readmission
HU Budapest Folyamat
andreturn).
IT Processo diBudapest
LT Budapeto procesas
LV Budapetas process
Source
Derived bythe EMN from the page describing Budapest Process
MT Proess (Il-) ta Budapest
NL Boedapest proces ofthe Website ofICMPD and the website ofthe Budapest Process
PL Proces Budapeszteski
PT Processo deBudapeste Related term
Global Approach toMigration and Mobility
RO Procesul Budapesta
SK Budapetiansky proces
SL Budimpetanski proces Notes
SV Budapestprocessen 1.The Budapest Process was initiated byDE in1991.
NO Budapest-prosessen
2.Through this dialogue, the Process promotes aharmonised
approach indealing with irregular migration challenges and sup-
port for the transfer and common understanding ofmigration
concepts and policies.

3.For more information see the website ofthe Budapest Pro-


cess: http://www.budapestprocess.org/
ASYLUM AND MIGRATION GLOSSARY 3.0

44
A
burden of proof
B
BG Definition
CS dkazn bemeno In the global context, apartys duty toprove adisputed assertion C
DE Beweislast orcharge.
EL In the migration context, the duty ofanon-national seeking D
entry into aforeign State toprove that they are entitled toenter
ES carga dela prueba and not inadmissible under the laws ofthat State. E
ET tendamiskoormis In the context ofrefugee status determination procedures, the
FI todistustaakka F
duty ofthe applicant toestablish their case, toproduce evidence
FR charge dela preuve
that they have awell-founded fear ofpersecution.
GA dualgas cruthnais
HU bizonytsi teher
G
Source
IT onere della prova
LT rodinjimo pareiga
Derived byEMN from the IOM Glossary onMigration, 2nd ed., 2011 H
LV pierdanas pienkums
MT Pi (Il-) tal-prova / Obbligu (L-) lijiniebu l-provi Notes I
NL bewijslast 1.Inrefugee status determination procedures, itis the applicant
PL ciar dowodu who has the burden ofestablishing the veracity oftheir allega- J
PT nus daprova tions and the accuracy ofthe facts onwhich the refugee claim
RO sarcina dovezii isbased. The burden ofproof isdischarged bythe applicant ren- K
SK dkazn bremeno dering atruthful account offacts relevant tothe claim sothat,
SL dokazno breme based onthe facts, aproper decision may bereached. L
SV bevisbrda
NO bevisbyrde 2.For further information see UNHCR: Note onBurden and M
Standard ofProof inRefugee Claims, 16December 1998.
N
O
P
Q
R
S
T
U
V
W
X
Y
Z

45
C BG
CS
DE
carrier

dopravce
Transportunternehmer
Definition
In relation toconveyance (or transport), the owner orcharterer
ofthe conveyance.
EL
ES operador detransporte Source
ET vedaja IOM Glossary onMigration, 2nd. ed., 2011
FI liikenteenharjoittaja
FR transporteur
Notes
GA iomprir
1.Acarrier usually refers toan airline, bus orrail company,
HU fuvaroz
orcruise line. Under the laws ofsome States, the term includes
IT vettore
any owner ofameans ofconveyance, which carries aperson
LT vejas
onto its territory.
LV prvadtjs
MT Operatur tat-trasport
NL vervoerder 2.The definition given inArt.2(a) ofCouncil Directive 2004/82/
PL przewonik EC (API Directive) ismore restrictive inthat itrefers explicitly
PT transportador topassenger transport byair and there isuncertainty asto what
RO transportator any natural orlegal person actually refers to, e.g. ifthis isthe
SK dopravca owner ofthe company only.
SL prevoznik
SV transportr
NO transportr
ASYLUM AND MIGRATION GLOSSARY 3.0

46
A
case worker in procedures for international protection
B
BG
CS rozhod
Definition
Personnel ofthe determining authority responsible for examin- C
DE Sachbearbeiter in Verfahren fr ing and assessing anapplication for international protection
internationalenSchutz / Referent in Verfahren and competent totake adecision atfirst instance insuch acase. D
frinternationalen Schutz (AT)
EL Source E
ES trabajador social enprocedimientos deproteccin Derived byEMN from the definition ofdecision maker
internacional inUNHCR: Beyond Proof Credibility Assessment inEU Asylum F
ET Rahvusvahelise kaitse taotluse menetleja
Systems, 2013
FI ptksen tekij / hakemuksen ksittelij
G
kansainvlisen suojelun menettelyss
Synonyms
FR agent responsable dutraitement dune demande
deprotection internationale
asylum case worker H
asylum determination officer
GA csoibr nsanna imeachta umchosaint idirnisinta
HU menekltgyi eljrs sorn eljr gyintzk
case officer I
case worker
IT operatore impegnato nella procedura diprotezione
internazionale
decision-maker J
LT praym nagrinti irsprendim dl prieglobsio
suteikimo priimti galiotas valstybs tarnautojas Related term K
determining authority
LV ierdnis, kas izskata starptautisks aizsardzbas
pieteikumus L
MT Operatur(-trii) sojali fiproeduri gall-protezzjoni Note
internazzjonali This term specifically refers topersons examining and assessing M
NL hoor- enbeslisambtenaar inasielzaken (BE: applications for international protection. There are other types
protection officer) ofcase workers i.e. for processing visa applications, which are N
PL pracownik / urzdnik prowadzcy postpowanie not explicitely mentioned inthe glossary with anextra term.
wsprawach zzakresu ochrony midzynardowej O
PT
RO ofiter dedecizie P
SK rozhodova
SL pristojna uradna oseba vpostopku zamednarodno
zaito
Q
SV handlggare avanskningar ominternationellt skydd
NO saksbehandler for sknad ominternasjonal R
beskyttelse (asyl) (b) / sakshandsamar for sknad
ominternasjonalt vern (asyl)(n) S
T
U
V
W
X
Y
Z

47
C BG

CS
Centre for Information, Discussion and Exchange
on the Crossing of Frontiers and Immigration
,

Centrum pro informace, diskusi avmnu nzor
Definition
A body assisting the EUMember States ineffectively studying
legal immigration soas toprevent illegal immigration and
kpekaovn hranic aimigraci unlawful residence, ineffectively combating immigration crime,
DE Informations-, Diskussions- und Austauschzentrum inbetter detecting forged documents and inimproving expulsion
fr Fragen in Zusammenhang mit dem berschreiten practice.
der Auengrenzen und der Einwanderung
EL , Source

Council Conclusions of30November 1994
ES Centro de informacin, reflexin e intercambio
enmateria de cruce de fronteras e inmigracin
Synonym
ET piiriletuse- ja sisserndealase teabe,
CIREFI
analsijainfovahetuse keskus
FI Rajanylitys- jamaahanmuuttoasioiden tiedotus-,
tarkastelu- jatietojenvaihtokeskus
Related term
European Agency for the Management
FR Centre dinformation, derflexion etdchanges
enmatire defranchissement des frontires ofOperational Cooperation atthe
etdimmigration ExternalBorders ofthe Member States
GA an Lrionad um Fhaisnis, Pl agus Malart i dtaca oftheEuropeanUnion
leTrasn Imeallchrche agus Inimirce
HU Kls Hatrok tlpsvel sBevndorlssal Notes
foglalkoz Informci-,Vita-, sVlemnycsere 1.CIREFI started its work on1January 1995based onthe
Kzpont Council conclusions of30November 1994.
IT Centro diInformazione, diRiflessione edi Scambi
inmateria diAttraversamento delle Frontiere 2.InDecember 2009, asaconsequence ofthe entry into force
ediImmigrazione ofthe Lisbon Treaty, COREPER decided toabolish CIREFI and
LT Informacijos, diskusij irkeitimosi duomenimis sien totransfer its functions toFRONTEX.
kirtimo irimigracijos klausimais centras
LV Centrs informcijai, apspriedm unapmaim par
robersoanu unimigrciju
MT entru (I-) ta Informazzjoni, Diskussjoni uSkambji
dwar il-Qsim ta Fruntieri ul-Immigrazzjoni
NL Centrum voor informatie, beraad
engegevensuitwisseling inzake grensoverschrijding
enimmigratie
PL Centrum Wymiany Informacji nt. Przekraczania
GraniciImigracji
ASYLUM AND MIGRATION GLOSSARY 3.0

PT Centro deInformao, Reflexo eIntercmbio


emmatria dePassagem das Fronteiras eImigrao
RO Centrul deinformare, reflecie ischimb deinformaii
cuprivire latrecerea frontierei iimigraie
SK Centrum pre informcie, diskusiu avmenu voblasti
prekraovania hranc a prisahovalectva
SL Center zapodatke, razprave inizmenjave glede
prekanja meje inpriseljevanja
SV Centrum fr information, diskussion och utbyte
ifrgor som rr passage avgrnser och invandring
NO Senter for informasjon, diskusjon ogutveksling
omgrensepassering oginnvandring

48
A
chain migration
B
BG
CS etzov migrace
Definition
The practice where those who have settled onafamily reuni- C
DE Kettenmigration fication basis can themselves sponsor further family mem-
EL bers, consistent with European Convention onHuman Rights D
ES cadena migratoria (ECHR)obligations.
ET ahelrnne E
FI ketjumaahanmuutto Source
FR migration enchane F
EMN: Family Reunification Study, 2008
GA imirce shlabhril
HU lnc-migrci
IT catena migratoria
Related terms G
family formation
LT grandinin migracija
LV des migrcija
family migration H
family reunification
MT Katina ta migrazzjoni
NL kettingmigratie
right tofamily life I
right tofamily unity
PL migracja acuchowa
PT J
RO migratie inlant Notes
SK reazov migrcia 1.Originally chain migration refers toaprocess inwhich initial K
SL verina migracija movements ofmigrants lead tofurther movements from the
SV kedjemigration same area tothe same area. Inachain migration system, indi- L
NO kjedemigrasjon vidual members ofacommunity migrate and then encourage
orassist further movements ofmigration (see Migration, Citi- M
zenship, Education Glossary).
N
2.Chain migration may also bebased onethnic orfamily ties
with members ofthe same family migrating atdifferent times,
usually with primary wage earners migrating first, followed
O
bysecondary ornon-wage earners. Incountries with more
orless liberal regulations onthe rights ofmigrants tofamily
P
reunification usually inaccordance with international conven-
tions, family reunification asan incidence ofchain migration
Q
explains much ofthe growth inthe total migrant population.
R
S
T
U
V
W
X
Y
Z

49
C BG
CS
DE
Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union

Listina zkladnch prv Evropsk unie
Charta der Grundrechte der Europischen Union
Definition
The formal EUdocument which combines and declares all the val-
ues and fundamental rights ofindividuals (economic and social
EL aswell ascivil and political) towhich Member States are obliged.
ES Carta delos Derechos Fundamentales dela Unin
Europea Source
ET Euroopa Liidu phiiguste harta Derived byEMN from the European Charter ofFundamental Rights
FI Euroopan unionin perusoikeuskirja
FR Charte des droits fondamentaux
Related terms
delUnioneuropenne
European Convention onHuman Rights
GA Cairt umChearta Bunsacha anAontais Eorpaigh
European Union Agency
HU Az Eurpai Uni Alapjogi Chartja
forFundamentalRights
IT Carta dei Diritti Fondamentali dellUnione Europea
human rights
LT ES pagrindini teisi chartija
LV Eiropas Savienbas Pamattiesbu harta
MT Karta tad-Drittijiet Fundamentali tal-Unjoni Ewropea Notes
NL Handvest van degrondrechten van deEuropese Unie 1.The Charter was proclaimed inDecember 2000and became
PL Karta Praw Podstawowych Unii Europejskiej binding inDecember 2009when the Lisbon Treaty came into force.
PT Carta Europeia dos Direitos Fundamentais
RO Carta Drepturilor Fundamentale aUniunii Europene 2.The Charter does not establish new rights, but assembles
SK Charta zkladnch prv Eurpskej nie existing rights that were previously scattered over arange
SL Listina Evropske Unije otemeljnih pravicah ofinternational sources and thus makes them more visible. The
SV Europeiska unionens stadga omde grundlggande Charter reaffirms, with due regard for the powers and tasks
rttigheterna ofthe Union and for the principle ofsubsidiarity, the rights
NO Den europeiske unions pakt omgrunnleggende asthey result, inparticular, from the constitutional traditions
rettigheter (b) / pakta til Den europeiske unionen and international obligations common tothe Member States, the
omgrunnleggjande rettar(n) European Convention for the Protection ofHuman Rights and
Fundamental Freedoms, the Social Charters adopted bythe
Union and bythe Council ofEurope and the case-law ofthe
Court ofJustice ofthe European Union and ofthe European
Court ofHuman Rights.

3.For more information, see: http://www.europarl.europa.eu/


charter/pdf/text_en.pdf
ASYLUM AND MIGRATION GLOSSARY 3.0

50
A
child
B
BG
CS dt
Definition
Every human being below the age of18years, unless under the C
DE Kind law applicable tothe child, majority isattained earlier.
EL D
ES poblacin infantil Source
ET laps Art.1ofUN Convention onthe Rights ofthe Child E
FI lapsi
FR enfant F
Narrower term
GA leanbh child labour
HU gyermek
IT bambino
G
Related terms
LT vaikas
LV brns
adult H
ageassessment
MT Tifel (Tifla) / Wild
NL kind
minor I
PL dziecko
PT criana Notes J
RO copil 1.There isstill noconcrete, consistent definition ofchild under
SK diea EUlaw. The Lisbon Treaty introduced anobjective for the EUto K
SL otrok promote childrens rights. Moreover the Charter ofFundamental
SV barn Rights ofthe European Union guarantees the protection ofchil- L
NO barn drens rights byEU institutions, aswell asby EUcountries when
they implement EUlaw. For further information, see the web- M
page ofthe DGJustice onthe Rights ofthe Child and Funda-
mental Rights Agency: Developing indicators for the N
protection, respect and promotion ofthe rights ofthe child
inthe European Union, March 2009.
O
2.The term should beused todescribe relationship with other
family members. When referring toan individual and inamore
P
legal context, the term minor should beused.
Q
R
S
T
U
V
W
X
Y
Z

51
C BG
CS
DE
child labour

dtsk prce
Kinderarbeit
Definition
Any work performed byachild which deprives them oftheir
childhood, their potential and their dignity, and that isharmful
EL totheir physical and mental development.
ES trabajo infantil
ET lapstju kasutamine Source
FI lapsity Webpage ofthe ILO International Programme onthe Elimination
FR travail des enfants
ofChild Labour (IPEC)
GA fost leana
HU gyerekmunka
Broader term
IT lavoro infantile
child
LT vaik darbas
LV brnu darbs
MT Taddim ta tfal / ta minorenni //
Related term
forced labour
Sfruttamenttaxogol it-tfal
NL kinderarbeid
PL praca dzieci Notes
PT trabalho infantil 1.The definition does allow for achild towork (e.g. inashop
RO munca pentru copii outside school hours) aslong asit does not conflict with the
SK detsk prca above. Itrefers towork that ismentally, physically, socially
SL delo otrok ormorally dangerous and harmful tochildren and interferes with
SV barnarbete their schooling by:
NO barnearbeid
-- depriving them ofthe opportunity toattend school;

-- obliging them toleave school prematurely; or

-- requiring them toattempt tocombine school attendance


with excessively long and heavy work.

2.The ILO Convention No138specifies 15years asthe age


above which, innormal circumstances, aperson may participate
ineconomic activity. According toArt.32ofthe Charter ofFun-
damentals Rights ofthe European Union, the employment
ofchildren isprohibited. The minimum age ofadmission
toemployment may not belower than the minimum school-
leaving age, without prejudice tosuch rules asmay bemore
ASYLUM AND MIGRATION GLOSSARY 3.0

favourable toyoung people and except for limited derogations.

3.Not all work done bychildren should beclassified aschild


labour that isto betargeted for elimination. The ILO distin-
guishes between child work and child labour, the latter being
used todescribe the more pejorative part ofchild work,
whereas child work initself could include doing light household
chores and, aslong asit does not affect their health and per-
sonal development orinterfere with their schooling, can actually
have some learning value.

52
A
circular migration
B
BG
CS cirkulan / cirkulrn migrace
-- business persons working inthe EUand wishing tostart
anactivity intheir country oforigin (or inanother third C
DE zirkulre Migration country); and
EL D
ES migracin circular -- doctors, professors orother professionals willing tosupport
ET korduvrnne their country oforigin byconducting part oftheir profes- E
FI kiertomuutto sional activity there.
FR migration circulaire F
GA imirce chiorclach
(b) Circular migration ofpersons residing inathird country
HU krkrs migrci
IT migrazione circolare
G
Circular migration could create anopportunity for persons resid-
LT apykaitin migracija
LV cirkulr migrcija
ing inathird country tocome tothe EUtemporarily for work, H
study, training oracombination ofthese, onthe condition that,
MT Migrazzjoni irkolari
NL circulaire migratie atthe end ofthe period for which they were granted entry, they I
PL migracja cyrkulacyjna must re-establish their main residence and their main activity
PT migrao circular intheir country oforigin. Circularity can beenhanced bygiving J
RO migraie circular migrants the possibility, once they have returned, toretain some
SK okrun migrcia / cirkulrna migrcia form ofprivileged mobility toand from the Member States K
SL krona migracija where they were formerly residing, for example inthe form
SV cirkulr migration ofsimplified admission / re-entry procedures. L
NO sirkulr migrasjon
This category covers awide array ofsituations, spanning the M
Definition whole spectrum ofmigrants, including:
A repetition oflegal migration bythe same person between two N
ormore countries. -- third-country nationals wishing towork temporarily inthe
EU, e.g. inseasonal employment;
O
Source
Communication onCircular Migration and Mobility Partnerships, -- third-country nationals wishing tostudy ortrain inEurope
COM(2007) 248final before returning totheir country;
P

Related terms -- third-country nationals who, after having completed their


Q
brain drain studies, wish tobe employed inthe EU(e.g. astrainees)
brain gain toacquire professional experience which isdifficult R
brain circulation toobtain athome, before returning;
contract migrant worker S
diaspora -- third-country researchers wishing tocarry out aresearch
mobility partnership project inthe EU; T
seasonal worker
-- third-country nationals, who wish totake part inintercul- U
Notes tural people-to-people exchanges and other activities inthe
The two main forms ofcircular migration which could bemost field ofculture, active citizenship, education and youth (such V
relevant inthe EUcontext are: as, for example, training courses, seminars, events, study
visits); W
(a) Circular migration ofthird-country nationals settled inthe EU
-- third-country nationals who wish tocarry out anunremu- X
This category ofcircular migration gives people the opportunity nerated voluntary service pursuing objectives ofgeneral
toengage inan activity (business, professional, voluntary orother) interest inthe EU. Y
intheir country oforigin while retaining their main residence
inone ofthe Member States. This covers various groups, e.g.: Z

53
C BG
CS
DE
citizenship

sttn obanstv
Staatsangehrigkeit, Staatsbrgerschaft
Definition
The particular legal bond between anindividual and their State,
acquired bybirth ornaturalisation, whether bydeclaration, choice,
EL ; marriage orother means according tonational legislation.
ES nacionalidad
ET kodakondsus Source
FI kansalaisuus Art.2(d) of Regulation (EC) No862/2007 (Migration Statistics
FR citoyennet
Regulation)
GA saornacht
HU llampolgrsg
Synonym
IT cittadinanza
nationality
LT pilietyb
LV pilsonba
MT ittadinanza
Narrower terms
acquisition ofcitizenship
NL staatsburgerschap
dual citizenship
PL obywatelstwo
loss ofcitizenship
PT nacionalidade
union citizen
RO cetenie
SK ttne obianstvo / ttna prslunos
SL dravljanstvo Related terms
SV medborgarskap country ofnationality
NO statsborgerskap (b) / statsborgarskap(n) ethnic nationality

Notes
1.Whilst insome Member States adistinction ismade between
citizenship and nationality, inthe EUcontext and for the purpose
ofthis glossary, nodistinction ismade and the two terms are
considered tobe interchangeable. Incountries which distinguish
between citizenship and nationality, the term citizenship refers
specifically tothe legal rights and duties ofnationals. The Euro-
pean Convention onNationality, the International Organisa-
tion for Migration (IOM) Glossary and the EUDO Glossary
onCitizenship and Nationality prefer the term nationality.

2.According toArt.1ofthe Hague Convention onCertain


Questions Relating tothe Conflict ofNationality Law, 1930,
itis for each State todetermine under its own laws who are
ASYLUM AND MIGRATION GLOSSARY 3.0

itsnationals.

3.The tie ofnationality confers individual rights and imposes


obligations that aState reserves for its population. Nationality
carries with itcertain consequences asregards migration, such
asthe right ofaState toprotect its nationals against violations
oftheir individual rights committed byforeign authorities (par-
ticularly bymeans ofdiplomatic protection), the duty toaccept
its nationals onto its territory, and the prohibition toexpel them.

54
A
civil partnership of convenience
B
BG no translation
CS elov partnerstv
Definition
A civil partnership contracted for the sole purpose ofenabling C
DE Scheinpartnerschaft the person concerned toenter orreside inaMember State.
EL D
ES unin civil deconveniencia Source
ET tsiviilpartnerlus (riigis seadusliku viibimise aluse Derived byEMN from the definition for partnership inArt.16(2b) E
saamiseks) ofCouncil Directive 2003/86/EC (Family Reunification Directive)
FI harhautustarkoituksessa solmittu rekisterity F
parisuhde
Related terms
FR partenariat civil decomplaisance
adoption ofconvenience G
GA pirtnireacht shibhialta ise
falsedeclaration of parenthood
HU nvleges lettrsi kapcsolat
IT unione civile fittizia
marriage ofconvenience H
partnership ofconvenience
LT fiktyvi registruota partneryst
LV fiktvas partnerattiecbas I
MT Subija / Unjoni ivili ta konvenjenza
NL schijnpartnerschap J
PL fikcyjny zwizek partnerski
PT K
RO parteneriat (civil) deconvenienta
SK elov registrovan partnerstvo L
SL partnerska skupnost izkoristoljubja
SV skenpartnerskap M
NO proformapartnerskap (b) / proformapartnarskap(n)
N
O
P
Q
R
S
T
U
V
W
X
Y
Z

55
C BG
CS
DE
(civil) war refugee
()
uprchlk zdvodu (obansk) vlky
(Brger-)Kriegsflchtling
Definition
A person who leaves their country toescape from the effects
ofarmed conflicts (direct effects offighting, assaults ofcombat
EL troops, displacements etc.).
ES refugiado por conflictos blicos
ET sjapgenik Source
FI ([sisllis]sota)pakolainen Derived byEMN from the definitions for refugee, person eligi-
FR rfugi deguerre (civile)
ble for subsidiary protection and temporary protection inthe
GA ddeana cogaidh chathartha
EMN Glossary
HU (polgr) hbors meneklt
IT rifugiato acausa diuna guerra civile
Related terms
LT pabglis dl pilietinio karo
de facto refugee
LV [pilsou] kara bglis
displaced person
MT Rifujat(a) minabba gwerra (ivili)
person eligible for subsidiary protection
NL [burger]oorlogsvluchteling
subsidiary protection
PL uchodca wojenny
temporary protection
PT refugiados deguerra
RO refugiat derazboi (civil)
SK uteenec zdvodu (obianskej) vojny Notes
SL (civilni) vojni begunec 1.Inaccordance with the EUacquis (notably Directive
SV krigsflykting 2011/95/EU), such aperson could begranted refugee status
NO (borger)krigsflyktning (b) / (borgar)krigsflyktning(n) orsubsidiary protection status, depending onthe grounds
onwhich their application isbased (i.e. depending onwhether
they were compelled toleave asaresult offear ofpersecution
linked toaConvention ground for persecution orserious harm
inthe context ofindiscriminate violence).

2.Ifthere isamass influx tothe EUof such persons who have


been displaced, they may also beeligible for temporary protec-
tion inaccordance with Council Directive 2001/55/EC (Tempo-
rary Protection Directive).
ASYLUM AND MIGRATION GLOSSARY 3.0

56
A
Committee on Immigration and Asylum
B
BG
CS Vbor pro pisthovalectv aazyl
Definition
A European Commission-led expert group aimed atfacilitating C
DE Ausschuss fr Einwanderung und Asyl aninformal exchange ofviews between Member State adminis-
EL trations and the Commission services onpolitical and legal D
ES Comit deInmigracin yAsilo issues related tomigration, border and asylum.
ET sissernde- javarjupaigakomitee E
FI Maahanmuutto- jaturvapaikka-asioiden komitea Source
FR Comit sur limmigration etlasile F
Developed byEMN
GA An Coiste umInimrice agus Thearmann
HU Bevndorlsi sMenekltgyi Bizottsg
IT Comitato Immigrazione eAsilo
Synonyms G
CIA
LT Imigracijos irprieglobsio komitetas
LV Imigrcijas unpatvruma komiteja
Immigration and Asylum Committee H
MT Kumitat dwar l-Immigrazzjoni ul-Ail
NL Comit voor immigratie enasiel Notes I
PL Komitet ds. Imigracji iAzylu 1.Frequently the CIA discusses upcoming legislative orother pro-
PT Comit Imigrao eAsilo posals inorder tomeasure the temperature ofMember State J
RO Comitetul Imigraie iAzil feelings before submitting aformal Commission proposal.
SK Vbor pre prisahovalectvo aazyl K
SL Odbor zapriseljevanje inazil 2.The CIA isalso used asaforum for collecting information
SV kommittn fr frgor ominvandring och asyl onthe situation inMember States (via questionnaires) L
NO Komiteen for innvandrings- ogasylsprsml onselected policy-relevant issues and where the Commission
can report toMember States onits activities. M
3.Participants from Member States are nominated onan ad-hoc N
basis; normally both generalists from the Permanent Rep-
resentations and specialists from the capitals are present.
Non-governmental organisations (NGOs) and international
O
organisations such asUNHCR orIOM are sometimes invited
tojoin discussions ofthe CIA asactive observers.
P

4.For more information, see: http://ec.europa.eu/transparency/


Q
regexpert/index.cfm?do=groupDetail.groupDetail&group
ID=598&NewSearch=1&NewSearch=1 R
S
T
U
V
W
X
Y
Z

57
C BG
CS
DE
Common Basic Principles

spolen zkladn principy
Gemeinsame Grundprinzipien
Definition
In the context ofEU integration policy, aset of11simple,
non-binding but thoughtful guidelines intended toassist Member
EL States informulating their integration policies.
ES principios bsicos comunes
ET htsed alusphimtted Source
FI yhteiset perusperiaatteet Derived bythe EMN from the European Website onIntegration
FR principes debase communs
and JHA Council Conclusions of19November 2004
GA comhphrionsabail bhunsacha
HU kzs alapelvek
Synonym
IT Principi Comuni diBase
Common Basic Principles for immigrant integration policy
LT bendrieji pagrindiniai principai
LV kopgie pamatprincipi
MT Prinipji Baii Komuni
Broader term
integration
NL gemeenschappelijke basisprincipes
PL Wsplne Podstawowe Zasady
PT princpios bsicos comuns Related terms
host society
RO principii comune debaz
National Contact Points onIntegration
SK spolon zkladn princpy /
spolonzkladnzsady
SL Skupna temeljna naela Notes
SV gemensamma grundprinciper 1.The Common Basic Principles for Immigrant Integration Policy
NO felles grunnleggende prinsipper (b) / inthe EUwere adopted bythe Justice and Home Affairs Council
Fellesgrunnleggjande prinsipp(n) inNovember 2004and form the foundations ofEU initiatives
inthe field ofintegration.

2.The Common Basic Principles offer aguide for Member States


against which they can judge and assess their own efforts. They
can also use these basic principles toset priorities and further
develop their own measurable goals. The principles are relevant
both for Member States with considerable experience ofsub-
stantial immigration aswell asfor those that have more recently
become destinations for significant numbers ofimmigrants.

3.For more information, see the European website onintegra-


tion: http://ec.europa.eu/ewsi/en/EU_actions_integration.cfm
ASYLUM AND MIGRATION GLOSSARY 3.0

58
A
Common European Asylum System
B
BG
CS Spolen evropsk azylov systm
Definition
A framework ofagreed rules which establish common proce- C
DE Gemeinsames Europisches Asylsystem dures for international protection and auniform status for
EL those who are granted refugee status orsubsidiary protection D
ES Sistema Europeo Comn deAsilo based onthe full and inclusive application ofthe Geneva
ET htne Euroopa varjupaigassteem Convention and which aims toensure fair and humane treat- E
FI Euroopan yhteinen turvapaikkajrjestelm ment ofapplicants for international protection, toharmonise
FR rgime dasile europen commun F
asylum systems inthe EUand reduce the differences between
GA Comhchras Tearmainn Eorpach
Member States onthe basis ofbinding legislation, aswell asto
HU Kzs Eurpai Menekltgyi Rendszer
IT Sistema europeo comune diasilo
strengthen practical cooperation between national asylum G
administrations and the external dimension ofasylum.
LT bendra Europos prieglobsio sistema
LV Kopj Eiropas patvruma sistma
H
MT Sistema Ewropea Komuni gall-Ail
Source
NL Gemeenschappelijk Europees Asielstelsel Derived byEMN from Art.78ofTFEU I
PL Wsplny Europejski System Azylowy
PT Sistema Europeu Comum deAsilo Synonym J
CEAS
RO Sistemul European Comun deAzil
SK Spolon eurpsky azylov systm K
SL Skupni evropski azilni sistem Related terms
Eurasil
SV gemensamt europeiskt asylsystem L
NO Det felles europeiske asylsystemet European Asylum Support Office
minimum standards
M
Lisbon Treaty

N
Notes
According toArt.78ofTreaty ofthe Functioning ofthe European
Union, the Common European Asylum System shall comprise:
O

(a) auniform status ofasylum for nationals ofthird countries,


P
valid throughout the Union;
Q
(b) auniform status ofsubsidiary protection for nationals
ofthird countries who, without obtaining European asylum, are R
inneed ofinternational protection;
S
(c) acommon system oftemporary protection for displaced
persons inthe event ofamassive inflow; T

(d) common procedures for the granting and withdrawing of U


uniform asylum orsubsidiary protection status;
V
(e) criteria and mechanisms for determining which Member
State isresponsible for considering anapplication for asylum W
orsubsidiary protection;
X
(f) standards concerning the conditions for the reception
ofapplicants for asylum orsubsidiary protection; Y
(g) partnership and cooperation with third countries for the Z
purpose ofmanaging inflows ofpeople applying for asylum
orsubsidiary ortemporary protection.

59
C BG
CS
DE
compulsory return

nucen nvrat
zwangsweise Rckfhrung, Zwangsrckfhrung,
Definition
In the global context, obligatory return ofan individual tothe
country oforigin, transit orthird country (i.e. country ofreturn),
erzwungene Rckkehr onthe basis ofan administrative orjudicial act.
EL In the EUcontext, the process of going back whether in volun-
ES retorno forzoso tary or enforced compliance with an obligation to return to:
ET sunnitud tagasiprdumine - ones country oforigin; or
FI pakkopalautus / pakkoon perustuva paluu - a country oftransit inaccordance with EUor bilateral read-
FR obligation deretour
mission agreements orother arrangements; or
GA filleadh igeantach
- another third country, towhich the third-country national
HU ktelez visszatrs
concerned voluntarily decides toreturn and inwhich they will
IT ritorno obbligato
beaccepted.
LT priverstinis grinimas
LV piespiedu atgrieana (EU acquis) / piespiedu
izraidana (national)
Source
MT Ritorn obbligatorju // Ripatrijazzjoni obbligatorja Global context: Derived byEMN from the definition offorced
NL gedwongen terugkeer return inthe IOM Glossary onMigration, 2nd ed., 2011
PL przymusowy powrt EU context: Art.3(3) ofDirective 2008/115/EC (Return Directive)
PT
RO returnare (fortata)/returnare sub escort Synonym
forced return
SK nten nvrat
SL obvezno vraanje
SV tvngsmssigt tervndande Broader term
NO tvangsretur return

Narrower terms
removal
voluntary departure

Related terms
refoulement
voluntary return

Notes
1.Compulsory return is understood as return which occurs once
a return decision has been issued. Art. 3(3) of Directive
2008/115/EC (Return Directive) calls this return (not compul-
ASYLUM AND MIGRATION GLOSSARY 3.0

sory return) but so as to avoid confusion with the return of


migrants based on their free will and without any direction from
the State, we have named return when occurring in compliance
with a return decision, compulsory return.

2.Outside of EU legislation the term forced return is more com-


monly used and understood as a synonym with compulsory return
i.e. return which occurs in compliance with a return decision.

60
A
contract migrant worker
B
BG
CS smluvn pracovn pohyb
Definition
Person working inacountry other than their own under contrac- C
DE Vertragsarbeitnehmer tual arrangements that set limits onthe period ofemployment
EL / and onthe specific job held bythe migrant. D

ES No translation Synonym E
ET lepinguline vrttaja contract worker
FI maahanmuuttaja, jolla onrajoitettu tynteko-oikeus F
FR travailleur migrant sous contrat
Source
GA oibr imirceach ar conradh
OECD Glossary ofStatistical Terms G
HU szerzdssel rendelkez /
szerzdsesmigrnsmunkavllal
IT lavoratore migrante acontratto
Broader term H
migrant worker
LT migrantas darbuotojas pagal sutart
LV lgumdarbinieks migrants I
MT Migrant addiem bkuntratt tax-xogol Related terms
NL buitenlandse contractarbeider
circular migration J
seasonal worker
PL migrant / pracownik kontraktowy
PT trabalhador migrante por conta deoutrem K
RO lucrator migrant cucontract Notes
SK pracujci migrant sozmluvou nadobu urit 1.Contract migrant workers cannot change jobs without permis- L
SL pogodbeni delavec migrant sion granted bythe authorities ofthe receiving state.
SV no translation M
NO migrant med begrenset arbeidsavtale (b) / 2.This full term isnot commonly used; contract worker, which
migrantmed avgrensa arbeidsavtale(n) does not necessarily apply tomigrants only, ismore common. N
O
P
Q
R
S
T
U
V
W
X
Y
Z

61
C BG

CS
Convention grounds for persecution
,

dvody pro udlen azylu dle enevsk mluvy
Related terms
Geneva Convention of1951
andProtocolof1967
DE Verfolgungsgrnde (nach) der Genfer Konvention, refugee
Konventionsgrnde
EL Notes
ES motivos depersecucin Convenio deGinebra 1.Not every person who isoutside their own country and has
de1951yProtocolo de1967 awell-founded fear ofpersecution isaConvention refugee. One
ET Genfi konventsioonis stestatud tagakiusamise
ofthe conditions for qualification for refugee status within the
alused
meaning ofArt.1(A) ofthe Geneva Convention isthe existence
FI Geneven yleissopimuksen mukaiset vainon perusteet
ofacausal link between the reasons for persecution, namely race,
FR motifs deperscution ausens dela Convention
religion, nationality, political opinion ormembership ofaparticular
deGenve
social group, and the acts ofpersecution orthe absence ofprotec-
GA forais gharleanna de rir Choinbhinsin na Ginive
tion against such acts. Persecution based onany other ground will
HU
IT cause dipersecuzione exConvenzione diGinevra not beconsidered. The risk ofbeing persecuted may sometimes
LT persekiojimo pagrindai pagal Konvencij arise incircumstances where two ormore Convention grounds
LV envas konvencijas noteiktie vajanas pamati combine inthe same person, inwhich case the combination
MT Motivi gall-persekuzzjoni skont il-Konvenzjoni ofsuch grounds defines the causal connection tothe well-founded
NL gronden voor vervolging inde zin van het fear ofbeing persecuted.
Vluchtelingenverdrag
PL 2.The following definitions come into play when States attempt
PT todetermine who isand who isnot arefugee:
RO motive depersecutie stabilite deConventia
delaGeneva din 1951 -- race isused inthe broadest sense and includes ethnic and
SK dvody prenasledovania poda enevskho dohovoru social groups ofcommon descent;
SL konvencijski razlogi zapreganjanje / razlogi
zapreganjanje poenevski konvenciji iz1951 -- religion also has abroad meaning, including identification
SV konventionsgrunder fr frfljelse with agroup that tends toshare common traditions
NO konvensjonsgrunnene for forflgelse (b) / orbeliefs, aswell asthe active practice ofreligion;
konvensjonsgrunnane for forflging(n)
-- nationality includes anindividuals citizenship. Persecution
ofethnic, linguistic and cultural groups within apopulation
Definition also may betermed persecution based onnationality;
The five enumerated grounds listed inArt.1A(2) ofthe Geneva
Refugee Convention of1951: race, religion, nationality, mem- -- aparticular social group refers topeople who share asimi-
bership ofaparticular social group orpolitical opinion which lar background, habits orsocial status. This category often
ASYLUM AND MIGRATION GLOSSARY 3.0

must bethe reason for persecution. overlaps with persecution based onone ofthe other four
grounds. Ithas applied tofamilies ofcapitalists, landown-
Source ers, homosexuals, entrepreneurs and former members
Derived byEMN from Art.1A(2) ofthe Geneva Refugee Convention ofthe military;
of1951
-- political opinion refers toideas not tolerated bythe author-
Synonyms ities, including opinions critical ofgovernment policies and
grounds for persecution methods. Itincludes opinions attributed toindividuals even
reasons for persecution ifthe individual does not infact hold that opinion. Individu-
als who conceal their political opinions until after they have
Broader term fled their countries may qualify for refugee status ifthey
persecution can show that their views are likely tosubject them toper-
secution ifthey return home.

62
A
Convention refugee
B
BG
1951.
Definition
Person recognised asarefugee byStates under the criteria C
CS azylant inArt.1A ofthe Geneva Convention of1951, and entitled
DE Konventionsflchtling tothe enjoyment ofavariety ofrights under that Convention. D
EL ( )
ES refugiado (en trminos dela Convencin deGinebra) Source E
ET konventsioonipagulane UNHCR International Thesaurus ofRefugee Terminology
FI Geneven yleissopimuksen mukainen pakolainen F
FR rfugi ausens dela Convention deGenve
Synonym
GA ddeana de rir Choinbhinsin na Ginive
HU konvencis meneklt
recognised refugee G
IT rifugiato exConvenzione diGinevra
LT pabglis pagal Konvencij
Broader terms H
beneficiary ofinternational protection
LV bglis envas konvencijas izpratn
MT Rifujat(a) skont il-Konvenzjoni ta inevra
refugee I
NL verdragsvluchteling
PL uchodca konwencyjny Related terms J
mandate refugee
PT refugiado (na acepo daConveno deGenebra
de1951relativa aos refugiados) refugee status K
relocation
RO refugiat nbaza conveniei dela Geneva
SK uteenec poda enevskho dohovoru L
SL konvencijski begunec /begunec poenevski konvenciji
SV konventionsflykting M
NO konvensjonsflyktning
N
O
P
Q
R
S
T
U
V
W
X
Y
Z

63
C BG

CS
Cooperation Platform on Migration and Development


Platforma pro spoluprci - migrace arozvoj
Definition
A concept inthe framework ofthe Global Approach toMigration
and Mobility whichs bring together migration and development
DE Kooperationsplattform fr Migration und Entwicklung actors inacountry orregion tomanage migration more effec-
EL tively, inthe interests ofall, along specific migratory routes.
ES Plataforma deCooperacin sobre Migracin
yDesarrollo Source
ET rnde jaarenguabi koostplatvorm
Derived byEMN from Annex Iof Communication onthe Global
FI muuttoliikett jakehityst ksittelev
Approach toMigration, COM(2006) 735final and the
yhteistyfoorumi
Communication onthe Global Approach toMigration and
FR Plate-forme decoopration sur lamigration
Mobility, COM(2011) 743final
etledveloppement
GA Clr Comhoibrithe umImirce agus Fhorbairt
HU Egyttmkdsi Platform amigrci sjejleszts
Synonym
cooperation platform
terletn
IT Piattaforma dicooperazione sulla migrazione
elosviluppo Broader term
Global Approach toMigration and Mobility
LT Migracijos irvystymosi bendradarbiavimo platforma
LV sadarbbas platforma par migrciju unattstbu
MT Pjattaforma ta Kooperazzjoni fuq il-Migrazzjoni Related terms
Global Forum on Migration and Development
ul-Ivilupp
migration profile
NL samenwerkingsplatform
PL Platforma Wsppracy narzecz Migracji iRozwoju migration routes initiative
PT plataformas decooperao mobility partnership
RO Platforma decooperare cuprivire laMigratie
sidezvoltare Notes
SK Platforma spoluprce voblasti migrcie arozvoja 1.This concept was proposed inthe 2006Communication
SL Platforma zasodelovanje napodroju migracij onthe Global Approach (COM(2006) 735) and endorsed bythe
inrazvoja December 2006European Council.
SV samarbetsplattform fr migration och utveckling
NO Samarbeidsplattform ommigrasjon ogutvikling 2.Such platforms bring together representatives ofthe country
orcountries concerned with Member States, the Commission and
international organisations.
ASYLUM AND MIGRATION GLOSSARY 3.0

64
A
Cotonou Agreement
B
BG
CS Dohoda zCotonou
Definition
The Partnership Agreement between the members of the C
DE Cotonou-Abkommen African, Caribbean and Pacific (ACP) Group of States of the one
EL part and the European Union and its Member States of the other D
ES Acuerdo deCotonou part, in order to promote and expedite the economic, cultural and
ET Cotonou leping social development of the ACP States, with a view to contribut- E
FI Cotonoun sopimus ing to peace and security and to promoting a stable and demo-
FR Accord deCotonou F
cratic political environment.
GA Comhaont Cotonou
HU Cotonou-i Egyezmny
IT Accordo diCotonou
Source G
Cotonou Agreement
LT Kotonu susitarimas
LV Koton nolgums
H
MT Ftehim (Il-) ta Cotonou
Synonyms
NL overeenkomst van Cotonou
ACP-EC Partnership Agreement I
Cotonou Partnership Agreement
PL Porozumienie zCotonou
PT Acordo deCotonou J
RO Acordul Cotonou Related terms
SK Dohoda zCotonou Global Approach to Migration and Mobility K
SL Kotonoujski sporazum Global Forum on Migration and Development
SV Cotonou-avtalet L
NO Cotonou-avtalen Notes
1.The Cotonou Agreement isthe most comprehensive Partner- M
ship Agreement between developing countries and the EU. Itwas
signed on23June 2000inCotonou, Benin asaglobal agree- N
ment, introducing important changes and ambitious objectives
while preserving the acquis of25years ofACP-EC cooperation.
Itwas revised inLuxembourg on25June 2005.
O

2.Art. 13ofthis agreement refers tothe issue ofmigration


P
which shall bethe subject ofin-depth dialogue inthe framework
ofthe ACP-EU Partnership.
Q

3.For more information, see the description ofthe Agreement R


onthe EuropeAid website: https://ec.europa.eu/europeaid/
regions/african-caribbean-and-pacific-acp-region/cotonou- S
agreement_en
T
U
V
W
X
Y
Z

65
C BG
CS
DE
country of birth

zem narozen
Geburtsland
Definition
The country ofresidence (in its current borders, ifthe informa-
tion isavailable) ofthe mother atthe time ofthe birth or,
EL indefault, the country (in its current borders, ifthe information
ES pas denacimiento isavailable) inwhich the birth took place.
ET snniriik
FI syntymmaa Source
FR pays denaissance
Art.2 (e) ofRegulation (EC) No862/2007 (Migration Statistics
GA tr bhreithe
Regulation)
HU szlets helye szerinti orszg
IT paese dinascita
Related terms
LT valstyb, kurioje gim
country ofnationality
LV dzimanas valsts
country oforigin
MT Art twelidek / Pajjiek
NL geboorteland
PL kraj urodzenia
PT pas denascimento
RO ara denatere
SK krajina narodenia
SL drava rojstva
SV fdelseland
NO fdeland

country of destination
BG Definition
CS clov zem The country that isadestination for migration flows (regular
DE Zielland orirregular).
EL
ES pas dedestino Source
ET sihtriik IOM Glossary onMigration, 2nd. ed. 2011
FI kohdemaa
FR pays dedestination
Related terms
GA tr cinn scrbe (iolra: tortha ceann scrbe)
ASYLUM AND MIGRATION GLOSSARY 3.0

country oforigin
HU clorszg
country oftransit
IT paese didestinazione
LT tikslo valstyb
LV mra valsts
MT Pajji fid-destinazzjoni
NL land van bestemming
PL kraj docelowy
PT pas dedestino
RO ara dedestinaie
SK cieov krajina
SL ciljna drava
SV destinationsland
NO destinasjonsland

66
A
country of nationality
B
BG
CS zem sttn pslunosti
Definition
The country (or countries) ofwhich aperson holds citizenship. C
DE Land der Staatsangehrigkeit / Staatsbrgerschaft
EL Source D
ES pas denacionalidad Developed byEMN
ET kodakondsusjrgne riik E
FI kansalaisuusvaltio Synonym
FR pays denationalit state ofnationality F
GA tr nisintachta
HU llampolgrsg szerinti orszg
IT paese dicittadinanza
Related terms G
citizenship
LT pilietybs valstyb
LV pilsonbas valsts
country ofbirth H
country oforigin
MT Pajji tan-nazzjonalit
NL land waarvan iemand onderdaan is(syn.: land I
waarvan iemand het staatsburgerschap heeft) Notes
PL pastwo, ktrego obywatelem jest cudzoziemiec 1.Aperson may have adifferent country ofnationality from J
PT pas denacionalidade their country oforigin and / or country ofbirth owing, for exam-
RO ara decetenie ple, tothe acquisition ofcitizenship inacountry different from K
SK krajina ttneho obianstva / krajina ttnej their country ofbirth.
prslunosti L
SL drava katere oseba jedravljan 2.Insome Member States, this term isused inthe context
SV medborgarskapsland ofreturn. M
NO statsborgerskapsland (b) / statsborgarskapsland(n)
N
country of origin O

BG Definition
P
CS zem pvodu The country ofnationality or, for stateless persons, offormer
DE Herkunftsland, Herkunftsstaat habitual residence.
Q
EL
ES pas deorigen Source R
ET pritoluriik Art.2(n) ofDirective 2011/95/EU (Recast Qualification Directive)
FI alkupermaa / lhtmaa S
FR pays dorigine
Narrower terms
GA tr thionscnaimh country oforigin information T
HU szrmazsi orszg
safe country oforigin
IT paese diorigine U
LT kilms valstyb
LV izcelsmes valsts
Related terms
MT Pajji tal-oriini
country ofbirth V
country ofnationality
NL land van herkomst
PL kraj pochodzenia
country of return W
PT pas deorigem
RO ara deorigine Note X
SK krajina pvodu A person may have more than one country oforigin.
SL izvorna drava Y
SV ursprungsland
NO opprinnelseslandd (b) / opphavsland(n) Z

67
C BG
CS
DE
country of origin information

informace ozemch pvodu
Herkunftslnderinformation
Definition
Information used bythe Member States authorities toanalyse
the socio-political situation incountries oforigin ofapplicants
EL for international protection (and, where necessary, incountries
ES informacin del pas deorigen through which they have transited) inthe assessment, carried
ET pritoluriigi info out onan individual basis, ofan application for international
FI alkupermaita koskeva tieto / lhtmaatieto protection.
FR information sur lepays dorigine
GA faisnis faoin tr thionscnaimh
Source
HU szrmazsi orszginformci
Derived byEMN from Annex Cof COM(2006) 67final, Art.4 (3a)
IT informazioni sul paese diorigine
ofDirective 2011/95/EU (Recast Qualification Directive) and
LT informacija apie kilms valstyb
Art.10 (3b) ofDirective 2013/32/EU (Recast Asylum Procedures
LV izcelsmes valsts informcija
Directive)
MT Informazzjoni dwar il-pajji tal-oriini
NL landeninformatie
PL informacje okraju pochodzenia Synonyms
COI
PT informao sobre pases deorigem
country information
RO informaii din ara deorigine
SK informcie okrajine pvodu
SL podatki oizvorni dravi Broader term
SV landinformation country oforigin
NO landinformasjon
Related term
European Asylum Support Office

Notes
1.All relevant facts asthey relate tothe country oforigin atthe
time oftaking adecision onthe application are used. The rele-
vant facts are obtained from various sources, such asthe Euro-
pean Asylum Support Office (EASO), UNHCR and relevant
international human rights organisations, general public sources
such asreports from (inter)national organisations, governmental
and non-governmental organisations, media, bi-lateral contacts
incountries oforigin, embassy reports including the laws and
regulations ofthe country oforigin and the manner inwhich
they are applied.
ASYLUM AND MIGRATION GLOSSARY 3.0

2.The information used bythe Member States authorities


ismade available tothe personnel responsible for examining
applications and taking decisions.

3.This information isalso used inter alia for taking decisions


onother migration issues, e.g. onreturn, aswell asby researchers.

4.According toArt.4ofCouncil Regulation (EU) No439/2010,


EASO has taken over responsibility for collecting, preparing, ana-
lysing and disseminating this information. For more information,
see the website ofEASO: http://easo.europa.eu

68
A
country of return
B
BG
CS zem nvratu
Definition
In the EUcontext, athird country towhich athird-country C
DE Rckkehrland national returns.
EL D
ES pas deretorno Source
ET vastuvttev riik EMN:Return migration, 2007 E
FI paluumaa
FR pays deretour F
Related terms
GA tr fillte country oforigin
HU visszatrsi orszg
IT paese diritorno
country oftransit G
LT valstyb, kuri grta
LV atgrieanas valsts (EU acquis) /
Notes H
1.This isnot defined inlegal terms.
izraidanasvalsts(national)
MT Pajji fejn wieed jirritorna /fejn w. imur lura I
NL terugkeerland 2.Inmost cases, itis the country oforigin towhich areturn
PL kraj powrotu ismade, but this definition isused here inorder toindicate J
PT pas deretorno other(possible) destinations, e.g. country oftransit oranother
RO ara dereturnare thirdcountry. K
SK krajina nvratu
SL drava povratka / vrnitve L
SV tervndandeland
NO returland M
N
O
P
Q
R
S
T
U
V
W
X
Y
Z

69
C BG
CS
DE
country of transit

tranzitn zem
Transitland
Definition
The country through which migration flows (regular orirregular)
move; this means the country (or countries), different from the
EL country oforigin, which amigrant passes through inorder
ES pas detrnsito toenter acountry ofdestination.
ET transiitriik
FI kauttakulkumaa Source
FR pays detransit
IOM Glossary onMigration, 2nd. ed. 2011
GA tr idirthurais
HU tranzitorszg
Related terms
IT paese ditransito
country ofdestination
LT tranzito valstyb
country oforigin
LV tranztvalsts
country ofreturn
MT Pajji ta tranitu // Pajji liwieed jgaddi minnu
NL transitland (syn.: doorreisland)
PL kraj tranzytowy
PT pas detrnsito
RO ara detranzit
SK tranzitn krajina
SL tranzitna drava
SV transitland
NO transittland

credibility assessment
BG Definition
CS posouzen vrohodnosti; oven vrohodnosti The process ofgathering relevant information from the applicant,
DE Glaubwrdigkeitsprfung, Prfung examining itin the light ofall the information available tothe case
derGlaubwrdigkeit worker, for the purpose ofthe determination ofqualification for
EL refugee status and / or subsidiary protection status.
ES evaluacin dela credibilidad
ET usaldusvrsuse (usutavuse) hindamine Source
FI uskottavuusarviointi
UNHCR: Beyond proof credibility assessment inEU asylum
FR valuation dela crdibilit
ASYLUM AND MIGRATION GLOSSARY 3.0

systems, 2013
GA measn creidinachta
HU szavahihetsg rtkelse
Related terms
IT valutazione dicredibilit
real risk ofsuffering serious harm
LT patikimumo vertinimas
well-founded fear ofpersecution
LV ticambas novrtjums
MT Evalwazzjoni tal-kredibilit
NL beoordeling van degeloofwaardigheid Notes
PL ocena wiarygodnoci 1.The credibility assessment isalso astep taken inadjudicating
PT anapplication for avisa orother immigration status, inorder
RO evaluarea credibilitatii todetermine whether the information presented bythe applicant
SK preukazovanie dveryhodnosti isconsistent and believable (see the definition credibility
SL ocena zanesljivosti assessment inthe IOM Glossary onMigration, 2nd ed., 2011).
SV trovrdighetsbedmning
NO vurdering avtroverdighet (b) / 2.Credibility isestablished where the applicant has presented
vurderingavtruverd(n) aclaim which iscoherent and plausible, not contradicting gener-
ally known facts, and therefore is, onbalance, capable ofbeing
believed.
70
A
crime against humanity
B
BG
CS zloin proti lidskoti
Definition
Act committed aspart ofawidespread orsystematic attack C
DE Verbrechen gegen die Menschlichkeit directed against any civilian population, with knowledge
EL oftheattack. D
ES crimen contra lahumanidad
ET inimsusevastane kuritegu Source E
FI rikos ihmiskuntaa / ihmisyytt vastaan Art.7ofthe Rome Statute ofthe International Criminal Court
FR crime contre lhumanit F
GA coir igcoinne anchine dhaonna
Related terms
HU emberisg elleni bncselekmny
IT crimine contro lumanit
exclusion clause G
genocide
LT nusikaltimas monikumui
LV noziegums pret cilvci
war crime H
MT Reat kontra l-umanit
NL misdrijf tegen demenselijkheid Notes I
PL zbrodnia przeciwko ludzkoci Crimes against humanity include:
PT crimes contra ahumanidade J
RO crim mpotriva umanitii (a) murder;
SK zloin proti udskosti K
SL zloin proti lovetvu (b) extermination;
SV brott mot mnskligheten L
NO forbrytelse mot menneskeheten (b) / (c) enslavement;
brotsverkmotmenneskeslekta(n) M
(d) deportation orforcible transfer ofpopulation;
N
(e) imprisonment orother severe deprivation ofphysical liberty
inviolation offundamental rules ofinternational law;
O
(f) torture;
P
(g) rape, sexual slavery, enforced prostitution, forced pregnancy,
enforced sterilisation, orany other form ofsexual violence
Q
ofcomparable gravity;
R
(h) persecution against any identifiable group orcollectivity
onpolitical, racial, national, ethnic, cultural, religious, gender S
asdefined inparagraph 3, orother grounds that are universally
recognised asimpermissible under international law, inconnec- T
tion with any act referred toin this paragraph orany crime
within the jurisdiction ofthe Court; U
(i) enforced disappearance ofpersons; V
(j) the crime ofapartheid; W
(k) other inhumane acts ofasimilar character intentionally X
causing great suffering, orserious injury tobody orto mental
orphysical health. Y
Z

71
C BG
CS
DE
cross-border worker

peshranin pracovnk; phranin pracovnk
Grenzgnger
Definition
A person who works asan employee orself-employed person
inone Member State but isrecognised asresiding inanother
EL (neighbouring) Member State.
ES trabajador transfronterizo
ET piirilene ttaja Source
FI rajatyntekij Derived byEMN from the definition ofcross-border workers
FR travailleur transfrontalier
byDG Taxation and Customs Union (DG TAXUD)
GA oibr trasteorann
HU hatr menti ingz munkavllal
Synonym
IT lavoratore frontaliero
cross-border commuter
LT darbuotojas, kertantis vidaus sienas
LV prrobeu darba mjs
MT addiem transkonfinali / jaqsam fruntiera
Related term
frontier worker
NL grensarbeider
PL pracownik transgraniczny
PT Notes
RO lucrator transfrontalier 1.Indealing with cross-border issues amultitude ofdefinitions
SK cezhranin pracovnk for the term cross-border worker / commuter exists.
SL ezmejni delavec
SV grnsarbetare 2.The concept ofcross-border workers covers different circum-
NO grensependler (b) / grensependlar(n) stances, depending onwhether one takes the Community mean-
ing (set out, inparticular, inconnection with social security)
orthe various definitions included inbilateral double-taxation
agreements.

3.Where tax isconcerned, bilateral double-taxation agreements


determining the tax arrangements applicable tofrontier workers
use more restrictive definitions which additionally impose aspa-
tial criterion: the fact ofliving and working inafrontier zone.

4.Often cross-border workers and frontier workers are con-


sidered assynonyms. However, cross-border workers are distinct
from frontier workers tothe extent that they donot necessarily
work inthe frontier zone ofthe host country.
ASYLUM AND MIGRATION GLOSSARY 3.0

72
A
crude rate of net migration
B
BG
CS hrub mra migranho salda
Definition
The ratio ofnet migration plus adjustment during the year tothe C
DE rohe Netto-Migrationsrate average population inthat year.
EL D
ES tasa neta demigracin Source
ET rndesaldo mr Eurostats Concepts and Definitions Database E
FI nettomaahanmuutto tuhatta henke kohden
FR taux brut desolde migratoire F
Related terms
GA garbhrta glanimirce migration flow
HU nemzetkzi migrci nett klnbzete
IT tasso grezzo dimigrazione netta (o saldo migratorio)
net migration G
population stock
LT neto migracija tkstaniui gyventoj
LV migrcijas saldo visprgais koeficients
total migration H
MT Rata bejn wieed uieor ta migrazzjoni netta //
Ratanetta ta migrazzjoni Note I
NL bruto cijfer migratiesaldo The value isexpressed per 1,000inhabitants. The crude rate
PL wspczynnik salda migracji ofnet migration isequal tothe difference between the crude J
PT taxa bruta dosaldo migratrio rate ofincrease and the crude rate ofnatural increase (that is,
RO ata brut demigraie net migration isconsidered asthe part ofpopulation change not K
SK hrub miera istej migrcie / hrub miera attributable tobirths and deaths). Itis calculated inthis way
migranhosalda because immigration oremigration flows are either unknown L
SL splona stopnja neto migracije orthe figures are not sufficiently precise.
SV flyttningsnetto M
NO summarisk nettomigrasjonsrate
N
O
P
Q
R
S
T
U
V
W
X
Y
Z

73
C BG
CS
DE
cultural diversity

kulturn diverzita
kulturelle Vielfalt
Definition
The diversity offorms ofculture inasociety composed of
groups ofpeople from many different cultural backgrounds.
EL
ES diversidad cultural Source
ET kultuuriline mitmekesisus Developed byEMN
FI kulttuurinen moninaisuus / diversitetti
FR diversit culturelle
Related term
GA ilchinelacht chultrtha cultural pluralism
HU kulturlis sokflesg
IT diversit culturale
Notes
LT kultrin vairov
1.The UNESCO Declaration onCultural Diversity reflects the
LV kultras daudzveidba
diverse and pluralist understanding ofculture and defines cul-
MT Diversit kulturali
NL culturele diversiteit tural diversity inArt.1asfollows: Diverse forms ofculture
PL rnorodno kulturowa across time and space which isembodied inthe uniqueness and
PT diversidade cultural plurality ofthe identities ofthe groups and societies making
RO diversitate cultural uphumankind and isasource ofexchange, innovation and cre-
SK kultrna rozmanitos / kultrna diverzita ativity. The scope and definition agreed onin the UNESCO dec-
SL kulturna raznolikost laration were partly retained inthe 2005UNESCO Convention
SV kulturell mngfald onCultural Diversity (UNESCO Convention onthe Protection and
NO kulturelt mangfold (b) / kulturelt mangfald(n) Promotion ofthe Diversity ofCultural Expression), the successive
legally binding Convention, which isalandmark agreement
inmodern international law ofculture and which sets out com-
mon rules, principles and points ofreference for cultural diversity
atthe global level.

2.On18December 2006, the European Community ratified the


UNESCO Convention. Preserving and promoting cultural diversity
are among the Communitys founding principles: they are
enshrined inthe Treaty, under Art.151, and inthe Charter
ofFundamental Rights ofthe European Union, under Art.22.3.
ASYLUM AND MIGRATION GLOSSARY 3.0

74
A
cultural pluralism
B
BG
CS kulturn pluralismus
Definition
A policy aimed atthe ensuring ofharmonious interaction among C
DE kultureller Pluralismus people and groups with plural, varied and dynamic cultural iden-
EL tities aswell astheir willingness tolive together. D
ES pluralismo cultural
ET kultuuride paljusus Source E
FI kulttuurinen monimuotoisuus / pluralismi Art.2ofUNESCO Universal Declaration onCultural Diversity
FR pluralisme culturel F
GA iolrachas cultrtha
Related terms
HU kulturlis soksznsg
IT pluralismo culturale
culture G
cultural diversity
LT kultrinis pliuralizmas
LV kultras plurlisms
H
MT Pluralimu kulturali
Notes
NL multiculturalisme 1.According tothe UNESCO definition, policies for the inclusion I
PL pluralizm kulturowy and participation ofall citizens are guarantees ofsocial cohesion,
PT pluralismo cultural the vitality ofcivil society and peace. Thus defined, cultural plural- J
RO pluralism cultural / multiculturalitate ism gives policy expression tothe reality ofcultural diversity.
SK kultrny pluralizmus K
SL kulturni pluralizem 2.See also the UNESCO Convention onthe Protection and Pro-
SV kulturell mngfald motion ofCultural Expressions (2005). L
NO kulturell pluralisme
M
N
culture O

BG Definition
P
CS kultura The set ofdistinctive spiritual, material, intellectual and emo-
DE Kultur tional features ofasociety orasocial group encompassing,
Q
EL ;
inaddition toart and literature, lifestyles, ways ofliving
ES cultura
together, value systems, traditions and beliefs. R
ET kultuur
FI kulttuuri
Source S
FR culture
Derived byEMN from the definition inthe UNESCO Universal
GA cultr T
Declaration onCultural Diversity
HU kultra
IT cultura
Related term U
LT kultra
cultural pluralism
LV kultra
MT Kultura
V
NL cultuur
PL kultura W
PT cultura
RO cultura X
SK kultra
SL kultura Y
SV kultur
NO kultur Z

75
D BG
CS
DE
de facto population

de facto obyvatelstvo
De-facto-Bevlkerung /
Definition
A concept under which individuals (or vital events) are recorded
(or are attributed) tothe geographical area where they were
tatschlichanwesendeBevlkerung present (or occurred) ataspecified time.
EL de facto ( )
ES poblacin (de hecho) Source
ET de facto rahvastik (tegelik rahvastik) OECD Glossary ofStatistical Terms
FI de facto -vest
FR population defait
Related term
GA daonra defacto
de jure population
HU npessg (de facto)
IT popolazione defacto
LT de facto gyventoj skaiius
Note
This term islittle used.
LV de facto iedzvotji
MT Popolazzjoni defacto
NL de facto bevolking
PL populacja defacto
PT populao (de facto)
RO populaie (de facto)
SK obyvatestvo defacto / faktick obyvatestvo /
prtomn obyvatestvo
SL de facto prebivalstvo
SV de facto-befolkning
NO tilstedevrende befolkning /de facto befolkning (b) /
folkesetnad tilstades /de facto-folkesetnad(n)
ASYLUM AND MIGRATION GLOSSARY 3.0

76
A
de facto refugee
B
BG no translation Definition
CS poivatel doplkov ochrany; strpitel Person not recognised asarefugee (within the meaning C
DE De-facto-Flchtling
EL de facto
ofArt.1A ofthe Geneva Convention of1951and Protocol
of1967) and who isunable or, for reasons recognised asvalid, D
ES refugiado defacto unwilling toreturn totheir country oforigin orcountry of
ET de facto pagulane nationality or, ifthey have nonationality, tothe country oftheir E
FI tosiasiallinen pakolainen / de facto -pakolainen habitual residence.
FR rfugi defacto F
GA ddeana defacto
Source
HU de facto meneklt
IT rifugiato defacto
Derived byEMN from IOM Glossary onMigration, 2nd. ed., 2011 G
LT de facto pabglis
LV de facto bglis
Related terms H
(civil)
war refugee
MT Rifujat(a) defacto
NL de facto vluchteling
displaced person I
forced migrant
PL uchodca defacto
PT refugiado defacto humanitarian protection J
person eligible for subsidiary protection
RO refugiat defacto
SK uteenec defacto refugee in orbit K
SL de facto begunec
SV de facto-flykting Notes L
NO de facto-flyktning 1.This term isnot defined inlegal terms inthe Member States.
M
2.InDE, this refers toaperson who has not applied for asylum
orwhose asylum application has been rejected, but whose N
removal has been suspended due toconcrete danger oflife,
body orfreedom. For example, apersons stay will betolerated
inDE ongrounds ofhumanitarian law.
O
P
Q
R
S
T
U
V
W
X
Y
Z

77
D BG
CS
DE
de jure population

de jure obyvatelstvo
De-jure-Bevlkerung / Familien angehriger,
Definition
A concept under which individuals (or vital events) are recorded
(or are attributed) toageographical area onthe basis ofthe
demUnterhalt gewhrt wird place ofresidence.
EL De jure ( )
ES poblacin (de derecho) Source
ET de jure rahvastik OECD Glossary ofStatistical Terms
FI de jure -vest
FR population dedroit
Related term
GA daonra dejure
de facto population
HU npessg (de jure)
IT popolazione dejure
LT de jure gyventoj skaiius
Note
This term islittle used.
LV de jure iedzvotji
MT Popolazzjoni dejure
NL de jure bevolking
PL populacja dejure
PT populao (de direito)
RO populaie (de drept)
SK obyvatestvo dejure / bvajce obyvatestvo
SL de jure prebivalstvo
SV de jure-befolkning
NO hjemmehrende befolkning /de jure befolkning (b) /
folkesetnad etter bustad / dejure-folkesetnad(n)

dependant
BG Definition
CS rodinn pslunk (osoba blzk, osoba zvisl) A person who has filed anapplication for family reunification
DE zuzugsberechtigter Familienangehriger and who isgranted entry and residence bythe Member State
EL / tostay with alegally resident family member orother.
ES dependiente
ET lalpeetav Source
FI huollettava Developed byEMN
FR personne charge
ASYLUM AND MIGRATION GLOSSARY 3.0

GA cleithina
Related terms
HU eltartott
family member
IT persona acarico
sponsor
LT ilaikomas asmuo
LV apgdjamais
MT Persuna dipendenti
Note
NL afhankelijk gezinslid For more information, see EMN: Family reunification, 2010.
(verynarrow:persoontenlaste)
PL osoba pozostajca nautrzymaniu
PT dependente / pessoa acargo
RO dependent
SK zvisl osoba
SL vzdrevanec
SV anhrig
NO forsrget person (b) / forsrgd person(n)

78
A
deportation
B
BG Definition
CS nucen nvrat The act ofastate inthe exercise ofits sovereignty inremoving C
DE Abschiebung
EL
an alien from its territory toacertain place after refusal
ofadmission ortermination ofpermission toremain. D
ES expulsin
ET vljasaatmine Source E
FI karkottaminen UNHCR International Thesaurus
FR loignement F
of Refugee Terminology
GA dbirt
HU kitoloncols
IT espulsione/ deportazione
Synonym G
removal
LT deportacija
LV piespiedu izraidana
H
MT Deportazzjoni
Broader term
NL uitzetting
compulsory return I
PL deportacja
PT deportao Related term J
expulsion
RO returnare
SK vyhostenie K
SL odstranitev / deportacija Note
SV utvisning InIE, DE, UK, deportation isdefined inlegislation, whilst inES, L
NO uttransportering NL, PTit isnot used asalegal term and isapplicable only
asageneral concept bythe public, sometimes with anegative M
connotation. Because of this variation, removal is the preferred
term to use. N
O
P
Q
R
S
T
U
V
W
X
Y
Z

79
D BG
CS
DE
detainee

zajitn cizinec
Hftling
Definition
A person indetention.

EL Source
ES detenido Developed byEMN
ET kinnipeetav
FI siln otettu Related term
FR personne retenue detention
GA duine at choinneil
HU rizetbevett (szemly)
IT detenuto
LT sulaikytasis
LV aizturtais
MT Detenut(a)
NL gedetineerde (vreemdelingenbewaring gestelde
persoon (NL) orpersoon invasthouding / opgesloten
persoon (BE) incase ofreturn)
PL osoba zatrzymana
PT
RO
SK zaisten osoba
SL pripornik
SV frvarstagen person
NO innsatt (b) / innsett(n)

detection of a victim of trafficking in human beings


BG Definition
CS identifikace obti obchodovn slidmi The process ofidentifying apossible situation oftrafficking
DE Erkennung eines Opfers von Menschenhandel inhuman beings.
EL
ES deteccin devctimas detrata deseres humanos Source
ET inimkaubanduse ohvri staatuse tuvastamine Derived byEMN from Varandas, I. & J. Martins: Signalling
FI ihmiskaupan uhrin havaitseminen Identification Integration ofVictims ofTrafficking for Sexual
FR dtection dune victime dela traite des tres humains
ASYLUM AND MIGRATION GLOSSARY 3.0

Exploitation: Construction ofaGuide, 2007


GA ospartach ginnela aaimsi
HU emberkereskedelem ldozatnak feldertse
Broader term
IT individuazione della vittima ditratta degli
trafficking in human beings
esseriumani
LT prekybos monmis aukos atpainimas
LV cilvku tirdzniecbas upura atpazana
Related term
identification
of a victim of trafficking
MT Sejbien ta vittma fit-traffikar tal-persuni
NL detectie van een slachtoffer van mensenhandel inhuman beings
PL identyfikacja ofiar handlu ludmi
PT
RO identificarea unei victime atraficului defiinte umane
SK zisovanie [odhaovanie] ije osoba obeou
obchodovania sumi
SL zaznava rtve trgovine zljudmi
SV upptckt avoffer fr mnniskohandel
NO identifisering avet offer for menneskehandel (b) /
identifisering aveit offer for menneskehandel(n)
80
A
detention
B
BG Source
CS zajitn Global context: Derived byEMN from the definition ofdetention C
DE Abschiebungshaft
EL ()
inUNESCOs People onthe Move Handbook
EU context: Art.2(h) ofDirective 2013/33/EU (Recast Reception D
ES internamiento Conditions Directive) and Art.26ofDirective 2013/32/EU
ET kinnipidamine (Recast Asylum Procedures Directive) E
FI silnotto
FR rtention F
Narrower term
GA coinneil detention facility
HU rizet
IT trattenimento
G
Related terms
LT sulaikymas
LV aizturana
alternative todetention H
detainee
MT Detenzjoni
NL detentie; vreemdelingenbewaring I
(incontextofreturn) Notes
PL detencja / zatrzymanie 1.EUprovisions differentiate between different migration situa- J
PT deteno tions inwhich third-country nationals can bedetained: detention
RO custodie public ofapplicants for international protection, detention inorder topre- K
SK zaistenie vent irregular entry into the territory ofMember States and
SL omejitev gibanja / pripor detention ofirregular migrants involved inreturn proceedings. L
SV frvar
NO forvaring 2.Applicants for international protection may bedetained atany M
stage ofor throughout the asylum process, from the time anini-
Definition tial application ismade upto the point ofremoval ofan unsuc- N
In the global migration context, non-punitive administrative cessful applicant for international protection. According
measure ordered byan administrative orjudicial authority(ies) toArt.18ofDirective 2013/32/EU (Recast Asylum Procedure
inorder torestrict the liberty ofaperson through confinement Directive) itis not acceptable todetain aperson solely for the
O
sothat another procedure may beimplemented. reason that they have lodged anapplication for international
In the EUasylum context, confinement (i.e. deprivation ofliberty) protection. Toensure the non-arbitrariness ofdetention and the
P
ofan applicant for international protection byaMember State respect offundamental rights ofapplicants for international
within aparticular place, where the applicant isdeprived oftheir protection, Directive 2013/33/EU introduced anexhaustive list
Q
personal liberty. ofdetention grounds (Art.8) and put inplace anumber ofpro-
cedural guarantees.The Directive also regulates the conditions R
indetention facilities (Art.10).
S
3.Inan EUreturn context, Member States may only detain orkeep
inadetention facility athird-country national who isthe subject T
ofreturn procedures inorder toprepare the return and / or carry
out the removal process, inparticular when: (a) there isarisk U
ofabsconding; or(b) the third-country national concerned avoids
orhampers the preparation ofreturn orthe removal process. Any V
detention shall befor asshort aperiod aspossible and only main-
tained aslong asremoval arrangements are inprogress and exe- W
cuted with due diligence. SeeArt.15 (1) ofDirective 2008/115/
EC (Return Directive). X
4.For further information, see EMN: The use ofdetention and Y
alternatives todetention inthe context ofimmigration poli-
cies, 2014. Z

81
D BG
CS
DE
detention facility

zazen pro zajitn cizinc / zajiovac zazen
Haftzentrum
Definition
In the global context, aspecialised facility used for the deten-
tion ofthird-country nationals inaccordance with national law.
EL () In the EUreturn context, aspecialised facility tokeep indetention
ES centro deinternamiento athird-country national who isthe subject ofreturn procedures
ET kinnipidamisasutus inorder toprepare the return and / or carry out the removal
FI silnottolaitos process, inparticular when: (a) there isarisk ofabsconding;
FR centre dertention
or(b)the third-country national concerned avoids orhampers the
GA ionad coinnela
preparation ofreturn orthe removal process.
HU rztt szlls / fogda
IT struttura ditrattenimento
Source
LT sulaikymo centras
Global context: derived byEMN from Art.16ofDirective
LV aizturanas telpa
2008/115/EC (Return Directive)
MT entru / Failit ta detenzjoni
NL inrichting voor vreemdelingenbewaring Return context: Art.15 (1) ofDirective 2008/115/EC (Return
PL orodek detencyjny Directive)
PT centro deinstalao temporria
RO centru decazare astrinilor luai ncustodie public Synonym
detention centre
SK tvar policajnho zaistenia pre cudzincov (national
law) / zariadenie uren pre zaistenie cudzincov
SL objekt vkaterem seizvaja omejitev gibanja / Broader term
obejktzapripor detention
SV frvarsanlggning
NO forvaringsleir Note
Where aMember State cannot provide accommodation inaspe-
cialised detention facility and isobliged toresort toprison
accommodation, the third-country nationals indetention shall
bekept separated from ordinary prisoners.
ASYLUM AND MIGRATION GLOSSARY 3.0

82
A
determining authority
B
BG Definition
CS rozhodujc orgn In the context ofinternational protection, any quasi-judicial C
DE Asylbehrde
EL
oradministrative body inaMember State responsible for exam-
ining applications for international protection that iscompe- D
ES autoridad decisoria deasilo tent totake decisions atfirst instance insuch cases.
ET tuvastav asutus E
FI mrittv turvapaikkaviranomainen Source
FR autorit responsable dela dtermination F
Art.2(f) ofDirective 2013/32/EU (Recast Asylum Procedures
GA dars cinntitheach
Directives)
HU menedkjog irnti krelem elbrlsrt
felelshatsg
G
Synonym
IT autorit responsabile per ilriconoscimento dello
status dirifugiato
determining asylum authority H
LT praym nagrinti irsprendim dl prieglobsio
suteikimo priimti galiota institucija
Related terms I
caseworker in procedures for international
LV atbildg iestde par patvruma pieteikuma
izskatanu protection J
MT Awtorit gat-teid ta deijonijiet dwar l-ail
NL asielbeslissingsautoriteit K
PL organ rozpatrujcy wniosek
PT autoridade responsvel pela deciso (asilo) L
RO autoritatea responsabil cuexaminarea cererii deazil
SK rozhodujci orgn zodpovedn zapreskmanie M
iadosti oudelenie azylu
SL organ odloanja N
SV beslutande myndighet
NO asylmyndighet (b) / asylstyresmakt(n) O
P
Q
R
S
T
U
V
W
X
Y
Z

83
D BG
CS
DE
Dialogue on Mediterranean Transit Migration

Dialog ostedomosk tranzitn migraci
Dialog ber Transitmigration imMittelmeerraum
Definition
An inter-regional intergovernmental consultative forum of
migration officials incountries oforigin, transit and destina-
EL tion along the migration routes inAfrica, Europe and the Middle
ES Dilogo sobre laMigracin deTrnsito East with afocus onirregular and mixed migration, aswell ason
enelMediterrneo migration and development inthe Mediterranean region and
ET Vahemere transiitrnde dialoog beyond, aiming tobuild common understandings and tojointly
FI Vlimeren kauttakulkumuuttoa koskeva vuoropuhelu
develop evidence-based comprehensive and sustainable migra-
FR Dialogue sur lamigration detransit enMditerrane
tion management systems.
GA Idirphl maidir lehImirce Idirthurais trasna
naMenmhara
Source
HU Prbeszd aMediterrn Tranzit Migrcirl
Desciption ofMediterranean Transit Migration (MTM) onthe
IT Dialogo sulla Migrazione diTransito nelMediterraneo
website ofICMPD
LT Migracijos dialogas Viduremio jros regiono tranzitui
LV Vidusjras tranzta migrcijas dialogs
MT Djalogu fuq il-Migrazzjoni ta Tranitu filMediterran Synonym
MTM
NL Dialoog rond Mediterrane transitmigratie
PL Dialog nt. migracji tranzytowych wregionie basenu
Morza rdziemnego Related terms
Africa-EU Migration, Mobility and Employment
PT Dilogo sobre migrao detrnsito noMediterrneo
RO Dialogul cuprivire lamigraia detranzit Partnership
nzonaMediteranei 5+5Dialogue onMigration inthe Western
SK Dialg otranzitnej migrcii vStredomor Mediterranean
SL Dialog osredozemskih tranzitnih migracijah Global Approach toMigration and Mobility
SV no usual translation Global Forum onMigration and Development
NO Dialogen omtransittmigrasjon iMiddelhavet
Notes
1.The MTM Dialogue started in2002and involves numerous part-
cipants from Arab (APS) and European partner states (EPS) aswell
asseven international organisations.The International Centre for
Migration Policy Development (ICMPD) serves asits secretariat.
Initially focusing ontransit migration, the MTM extended its scope
over the years tocover various aspects ofmigration management
inthe Mediterranean region and beyond.

2.The Dialogue onMediterranean Transit Migration isbuilt ontwo


pillars. The first one focuses onenhancing operational cooperation
ASYLUM AND MIGRATION GLOSSARY 3.0

tocombat irregular migration or, inother terms, onshorter-term


measures toaddress irregular flows. The second pillar deals with
alonger-term perspective byfocusing onaddressing the root
causes ofirregular flows through development cooperation and
abetter joint management ofmigration. These pillars are used
asframeworks for the implementation ofspecific projects but
cross-pillar projects are also put inplace.

84
A
diaspora
B
BG Definition
CS diaspora Individuals and members ofnetworks, associations and commu- C
DE Diaspora
EL
nities, who have left their country oforigin, but maintain links
with their homelands. D
ES dispora
ET diasporaa Source E
FI diaspora IOM Glossary onMigration, 2nd. ed. 2011
FR diaspora F
GA diaspra
Related term
HU diaszpra
IT diaspora
circular migration G
LT diaspora
LV diaspora
Notes H
1.This concept covers more settled expatriate communities,
MT Dijaspora
NL diaspora migrant workers based abroad temporarily, expatriates with the I
PL Diaspora nationality ofthe host country, dual nationals and second- /
PT dispora third-generation migrants. J
RO diaspora
SK diaspra 2.Itis ageneral term, with nolegal definition, which can also K
SL diaspora cover Member State nationals (and immigrants) who feel strong
SV diaspora connections totheir origins. L
NO diaspora
M
N
direct discrimination O

BG Definition
P
CS pm diskriminace A situation inwhich one person istreated less favourably than
DE unmittelbare Diskriminierung another is, has been orwould betreated inacomparable situa-
Q
EL tion ongrounds ofracial orethnic origin.
ES discriminacin directa R
ET otsene diskrimineerimine Source
FI vlitn syrjint Art.2(a) ofCouncil Directive 2000/43/EC (Racial Equality Directive) S
FR discrimination directe
GA idirdheal dreach
Broader term T
HU kzvetlen diszkriminci
principle ofequal treatment
IT discriminazione diretta U
LT tiesiogin diskriminacija
LV tiea diskrimincija
MT Diskriminazzjoni diretta
V
NL directe discriminatie
PL dyskryminacja bezporednia
W
PT discriminao directa
RO discriminare direct X
SK priama diskrimincia
SL neposredna diskriminacija Y
SV direkt diskriminering
NO direkte diskriminering Z

85
D BG
CS
DE
displaced person

vysdlen osoba
Vertriebener
Definition
In the EUcontext, athird-country national orstateless person
who has had toleave their country orregion oforigin, orhas been
EL evacuated, particularly inresponse toan appeal byinternational
ES poblacin desplazada organisations, and isunable toreturn insafe and durable condi-
ET mberasustatud isik tions because ofthe situation prevailing inthat country, who may
FI siirtymn joutunut henkil fall within the scope ofArt.1A ofthe Geneva Convention of
FR personne dplace
1951 orother international ornational instruments giving inter-
GA duine easitithe
national protection, inparticular:
HU lakhelyt elhagyni knyszerlt szemly
(i) aperson who has fled areas ofarmed conflict orendemic
IT sfollato
violence;
LT perkeltasis asmuo
(ii) aperson atserious risk of, orwho has been the victim of,
LV prvietota persona
systematic orgeneralised violations oftheir human rights.
MT Persuna sfollata // maqluga minn darha //
likellhatalli darha
NL ontheemde Source
PL osoba przesiedlona Art.2(c) ofCouncil Directive 2001/55/EC (Temporary Protection
PT deslocado Directive)
RO persoan strmutat
SK vysdlen osoba / vysdlenec (EU acquis) / Broader term
oddenec(national law) forced migrant
SL razseljena oseba
SV frdriven person Narrower terms
NO fordrevet person (b) / fordriven person(n) environmentally displaced person
internally displaced person

Related terms
(civil)
war refugee
de facto refugee
displacement
refugee
ASYLUM AND MIGRATION GLOSSARY 3.0

86
A
dual citizenship
B
BG Definition
CS dvoj obanstv The simultaneous possession oftwo ormore citizenships bythe C
DE Doppelte Staatsangehrigkeit/ Staatsbrgerschaft,
Doppelstaatigkeit
same person.
D
EL Source
ES doble nacionalidad Derived byEMN from Art.2b ofthe European Convention E
ET topeltkodakondsus onNationality
FI monikansalaisuus F
FR double nationalit
Synonyms
GA dshaornacht
HU llampolgrsg (tbbes)
multiple citizenship G
multiple nationality
IT doppia cittadinanza
LT keli valstybi pilietyb
H
LV dubult pilsonba
Broader term
MT ittadinanza doppja
citizenship I
NL meervoudige nationaliteit
(NLsyn.:meervoudigstaatsburgerschap) J
PL podwjne obywatelstwo
PT dupla nacionalidade K
RO cetatenie dubla / multipla
SK dvojit ttne obianstvo / dvojit ttna prslunos L
(dual citizenship) / viacnsobn ttne obianstvo /
viacnsobn ttna prslunos (multiple citizenship) M
SL dvojno dravljanstvo
SV dubbelt medborgarskap N
NO dobbelt statsborgerskap (b) / dobbel statsborgarskap(n)
O
P
Q
R
S
T
U
V
W
X
Y
Z

87
D BG
CS
DE
Dublin Convention

Dablinsk mluva
Dubliner bereinkommen
Definition
Convention determining the Member State responsible for exam-
ining anapplication for asylum lodged inone ofthe Member
EL States ofthe European Union.
ES Convenio deDubln
ET Dublini konventsioon Source
FI Dublinin yleissopipus Dublin Convention
FR Convention deDublin
GA Coinbhinsin Bhaile tha Cliath
Related terms
HU Dublini Egyezmny
Dublin procedure
IT Convenzione di Dublino
Dublin Regulation
LT Dublino konvencija
Dublin transfer
LV Dublinas konvencija
Eurodac
MT Konvenzjoni (Il-) ta Dublin
transfer order
NL Overeenkomst van Dublin
PL Konwencja Dubliska
PT Conveno de Dublin Notes
RO Convenia Dublin 1.The Dublin Convention was signed inDublin, Ireland
SK Dublinsk dohovor on15June 1990, and first came into force on1September
SL Dublinska konvencija 1997for the first 12signatories. The Treaty has been extended
SV Dublinkonventionen toother Member States and some countries outside the Union.
NO Dublin-konvensjonen
2.The Dublin Convention was replaced byCouncil Regulation
No343/2003 (Dublin IIregulation). Its validity ended on
16March 2003.

Dublin procedure
BG / Definition
, The process ofdetermining the Member State responsible for
examining anasylum application lodged inone ofthe Member
States byathird-country national under Regulation (EU)
CS dublinsk zen No604/2013 (Dublin III Regulation).
DE Dublin-Verfahren
EL Source
ES Procedimiento deDublin Derived byEMN from Art.20ofRegulation (EU) No604/2013
ET Dublini menetlus
ASYLUM AND MIGRATION GLOSSARY 3.0

(Dublin III Regulation)


FI Dublin-menettely
FR procdure deDublin
Related terms
GA ns imeachta Bhaile tha Cliath
Dublin Convention
HU Dublini eljrs
Dublin Regulation
IT procedura Dublino
Dublin transfer
LT procedra pagal Dublino reglament
Eurodac
LV Dublinas procedra
transfer order
MT Proedura (Il-) ta Dublin
NL Dublinprocedure
PL procedura dubliska
PT
RO procedura Dublin
SK dublinsk konanie
SL Dublinski postopek
SV Dublinprocess
NO Dublin-prosedyren

88
A
Dublin Regulation
B
BG Definition
CS Nazen Dublin III Regulation which lays down the criteria and mechanisms for deter- C
DE Dublin-Verordnung
EL
mining the Member State responsible for examining anapplication
for international protection lodged inone ofthe Member States D
ES Reglamento deDubln byathird-country national orastateless person.
ET Dublini mrus E
FI Dublin-asetus Source
FR Rglement deDublin F
Regulation (EU) No604/2013 (Dublin III Regulation)
GA Rialachn Bhaile tha Cliath
HU dublini rendelet
IT Regolamento diDublino
Related terms G
asylum shopping
LT Dublino reglamentas
LV Dublinas regula
Dublin Convention H
Dublin procedure
MT Regolament (Ir-) ta Dublin
NL Dublinverordening
Dublin transfer I
Eurodac
PL Rozporzdzenie Dubliskie
PT Regulamento deDublin transfer order J
RO Regulamentul Dublin
SK Dublinsk nariadenie K
SL Dublinska Uredba
SV Dublinfrordningen L
NO Dublin-forordningen (b) / Dublin-forordninga(n)
M
N
O
P
Q
R
S
T
U
V
W
X
Y
Z

89
D BG

CS
Dublin transfer
/

dublinsk transfer
Definition
(a) The transfer of responsibility for the examination of the mer-
its of an application for international protection from one
DE bertragung der Zustndigkeit / Dublin-berstellung Member State to another Member State.
EL (b) The (physical) transfer of an applicant to the Member State
ES who is considered to be responsible for examining the merits of
ET Dublini leandmine an application following a Dublin procedure.
FI Dublinin asetuksen mukainen siirto
FR Transfert Dublin
Source
GA aistri Bhaile tha Cliath
(a)Derived by EMN from Art. 17(2) and 19(1) of Regulation (EU)
HU no usual translation
No 604/2013 (Dublin III Regulation)
IT trasferimento degli obblighi dello Stato competente
(b)Derived by EMN from Art. 29 of Regulation (EU) No 604/2013
nella procedura Dublino
(Dublin III Regulation)
LT perdavimas pagal Dublino reglament
LV personas prstana Dublinas regulas ietvaros
MT Trasferiment skont il-proedura ta Dublin Narrower term
transfer order
NL Dublinoverdracht
PL przekazanie dubliskie
PT Related terms
Dublin Convention
RO
SK dublinsk transfer Dublin procedure
SL Dublinski transfer / Dublinski prenos Dublin Regulation
SV Dublinverfring transfer order
NO Dublin-overfring (av ansvar)
Notes
1.The determination ofthe Member State responsible for exam-
ining anapplication for international protection isdone onthe
basis ofobjective and hierarchical criteria, aslaid out inChapter
III ofRegulation (EU) No604/2013 (Dublin III Regulation).

2.For more information onthe Dublin Regulation, see the


description ofpolicy onthe examination ofapplications for asy-
lum onthe DGHOME website.
ASYLUM AND MIGRATION GLOSSARY 3.0

90
A
durable solutions
B
BG Definition
CS trval een Any means bywhich the situation ofrefugees can besatisfactorily C
DE dauerhafte Lsung
EL
and permanently resolved toenable them tolive normal lives.
D
ES soluciones duraderas Source
ET psivad lahendused UNHCR Master Glossary ofTerms E
FI kestvt ratkaisut
FR solutions durables F
Related term
GA buanritigh; ritigh mharthanacha (uatha: resettlement
buanriteach; riteach marthanach)
HU a fenntarthatsgot szolgl intzkedsek
G
Note
IT soluzione durevole
LT ilgalaikiai sprendimai
The UNHCR traditionally pursues the durable solutions ofvolun- H
tary repatriation, local integration and resettlement.
LV ilgtspjgi risinjumi
MT Soluzzjonijiet dewwiema / lijibqgu fis-se I
NL duurzame oplossing
PL trwae rozwizania J
PT
RO solutii durabile K
SK trval rieenia / trvcne rieenia
(depending on the context) L
SL trajne reitve
SV hllbara lsningar M
NO varige lsninger (b) / varige lysingar(n)
N
O
P
Q
R
S
T
U
V
W
X
Y
Z

91
E BG
CS
DE
Eastern Partnership

Vchodn partnerstv
stliche Partnerschaft
Definition
An institutionalised forum for EUcooperation with its Eastern
neighbours whose main goal isto create the necessary condi-
EL tions toaccelerate political association and further economic
ES Asociacin Oriental integration.
ET idapartnerlus
FI itinen kumppanuus Source
FR Partenariat oriental
Website ofthe European Neighbourhood Policy
GA Comhphirtocht anOirthir
HU Keleti Partnersg
Synonyms
IT Partenariato Orientale
EAP
LT Ryt partneryst
Sderkping Process
LV Austrumu partnerba
MT Subija mal-Lvant
NL Oostelijk Partnerschap Broader term
European Neighbourhood Policy
PL Partnerstwo Wschodnie
PT parceria oriental
RO Parteneriatul Estic Related terms
Black Sea Synergy
SK Vchodn partnerstvo
SL Vzhodno partnerstvo Euro-Mediterranean Partnership
SV stra partnerskapet
NO Det stlige partnerskapet (b) / Notes
Detaustlegepartnarskapet(n) 1. Within the context ofthe Eastern Partnership Platform 1
(democracy, good governance and stability), the Eastern Partner-
ship Panel onMigration and Asylum (EaP) was created in2011.
The overall objective ofthe Panel isto strengthen the asylum
and migration systems ofEastern partners and advance the
dialogue onmigration and asylum issues between the Eastern
partners and the EU, aswell asamongst the Eastern partners.

2.The precursor ofthe EaP was the Sderkping Process, which


was launched inMay 2001asacross-border cooperation
onasylum and migration inorder torespond tonew challenges
due tothe EUs enlargement eastwards. With the establishment
ofthe Panel onMigration and Asylum within the Eastern
Partnerships Platform 1, the work ofthe Sderkping Process
isbeing carried onwithin the multilateral dimension ofthe
ASYLUM AND MIGRATION GLOSSARY 3.0

Eastern Partnership.

3.For more information, see the website ofthe EAP:


http://eapmigrationpanel.org/page39964.html

92
A
economic migrant
B
BG Definition
CS ekonomick migrant A person who leaves their country oforigin purely for economic C
DE Migrant aus wirtschaftlichen Grnden, reasons that are not inany way related tothe refugee definition,
Wirtschaftsmigrant inorder toseek material improvements intheir livelihood. D
EL
ES
ET
persona migrante por motivos econmicos
majandusmigrant
Source E
UNHCR Master Glossary ofTerms
FI taloudellisten syiden vuoksi muuttava henkil F
FR migrant conomique
Synonym
GA imirceach eacnamaoch
HU gazdasgi migrns
economic refugee G
IT migrante economico
LT ekonominis migrantas
Broader term H
migrant
LV ekonomiskais migrants
MT Migrant(a) gal raunijiet ekonomii I
NL economische migrant Narrower terms
PL migrant ekonomiczny guest worker J
migrant worker
PT migrante econmico
RO migrant economic K
SK ekonomick migrant Related terms
SL ekonomski migrant economic migration L
SV ekonomisk migrant managed migration
NO konomisk migrant M
Notes
1.Economic migrants donot fall within the criteria for refugee N
status and are therefore not entitled tobenefit from interna-
tional protection asrefugees.
O
2.Economic migrants are sometimes referred toas economic
refugees, but this isamisuse ofthe term refugee.
P
Q
R
S
T
U
V
W
X
Y
Z

93
E BG
CS
DE
economic migration

ekonomick migrace
Wirtschaftsmigration, Migration
Definition
Migration mainly for economic reasons orin order toseek mate-
rial improvements tolivelihood.
auswirtschaftlichenGrnden
EL Source
ES migracin econmica Derived by EMN from UNHCR Master Glossary of Terms
ET majandusrnne
FI taloudellisista syist tapahtuva maahanmuutto
Broader term
FR migration conomique migration
GA imirce eacnamaoch
HU gazdasgi (cl) migrci
Narrower term
IT migrazione economica
labour migration
LT ekonomin migracija
LV ekonomisk migrcija
MT Migrazzjoni gal raunijiet ekonomii Related terms
economicmigrant
NL economische migratie
forced
migration
PL migracja ekonomiczna
managed migration
PT migrao econmica
RO migraie economic
SK ekonomick migrcia
SL ekonomska migracija
SV ekonomisk migration
NO konomisk migrasjon

emigrant
BG Definition
CS vysthovalec; emigrant In the global context, aresident (national oralien) departing
DE Abwanderer, Auswanderer, Emigrant orexiting from one State intending toremain abroad for
EL / aperiod exceeding one year.
ES emigrante In the EUcontext, aperson who, having previously been usually
ET vljarndaja resident inthe territory ofaMember State, ceases tohave their
FI maastamuuttaja / siirtolainen usual residence inthat Member State for aperiod that is, oris
FR migrant expected tobe, ofat least 12months.
GA eisimirceach
HU emigrns
ASYLUM AND MIGRATION GLOSSARY 3.0

Source
IT emigrante
Global context: UNRecommendations on Statistics ofInternational
LT emigrantas
Migration
LV emigrants
EU context: Art.2(c) and (g) ofRegulation (EC) No862/2007
MT Emigrant(a)
(Migration Statistics Regulation)
NL emigrant
PL emigrant
PT emigrante
Broader term
migrant
RO emigrant
SK vysahovalec (national law) / emigrant
SL izseljenec /emigrant Related terms
immigrant
SV utvandrare
emigration
NO utvandrer
short-term migrant

Note
National legislation might understand different time limits
intheir definitions.
94
A
emigration
B
BG Definition
CS vysthovalectv; emigrace In the global context, the act ofdeparting orexiting from one C
DE Abwanderung, Auswanderung, Emigration State with the intention toremain abroad for aperiod exceeding
EL / one year. D
ES emigracin
ET
FI
vljarnne
maastamuutto
In the EUcontext, the action bywhich aperson, having previ-
ously been usually resident inthe territory ofaMember State, E
ceases tohave their usual residence inthat Member State or
FR migration F
another Member State for aperiod that is, oris expected tobe,
GA eisimirce
ofat least 12months.
HU emigrci/ kivndorls
IT emigrazione
G
Source
LT emigracija
LV emigrcija
Global context: UNRecommendations onStatistics ofInternational H
Migration
MT Emigrazzjoni
NL emigratie EU context: Art.2(c) ofRegulation (EC) No862/2007 (Migration I
PL emigracja Statistics Regulation)
PT emigrao J
RO emigraie Broader term
SK vysahovalectvo (national law) / emigrcia migration K
SL izselitev /emigracija
SV utvandring Related terms L
NO utvandring emigrant
immigration
M
N
employee
O
BG Definition
CS zamstnanec Worker holding anexplicit orimplicit employment contract, which
P
DE Arbeitnehmer gives them abasic remuneration that isnot directly dependent
EL ; upon the revenue ofthe unit for which they work.
Q
ES empleado
ET ttaja Source R
FI tyntekij ILO Thesaurus, 6th ed., 2008
FR salari S
GA fosta Related terms
HU alkalmazott / munkavllal employer T
IT occupato employment
LT darbuotojas self-employed person U
LV darba mjs / darbinieks
MT Impjegat(a) V
NL werknemer
PL pracownik
PT empregado
W
RO angajat
SK zamestnanec X
SL zaposleni / delavec
SV anstlld Y
NO ansatt (b) / tilsett(n)
Z

95
E BG
CS
DE
employer

zamstnavatel
Arbeitgeber
Definition
Any natural person orany legal entity, including temporary work
agencies, for orunder the direction and / or supervision ofwhom
EL the employment isundertaken.
ES empleador
ET tandja Source
FI tynantaja Art.2(d) ofDirective 2009/52/EC (Employer Sanctions Directive)
FR employeur
GA fostir
Related terms
HU munkltat
employee
IT datore dilavoro
employment
LT darbdavys
self-employed person
LV darba devjs
MT Min iaddem // Min jimpjega
NL werkgever
PL pracodawca
PT empregador
RO angajator
SK zamestnvate
SL delodajalec
SV arbetsgivare
NO arbeidsgiver (b) / arbeidsgjevar(n)

employer sanction
BG Definition
CS sankce aopaten vi zamstnavatelm In the context ofmigration, penalties, including fines, repay-
DE Arbeitgebersanktion, Sanktion gegen einen ments tovictims / the State and incarceration, imposed
Arbeitgeber onemployers bythe Member State for breaking employment
EL and / or migration rules.
ES sancin alempleador
ET sanktsioonid tandjale Source
FI tynantajalle mrttv seuraamus
Derived byEMN from Art.5and 7ofCouncil Directive 2009/52/EC
FR sanction lencontre dun employeur
ASYLUM AND MIGRATION GLOSSARY 3.0

(Employers Sanctions Directive)


GA smachtbhanna inaghaidh fostra
HU munkltatk elleni szankcik
Related terms
IT sanzione nei confronti del datore dilavoro
illegal
employment of an illegally staying
LT sankcijos darbdaviui
third-country national
LV darba devjam piemrojams sankcijas
MT Sanzjoni fuq min iaddem / jimpjega
NL sancties tegen werkgevers
PL sankcja wobec pracodawcy
PT
RO sanciune aplicat angajatorului
SK sankcie voi zamestnvateovi
SL sankcije zoper delodajalca
SV sanktion mot arbetsgivare
NO sanksjon mot arbeidsgiver (b) /
sanksjonmotarbeidsgjevar(n)

96
A
employment
B
BG Definition
CS zamstnn The exercise ofactivities covering whatever form oflabour C
DE Beschftigung orwork regulated under national law orin accordance with
EL established practice for orunder the direction and / or supervi- D
ES empleo
ET
FI
ttamine
tynteko
sion ofan employer.
E
Source
FR emploi F
Art.2 (c) ofCouncil Directive 2009/52/EC (Employer Sanctions
GA fostaocht
Directive)
HU foglalkoztats
IT lavoro
G
Related terms
LT darbas / uimtumas
LV nodarbintba
employee H
employer
MT Impjieg
NL tewerkstelling
occupation I
PL zatrudnienie
PT emprego J
RO angajare
SK zamestnanie K
SL zaposlitev
SV anstllning L
NO sysselsetting (b) / sysselsetjing(n)
M
N
enforcement measure O

BG Definition
P
CS vkonn opaten Any measure taken bythe enforcing Member State with aview
DE Vollstreckungsmanahme toimplementing anexpulsion decision.
Q
EL ;
ES medida deejecucin Source R
ET sunnimeede Art.2(c) ofCouncil Directive 2001/40/EC (Expulsion Directive)
FI tytntnpanotoimenpide S
FR mesure dexcution
Related terms
GA beart forfheidhmichin expulsion T
HU vgrehajtsi intzkeds
expulsion decision
IT misura diesecuzione U
return decision
LT vykdymo priemon
LV izpildes paskums
MT Miura ta infurzar
Note V
NL uitvoeringsmaatregel In IE and UK this term is used in a more global sense, refering to
PL rodek wykonawczy any action that is taken to enable the implementation of the immi- W
PT medida deexecuo gration law including all forms of removal.
RO msur deaplicare X
SK vykonvacie opatrenie
SL ukrep zauveljavitev / ukrep zaizvritev Y
SV verkstllighetstgrd
NO iverksettelsestiltak (b) / iverksetjingstiltak(n) Z

97
E BG
CS
DE
entry ban

zkaz vstupu
Einreiseverbot
Definition
An administrative orjudicial decision oract prohibiting entry into
and stay inthe territory ofthe Member States for aspecified
EL period, accompanying areturn decision.
ES prohibicin deentrada
ET sissesidukeeld Source
FI maahantulokielto Art.3(6) ofCouncil Directive 2008/115/EC (Return Directive)
FR interdiction duterritoire
GA toirmeasc ariontril
Synonym
HU beutazsi tilalom
re-entry ban
IT divieto diingresso
LT draudimas atvykti
LV ieceoanas aizliegums
MT Dul mimum // Inibizzjoni fuq id-dul
NL inreisverbod
PL zakaz wjazdu
PT interdio deentrada
RO interdicie deintrare
SK zkaz vstupu
SL prepoved vstopa
SV inresefrbud
NO innreiseforbud (b) / innreiseforbod(n)
ASYLUM AND MIGRATION GLOSSARY 3.0

98
A
environmentally displaced person
B
BG Definition
CS enviromentln uprchlk A person subject toforced migration asaresult ofsudden, C
DE Umweltvertriebener drastic environmental changes.
EL D
( ) Source
ES
ET
poblacin desplazada por motivos medioambientales
keskkonnaphjustel mberasustatud isik
Derived byEMN from the definition for environmental refugee E
inthe UNHCR International Thesaurus ofRefugee Terminology
FI ympristtekijiden vuoksi siirtymn joutunut F
FR personne dplace pour des raisons
Synonyms
environnementales
environmental refugee G
GA duine easitithe de dheasca dla comhshaoil
environmentally-driven migrant
HU lakhelyt krnyezeti okbl elhagyni
knyszerltszemly
H
IT sfollato per motivi ambientali
Broader term
LT perkeltasis asmuo dl ekologini prieasi
displaced person I
LV vides faktoru ietekm prvietota persona
MT Persuna sfollata gal raunijiet ambjentali Related term J
internally displaced person
NL door milieufactoren verdreven ontheemde
(notcommonly used inNL) K
PL osoba przesiedlona zpowodu rodowiska Note
naturalnego Environmentally displaced persons are sometimes referred toas L
PT deslocado ambiental environmental refugees, but this isamisuse ofthe term refu-
RO persoan strmutat din cauze legate gee asthey are not refugees inthe strict sense ofArt.1A ofthe M
demediulnconjurtor Geneva Convention of1951, although their migration isforced.
SK osoba vysdlen zenvironmentlnych dvodov N
SL okoljsko razseljena oseba
SV frdriven person (p grund avmiljkatastrof) O
NO person fordrevet pgrunn avmiljskader (b) /
personfordriven pgrunn avmiljskadar(n)
P
Q
R
S
T
U
V
W
X
Y
Z

99
E BG
CS
DE
ethnic cleansing

etnick istka
ethnische Suberung
Definition
Rendering anarea ethnically homogeneous byusing force
orintimidation toremove from agiven area persons ofanother
EL ethnic orreligious group, which iscontrary tointernational law.
ES limpieza tnica
ET etniline puhastus Source
FI etninen puhdistus UN Security Council: Final Report ofthe Commission ofExperts
FR nettoyage ethnique
established Pursuant toSecurity Council Resolution 780, 1992
GA glanadh eitneach
HU etnikai tisztogats
Related term
IT pulizia etnica
genocide
LT etninis valymas
LV etnisk trana
MT Tindif etniku
Notes
NL etnische zuivering 1.General Assembly resolution 47/121referred inits Pream-
PL czystki etniczne ble tothe abhorrent policy ofethnic cleansing.
PT limpeza tnica
RO purificare etnic 2.Trial Chamber Judgment of2August 2001ofthe Interna-
SK etnick istky tional Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia (ICTY) has
SL etnino ienje observed, while there are obvious similarities between agenocidal
SV etnisk rensning policy and the policy commonly known asethnic cleansing, yet
NO etnisk rensing (b) / etnisk reinsing(n) [a] clear distinction must bedrawn between physical destruction
and mere dissolution ofagroup. The expulsion ofagroup orpart
ofagroup does not initself suffice for genocide.

3.These legal documents thus state that crimes committed dur-


ing anethnic cleansing are similar tothose ofgenocide, but
while genocide includes anintent atcomplete orpartial destruc-
tion ofthe target group, ethnic cleansing may involve murder
only tothe point ofmobilising the target group out ofthe terri-
tory. Hence, there may bevaried degrees ofmass murder inan
ethnic cleansing, often subsiding when the target group appears
tobe leaving the desired territory, while during genocide the
mass murder isubiquitous and constant throughout the process,
continuing even while the target group tries toflee.
ASYLUM AND MIGRATION GLOSSARY 3.0

100
A
ethnic nationality
B
BG Definition
CS nrodnost A synonym ofethnicity ornationality, used insome Member C
DE ethnische Zugehrigkeit States inaddition tocitizenship.
EL D
ES origen tnico Source
ET
FI
rahvus
etninen tausta
Towards Harmonised European Statistics onInternational E
Migration (THESIM) project
FR origine ethnique F
GA nisintacht eitneach
Synonyms
HU nemzetisg
IT nazionalit etnica
ethnicity G
nationality
LT tautyb / etnin kilm
LV tautba
H
MT Nazzjonalit etnika
Related terms
NL etniciteit
citizenship I
minority
(syn.:etnischeachtergrond,etnischeafkomst)
PL narodowo etniczna J
PT origem tnica Notes
RO naionalitate/ origine etnic 1.Ethnic nationality isoften aself-declared adhesion toaspe- K
SK nrodnos cific ethnic group and this information iscollected atacensus
SL nacionalna pripadnost / etnina pripadnost but also sometimes inadministrative registration. L
SV tillhrighet till etnisk grupp
NO etnisk tilhrighet (b) / etnisk tilhyrsle(n) 2.This concept should not beconfused with citizenship. M
N
O
P
Q
R
S
T
U
V
W
X
Y
Z

101
E BG
CS
DE
EU acquis
EC
acquis EU
EU-Besitzstand
Definition
The body ofcommon rights and obligations that isbinding onall
EUMember States and that isconstantly evolving, which
EL comprises:
ES acervo comunitario - the content, principles and political objectives ofthe Treaties;
ET Euroopa Liidu igustik - legislation adopted pursuant tothe Treaties and the case law
FI EU:n snnst ofthe Court ofJustice;
FR acquis communautaire
- declarations and resolutions adopted bythe Union;
GA acquis (fgtha saLaidin Fhraincis ileaganacha
- instruments under the Common Foreign and Security Policy;
Gaeilge dereachtaocht nahEorpa)
- instruments under Justice and Home Affairs;
HU EU Kzssgi vvmnyok
- international agreements concluded bythe European Union
IT acquis UE
and those entered into byits Member States among them-
LT ES acquis
selves within the sphere ofthe Unions activities.
LV ES acquis
MT Acquis (L-) Komunitarju
NL gemeenschapsrecht Source
PL acquis UE DG Home e-Library Glossary
PT acquis UE
RO acquis a UE Synonym
acquis
SK prvo Eurpskej nie / prvo E(national law) /
acquis E/ sbor prvnych predpisov E
SL acquis EU Narrower term
SV unionens regelverk asylum acquis
NO EU-rettsregler (b) / EU-rettsreglar (n)
Note
The term isused inthe context ofasylum and migration and
refers toall rights and obligations that are binding onEU Mem-
ber States with regard toasylum and migration.
ASYLUM AND MIGRATION GLOSSARY 3.0

102
A
EU Blue Card
B
BG Definition
CS Modr karta EU The authorisation bearing the term EU Blue Card entitles its C
DE Blaue Karte EU holder toreside and work inthe territory ofaMember State
EL .. under the terms ofCouncil Directive 2009/50/EC (Blue Card D
ES tarjeta azul UE
ET
FI
Euroopa Liidu sinine kaart
EU:n sininen kortti
Directive).
E
Source
FR carte bleue europenne F
Art.2(c) ofCouncil Directive 2009/50/EC (Blue Card Directive)
GA crta gorm anAE
HU EU kk krtya
IT Carta blu UE
Related terms G
highly qualified employment
LT ES mlynoji kortel
LV ES zil karte
highly qualified migrant H
residence permit
MT Karta (Il-) Blu tal-UE
NL Europese blauwe kaart (syn. Blue Card) I
PL Niebieska Karta UE
PT carto azul UE J
RO Cartea Albastr aUE
SK modr karta Eurpskej nie (national law) / K
modrkarta E
SL modra karta EU L
SV EU-blkort
NO EU-blkort M
N
EU Blue Card holder O

BG Definition
P
CS dritel Modr karty EU A third-country national who has acquired the authorisation
DE Inhaber einer Blauen Karte EU bearing the term EU Blue Card entitling them toreside and
Q
EL work inthe territory ofaMember State under the terms
ES titular dela tarjeta azul UE ofCouncil Directive 2009/50/EC (Blue Card Directive). R
ET Euroopa Liidu sinise kaardi omanik
FI EU:n sinisen kortin haltija Source S
FR titulaire dune carte bleue europenne
Derived byEMN from Art.2(c) ofCouncil Directive 2009/50/EC
GA sealbhir chrta gorm anAE
(Blue Card Directive) T
HU EU kk krtya tulajdonos
IT titolare diCarta blu UE U
LT ES mlynosios kortels turtojas
LV ES zils kartes turtjs
MT Portatur(-tri) (Il-) tal-Karta Blu tal-UE
V
NL houder van een Europese blauwe kaart
PL posiadacz Niebieskiej Karty UE
W
PT titular do carto azul UE
RO posesorul Crii Albastre aUE X
SK drite modrej karty Eurpskej nie /
dritemodrejkarty E Y
SL imetnik EUmodre karte
SV innehavare avEU-blkort Z
NO innehaver avEU-blkort (b) /
innehavaravEUblkort(n)

103
E BG
CS
DE
EU Immigration Portal

Imigran portl EU
EU-Zuwanderungsportal
Definition
A website with hands-on information for foreign nationals inter-
ested inmoving tothe EUacting asafirst point ofentry. Itpro-
EL vides up-to-date, practical information onEU and national
ES Portal dela Inmigracin dela UE immigration procedures and policies.
ET EL sisserndeportaal
FI EU:n maahanmuuttoportaali Source
FR Portail delUE sur limmigration
Developed bythe EMN
GA Tairseach Inimirce AE
HU unis bevndorlsi portlt
Synonym
IT Portale europeo dellimmigrazione
EUIP
LT ES imigracijos portalas
LV ES Imigrcijas portls
MT Portal (Il-) tal-UE dwar l-Immigrazzjoni
Broader term
immigration
NL EU-portaalsite over immigratie
PL Portal Imigracyjny UE
PT Portal daImigrao daUE Related terms
European Migration Network
RO Portalul UEprivind imigraia
European Website onIntegration
SK Imigran portl E
SL EU Portal opriseljevanju
SV EU:s invandringsportal Notes
NO Informasjonsportal ominnvandring til EUs 1.The EUImmigration Portal was launched inNovember 2011
medlemsland (seeEuropean Commission Press Release IP/11/1370of18Novem-
ber 2011).

2.The website can beaccessed at:


http://ec.europa.eu/immigration/
ASYLUM AND MIGRATION GLOSSARY 3.0

104
A
EU-LAC Structured Dialogue on Migration
B
BG Definition
A forum for the identification ofcommon challenges and areas C
CS Strukturln dialog omigraci mezi EUaLatinskou for mutual cooperation, aswell asbuilding astronger evidence
Amerikou base for EU-LAC (Latin America and the Caribbean) migration D
DE Strukturierter Dialog ber Migrationsfragen zwischen
der EUund den Lndern Lateinamerikas und
derKaribik
inorder tobetter understand its realities, based onthe principle
ofshared responsibility, strengthening the commitment and will- E
ingness ofboth sides todiscuss migration issues.
EL F
ES Dilogo estructurado UE-ALC sobre migracin
Source
ET (EL jaLuna-Ameerika ning Kariibi) vi ELja LAC
European Council Press Release onlaunching ofEU-LAC dialogue G
rnde struktureeritud dialoog
FI EU:n jaLatinalaisen Amerikan jaKaribian maiden
vlinen rakenteellinen vuoropuhelu muuttoliikkeest
Related term H
Global Approach toMigration and Mobility
FR Dialogue structur sur les migrations entre lUE
etlespays dAmrique latine etdes Carabes (ALC) I
GA Idirphl Struchtrtha idir anAE agus tortha
Notes
Mheirice Laidinigh agus Mhuir Chairib (MLC) maidir 1.InJune 2009, the European Union and the countries ofLatin J
leis anImirce America and the Caribbean (LAC) formally launched the Struc-
HU EU-LAC strukturlis migrcis prbeszd tured and Comprehensive bi-regional Dialogue onMigration. K
IT Dialogo strutturato UE-ALC sulla migrazione
LT ES-Lotyn Amerikos irKarib jros regiono valstybi 2.Inthe framework ofthe Dialogue, parties will exchange views L
struktrinis dialogas migracijos klausimais inthe following main areas: link between migration and devel-
LV Eiropas Savienbas, Latamerikas unKarbu jras opment; regular migration and irregular migration; migration M
reiona valstu strukturts dialogs par migrciju and the issue ofhuman rights, including protection ofmigrants
MT Djalogu Strutturat fuq il-Migrazzjoni - UEuALK inaccordance with international obligations; the fight against all N
NL EU-LAC gestructureerde dialoog over migratie forms ofdiscrimination, racism and xenophobia; legislative
PL and administrative measures applicable tomigrants inan irreg-
EU-LAC Strukturalny dialog narzecz migracji
ular situation; issues related toreturn onadignified basis and
O
PT dilogo estruturado sobre migraes EU-ALC
RO dialogul structurat cuprivire lamigraie EU-LAC voluntary return; measures tocombat trafficking inhuman
beings and smuggling ofmigrants, and the prevention ofdoc-
P
SK truktrovan dialg E- Latinsk Amerika aKaribik
omigrcii ument fraud.
SL EU - LAC Strukturni dialog omigracijah
Q
SV EU-LAC strukturerad dialog ommigration 3.For more information, see the website ofthe EU-LAC Dia-
NO EULACs strukturerte dialog ommigrasjon logue: http://www.migracion-ue-alc.eu/index.php/en-GB/ R
S
T
U
V
W
X
Y
Z

105
E BG
CS
DE
Eurasil

Eurasil
Netzwerk fr Asylpraktiker der Europischen Union
Definition
A European Union Network for asylum practitioners providing
aforum for the exchange ofcountry oforigin information,
(Eurasil) bestpractices and avariety ofpolicy-related matters among
EL . EUMember States, asylum adjudicators and the European
Commission, which aims toimprove and maximise convergence
onapproaches to, and assessment of, the protection needs
ES Eurasil ofasylum seekers.
ET Eurasil
FI Eurasil
Source
FR Eurasil
European Commission Staff Working Document, SEC(2006) 189
GA Eurasil
HU Eurasil
IT Eurasil
Related terms
Common European Asylum System
LT Eurasil
European Asylum Support Office
LV Eurasil
MT Eurasil
NL Eurasil Notes
PL Eurasil 1.Eurasil was established bythe European Commission inJuly
PT Eurasil 2002following the decision ofthe Committee ofthe Permanent
RO Eurasil Representatives (Coreper II) on6March tocease the activities
SK Eurasil ofthe CIREA group (Centre for Information, Discussion and
SL Eurasil Exchange onAsylum).
SV Eurasil
NO Eurasil 2.EURASIL meetings were attended byrepresentatives ofthe
national ministries and asylum authorities ofthe 28Member
States, aswell asof CH, NO and IS. Depending onthe topics
ofthe meeting, international organisations such asUNHCR
orIOM attended Eurasil asexternal experts.

3.With the establishment ofthe European Asylum Support


Office, EASO has taken over responsibility for Eurasil and further
developed EURASIL activities (EASO Practical Cooperation).
ASYLUM AND MIGRATION GLOSSARY 3.0

106
A
Euro-African Dialogue on Migration and Development
B
BG - Definition
CS Dialog EUaAfriky kmigraci arozvoj A framework for dialogue and consultation between EUMember C
DE Europisch -afrikanischer Dialog States and African countries from North, West and Central
berMigrationundEntwicklung / Africa, aswell asthe European Commission and the Economic D
Euro-afrikanischer Dialog ber

EL
MigrationundEntwicklung
Community ofWest African States (ECOWAS), focusing
onregional cooperation inthe field ofmigration between coun- E
tries oforigin, transit and destination along current migration
ES dialogo euroafricano sobre migracin ydesarrollo routes and within which concrete, practical initiatives are F
ET Euro-Aafrika rnde jaarenguabi dialoog
implemented.
FI muuttoliikett jakehityst koskeva
G
EuroAfrikka-dialogi
Source
FR Dialogue euro-africain sur lamigration
etledveloppement
Website ofthe Euro-African Dialogue onMigration and Development H
GA Idirphl Eora-Afracach maidir lehImirce agus Forbairt
HU Euro-afrikai Dialgus amigrcirl sfejlesztsrl
Synonyms I
Euro-African Ministerial Conference onMigration
IT Dialogo Euro-Africano sulla Migrazione elo Sviluppo
LT Europos-Afrikos dialogas migracijos irvystymosi andDevelopment J
Rabat Process
klausimais
LV Eiropas Savienbas unfrikas dialogs par migrciju K
unattstbu Related terms
MT Djalogu Ewro-Afrikan fuq il-Migrazzjoni ul-Ivilupp 5+5Dialogue onMigration inthe Western L
NL Europees-Afrikaanse Ministerile Conferentie over Mediterranean
Global Approach toMigration and Mobility
Migratie enOntwikkeling M
PL Euro-Afrykaski Dialog narzecz Migracji iRozwoju
PT conferncia ministerial euro-africana sobre migrao Notes N
edesenvolvimento 1.The Euro-African Migration and Development process started
RO Dialogul EU-Africa ndomeniul migraiei idezvoltrii with aministerial conference inRabat in2006.
O
SK Euro-africk dialg omigrcii arozvoji
SL Evro - Afriki dialog omigracijah inrazvoju 2.For more information, see the website ofthe Euro-African
Dialogue: http://www.processusderabat.net/web/
P
SV no usual translation
NO Den europeisk-afrikanske dialogen ommigrasjon
Q
R
S
T
U
V
W
X
Y
Z

107
E BG
CS
DE
Eurodac

Eurodac
Eurodac
Definition
The name given toan informatic system, the purpose ofwhich,
via the collection, transmission and comparison offingerprints,
EL rodac isto assist indetermining which Member State isto berespon-
ES Eurodac sible pursuant toRegulation (EU) No604/2013 (Dublin III
ET Eurodac Regulation) for examining anapplication for international pro-
FI Eurodac tection lodged inaMember State byathird-country national
FR Eurodac
orastateless person, and otherwise tofacilitate the application
GA Eurodac
ofRegulation (EU) No604/2013under the conditions set out
HU Eurodac
inthe Regulation establishing Eurodac.
IT Eurodac
LT Eurodac
LV Eurodac
Source
Art.1ofCouncil Regulation (EU) No603/2013 (Eurodac Regulation)
MT Eurodac
NL Eurodac
PL Eurodac Related terms
Dublin Convention
PT Eurodac
Dublin Regulation
RO Eurodac
SK Eurodac
SL Eurodac
SV Eurodac
NO Eurodac
ASYLUM AND MIGRATION GLOSSARY 3.0

108
A
Euro-Mediterranean Partnership
B
BG - Definition
CS Evropsko-stedomosk partnerstv A Union ofthe EUMember States and 16Southern Mediterranean C
DE Europa-Mittelmeer-Partnerschaft / countries built oncooperation agreements that aims topromote
EuromediterranePartnerschaft economic integration and democratic reform across the EUs D
EL
ES
ET
Asociacin Euromediterrnea
Euroopa-Vahemere partnerlus
neighbours tothe south inNorth Africa and the Middle East.
E
Source
FI EuroVlimeri-kumppanuus F
Website ofthe Euro-Mediterranean Partnership (EUROMED)
FR Union pour laMditerrane
GA an Chomhphirtocht Eora-Mhenmhara
HU Euro-mediterrn Partnersg
Synonyms G
Barcelona Process
IT Partenariato euromediterraneo
LT Europos-Viduremio jros regiono partneryst
EUROMED H
Union for the Mediterranean
LV Eiropas unVidusjras reiona valstu partnerba
MT Subija Ewro-Mediterranja
UfM I
NL Euro-mediterraan partnerschap (EUROMED)
PL Partnerstwo Eurordziemnomorskie Broader term J
European Neighbourhood Policy
PT
RO Parteneriatul Euro-Mediteraneean K
SK Euro-stredomorsk partnerstvo Related terms
SL Evro - Sredozemsko partnerstvo Black Sea Synergy L
SV Partnerskapet Europa-Medelhavet Eastern Partnership
NO Euro-Mediterranean Partnership M
Notes
1.The Partnership was established on 13July 2008. N
2.For more information, see the webpage ofthe Euro-Med
O
Partnership onthe website ofthe European Unions External
Action Services: http://eeas.europa.eu/euromed/index_en.htm
P
Q
R
S
T
U
V
W
X
Y
Z

109
E BG
European Agency for the Management of Operational
Cooperation at the External Borders of the Member States
of the European Union



SV Europeiska byrn fr frvaltningen avdet operativa
samarbetet vid Europeiska unionens medlemsstaters
yttre grnser
CS Evropsk agentura pro zen operativn spoluprce NO Det europeiske grensekontrollbyret
navnjch hranicch lenskch stt Evropsk unie
DE Europische Agentur fr die operative Definition
Zusammenarbeit anden Auengrenzen A European Union agency tasked tocoordinate the operational coop-
EL eration between Member States inthe field ofborder security.

ES Agencia europea par la gestin
Source
delasfronterasexteriores
Art.2ofRegulation (EU) 2007/2004 (FRONTEX Regulation)
ET Euroopa Liidu liikmesriikide vlispiiril tehtava
operatiivkoost juhtimise Euroopa agentuur
Synonym
FI Euroopan unionin rajaturvallisuusvirasto
FRONTEX
(Euroopan unionin jsenvaltioiden operatiivisesta
ulkorajayhteistyst huolehtiva virasto)
FR Agence europenne pour lagestion dela coopration Related terms
Centre for Information, Discussion and
oprationnelle aux frontires extrieures des tats
membres del'Union europenne Exchange on the Crossing of Frontiers
GA an Ghnomhaireacht Eorpach chun Comhar andImmigration
European Asylum Support Office
Oibrochtil aBhainisti agTeorainneacha
European Border Surveillance System
Seachtracha Bhallstit anAontais Eorpaigh
European Migration Network
HU az Eurpai Uni Tagllamai Kls Hatrain Val
European Union Agency for
Operatv Egyttmkdsi Igazgatsrt Felels
Eurpai gynksg FundamentalRights
IT Agenzia Europea per laGestione della Cooperazione Immigration Liaison Officer
Operativa delle Froniere Esterne dei Paesi membri Information and Coordination Network
dellUnione Europea forMember States Migration
LT Europos operatyvaus bendradarbiavimo prie ManagementServices
ESvalstybi nari iors sien valdymo agentra Rapid Border Intervention Team
LV Eiropas Aentra operatvs sadarbbas vadbai pie
Eiropas Savienbas dalbvalstu rjm robem Notes
MT Aenzija Ewropea gall-estjoni tal- Koperazzjoni 1.Frontex promotes, coordinates and develops European border
Operazzjonali mal-Fruntieri Esterni tal-Istati Membri management inline with the EUfundamental rights charter
tal-Unjoni Ewropea applying the concept ofIntegrated Border Management.
NL Europees Agentschap voor het beheer van de
operationele samenwerking aan de buitengrenzen 2.Its tasks, inaccordance with Article 2ofCouncil Regulation
ASYLUM AND MIGRATION GLOSSARY 3.0

van de lidstaten van de Europese Unie 2007/2004, include assisting Member States ontraining
PL Europejska Agencja Zarzdzania Wspprac ofnational border guards and the establishment ofcommon
Operacyjn naZewntrznych Granicach Pastw training standards (Art.2(b)); carrying out risk analysis (Art.2(c));
Czonkowskich following upthe development ofresearch relevant for the con-
PT Agncia Europeia deGesto daCooperao trol and surveillance ofexternal borders (Art.2(d)); assistance
Operacional nas Fronteiras Externas toMember States incircumstances requiring increased technical
daUnioEuropeia and operational assistance atexternal borders (Art.2(e)); and
RO Agenia European pentru Managementul Cooperrii providing Member States with the necessary support inorganis-
Operaionale laFrontierele Externe ale Statelor ing joint return operations.
Membre ale Uniunii Europene
SK Eurpska agentra pre riadenie operanej spoluprce 3.Frontex also works closely with the border-control authorities
navonkajch hraniciach lenskch ttov ofnon-EU / Schengen countries mainly those countries identi-
Eurpskenie fied asasource ortransit route ofirregular migration inline
SL Evropska agencija zaupravljanje operativnega with general EUexternal relations policy.
sodelovanja nazunanjih mejah DEU
4.For further information, see website ofFRONTEX:
http://frontex.europa.eu.
110
A
European Asylum Support Office
B
BG Definition
A European Union agency mandated tofocus onthree major C
CS Evropsk podprn azylov ad responsibilities: tocontribute tothe coherent implementation
DE Europisches Untersttzungsbro fr Asylfragen and development ofthe Common European Asylum System D
EL
ES
ET
Oficina Europea deApoyo alAsilo
Euroopa varjupaigaksimuste tugiamet
(CEAS), tosupport and strengthen practical cooperation among
Member States onasylum and toprovide and / or coordinate the E
provision ofoperational support toMember States, subject
FI Euroopan turvapaikka-asioiden tukivirasto F
toparticular pressure ontheir asylum and reception systems.
FR Bureau europen dappui enmatire dasile
GA an Oifig Tacaochta Eorpach doChrsa Tearmainn
HU Eurpai Menekltgyi Tmogatsi Hivatal
Source G
Art.1and 2ofRegulation (EU) No516/2014 (EASO Regulation)
IT Ufficio Europeo diSostegno per lAsilo
LT Europos prieglobsio paramos biuras
H
LV Eiropas Patvruma atbalsta birojs
Synonym
MT Uffiju (L-)ta Appo Ewropew fil-Qasam talAil
EASO I
NL Europees Ondersteuningsbureau voor Asielzaken
[BEsyn.: Europees asielondersteuningsbureau] Related terms J
Common European Asylum System
PL Europejski Urzd Wsparcia wdziedzinie Azylu
PT Gabinete Europeu deApoio aoAsilo General Directors ofImmigration Services K
RO Biroul European deSprijin ndomeniul Azilului Conference
SK Eurpsky podporn rad pre azyl Eurasil
L
SL Evropski azilni podporni urad European Migration Network
European Union Agency for FundamentalRights
SV Europeiska byrn fr samarbete iasylfrgor M
NO Det europeiske stttekontoret pasylfeltet European Agency for the Management
ofOperational Cooperation atthe External N
Borders ofthe Member States ofthe
EuropeanUnion
O
Notes
1.The Support Office acts asaEuropean centre ofexpertise
P
onasylum, responsible for facilitating, coordinating and
strengthening practical cooperation among Member States
Q
onthe many aspects ofasylum, sothat Member States are bet-
ter able toprovide international protection tothose entitled R
toit, while dealing fairly and efficiently with those who donot
qualify for international protection, where appropriate. S

2.Its mandate should befocused onthree major duties: namely T


contributing tothe implementation ofthe CEAS, supporting prac-
tical cooperation among Member States onasylum and support- U
ing Member States that are subject toparticular pressure.
V
3.The Support Office should work closely with the Member
States asylum authorities, with national immigration and asy- W
lum services and other national services and with the Commis-
sion. Furthermore, itshould also carry out its duties without X
prejudice tothose assigned toother relevant bodies ofthe Union
and shall work closely with these bodies aswell aswith the Y
UNHCR. However, itdoes not have any powers inrelation tothe
taking ofdecisions byMember States asylum authorities Z
onindividual applications for international protection.

4.For further information, see the website ofEASO:


http://easo.europa.eu
111
E BG
CS
DE
European Convention on Human Rights

Evropsk mluva oochran lidskch prv
Europische Menschenrechtskonvention
Definition
A regional human rights instrument giving effect tocertain rights
stated inthe Universal Declaration ofHuman Rights, offering
EL individuals the possibility ofapplying tothe courts for the
ES Convenio Europeo deDerechos Humanos enforcement oftheir rights.
ET Euroopa inimiguste japhivabaduste kaitse
konvetsioon Source
FI Euroopan ihmisoikeussopimus
Derived byEMN from the description ofthe Convention onthe
FR Convention europenne des droits de lhomme
website ofthe European Court ofHuman Rights
GA an Coinbhinsin Eorpach umChearta anDuine
HU Emberi Jogok Eurpai Egyezmnye
Synonyms
IT Convenzione Europea dei Diritti dellUomo
European Convention for the Protection ofHuman Rights and
LT Europos mogaus teisi konvencija
Fundamental Freedoms
LV Eiropas Cilvktiesbu konvencija
ECHR
MT Konvenzjoni (Il-) Ewropea dwar id-Drittijiet
talBniedem
NL Europees Verdrag voor deRechten van deMens Related terms
Charter ofFundamental Rights
PL Europejska Konwencja Praw Czowieka / Konwencja
oOchronie Praw Czowieka iPodstawowych Wolnoci oftheEuropean Union
European Union Agency
PT Conveno Europeia dos Direitos Humanos
RO Convenia European aDrepturilor Omului forFundamentalRights
SK Eurpsky dohovor oochrane udskch prv human rights
azkladnch slobd human rights law
SL Evropska konvencija olovekovih pravicah
SV Europakonventionen omde mnskliga rttigheterna Note
NO Den europeiske menneskerettskonvensjonen More formally referred toas the European Convention for the
Protection ofHuman Rights and Fundamental Freedoms.
ASYLUM AND MIGRATION GLOSSARY 3.0

112
A
European Border Surveillance System
B
BG Definition
A common framework for the exchange ofinformation and for C
CS evropsk systm ostrahy vnj hranice the cooperation between EUMember States and Frontex
DE Europisches Grenzberwachungssystem toimprove situational awareness and toincrease reaction D
EL
ES
ET
Sistema europeo devigilancia defronteras
Euroopa vlispiiride seiressteem
capability atthe external borders for the purpose ofdetecting,
preventing and combating irregular immigration and cross- E
border crime, and contributing toensuring the protection and
FI Euroopan rajavalvontajrjestelm F
saving the lives ofmigrants.
FR Systme europen desurveillance
desfrontiresextrieures
Source G
GA an Cras Eorpach umFhaireachas
Art.1ofCouncil Regulation (EU) No1052/2013
arTheorainneachaSeachtracha
HU Eurpai Hatrrizeti Rendszer
(EUROSUR Regulation) H
IT Sistema europeo disorveglianza
dellefrontiereesterne
Synonym I
EUROSUR
LT Europos iorini sien stebjimo sistema
LV Eiropas rjo robeu uzraudzbas sistma J
MT Sistema Ewropea gas-Sorveljanza tal-Konfini / Related terms
tal-Fruntieri bordercontrol K
European Agency for the Management
NL Europees grensbewakingssysteem
PL Europejski system nadzorowania granic ofOperational Cooperation atthe External L
PT Borders ofthe Member States
RO sistemul desupraveghere afrontierelor UE oftheEuropeanUnion M
SK Eurpsky systm hraninho dozoru
SL Evropskega sistema varovanja meja Notes N
SV Europeiska grnsvervakningssystemet 1.EUROSUR was set upunder Council Regulation (EU)
NO Det europeiske overvkingssystemet No1052/2013 (EUROSUR Regulation).
O
foryttergrensene
2.For more information, see: http://ec.europa.eu/dgs/home-af-
fairs/what-we-do/policies/borders-and-visas/border-crossing/
P
index_en.htm
Q
R
S
T
U
V
W
X
Y
Z

113
E BG
CS
DE
European Migration Network

Evropsk migran s
Europisches Migrationsnetzwerk
Definition
A body established byCouncil Decision 2008/381/EC that serves
tomeet the information needs ofUnion institutions and
EL ofMember States authorities and institutions, byproviding up-to-
ES Red Europea deMigraciones date, objective, reliable and comparable information onmigration
ET Euroopa rndevrgustik and asylum, with aview tosupporting policy-making inthe
FI Euroopan muuttoliikeverkosto European Union inthese areas. Italso serves toprovide the gen-
FR Rseau europen des migrations
eral public with information onthese subjects.
GA Grasn Imirce nahEorpa
HU Eurpai Migrcis Hlzat
Source
IT Rete Europea sulle Migrazioni
Art.1ofCouncil Decision 2008/381/EC (European Migration
LT Europos migracijos tinklas
Network Decision)
LV Eiropas migrcijas tkls
MT Netwerk (In-) Ewropew tal-Migrazzjoni
NL Europees Migratienetwerk Synonym
EMN
PL Europejska Sie Migracyjna
PT Rede Europeia das Migraes
RO Reeaua european demigraie Related terms
Africa Caribbean Pacific Observatory
SK Eurpska migran sie
SL Evropska migracijska mrea onMigration
SV Europeiska migrationsntverket EU Immigration Portal
NO Det europeiske migrasjonsnettverket European Agency for the Management
ofOperational Cooperation atthe
ExternalBorders ofthe Member States
oftheEuropeanUnion
European Asylum Support Office
Eurostat
European Union Agency
forFundamentalRights
National Contact Points onIntegration

Notes
1.The EMN was set upin 2003bythe European Commission
onbehalf ofthe European Council inorder tosatisfy the need
ofaregular exchange ofreliable information onmigration and
asylum related issues onaEuropean level.
ASYLUM AND MIGRATION GLOSSARY 3.0

2.The EMN isco-ordinated bythe European Commission,


assisted byservice providers, inco-operation with EMN National
Contact Points (EMN NCPs) ineach EUMember State. ASteering
Board, consisting ofrepresentatives from each Member State,
the European Commission and the European Parliament serves
toprovide the political guidance onthe activities ofthe EMN.

3.For more information, see the website ofthe EMN:


http://ec.europa.eu/dgs/home-affairs/what-we-do/networks/
european_migration_network/index_en.htm

114
A
European Neighbourhood Policy
B
BG Definition
CS Evropsk politika sousedstv A bilateral policy between the EUand 16partner countries (the C
DE Europische Nachbarschaftspolitik EUs closest neighbouring countries), further enriched and com-
EL plemented bythree regional and multilateral cooperation D
ES Poltica Europea deVecindad
ET
FI
Euroopa naabruspoliitika
Euroopan naapuruuspolitiikka
initiatives.
E
Source
FR Politique europenne devoisinage F
Website ofthe European Neighbourhood Policy
GA Beartas Comharsanachta nahEorpa
HU Eurpai Szomszdsgpolitika
IT politica europea divicinato
Synonym G
ENP
LT Europos kaimynysts politika
LV Eiropas kaimiattiecbu politika
H
MT Politika (Il-) Ewropea tal-Viinat / tal-Madwar
Narrower terms
NL Europees nabuurschapsbeleid
BlackSea Synergy I
EasternPartnership
PL Europejska Polityka Ssiedztwa
PT Euro-Mediterranean Partnership J
RO Politica european devecintate
SK Eurpska susedsk politika / Related term K
Global Approach toMigration and Mobility
Eurpskapolitikasusedstva
SL Evropska sosedska politika L
SV EU:s grannskapspolitik Notes
NO Den europeiske naboskapspolitikken 1.The ENP was developed in2004, with the objective ofavoid- M
ing the emergence ofnew dividing lines between the enlarged
EUand its neighbours and instead strengthening the prosperity, N
stability and security ofall. Itis based onthe values ofdemoc-
racy, rule oflaw and respect ofhuman rights.
O
2.The three regional and multilateral cooperation initiatives ofthe
ENP are: the Eastern Partnership (launched inPrague inMay
P
2009), the Euro-Mediterranean Partnership (EUROMED),
formerly known asthe Barcelona Process, re-launched inParis
Q
inJuly2008), and the Black Sea Synergy (launched inKiev
inFebruary 2008). R

3.The Lisbon Treaty has allowed the EUto strengthen the deliv- S
ery ofits foreign policy: cooperation with neighbouring countries
can now bebroadened tocover the full range ofissues inan T
integrated and more effective manner. This was akey driver for
initiating areview ofthe ENP insummer 2010. U
4.For up-to-date information onthe ENP, see: http://eeas.europa. V
eu/enp/about-us/index_en.htm
W
X
Y
Z

115
E BG
CS
DE
European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights

Agentura Evropsk unie pro zkladn prva
Agentur der Europischen Union fr Grundrechte
Definition
An EUagency which provides independent, evidence-based
advice onfundamental rights tothe relevant institutions and
EL authorities ofthe Union and its Member States inorder tosup-
port them when implementing Union law, taking measures
ES Agencia deDerechos Fundamentales orformulating courses ofaction within their respective spheres
delaUninEuropea ofcompetence tofully respect fundamental rights.
ET Euroopa Liidu Phiiguste Amet
FI Euroopan unionin perusoikeusvirasto
Source
FR Agence des droits fondamentaux
Art.2ofCouncil Regulation (EC) No168/2007 (FRA Regulation)
delUnioneuropenne
GA Gnomhaireacht anAontais Eorpaigh
Synonyms
umCheartaBunsacha
Fundamental Rights Agency
HU Az Eurpai Uni Alapjogi gynksge
FRA
IT Agenzia dellUnione Europea per
iDirittiFondamentali
LT Europos Sjungos pagrindini teisi agentra Related terms
Charter ofFundamental Rights
LV Eiropas Savienbas Pamattiesbu aentra
MT Aenzija tal-Unjoni Ewropea gad-Drittijiet oftheEuropean Union
European Agency for the Management
Fundamentali
NL Bureau van deEuropese Unie voor degrondrechten ofOperational Cooperation atthe
PL Agencja Praw Podstawowych Unii Europejskiej ExternalBorders ofthe Member States
PT Agncia para osDireitos Fundamentais oftheEuropeanUnion
RO Agenia pentru Drepturi Fundamentale European Asylum Support Office
aUniuniiEuropene European Convention on Human Rights
SK Agentra Eurpskej nie pre zkladn prva European Migration Network
SL Agencija Evropske unije zatemeljne pravice human rights
SV Europeiska unionens byr fr grundlggande
rttigheter Notes
NO Den europeiske unions byr for grunnleggende 1.The European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights was inau-
rettigheter (b) / Byret for grunnleggjande rettar gurated on1March 2007. Itwas established byCouncil Regu-
iDen europeiske unionen(n) lation (EC) No168/2007of15February 2007asthe
successor tothe European Monitoring Centre onRacism and
Xenophobia (EUMCI).

2.Its tasks, which are laid down inArt.4ofthe Regulation,


include information and data collection, research and analysis;
ASYLUM AND MIGRATION GLOSSARY 3.0

advice toEU institutions and Member States; cooperation with


civil society and awareness raising.

3.For more information, see the website ofFRA:


http://fra.europa.eu/en

116
A
Eurostat
B
BG Definition
CS Eurostat The Statistical Office ofthe European Union within the European C
DE Statistisches Amt der Europischen Gemeinschaften Commission.
EL D
ES Eurostat Source
ET
FI
Eurostat
Eurostat
Website ofEurostat E
FR Eurostat F
Related term
GA Eurostat European Migration Network
HU Eurostat
IT Eurostat
G
Notes
LT Eurostatas
LV Eurostat
1.Eurostat was established in1953. H
MT Eurostat
NL Eurostat 2.Its task isto provide the European Union with statistics I
PL Eurostat atEuropean level that enable comparisons between countries
PT Eurostat and regions. J
RO Eurostat
SK Eurostat 3.The EMN cooperates with Eurostat byharmonising statistics K
SL Eurostat from the European Statistical System (ESS) toasingle method-
SV Eurostat ology, making the statistics comparable. L
NO Eurostat
4.Regulation (EC) No. 862/2007 (Migration Statistics Regu- M
lation) establishes common rules for the collection and compi-
lation ofCommunity statistics (for submission toEurostat) on: N
(a) immigration and emigration flows;
O
(b) citizenship and country ofbirth ofpersons usually resi-
dent inthe territory ofthe Member States;
P

(c) administrative and judicial procedures and processes inthe


Q
Member States relating toimmigration, granting ofpermission
toreside, citizenship, asylum and other forms ofinternational R
protection and prevention ofirregular migration.
S
5.For more information, see the website ofEurostat:
http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/portal/page/portal/ T
about_eurostat/introduction
U
V
W
X
Y
Z

117
E BG
CS
DE
examination of an application for international protection

rozhodovn odosti omezinrodn ochranu
Prfung eines Antrags auf internationalen Schutz
Definition
Any examination of, ordecision orruling concerning, anapplica-
tion for international protection bythe competent authorities
EL inaccordance with Directive 2013/32/EU and Directive
ES examen deuna solicitud deproteccin internacional 2011/95/EU, except for procedures for determining the Member
ET rahvusvahelise kaitse taotluse lbivaatamine State responsible inaccordance with Regulation (EU)
FI kansainvlist suojelua koskevan hakemuksen No604/2013.
ksittely
FR examen dune demande deprotection internationale
Source
GA inichadh ariarratas archosaint idirnisinta
Art.2(d) ofRegulation (EU) No604/2013 (Dublin III Regulation)
HU menedkkrelem elbrsla
IT esame della domanda diprotezione internazionale
LT praymo suteikti prieglobst nagrinjimas
Broader term
application for international protection
LV starptautisks aizsardzbas pieteikuma izskatana
MT Tgarbil / Eami ta applikazzjoni gall-protezzjoni
internazzjonali
NL behandeling van een verzoek ominternationale
bescherming
PL rozpatrywanie wniosku oudzielenie ochrony
midzynarodowej
PT anlise de um pedido de proteo internacional
RO soluionarea unei cereri deprotecie internaionl
SK posdenie iadosti omedzinrodn ochranu /
posdenie iadosti oudelenie medzinrodnej ochrany
(EU acquis) / posdenie iadosti oudelenie azylu
(national law)
SL obravnavanje pronje zamednarodno zaito
SV prvning avanskan ominternationellt skydd
NO vurdering avsknad ominternasjonal beskyttelse(b)/
vurdering avsknad ominternasjonalt vern(n)
ASYLUM AND MIGRATION GLOSSARY 3.0

118
A
exclusion clause
B
BG Definition
CS exkluzivn klauzule, vyluovac klauzule Specifically, any ofthe provisions ofthe Geneva Convention C
DE Ausschlussklausel of1951and Protocol of1967, such asarticles 1D, 1E and 1F,
EL which mandatorily deny the benefits ofrefugee status toper- D
ES clusula deexclusin
ET
FI
vlistav klausel
poissulkemislauseke
sons who already receive UNor national protection, orto per-
sons about whom there are good reasons tobelieve that they E
have committed awar crime, acrime against humanity, aseri-
FR clause dexclusion F
ous non-political crime, oracts contrary tothe purposes and
GA clsal eisiaimh
principles ofthe UN(e.g. the persecution ofothers).
HU kizr klauzulk
IT clausola diesclusione
G
Source
LT praymo atmetimo pagrindai
LV izslganas noteikums
Art.1D, 1E and 1F ofthe Geneva Convention of1951 H
MT Klawsola ta tbarrija / tesklujoni
NL uitsluitingsgronden Related terms I
crime against humanity
PL klauzula wykluczajca
PT clusulas deexcluso war crime J
RO cauz deexcludere
SK doloka ovylen / vyluovacia klauzula / Note K
vyluovacie ustanovenie The EUasylum acquis (see for example Art.12and 17ofDirec-
SL izkljuitvena klavzula tive 2011/95/EU) has incorporated these Geneva Convention L
SV undantagsklausul of1951clauses whilst additionally stipulating exclusion clauses
NO unntaksbestemmelse (b) / unntaksfresegn(n) inrelation tosubsidiary protection. M
N
exodus O

BG no usual translation Definition


P
CS exodus Movements ingroups (isolated and sporadic) out ofacountry
DE Exodus oforigin inlarge numbers orof asection ofthe community
Q
EL atagiven time.
ES xodo R
ET massiline vljarnne Source
FI joukkopako IOM Glossary onMigration, 2nd ed., 2011 S
FR fuite massive
GA imeacht
Note T
HU kivndorls
A similar definition isalso used inthe UNHCR International
IT esodo U
Thesaurus ofRefugee Terminology definition.
LT egzodas
LV masveida izceoana
MT Eodu
V
NL uittocht (syn.: exodus)
PL exodus
W
PT exdo
RO exod X
SK exodus / hromadn odchod
SL eksodus / mnoina emigracija Y
SV massflykt
NO masseutvandring / masseflukt Z

119
E BG
CS
DE
exploitation

vykoisovn
Ausbeutung
Definition
The act oftaking advantage ofsomething orsomeone, inpar-
ticular the act oftaking unjust advantage ofanother for ones
EL own benefit (e.g. sexual exploitation, forced labour orservices,
ES explotacin slavery orpractices similar toslavery, servitude orthe removal
ET rakasutamine oforgans).
FI hyvksikytt
FR exploitation
Source
GA dshaothr
IOM Glossary onMigration, 2nd ed., 2011
HU kizskmnyols
IT sfruttamento
Related term
LT inaudojimas
forced labour
LV izmantoana
trafficking inhuman beings
MT Sfruttament
NL uitbuiting
PL wykorzystywanie Note
PT explorao Art.2(3) ofDirective 2011/36/EU (Trafficking Directive) states
RO exploatare that exploitation includes, asaminimum, the exploitation ofthe
SK vykorisovanie prostitution ofothers orother forms ofsexual exploitation,
SL izkorianje forced labour orservices, including begging, slavery orpractices
SV utnyttjande similar toslavery, servitude, orthe exploitation ofcriminal activ-
NO utnyttelse (b) / utnytting(n) ities, orthe removal oforgans.

expulsion
BG Definition
CS vyhotn The removal of:
DE Rckfhrung (EU acquis); Ausweisung (DE) (a) athird-country national subject toan expulsion decision
EL based onaserious and present threat topublic order orto
ES expulsin national security and safety taken inthe following cases:
ET vljasaatmine -- conviction ofathird-country national bythe issuing Member
FI maasta poistaminen State for anoffence punishable byapenalty involving depriva-
FR expulsion
tion ofliberty ofat least one year;
GA dbirt / ionnarbadh
ASYLUM AND MIGRATION GLOSSARY 3.0

-- the existence ofserious grounds for believing that athird-coun-


HU kiutasts (when implemented with official escort:
try national has committed serious criminal offences orthe
kitoloncols)
existence ofsolid evidence oftheir intention tocommit such
IT espulsione
offences within the territory ofaMember State.
LT isiuntimas
(b) athird-country national subject toan expulsion decision
LV piespiedu izraidana
MT Espulsjoni / Tkeija based onfailure tocomply with national rules onthe entry
NL verwijdering (syn.: uitzetting, uitwijzing) orresidence ofaliens.
PL wydalenie
PT expulso Source
RO (a) expulzare (b) returnare (forat) sub escort Art.3(1) ofCouncil Directive 2001/40/EC (Expulsion Directive)
SK vyhostenie
SL izgon / odstranitev Broader term
SV avvisning / utvisning removal
NO utvisning (b) / utvising(n)
Narrower term
expulsion decision

120
A
expulsion decision
B
BG Definition
CS rozhodnut ovyhotn Any decision which orders anexpulsion taken byacompetent C
DE Rckfhrungsentscheidung (EU acquis); administrative (or judicial) authority ofan issuing Member State.
Ausweisungsentscheidung (DE, LU) D
EL Source
ES
ET
decisin deexpulsin
vljasaatmisotsus
Art.2(b) ofCouncil Directive 2001/40/EC (Expulsion Directive) E
FI maastapoistamispts F
Synonym
FR dcision dloignement expulsion order
GA cinneadh ionnarbtha
HU kiutastst elrendel hatrozat
G
Broader term
IT decisione diespulsione
LT sprendimas dl isiuntimo
expulsion H
LV izbraukanas rkojums /
lmumsparpiespieduizraidanu Related terms I
enforcement measure
MT Deijoni ta espulsjoni / ta tkeija
NL aanwijzing omhet grondgebied teverlaten
removal order J
PL decyzja owydaleniu
PT deciso deexpulso Notes K
RO See expulsion (a) hotrre judectoresc 1.InDE, only expulsion order isused, while expulsion decision
deexpulzare (b) decizie dereturnare sub escort and expulsion order are understood inthe same way. L
SK rozhodnutie ovyhosten
SL odloitev oizgonu 2.InRO, expulsion isdecided bythe courts only, not by M
SV beslut omavvisning eller utvisning administration.
NO utvisningsbeslutning (b) / utvisingsavgjerd(n) N
O
P
Q
R
S
T
U
V
W
X
Y
Z

121
E BG
CS
DE
external EU border

vnj hranice EU
EU-Auengrenze
Definition
The parts ofaSchengen Member States border, including land
borders, river and lake borders, sea borders and their airports,
F
EL river ports, sea ports and lake ports, that are not common bor-
ES frontera exterior (UE) ders with another Schengen Member State.
ET EL vlispiir
FI EU:n ulkoraja Source
FR frontire extrieure delUE
Derived byEMN from Regulation (EC) No562/2006 (Schengen
GA teorainn sheachtrach AE
Borders Code)
HU kls hatr
IT frontiera esterna UE
Related terms
LT iors siena
border control
LV ES rj robea
internal EUborder
MT Konfini (Il-) esterni / Fruntiera (Il-) esterna tal-UE
irregular entry
NL EU buitengrens
legal entry
PL granica zewntrzna UE
refusal ofentry
PT fronteira externa
Schengen Borders Code
RO frontiere externe UE
SK vonkajia hranica E
SL zunanja meja EU Notes
SV yttre grns 1.IEand UKdo not participate inthe Schengen Area.
NO ytre grense for Schengen-medlemsland
2.BG, HRand ROare Schengen candidate countries.

3.IS, LI, NOand CHare also Schengen Member States, although


they are not EUMember States.

4.For updated information onmembership tothe Schengen


Area, see the description ofEU policies onborders and visas and
Schengen onthe website ofDG HOME: http://ec.europa.eu/dgs/
home-affairs/what-we-do/policies/borders-and-visas/schengen/
index_en.htm
ASYLUM AND MIGRATION GLOSSARY 3.0

122
F
BG
CS
DE
false declaration of parenthood

falen prohlen rodiovstv
falsche Erklrung der Elternschaft /
Definition
An untruthful declaration ofarelationship ofparenthood which
does not actually exist either (a) between aminor who isan
A
B
C
falscheElternschaftsangabe EUcitizen orsettled third-country national and athird-country D
EL national adult, where the adult claims tobe the parent inorder
ES declaracion falsa depaternidad / maternidad toobtain orlegalise their residence inaMember State, or(b) E
ET plvnemise kohta valeandmete esitamine between athird-country national minor and aunion citizen
FI
FR
valheellinen vanhemmuuden ilmoittaminen
fausse dclaration deparentalit
adult orasettled third-country national adult where the adult F
declares themselves parent ofthe minor inorder toobtain
GA bragdhearbh tuismochta
HU hamis szli nyilatkozat
orlegalise the residence ofthe child and / or possibly the resi- G
dence ofthe other parent.
IT falsa dichiarazione difiliazione
LT fiktyvus vaikinimas
H
LV vecku statusa viltus reistrana
Source
MT Dikjarazzjoni falza ta maternit u / jew paternit Developed byEMN I
NL valse ouderschapsverklaring
PL faszywe owiadczenie ouznaniu rodzicielstwa Narrower term J
false declaration ofpaternity
PT falsas declaraes parentesco
RO declaraie depaternitate fals K
SK falon prehlsenie rodiovstva Related terms
SL lana izjava ostarevstvu civil
partnership ofconvenience L
SV osant intygande omfrldraskap marriage ofconvenience
partnership ofconvenience
NO falsk vedgelse avforeldreskap (b) / M
falskvedgingavforeldreskap(n)
Note N
For more information onfalse declarations ofparenthood, see
EMN: Misuse offamily reunification, 2012.
O
P
Q
R
S
T
U
V
W
X
Y
Z

123
F BG
CS
DE
family formation

rodinn pslunk
Familienbildung
Definition
The entry into and residence inaMember State ofathird-coun-
try national onthe basis ofthe establishment ofafamily rela-
EL No translation tionship either (a) after their third-country national sponsor has
ES formacin dela familia gained legal residence inaMember State; or(b) with anEU
ET perekonnaliige national.
FI perheenjsen
FR constitution dela famille
Source
GA duine muinteartha
Developed byEMN
HU csaldtag
IT familiare
Broader term
LT eimos krimas
family reunification
LV imenes loceklis
MT Kompoizzjoni / Tiswira tal-familja
NL gezinsvorming Related terms
chain migration
PL czonek rodziny
family migration
PT reagrupamento familiar
nuclear family
RO rentregirea familiei
right tofamily life
SK rodinn prslunk / len rodiny
SL druinski lan right tofamily unity

SV familjemedlem
NO familiemedlem Notes
1.This term isspecific tosome Member States, particularly BE,
NL, SE. InUK, this relates tothe formation offamily between
aUK national and athird-country national only.

2.Inother Member States, family formation iscovered under


family reunification.
ASYLUM AND MIGRATION GLOSSARY 3.0

124
A
family member
B
BG In the context ofthe Free Movement Directive:
CS slouen rodiny (a) the spouse; C
DE Familienangehriger (b) the partner with whom the union citizen has contracted areg-
EL istered partnership, onthe basis ofthe legislation ofaMember D
ES Miembro dela familia State, ifthe legislation ofthe host Member State treats registered
ET pere loomise eesmrgil riiki sisenemine partnerships asequivalent tomarriage and inaccordance with E
(nousualtranslation) theconditions laid down inthe relevant legislation ofthe host
FI
FR
perheenmuodostaminen
membre dela famille
Member State; F
(c) the direct descendants who are under the age of21orare
GA foirmi teaghlaigh
HU csaldalapts
dependants and those ofthe spouse orpartner asdefined G
inpoint (b);
IT componente familiare
LT eimos narys
(d) the dependent direct relatives inthe ascending line and those H
ofthe spouse orpartner asdefined inpoint (b).
LV imenes apvienoana / imenes atkalapvienoana
MT Membru tal-familja I
NL gezinslid In the context ofasylum, and inparticular Regulation (EU)
PL zaoenie rodziny No604/2013 (Dublin III Regulation), this means insofar asthe J
PT membros dafamilia family already existed inthe country oforigin, the following
RO membru defamilie members ofthe applicants family who are present onthe terri- K
SK zaloenie rodiny tory ofthe Member States:
SL ustanovitev druine -- the spouse ofthe applicant ortheir unmarried partner inasta- L
SV familjebildning ble relationship, where the law orpractice ofthe Member State
NO familiedannelse (b) / familiedanning(n) concerned treats unmarried couples inaway comparable M
tomarried couples under its law relating tothird-country
nationals; N
Definition -- the minor children ofcouples referred toin the first indent
In the general migration context, aperson either married to, orof the applicant, oncondition that they are unmarried and
regardless ofwhether they were born inor out ofwedlock
O
orhaving arelationship legally recognised asequivalent tomar-
riage, toamigrant, aswell astheir dependent children orother oradopted asdefined under national law;
dependants who are recognised asmembers ofthe family -- when the applicant isaminor and unmarried, the father,
P
byapplicable legislation. mother oranother adult responsible for the applicant,
In the context ofthe Family Reunification Directive, athird- whether bylaw orby the practice ofthe Member State where
Q
country national, asspecified inArt.4ofDirective 2003/86/EC the adult ispresent;
(normally members ofthe nuclear family i.e. the spouse and the -- when the beneficiary ofinternational protection isaminor R
minor children), who has entered the territory ofthe European and unmarried, the father, mother oranother adult responsi-
Union for the purpose offamily reunification. ble for them whether bylaw orby the practice ofthe Member S
State where the beneficiary ispresent.
T
Source
General: Derived byEMN from Art.4ofUN Convention onthe U
Protection ofAll Migrant Workers and Members oftheir Families
Family reunification: Recital 9and Art.4ofCouncil Directive V
2003/86/EC (Family Reunification Directive)
Free movement: Art.2(2) ofCouncil Directive 2004/38/EC (Free W
Movement Directive)
Asylum: Art.2 (g) ofRegulation (EU) No604/2013 (Dublin III X
Regulation)
Y
Related terms
dependant Z
family reunification
nuclear family
sponsor

125
F BG

CS
family migration


rodinn migrace
Definition
In the global context, ageneral concept encompassing family
reunification, family formation, and migration ofan entire
DE Familienzusammenfhrung, Familienmigration family atthe same time.
EL In the EUcontext, aconcept which refers explicitly tofamily
ES migracin por motivos familiares reunification and family formation.
ET perernne
FI perheperusteinen maahanmuutto
Source
FR migration pour des raisons familiales
Global context: Derived byEMN from the discussion oftypes
GA imirce teaghlaigh
offamily migration inChapter 6ofIOM World Migration Report
HU csaldegyestsi cl migrci / csaldegyests
2008
IT migrazione familiare
EU context: Developed byEMN
LT eimos migracija
LV imenes migrcija
MT Migrazzjoni gal raunijiet ta familja Related terms
chain migration
NL gezinsmigratie
family formation
PL migracja rodzinna
family reunification
PT migrao familiar
right tofamily unity
RO migraia nscopul rentregirii familiei
SK migrcia zrodinnch dvodov
SL druinska migracija
SV familjemigration
NO familiemigrasjon
ASYLUM AND MIGRATION GLOSSARY 3.0

126
A
family reunification
B
BG Definition
CS slouen rodiny The establishment ofafamily relationship which iseither: C
DE Familienzusammenfhrung (a)the entry into and residence inaMember State, inaccord-
EL ance with Council Directive 2003/86/EC, byfamily members D
ES reagrupacin familiar ofathird-country national residing lawfully inthat Member
ET perekonna taashinemine State (sponsor) inorder topreserve the family unit, whether E
FI perheenyhdistminen the family relationship arose before orafter the entry ofthe
FR
GA
regroupement familial
athaont teaghlaigh
sponsor; or(b) between anEU national and third-country F
national established outside the EUwho then subsequently
HU csaldegyests
IT ricongiungimento familiare
enters the EU. G
LT eimos susijungimas
LV imenes apvienoana / imenes atkalapvienoana
Source H
Part (a): Art.2 (d) ofCouncil Directive 2003/86/EC (Family
MT Riunifikazzjoni tal-familja
NL gezinshereniging Reunification Directive) I
PL czenie rodzin Part (b): Developed byEMN
PT reagrupamento familiar J
RO rentregirea familiei, reunificarea familiei Synonym
SK zlenie rodiny family reunion K
SL zdruevanje druine
SV familjeterfrening Broader term L
NO familiegjenforening (b) / familiegjenforeining(n) right tofamily unity
M
Narrower term
family formation N
Related terms O
chain migration
family member
family migration
P
nuclear family
right tofamily life
Q

Note R
Art.5(3) ofCouncil Directive 2003/86/EC (Family Reunifica-
tion Directive) also covers reunification when athird-country S
national isalready resident inthe EUunder different permissions
(e.g. aresidence permit for the purpose ofremuneration T
orstudy).
U
V
W
X
Y
Z

127
F BG
CS
DE
final decision

pravomocn rozhodnut
rechtskrftige Entscheidung
Definition
A decision onwhether the third-country national orstateless
person begranted refugee status orsubsidiary protection sta-
EL tus byvirtue ofDirective 2011/95/EU (Recast Qualification
ES resolucin definitiva Directive) and which isno longer subject toaremedy within the
ET justunud otsus framework ofChapter Vof this Directive, irrespective ofwhether
FI lainvoimainen pts such remedy has the effect ofallowing applicants toremain
FR dcision finale
inthe Member States concerned pending its outcome.
GA cinneadh crochnaitheach
HU jogers hatrozat
Source
IT decisione definitiva
Art.2(e) ofDirective 2013/32/EU (Recast Asylum Procedures
LT galutinis sprendimas
Directive)
LV galgais lmums
MT Deijoni finali
NL onherroepelijke beslissing
PL ostateczna decyzja
PT deciso final
RO decizie final
SK konen rozhodnutie
SL dokonna odloba / pravnomona odloba
SV slutligt beslut
NO endelig vedtak (b) /endeleg avgjerd(n)

first country of asylum


BG Definition
CS prvn zem azylu A country inwhich anapplicant for international protection
DE erster Asylstaat, erstes Asylland has either (a) been recognised asarefugee and they can still
EL avail themselves ofthat protection; or(b) otherwise enjoys suf-
ES primer pas deasilo ficient protection, including benefiting from the principle
ET esmane varjupaigariik of non-refoulement, provided that they will bereadmitted
FI ensimminen turvapaikkamaa
tothat country.
FR pays depremier asile
GA an chad tr thearmainn
Source
HU elsdleges befogad llam
ASYLUM AND MIGRATION GLOSSARY 3.0

Art.35ofDirective 2013/32/EU (Recast Asylum Procedures


IT paese diprimo asilo
Directive)
LT pirmoji prieglobsio alis
LV pirm patvruma valsts
MT L-Ewwel art /pajji tal-ail Synonyms
country offirst asylum
NL eerste land van asiel
first asylum principle
PL kraj pierwszego azylu
PT primeiro pas de asilo
RO prima ar deazil Notes
SK prv krajina azylu 1.Inapplying the concept offirst country ofasylum tothe par-
SL prva drava azila ticular circumstances ofan applicant, Member States may take
SV frsta asylland into account Art.38(1) ofthe Directive 2013/32/EU (Recast
NO frste asylland Asylum Procedures Directive) (concept ofsafe third country).

2.Inaccordance with relevant legislation, anapplicant shall


beallowed tochallenge the application ofthe first country
ofasylum concept inrelation totheir particular circumstances.

128
A
5+5 Dialogue on Migration in the Western Mediterranean
B
BG 5+5 Definition
A trans-Mediterranean forum set upas asecurity initiative C
CS Dialog 5+5omigraci vzpadnm Stedomo tosecure closer cooperation between five EUMember States
DE 5+5Dialog ber Migration imWestlichen and five Arab Maghreb countries through political dialogue and D
Mittelmeerraum economic cooperation, and byencouraging more efficient man-
EL agement ofresources asameans ofenhancing regional inter- E
ES Dilogo 5+5sobre migracin enel Mediterrneo dependence and development.
ET
Occidental
5+5Vahemere lneosa rnde dialoog
F
Source
FI 5+5-vuoropuhelu Vlimeren lnsiosan maiden vlill
Website ofthe 5+5Dialogue G
FR Dialogue 5+5sur lamigration
enMditerraneoccidentale
GA Idirphl 5+5maidir leis anImirce
Synonyms H
5+5Dialogue
iriginnaMenmhara Thiar
HU 5+5Nyugat- Mediterrn Migrcis Prbeszd
Western Mediterranean Forum I
IT Dialogo 5+5sulle Migrazioni nel
MediterraneoOccidentale Related terms J
Dialogue onMediterranean Transit Migration
LT Vakar Viduremio jros regiono valstybi dialogas
5+5 migracijos klausimais Euro-African Dialogue on Migration K
LV 5+5Vidusjras rietumu valstu dialogs par migrciju andDevelopment
MT Djalogu 5+5fuq il-Migrazzjoni fil-Punent Global Approach toMigration and Mobility
L
talMediterran
NL 5+5dialoog over migratie inhet Westelijke Notes M
Middellandsezeegebied 1.The Western Mediterranean Forum, commonly referred toas
PL 5+5Dialog narzecz migracji wzachodniej czci the 5+5Dialogue, was officially launched inRome in1990. N
Morza rdziemnego
PT 2.The forum involves ten partners (Algeria, Libya, Mauritania,
dilogo 5+5para oMediterrneo ocidental O
RO 5+5Dialog cuprivire lamigraie nzona vest Morocco, Tunisia, France, Italy, Malta, Portugal and Spain) and
Mediteraneean isfacilitated bythe IOM. Its areas ofactivity are information
exchange, joint management ofinternational borders, agreed
P
SK Dialg 5+5omigrcii vzpadnom Stredomor
SL 5+5Dialog omigracijah vzahodnem Sredozemlju forms oflabour migration, migration for development, and pro-
SV no usual translation tection ofthe rights ofmigrants inthe Western Mediterranean
Q
NO 5+5-dialog ommigrasjon idet vestre Middelhavet region.
R
3.For more information see the website ofthe 5+5Dialogue:
http://www.5plus5.gov.mt/en/5plus5dialogue S
T
U
V
W
X
Y
Z

129
F BG
CS
DE
forced labour

nucen prce
Zwangsarbeit
Definition
All work orservice which isexacted from any person under the
menace ofany penalty and for which the said person has not
EL offered themselves voluntarily.
ES trabajo forzoso
ET sunnit Source
FI pakkoty Art.2(1) ofILO Convention No.29, 1930 (Forced Labour
FR travail forc
Convention)
GA obair igeantais
HU knyszermunka
Synonyms
IT lavoro forzato
compulsory labour
LT priverstinis darbas
compulsory work
LV piespiedu darbs
MT Xogol furzat / ta bilfors
NL gedwongen arbeid Related terms
child labour
PL praca przymusowa
exploitation
PT
RO munc forat
SK nten prca
SL prisilno delo
SV tvngsarbete
NO tvangsarbeid

forced marriage
BG Definition
CS nucen satek The union oftwo persons, atleast one ofwhom has not given
DE Zwangsheirat their full and free consent tothe marriage.
EL
ES matrimonio forzado Source
ET sundabielu Art.4ofCouncil ofEurope Resolution 1468 (2005)
FI pakkoavioliitto
FR mariage forc
GA psadh igeantais
ASYLUM AND MIGRATION GLOSSARY 3.0

HU knyszerhzassg
IT matrimonio forzato
LT priverstin santuoka
LV piespiedu laulbas
MT wie sfurzat / ta bilfors
NL gedwongen huwelijk
PL wymuszone maestwo
PT casamento forado
RO cstorie forat
SK nten manelstvo
SL prisilna poroka
SV tvngsktenskap
NO tvangsekteskap

130
A
forced migrant
B
BG Definition
CS nucen migrant A person subject to a migratory movement in which an element C
DE Zwangsmigrant of coercion exists, including threats to life and livelihood,
EL whether arising from natural or man-made causes (e.g. move- D
ES migrante forzoso ments of refugees and internally displaced persons as well as
ET sundsisserndaja (no usual translation) people displaced by natural or environmental disasters, chemical E
FI pakkomuuttaja or nuclear disasters, famine or development projects).
FR
GA
migrant forc
imirceach igeantais
F
Source
HU knyszer migrns
IT migrante forzato
Derived by EMN from IOM Glossary on Migration, 2nd ed. 2011 G
LT priverstinis migrantas
LV piespiedu migrants
Broader term H
migrant
MT Migrant(a) kostrett(a) / sfurzat(a)
NL gedwongen migrant I
PL migrant przymusowy Narrower terms
PT migrante forado displaced person J
refugee
RO migrant forat
SK nten migrant K
SL prisilni migrant Related terms
SV tvngsmigrant de facto refugee L
NO tvungen migrant economic migrant
forced migration
M
N
forced migration O

BG Definition
P
CS nucen migrace A migratory movement inwhich anelement ofcoercion exists,
DE erzwungene Migration, Zwangsmigration including threats tolife and livelihood, whether arising from nat-
Q
EL ural orman-made causes (e.g. movements ofrefugees and
ES migracin forzosa internally displaced persons aswell aspeople displaced R
ET sundrnne bynatural orenvironmental disasters, chemical ornuclear dis-
FI pakkomuutto asters, famine ordevelopment projects). S
FR migration force
GA imirce igeantais
Source T
HU knyszer migrci
IOM Glossary onMigration, 2nd ed. 2011
IT migrazione forzata U
LT priverstin migracija
LV piespiedu migrcija
Broader term
MT Migrazzjoni kostretta / sfurzata
migration V
NL gedwongen migratie
PL migracja przymusowa Narrower term W
displacement
PT migrao forada
RO migraie forat X
SK nten migrcia Related terms
SL prisilna migracija economicmigration Y
SV tvngsmigration forced
migrant
NO tvangsmigrasjon managed migration Z

131
F forced return

Definition
See removal
Notes
1.The term forced return is not used at all in EU legislation.

Synonyms 2. Council Directive 2008/115/EC (Return Directive) which


compulsory return regulates the return of migrants whose stay has been found to
removal be illegal refers to post-return decision return as return (not
forced return).
Broader term
return 3. In the EU environment (e.g. in the metadata of Eurostat),
forced return is synonymous with removal i.e. the physical
Related terms transportation out of the country following a return decision.
return decision
4. Outside of EU legislation the term forced return is more com-
monly used and understood as a synonym with compulsory
return i.e. return which occurs in compliance with a return
decision.

foreign population of a country


BG Definition
CS populace cizinc vzemi All persons who have acertain country astheir country ofusual
DE auslndische Bevlkerung eines Landes residence and who are citizens ofanother country.
EL
ES poblacin extranjera Source
ET vlisriigi kodanikest rahvastik OECD Glossary ofStatistical Terms
FI maan ulkomainen vest
FR population trangre dun pays Narrower term
GA daonra eachtrannach tre
ASYLUM AND MIGRATION GLOSSARY 3.0

stock of foreigners
HU egy orszg klfldi npessge
IT popolazione straniera diun paese
Related term
LT alyje gyvenantys usienieiai migrant stock
LV rvalstnieki
MT Popolazzjoni barranija ta pajji
NL bevolking van buitenlandse nationaliteit
PL populacja cudzoziemcw zkraju
PT populao estrangeira
RO populaie strin
SK populcia cudzincov vkrajine
SL tuje prebivalstvo drave
SV utlndska medborgare
NO et lands utenlandske befolkning (b) /
denutanlandskefolkesetnaden ieit land(n)

132
A
fraudulent travel or identity document
B
BG Definition
CS padlan nebo pozmnn prkaz totonosti Any travel oridentity document: C
DE geflschtes / betrgerisches Reise-oder (i) that has been falsely made oraltered insome material way
Identittsdokument byanyone other than aperson oragency lawfully authorised D
EL tomake orissue the travel oridentity document onbehalf
ES documento deidentidad ode viaje fraudulento ofaState; or E
ET vltsitud reisi- vi isikut tendav dokument (ii) that has been improperly issued orobtained through misrep-
FI vr / vrennetty matkustusasiakirja /
henkiltodistus
resentation, corruption orduress orin any other unlawful man- F
ner; or
FR document devoyage oudidentit frauduleux
(iii) that isbeing used byaperson other than the rightful holder. G
GA bragdhoicimad taistil naitheantais
HU hamis ti vagy szemlyazonossgot igazol okmny
IT documento diviaggio odi identit fraudolento
Source H
Art.3(c) ofProtocol against the Smuggling ofMigrants byLand,
LT suklastotas kelions arasmens dokumentas
LV viltots ceoanas vai personu apliecinos dokuments Sea and Air, supplementing the UNConvention against I
MT Dokument tal-ivjaar jew tal-identit frodulenti / Transnational Organised Crime
qarrieqi J
NL frauduleus reis- ofidentiteitsdocument Synonyms
PL faszywy dokument podry lub tosamoci fraudulent travel document K
fraudulent identity document
PT
RO document decltorie sau identitate fals, falsificat forged travel document
L
sau obinut nmod fraudulos forged identity document
false travel document
SK falon alebo pozmenen cestovn alebo M
identifikan doklad / falon alebo pozmenen false identity document
cestovn doklad alebo doklad totonosti N
SL zlorabljena (lana) potna listina ali dokument Related term
zaizkazovanje identitete travel document
O
SV falsk rese- eller identitetshandling
NO falskt reise- eller identitetsbevis
P
Q
R
S
T
U
V
W
X
Y
Z

133
F BG
CS
DE
frontier worker

peshranin pracovnk
Grenzarbeitnehmer
Definition
In the EUcontext, aworker who isemployed inthe frontier zone
ofaMember State but who returns each day orat least once
G
EL aweek tothe frontier zone ofaneighbouring country inwhich
ES trabajador transfronterizo they reside and ofwhich they are nationals.
ET piiriala ttaja
FI rajatyntekij Source
FR travailleur frontalier
Council Resolution of20June 1994onlimitation onadmission
GA oibr trasteorann
ofthird-country nationals tothe territory ofthe Member States
HU hatrmenti ingz (munkavllal)
for employment
IT lavoratore straniero frontaliero
LT pasienio darbuotojas
LV prrobeu darba mjs
Related terms
border resident
MT addiem ta mal-fruntiera
cross-border worker
NL grensarbeider
local border traffic
PL pracownik przygraniczny
PT trabalhador fronteirio
RO lucrtor transfrontalier Notes
SK pracovnk zprihraninej oblasti 1.The definition covers inparticular third-country nationals
SL obmejni delavec entering the EUfrom the neighbouring third-country inwhich
SV grnsarbetare they reside.
NO arbeidstaker som grensependler (b) / arbeidstakar
som grensependlar(n) 2.Contrary tocross-border workers, frontier workers work
inthe frontier zone ofthe neighbouring country.
ASYLUM AND MIGRATION GLOSSARY 3.0

134
G
BG

CS
Geneva Convention of 1951 and Protocol of 1967

1951. 1967.
enevsk mluva ouprchlcch aProtokol zr. 1967
Definition
The UNmultilateral treaty which isthe key legal document
defining who isarefugee and who isnot, the rights ofrefugees
A
B
C
DE Genfer Konvention von 1951und Protokoll von 1967 and the legal obligations ofStates towards them. D
EL
ES Convenio deGinebra de1951yProtocolo de1967 Source E
ET 1951. aGenfi konventsioon ja1967. aprotokoll Geneva Convention of1951and Protocol of1967
FI Geneven yleissopimus vuodelta 1951jasen F
pytkirja vuodelta 1967
Synonyms
FR
GA
Convention deGenve de1951etProtocole de1967
Coinbhinsin naGinive (1951) agus Prtacal
Convention of28July 1951relating tothe status ofrefugees G
and its New York Protocol of31January 1967
naGinive (1967)
HU Az 1951-es Genfi Egyezmny saz 1967-es
CRSR H
Geneva Convention and Protocol
Kiegszt Jegyzknyv
IT Convenzione diGinevra del 1951eProtocollo diNew
The Convention relating tothe Status ofRefugees I
Geneva Refugee Convention and Protocol
York del 1967
LT 1951m. enevos konvencija ir1967m. Protokolas
Refugee Convention J
1951 Convention Relating tothe Status ofRefugees and
LV 1951.gada envas konvencija un1967.gada
protokols the1967Protocol Relating tothe Status ofRefugees K
1951Geneva Convention
MT Konvenzjoni (Il-) ta inevra tal-1951ul-Protokol
tal-1967 1967Geneva Protocol
L
NL Geneefse Conventie & Protocol Conventie
van Genve (NL syn.: Verdrag van Genve, Broader term M
(Indailypractice:Vluchtelingenverdrag) refugee law
PL Konwencja Genewska z1951r. iProtok z1967r. N
PT Conveno deGenebra eProtocolo Narrower terms
RO Convenia dela Geneva din 1951iProtocolul Convention grounds for persecution
refugee
O
deImplementare din 1967
SK enevsk dohovor zroku 1951aProtokol P
zroku 1967 / Dohovor oprvnom postaven Related terms
uteencov z28.jla 1951aNewyorsk protokol internationalprotection
z31.janura1967 refugee law
Q
SL enevska konvencija izleta 1951inProtokol United Nations High Commissioner
izleta1967 forRefugees R
SV 1951rs konvention och 1967rs tillggsprotokoll
omflyktingars rttsliga stllning Notes S
NO Genve-konvesjonen (1951) ogGenve-protokollen 1.The 1967Protocol removed geographical and temporal
(1967) restrictions from the Convention. The 1951Convention consoli- T
dates previous international instruments relating torefugees
and provides the most comprehensive codification ofthe rights U
ofrefugees atinternational level. Incontrast toearlier interna-
tional refugee instruments, which applied tospecific groups V
ofrefugees, the 1951endorses asingle definition ofthe term
refugee inArt.1. W
2.The Convention isboth astatus and rights-based instrument and X
isunderpinned byanumber offundamental principles, most nota-
bly non-discrimination, non-penalisation and non-refoulement. Y
Z

135
G BG
CS
DE
gender

gender
soziales Geschlecht
Definition
The socially constructed attributes, roles, activities, responsibili-
ties and needs predominantly connected tobeing male
EL orfemale ingiven societies orcommunities atagiven time.
ES gnero
ET sugu Source
FI sukupuoli Derived byEMN from the list ofConcepts and Definitions onthe
FR genre
UNWoman website
GA inscne
HU (trsadalmi) nem(i szerep)
Related term
IT genere
sex
LT lytis
LV dzimums
MT eneru / ens / Sess
NL gender
PL gender, pe spoeczno-kulturowa
PT gnero
RO gen
SK rod
SL spol
SV genus
NO kjnn
ASYLUM AND MIGRATION GLOSSARY 3.0

136
A
General Directors of Immigration Services Conference
B
BG Definition
A network established inorder tofacilitate practical cooperation C
CS Sdruen generlnch editel imigranch slueb inthe field ofasylum and migration between the Immigration
DE Konferenz der Generaldirektoren Services ofthe different member countries. D
derEinwanderungsbehrden
EL Source E
Derived bythe EMN from the website ofGDISC
ES Conferencia de Directores Generales F
delosServiciosde Inmigracin
Synonym
ET
FI
sisserndeteenistuste peadirektorite konverentsi
Maahanmuuttovirastojen johtajien konferenssi
GDISC G
FR Confrence des directeurs gnraux
desservicesdimmigration
Related term H
European Asylum Support Office
GA Comhdhil Stirthir Ginearlta na Seirbhs Inimirce
HU Bevndorlsi Hatsgok Figazgatinak I
Konferencija
Notes
IT Conferenza dei Direttori generali 1.The GDISC was initiated in2004. J
periserviziallimmigrazione
LT Imigracijos tarnyb generalini direktori konferencija 2.Member countries comprise the 28EUMember States, the K
LV Imigrcijas dienestu enerldirektoru konference three EUcandidate countries (Iceland, Former Yugoslav Republic
MT Konferenza (Il-) tad-Diretturi enerali tas-Servizzi ofMacedonia and Turkey), the potential EUcandidate Bosnia L
tal-Immigrazzjoni and Herzegovina and two Schengen associated countries (NO
NL Conferentie van algemeen directeuren and CH). M
vandeimmigratiediensten
PL Konferencja Dyrektorw Generalnych 3.For more information, see: http://www.gdisc.org/ N
SubImigracyjnych
PT conferncia dos directores-gerais O
dosserviosdeimigrao
RO Conferina Directorilor Generali aiServiciilor P
deImigrare
SK Konferencia generlnych riaditeov
imigranchsluieb
Q
SL Konferenca generalnih direktorjev
slubzapriseljevanje R
SV General Directors of Immigration Services Conference
(no usual translation) S
NO GDISC-konferansen / The General Directors
Immigration Services Conference T
U
V
W
X
Y
Z

137
G BG
CS
DE
genocide

genocida
Vlkermord
Definition
An act committed with intent todestroy, inwhole orin part,
anational, ethnical, racial orreligious group.
EL
ES genocidio Source
ET genotsiid Art.2ofthe UNConvention onthe Prevention and Punishment
FI kansanmurha / joukkotuhonta ofthe Crime ofGenocide of1948
FR gnocide
GA cinedhoth
Related terms
HU npirts
crime against humanity
IT genocidio
ethnic cleansing
LT genocidas
LV genocds
MT enoidju
Notes
NL genocide (syn. volkerenmoord) 1.Asoutlined inthe Convention, these acts include:
PL ludobjstwo
PT genocdio (a) killing members ofthe group;
RO genocid
SK genocda (b) causing serious bodily ormental harm tomembers
SL genocid ofthegroup;
SV folkmord
NO folkemord (c) deliberately inflicting onthe group conditions oflife calcu-
lated tobring about its physical destruction inwhole
orinpart;

(d) imposing measures intended toprevent births within


thegroup;

(e) forcibly transferring children ofthe group toanother


group.

2.The definition isalso outlined inArt.6ofthe Rome Statute


ofthe International Criminal Court).
ASYLUM AND MIGRATION GLOSSARY 3.0

138
A
Global Approach to Migration and Mobility
B
BG Related terms
CS Globln pstup kmigraci amobilit Africa Caribbean Pacific Observatory C
DE Gesamtansatz fr Migration und Mobilitt onMigration
EL Africa-EU Migration, Mobility D
ES Enfoque Global dela Migracin andEmploymentPartnership
ET globaalne lhenemine rndele jarahvastiku Asia-Europe Meeting E
liikuvusele Bali Process
FI maahanmuuttoa koskeva kokonaisvaltainen Budapest Process F
lhestymistapa Cotonou Agreement
FR
GA
approche globale sur laquestion des migrations
Cur Chuige Domhanda ileith Imirce
Dialogue on Mediterranean Transit Migration G
EU-LAC Structured Dialogue on Migration
agusSoghluaisteachta
HU a migrci tfog / globlis megkzeltse
European Neighbourhood Policy H
5+5Dialogue onMigration
IT Approccio globale inmateria dimigrazione emobilit
LT Visuotinis poiris migracij irmobilum
intheWesternMediterranean I
Global Forum onMigration and Development
LV visprja pieeja migrcijai unmobilittei
MT Appro Globali gall-Migrazzjoni ul-Mobilit
High-Level Working Group onAsylum J
NL wereldwijde aanpak van migratie andMigration
PL Globalne Podejcie doMigracji iMobilnoci migration profile K
Migration, Asylum, Refugees Regional Initiative
PT abordagem global daimigrao
RO Abordarea Global amigraiei iMobilitate mobility partnership
L
SK Globlny prstup kmigrcii amobilite / GPMM Prague Process
SL Globalni pristop kmigraciji inmobilnosti M
SV no usual translation Notes
NO global tilnrming til migrasjon ogmobilitet 1.The Global Approach toMigration (GAM) was first defined N
bythe European Council inDecember 2005 (COM(2007) 247)
and further developed in2007and 2008. Ithas constituted the
O
Definition framework for the cooperation ofthe EUwith third countries
The overarching framework ofthe European Unions external inthe area ofmigration and asylum. The Stockholm Pro-
migration policy based ongenuine partnership with non-EU gramme adopted in2009also acknowledged the importance
P
countries and addressing all aspects ofmigration and mobility ofconsolidating, strengthening and implementing the GAM.
issues inan integrated, comprehensive and balanced manner.
Q
2.The approach comprises the whole migration agenda, includ-
Source ing legal and irregular migration, combating trafficking R
Communication onthe Global Approach toMigration and inhuman beings and smuggling ofmigrants, strengthening
Mobility, COM(2011) 743final protection for refugees, enhancing migrant rights and harness- S
ing the positive links that exist between migration and
Synonyms development. T
GAMM
Global Approach toMigration 3.In2011, the global approach was evaluated. Asaresult U
GAM ofthis, the Commission highlighted the need for further
strengthening the external migration policy and published V
Narrower terms inNovember 2011the Communication onthe Global Approach
Cooperation Platform onMigration toMigration and Mobility, COM(2011) 743final onanew W
andDevelopment impetus tothe EUs external migration policy. The renewed
migration profile GAMM focuses onfour main priorities: improving the organisa- X
migration routes initiative tion oflegal migration and facilitated mobility, preventing and
reducing irregular migration inan efficient, yet humane way, Y
strengthening the synergies between migration and develop-
ment, and strengthening international protection systems and Z
the external dimension ofasylum.

139
G BG
CS
DE
Global Forum on Migration and Development

Globln frum kmigraci arozvoji
Weltforum ber Migration und Entwicklung
Definition
An initiative ofthe UNMember States toaddress the migration
and development interconnections inpractical and action-orien-
EL tated ways.
ES Foro Mundial sobre Migracin yDesarrollo
ET lemaailmne rnde-ja arengupoliitika foorum Source
FI Muuttoliikett jakehityst ksittelev Website ofthe Global Forum onMigration and Development
maailmanlaajuinen foorumi
FR Forum mondial sur lamigration etle dveloppement
Synonym
GA Fram Domhanda maidir lehImirce agus Forbairt
GFMD
HU Migrcis sFejlesztsi Globlis Frum
IT Forum Globale suMigrazione eSviluppo
LT Pasaulinis migracijos irvystymosi forumas
Related terms
Cooperation Platform onMigration and
LV Pasaules forums par migrciju unattstbu
MT Forum Globali fuq Migrazzjoni uvilupp Development
Cotonou Agreement
NL Globaal Forum omtrent Migratie enOntwikkeling
Dialogue on Mediterranean Transit Migration
PL wiatowe Forum naRzecz. Migracji iRozwoju
Global Approach toMigration and Mobility
PT Forum global sobre migraes edesenvolvimento
migration profile
RO Forumul Glrobal cuprivire laMigraie iDezvoltare
SK Globlne frum omigrcii arozvoji
SL Globalni forum omigraciji inrazvoju Notes
SV Globalt forum fr migration och utveckling 1.The first session ofthe GFMD was held in2007.
NO Globalt forum for migrasjon ogutvikling
2.The GFMD isavoluntary, informal, non-binding and govern-
ment-led process open toall States and Observers ofthe UN,
toadvance understanding and cooperation onthe mutually rein-
forcing relationship between migration and development.

3.For more information, see the website ofGFMD:


www.gfmd.org
ASYLUM AND MIGRATION GLOSSARY 3.0

140
A
group determination of refugee status
B
BG Definition
CS no translation A practice bywhich all persons forming part ofalarge-scale C
DE Gruppenfeststellung der Flchtlingseigenschaft influx are regarded asrefugees onaprima facie basis, ensuring
EL that protection and assistance needs are met without prior indi- D
vidual determination ofrefugee status.
ES determinacin colectiva dela condicin derefugiado E
ET grupi pagulasseisundi kindlaksmramine Source
FI pakolaisaseman ryhmmrittminen F
UNHCR Master Glossary ofTerms
FR dtermination collective dustatut derfugi
GA
HU
stdas ddeana a chinneadh ar bhun grpa
we donot use this term, itcould betranslated
Synonym G
prima facie determination ofrefugee status
ascsoportos elismers menekltknt
IT riconoscimento collettivo dello status dirifugiato
H
LT pabglio statusas (suteikiamas grupei)
Related terms
LV bga statusa noteikana grupai
group persecution I
prima facie refugee
MT Garfien kollettiv tal-istatus ta rifujat
NL vaststelling van prima facie vluchtelingschap J
(syn.:vaststelling van vluchtelingschap zonder meer) Note
PL grupowe uznanie statusu uchodcy Refugee status must normally bedetermined onan individual K
PT determinao colectiva doestatuto derefugiado basis, but when large populations are displaced under circum-
(refugiados prima facie) stances that indicate that most members ofthe population could L
RO determinarea statutului derefugiat ncazul unui grup individually beconsidered refugees, and where the need toprovide
SK skupinov urenie tattu uteenca protection and assistance isurgent and / or where itmay not M
SL skupinsko doloanje statusa begunca bepossible for practical reasons tocarry out anindividual deter-
SV no translation mination ofrefugee status, each member ofthat population N
NO gruppeavgjrelse avflyktningstatus (b) / inquestion can beregarded prima facie (in the absence ofevi-
gruppeavgjerd avflyktningestatus(n) dence tothe contrary) asarefugee. Inother words, the presump-
tion isthat individual members ofthe population concerned would
O
beconsidered asrefugees inneed ofprotection. For more infor-
mation, see UNHCR: Refugee status determination 2005:
P
http://www.refworld.org/pdfid/43141f5d4.pdf
Q
R
S
T
U
V
W
X
Y
Z

141
G BG
CS
Group of Eight Roma-Lyon Group,
Migration Experts Sub-Group
no translation
G8 - skupina m - Lyon, podskupina migranch
expert
Definition
A working group within the framework ofG8countries which
tackles irregular migration and trafficking inthe broader con-
DE Gruppe der Acht (Rom-Lyon-Gruppe), Untergruppe text ofcombating terrorism and transnational crime.
von Migrationsexperten
EL Source
ES subgrupo deexpertos enmigracin Roma / Website ofthe Group ofEight Roma-Lyon Group
LyondelG8
ET G8, rnde-ekspertide alagrupp
Synonyms
FI G8-maiden Roma / Lyon-ryhmn maahanmuuttaja- G8Lyon / Roma Migration Experts Sub-Group
asiantuntijoiden alatyryhm
Roma-Lyon Group
FR sous-groupe des experts enmigrations duGroupe
deLyon / Rome (G8)
GA Fo-Ghrpa G8Lyon / na Rimhe
Notes
1.The G8Roma-Lyon Group mainly focuses onstrategies relat-
deShaineolaitheImirce
ing topublic security inan effort tocombat terrorism and trans-
HU G8Lyon / Rma Migrcis Szakrti Alcsoport
IT Sottogruppo G8Roma / national crime. Itgathers experts who are all civil servants from
Lionediespertiinmigrazione(R / L) the G8members, mainly from justice, foreign affairs and law
LT Didiojo atuoneto Liono / Romos ekspert migracijos enforcement services and intelligence agencies. The Group con-
klausimais pogrupis sists ofseveral sub-groups dealing with different aspects
LV G8Romas - Lionas grupas migrcijas ekspertu oftransnational crime.
apakgrupa
MT Grupp (Il-) ta appo G8Lyon-Roma besperti fuq 2.G8countries are Canada, FR, DE, IT, Japan, Russia, UKand the
il-migrazzjoni United States ofAmerica, with the European Commission also
NL G8Lyon / Roma Migration Experts Sub-Group attending meetings.
PL Podgrupa ekspertw wzakresie migracji Lyon /
Rzym- G8
PT subgrupo deperitos demigrao Leo / Roma G8
RO no usual translation
SK Podskupina migranch expertov skupiny
G8LyonRm
SL Skupna osmih Rim - Lion, Podskupina strokovnjakov
zamigracije
SV G8:s Roma / Lyon-grupp
NO G8Lyon / Roma-undergruppen
avmigrasjonseksperter (b) / G8Lyon /
Romaundergruppa avmigrasjonsekspertar(n)
ASYLUM AND MIGRATION GLOSSARY 3.0

142
A
group persecution
B
BG Source
CS no translation Definition according tothe consistent practice ofthe German C
DE Gruppenverfolgung Federal Administrative Court based onruling of15May 1990
EL () 9C17.89 D
ES no translation
ET grupi tagakiusamine Broader term E
FI ryhmn kohdistuva vaino persecution
FR perscution lencontre dun groupe F
GA garleanint grpa
Related terms
HU
IT
no translation
persecuzione digruppo
act of persecution G
actor of persecution
LT persekiojamoji grup
LV grupas vajana
group determination ofrefugee status H
prima facie refugee
MT Persekuzzjoni ta grupp(-i) ta nies
NL groepsvervolging I
PL grupowe przeladowanie Notes
PT grupo alvo deperseguio 1.This concept has nolegal definition inthe Member States. J
RO persecuie degrup
SK prenasledovanie skupiny 2.Group isinterpreted broadly asreferring topersons ofapar- K
SL skupinsko preganjanje ticular religious belief, social (e.g. homosexuals), and / or coming
SV frfljelse aven grupp from aparticular region within acountry. L
NO forflgelse aven gruppes medlemmer (b) /
forflgingavmedlemmene avei gruppe(n) 3.Anassumption ofgroup persecution requires acertain inten- M
sity ofpersecution towarrant the general assumption ofthe
individual persecution ofeach group member, irrespective N
Definition ofwhether anindividual has indeed been the victim ofsuch per-
A concept which recognises that persecution can beenacted secution. This requires athreat emanating from solarge anum-
ber ofviolations ofrights protected byasylum law that itgoes
O
against members ofasection ofthe population (a group) that
issuffering oppression oris threatened asawhole inits home beyond separate individual infringements oralarge number
country according toone ofthe criteria defined inthe Geneva ofindividual infringements, but rather constitutes acts ofperse-
P
Convention of1951toan extent that the members ofsuch cution inthe specific territory aimed atthe group asawhole
agroup are not only covertly orpotentially atrisk, but quite tan- which increase, are repeated and spread tosuch anextent that
Q
gibly and imminently requiring thus acertain intensity ofperse- there isnot only apossibility, but adirect imminent danger
cution towarrant the general assumption ofthe individual ofbecoming avictim oneself for any member ofsuch agroup. R
persecution ofeach group member, irrespective ofwhether
anindividual has indeed been the victim ofsuch persecution. 4.With consideration tothe general principle ofsubsidiarity S
Inany case, whilst agroup may bepersecuted, anapplication inrefugee law, group persecution will only entitle arefugee
for international protection must beexamined onan individual toprotection abroad, ifthe danger ispresent inthe entire terri- T
basis inthe Member States, and not all together asone group. tory ofthe country oforigin, i.e. ifthere isno internal alternative
for protection. For the purposes ofthe danger ofpersecution U
after return, such aninternal alternative must bereasonable and
accessible from the country ofrefuge. V
5.For more information ongroup persecution, see the European W
Database ofAsylum Law(EDAL): http://www.asylumlawdatabase.
eu/en/case-law-search?search_api_views_fulltext=group+perse- X
cution&=Search+EDAL+summaries, i.e. German Federal Admin-
istrative Court, ruling of12April 2009 10C11.08. Y
Z

143
G BG
CS
DE
guest worker

no translation
Gastarbeiter
Definition
An economic migrant recruited for arestricted time ofsettle-
ment and employment.
H
EL
ES trabajador invitado Source
ET vrttaja Developed byEMN
FI vierastylinen
FR travailleur tranger
Broader term
GA aoi-oibr economic migrant
HU vendgmunks
IT lavoratore ospite
Related term
LT besisveiuojantis darbuotojas
migrant worker
LV viesstrdnieks
MT addiem mistieden
NL gastarbeider Note
PL gastarbaiter This term isno longer used inthe EUcontext. Itwas more orless
PT trabalhador convidado restricted tomigration flows inthe 1950s and 1960s.
RO lucrtor vizitator
SK zahranin hosujci pracovnk
SL gostujoi delavec
SV gstarbetare
NO gjestearbeider (b) / gjestearbeidar(n)
ASYLUM AND MIGRATION GLOSSARY 3.0

144
H
BG
CS
DE
harassment

obtovn
Belstigung
Definition
Unwanted conduct related toracial orethnic origin with the pur-
pose oreffect ofviolating the dignity ofaperson and ofcreating
A
B
C
EL anintimidating, hostile, degrading, humiliating oroffensive D
ES acoso environment.
ET ahistamine E
FI hirint Source
FR harclement F
Art.2 (3) ofCouncil Directive 2000/43/EC (Racial Equality
GA ciapadh
Directive)
HU zaklats
IT molestia
G
LT
LV
priekabiavimas
uzmkans
H
MT Molestja / Fastidju
NL intimidatie I
PL molestowanie
PT perseguio J
RO persecuie, hruire
SK obaovanie K
SL nadlegovanje
SV trakasserier L
NO trakassering / mobbing
M
N
harmful onward movement O

BG no translation Definition
P
CS no translation The movement ofrefugees and migrants bydangerous means
DE gefhrliche Weiterwanderung from one location toanother.
Q
EL
ES movimientos irregulares peligrosos Source R
ET ohtlik (edasi) liikumine Derived byEMN from UNHCR: Draft Proposal for aCentral
FI vaarallisin keinoin siirtyminen (uudistermi) Mediterranean Sea Initiative: EUsolidarity for rescue-at-sea, pro- S
FR mouvement secondaire dangereux
tection and comprehensive responses, 2013
GA athghluaiseacht dhainsarach T
HU kt hely kztti veszlyes tjuts
Notes
IT spostamento pericoloso U
1.Harmful movement may include movement that risks peoples
LT pavojingas judjimas pirmyn
lives (e.g. bysea) orwhich puts them atrisk oftrafficking.
LV bstama prvietoans
MT Mogdija l quddiem dannua / ta sara
V
NL no translation 2.This term has only been recently put into use bypractitioners.
PL niebezpieczne dalsze przemieszczanie si
W
PT
RO micare deavansare periculoas X
SK riskantn presvanie sauteencov amigrantov
SL kodljivo gibanje, kigre dalje / Y
kodljivogibanje,kisenadaljuje
SV No translation Z
NO risikabel viderereise (b) / risikabel vidarereise(n)

145
H BG

CS
High-Level Working Group on Asylum and Migration


pracovn skupina navysok rovni pro azyl amigraci
Definition
A strategic group which works under the auspices ofthe
European Council and which was set upto establish acompre-
DE Hochrangige Arbeitsgruppe Asyl und Einwanderung hensive and integrated strategy for the EUs cooperation with
EL third countries inthe area ofasylum and migration.

ES grupo detrabajo dealto nivel sobre migracin yasilo Source
ET krgetasemine varjupaiga jarnde trhm
Conclusions ofthe General Affairs Council, December 1998
FI turvapaikka- jamaahanmuuttoasioiden korkean
tason tyryhm
Synonym
FR Groupe dehaut niveau Asile etMigration
HLWG
GA Grpa Oibre Ardleibhil maidir le Tearmann
agusImirce
HU Magas Szint Menekltgyi sMigrcis
Related terms
Global
Approach toMigration and Mobility
Munkacsoport
Strategic
Committee onImmigration, Frontiers
IT Gruppo dilavoro adalto livello inmateria diasilo
emigrazione and Asylum
LT Prieglobsio irmigracijos aukto lygio darbo grup
LV Augsta lmea darba grupa migrcijas unpatvruma Notes
jautjumos 1.The HLWG was set upin December 1998toprepare cross-pillar
MT Grupp ta idma ta Livell Goli dwar l-Ail Action Plans for the countries oforigin and transit ofasylum
ul-Migrazzjoni seekers and migrants.
NL Werkgroep ophoog niveau voor asiel enmigratie
PL Grupa Robocza Wysokiego Szczebla ds. Azylu 2.The HLWGs focus ison external relations with third countries,
iMigracji particularly within the context ofthe Global Approach toMigra-
PT grupo alto nvel asilo emigrao tion and Mobility. Its objective isto strengthen the external
RO Grupul delucru lanivel nalt ndomeniul migraiei dimension ofthe EUs asylum and migration policies based
iazilului ondialogue, cooperation and partnership with countries oforigin
SK Pracovn skupina navysokej rovni pre azyl and transit inthe areas oflegal migration, irregular migration,
amigrciu migration and development. The Group also prepares conclu-
SL Delovna skupina visokih predstavnikov zaazil sions and recommendations onasylum and migration tobe
inmigracije adopted bythe Council. They carry out anassessment ofthe
SV Hgnivgruppen fr asyl och migration political, economic and human rights situation incountries ofori-
NO hynivgruppen for asyl ogmigrasjon (b) / gin and provide ajoint analysis ofthe causes and consequences
hgnivgruppa for asyl ogmigrasjon(n) ofmigration.
ASYLUM AND MIGRATION GLOSSARY 3.0

146
A
highly qualified employment
B
BG Definition
CS zamstnn vyadujc vysokou kvalifikaci The employment ofaperson who: C
DE hochqualifizierte Beschftigung (a) inthe Member State concerned, isprotected asan employee
EL under national employment law and / or inaccordance with D
ES empleo altamente cualificado national practice, irrespective ofthe legal relationship, for the
ET krgelt kvalifitseeritud t purpose ofexercising genuine and effective work for, orunder E
FI korkeaa ptevyytt vaativa ty the direction of, someone else;
FR emploi hautement qualifi F
(b) ispaid; and,
GA fostaocht ardchilochta
(c) has the required adequate and specific competence,
HU Magasan kpzett szemly /
Munkavllalfoglalkoztatsa
asproven byhigher professional qualifications. G
IT
LT
lavoro altamente qualificato
auktos profesins kvalifikacijos darbas
Source H
Art.2(b) ofCouncil Directive 2009/50/EC (Blue Card Directive)
LV augsti kvalificta nodarbintba
MT Impjieg bikwalifiki goljin I
NL hooggekwalificeerde baan Related terms
PL zatrudnienie pracownikw wysoko wykwalifikowanych EU Blue Card J
highly qualified migrant
PT emprego altamente qualificado
RO loc demunc nalt calificat K
SK vysokokvalifikovan zamestnanie Note
SL visoko kvalificirana zaposlitev In some Member States, there isadistinction between highly L
SV hgkvalificerad anstllning skilled, referring tosomeone who has the required adequate
NO sysselsetting avhyt kvalifisert arbeidskraft (b) / and specific competence asproven byhigher educational quali- M
sysselsetjing avhgt kvalifisert arbeidskraft(n) fications and / or extensive (vocational) experience; and highly
qualified, referring tosomeone who has required adequate and N
specific competence asproven byhigher educational qualifica-
tions only. Inthe EUcontext, however, these terms are consid-
O
ered tobe interchangeable, e.g. the definition for highly skilled
used inRegulation (EC) No. 862/2007 (Migration Statistics
Regulation) uses the definition for highly qualified.
P
Q
R
S
T
U
V
W
X
Y
Z

147
H BG
CS
highly qualified migrant

vysoce kvalifikovan zamstnanec; vysoce
kvalifikovan pracovnk
Definition
In the global context, aperson falling within ILO ISCO-88Classes
1, 2and 3, e.g. aperson qualified asamanager, executive, pro-
DE hochqualifizierter Migrant fessional, technician orsimilar, who moves within the internal
EL labour markets oftransnational corporations and international
ES persona migrante altamente cualificada organisations, orwho seeks employment through international
ET krgelt kvalifitseeritud sisserndaja labour markets for scarce skills.
FI korkeasti koulutettu maahanmuuttaja
In the EUcontext, athird-country national who seeks employ-
FR migrant hautement qualifi
ment inaMember State and has the required adequate and spe-
GA imirceach ardchilithe
cific competence, asproven byhigher professional qualifications.
HU magasan kpzett migrns
IT migrante altamente qualificato
LT auktos profesins kvalifikacijos migrantas
Source
Global context: UNESCO Glossary ofMigration-related Terms
LV augsti kvalificts migrants
MT Migrant(a) bikwalifiki goljin EU context: Derived byEMN from Art.2(b) ofCouncil Directive
NL hooggekwalificeerde migrant 2009/50/EC (Blue Card Directive)
PL migrant wysoko wykwalifikowany
PT Migrante altamente qualificado Synonyms
business migrant
RO migrant nalt calificat
highly qualified migrant worker
SK vysokokvalifikovan migrant
SL visoko kvalificiran migrant highly skilled migrant

SV hgkvalificerad migrant
NO hyt kvalifisert migrant (b) / Broader term
hgtkvalifisertmigrant(n) migrant worker

Related terms
EUBlue Card
highly
qualified employment
mutual recognition agreement

Notes
1.Insome Member States, there isadistinction between highly
skilled, referring tosomeone who has the required adequate
and specific competence, asproven byhigher educational qual-
ifications, and / or extensive (vocational) experience; and highly
qualified, referring tosomeone who has required adequate and
specific competence, asproven byhigher educational qualifica-
ASYLUM AND MIGRATION GLOSSARY 3.0

tions only. Inthe EUcontext, however, these terms are consid-


ered tobe interchangeable, e.g. the definition for highly skilled
used inthe Migratory Statistics Regulation (862/2007) uses the
definition for highly qualified.

2.The understanding ofwho isahighly qualified and aquali-


fied third-country national varies inthe Member States, with
different definitions and concepts existing. Often these depend
onnational labour market demands and other national criteria.
For more information, see EMN: Attracting highly qualified and
qualified third-country nationals, 2013.

148
A
host country
B
BG Definition
CS hostitelsk stt The Member State / country inwhich athird-country national / C
DE Aufnahmeland non-national takes upresidence.
EL D
ES pas deacogida Source
ET vastuvttev riik Developed byEMN E
FI vastaanottava maa
FR pays daccueil F
Synonym
GA tr aochta receiving country
HU fogad orszg
IT paese ospitante
G
Narrower term
LT
LV
priimanioji valstyb
uzmjvalsts
host Member State H
MT Pajji lijilqa
NL gastland Related terms I
host society
PL kraj przyjmujcy
PT pas deacolhimento right ofresidence J
RO ar gazd
SK hostitesk krajina / prijmajca krajina K
SL drava gostiteljica
SV vrdland L
NO vertsland
M
N
host Member State O

BG Definition
P
CS hostitelsk lensk stt The Member State towhich aunion citizen moves inorder
DE Aufnahmemit- gliedstaat toexercise their right tofree movement and residence.
Q
EL -
ES Estado Miembro deacogida Source R
ET vastuvttev liikmesriik Art.2(3) ofCouncil
FI vastaanottava jsenvaltio Directive 2004/38/EC (Free Movement Directive) S
FR tat membre daccueil
GA ballstt aochta Broader term T
HU befogad tagllam host country
IT Stato membro ospitante U
LT priimanioji valstyb nar
LV uzmjdalbvalsts V
MT Stat Membru Ospitanti
NL gastlidstaat
PL przyjmujce pastwo czonkowskie
W
PT estado membro deacolhimento
RO Stat Membu gazd X
SK hostitesk lensk tt / prijmajci lensk tt
SL gostujoa drava lanica Y
SV mottagande medlemsstat
NO vertsmedlemsland Z

149
H BG
CS
DE
host society

hostitelsk spolenost
Aufnahmegesellschaft
Definition
In the EUcontext, residents (both nationals and non-nationals)
ofanational / regional / local community within aMember State.
EL
ES sociedad deacogida Source
ET vastuvttev hiskond Developed byEMN
FI vastaanottava yhteiskunta
FR socit daccueil
Related terms
GA socha stach Common Basic Principles
HU befogad trsadalom
host country
IT societ diaccoglienza
host Member State
LT priimanioji visuomen
integration
LV vietj sabiedrba
MT Sojet litilqa
NL gastsamenleving (syn.: gastmaatschappij) Note
PL spoeczestwo przyjmujce In accordance with integration being adynamic, two-way pro-
PT sociedade deacolhimento cess, the activities undertaken bythe host society serve tofacil-
RO societate gazd itate the integration ofathird-country national according
SK hostitesk spolonos / prijmajca spolonos tothe Common Basic Principles.
SL gostujoa druba
SV vrdsamhlle
NO vertssamfunn

human rights
BG Definition
CS lidsk prva Agreed international standards that recognise and protect the
DE Menschenrechte dignity and integrity ofevery individual, without any distinction.
EL
ES derechos humanos Source
ET inimigused UNHCR Master Glossary ofterms
FI ihmisoikeudet
FR droits delhomme
Related term
GA cearta anduine
ASYLUM AND MIGRATION GLOSSARY 3.0

Charter ofFundamental Rights


HU emberi jogok
oftheEuropean Union
IT diritti umani
European Convention on Human Rights
LT mogaus teiss
European Union Agency
LV cilvktiesbas
forFundamentalRights
MT Drittijiet (Id-) tal-bniedem
NL mensenrechten
PL prawa czowieka Note
PT Human rights form part ofcustomary international law and are
RO drepturile omului stipulated inavariety ofnational, regional and international legal
SK udsk prva documents generally referred toas human rights instruments.
SL lovekove pravice
SV mnskliga rttigheter
NO menneskerettigheter (b) / menneskerettar(n)

150
A
human rights law
B
BG Definition
CS zkony olidskch prvech The body ofcustomary international law, human rights instru- C
DE Menschenrechte, internationale Menschenrechts- ments and national law that recognises and protects human
normen rights. D
EL
ES legislacin dederechos humanos Source E
ET inimiguste igus UNHCR Master Glossary ofterms
FI ihmisoikeuslainsdnt F
FR droit relatif aux droits delhomme
Related terms
GA na dlthe ileith Chearta anDuine, reachtaocht
European Convention on Human Rights G
ileithChearta anDuine
refugee law
HU
IT
emberi jogok
diritto dei diritti umani
H
LT mogaus teisi teis
Note
LV cilvktiesbas Refugee law and human rights law complement each other. I
MT Lii (Il-) dwar id-drittijiet tal-bniedem
NL humanitair recht J
PL prawo praw czowieka
PT K
RO legislaia privind drepturile omului
SK prvo voblasti udskch prv L
SL pravo olovekovih pravicah
SV lagstiftning till skydd fr mnskliga rttigheter M
NO menneskerettslovgivning (b) /
menneskerettslovgjeving(n) N
O
P
Q
R
S
T
U
V
W
X
Y
Z

151
H BG
CS
DE
humanitarian protection

humanitrn ochrana
humanitrer Schutz
Notes
1.The UKhas opted into the Directive 2011/95/EU (Recast
Qualification Directive) but does not (legally) use the term
I
EL subsidiary protection. The inclusion ofhumanitarian protection
ES proteccin humanitaria within the UKimmigration rules fully transposes the subsidiary
ET humanitaarkaitse protection provisions ofthe Qualification Directive into UKlaw,
FI humanitaarinen suojelu asit isdefined asprotection given tosomeone under the terms
FR protection humanitaire
ofthe European Convention onHuman Rights.
GA cosaint dhaonnil
HU humanitrius vdelem
2.IEhas also opted-into the Qualification Directive, and uses the
IT protezione umanitaria
term leave toremain.
LT humanitarin apsauga
LV humn aizsardzba
3.InDE, FIand IT, humanitarian protection and subsidiary protec-
MT Protezzjoni umanitarja
NL bescherming ophumanitaire gronden tion are different concepts. InDE and IT, humanitarian protection
PL ochrona ocharakterze humanitarnym isthe reception and residence ofrefugees under international law
PT proteco humanitria oron humanitarian orpolitical (DE only) grounds, and inFI,
RO protecie umanitar humanitarian protection isgranted toforeign nationals who can-
SK humanitrna ochrana not return totheir country oforigin orcountry offormer habitual
SL humanitarna zaita residence asaresult ofan environmental catastrophe orabad
SV humanitrt skydd security situation, which may bedue toan international orinternal
NO beskyttelse phumanitrt grunnlag (b) / armed conflict orapoor human rights situation.
vernphumanitrt grunnlag(n)
4.InEE, LV, this term isnot used.

Definition 5.ATand ESuse asimilar expression, namely residence permit


A form ofnon-EU harmonised protection nowadays normally onhumanitarian grounds.
replaced bysubsidiary protection, except insome Member
States (see Notes). 6.InBG, humanitarian protection encompasses subsidiary pro-
tection aswell asprotection granted for other humanitarian rea-
Source sons (see Art.9, SGNo 52of2007).
Developed byEMN
7.InNO, aresidence permit may begranted, even ifthe other
Broader term conditions laid down inthe Act are not satisfied, provided there
protection are strong humanitarian considerations orthe foreign national
has aparticular connection with the realm. Todetermine whether
Related terms there are strong humanitarian considerations, anoverall assess-
ASYLUM AND MIGRATION GLOSSARY 3.0

de facto refugee ment shall bemade ofthe case. Importance may beattached,
international protection inter alia, towhether the foreign national isan unaccompanied
subsidiary protection minor who would bewithout proper care ifthey were returned;
the foreign national needs tostay inthe realm due tocompelling
health circumstances; there are social orhumanitarian circum-
stances relating tothe return situation that give grounds for
granting aresidence permit; the foreign national has been avic-
tim ofhuman trafficking. (For further information, see Immigra-
tion Act ofMay 2008, Chaper 5, Section 38).

152
I BG
CS
DE
identification of a victim of trafficking in human beings

identifikace obti obchodovn slidmi
Feststellung/ Identifizierung eines Opfers
Definition
The process ofconfirming and characterising asituation oftraf-
ficking inhuman beings for further implementation ofsupport.
A
B
C
vonMenschenhandel D
EL Source
ES identificacin devctima detrata deseres humanos Derived byEMN from Varandas, I. & J. Martins: Signalling E
ET inimkaubanduse ohvri tuvastamine Identification Integration ofVictims ofTrafficking for Sexual
FI ihmiskaupan uhrin tunnistaminen F
Exploitation: Construction ofaGuide, 2007
FR identification dune victime dela traite
destreshumains
Broader term G
GA ospartach ginnela ashainaithint
trafficking inhuman beings
HU emberkereskedelem ldozatnak azonostsa
IT identificazione della vittima ditratta diesseri umani
H
Narrower term
LT
LV
prekybos monmis aukos nustatymas
cilvku tirdzniecbas upura identificana
formal
identification ofavictim oftrafficking I
MT Identifikazzjoni (L-) ta vittma fit-traffikar tal-persuni inhuman beings
NL herkennen van een slachtoffer van mensenhandel J
PL identyfikacja ofiar handlu ludmi Related term
PT detection
ofavictim oftrafficking K
RO identificarea unei victime atraficului defiine umane inhumanbeings
SK identifikcia obete obchodovania sumi L
SL prepoznavanje rtve trgovine zljudmi
SV identifiering avoffer fr mnniskohandel M
NO identifisering avoffer for menneskehandel
N
identified victim of trafficking in human beings O

BG Definition
P
CS identifikovan ob obchodovn slidmi A person who has been formally identified asavictim oftraf-
DE identifiziertes Opfer von Menschenhandel ficking inhuman beings according tothe relevant formal author-
Q
EL ity inMember States.
ES victima reconocida detrata deseres humanos R
ET (tuvastatud) inimkaubanduse ohver Source
FI tunnistettu ihmiskaupan uhri Derived byEMN from Eurostat: Trafficking inhuman beings, S
FR victime identifie dela traite des tres humains
2013
GA ospartach ginnela sainaitheanta T
HU emberkereskedelem azonostott ldozata
Broader term
IT vittima identificata ditratta diesseri umani U
trafficking inhuman beings
LT nustatyta prekybos monmis auka
LV identificts cilvku tirdzniecbas upuris
MT Vittma identifikata fit-traffikar tal-persuni
Related term V
vulnerable person
NL gedentificeerd slachtoffer van mensenhandel
PL zidentyfikowana ofiara handlu ludmi
W
PT
RO victim atraficului defiine umane identificat X
SK identifikovan obe obchodovania sumi
SL identificirana rtev trgovine zljudmi Y
SV identifierat offer fr mnniskohandel
NO identifisert offer for menneskehandel Z

153
I BG
CS
DE
illegal employment

neoprvnn zamstnvn
illegale Beschftigung
Definition
Economic activity carried out inviolation ofprovisions set
bylegislation.
EL
ES empleo ilegal Source
ET ebaseaduslik ttamine Derived byEMN from definition for clandestine employment
FI laiton tynteko inthe ILO Thesaurus, 6th ed., 2008
FR emploi illgal
GA fostaocht neamhdhleathach
Synonym
HU illeglis foglalkoztats
clandestine employment
IT lavoro illegale
LT nelegalus darbas
LV nelikumga nodarbintba
Narrower terms
illegal employment of an illegally staying
MT Impjieg illegali
NL illegale tewerkstelling third-country national
illegal employment ofalegally staying
(syn.:illegalearbeid,zwartwerken)
PL nielegalne zatrudnienie third-country national
PT emprego ilegal
RO angajare ilegal, munc lanegru Related term
irregular migrant
SK neleglne zamestnvanie
SL ilegalna zaposlitev / nezakonita zaposlitev
SV olaglig anstllning / sysselsttning Notes
NO illegalt arbeid 1.Inthe EUcontext, this covers both the illegal employment
ofathird-country national who isirregularly staying onthe ter-
ritory ofaMember State and ofalegally resident third-country
national working outside the conditions ofthe residence permit
and / or without awork permit.

2.Inthe context ofDirective 2009/52/EC (Employer Sanctions


Directive) this means the employment ofan illegally staying
third-country national (see Art.2(d)).
ASYLUM AND MIGRATION GLOSSARY 3.0

154
illegal employment of an illegally staying
A
third-country national
B
BG Definition
The employment ofan illegally staying third-country national. C
CS neoprvnn zamstnvn neoprvnn
pobvajcho sttnho pslunka tet zem Source D
DE illegale Beschftigung eines Drittstaatsangehrigen Art.2 (d) ofCouncil Directive 2009/52/EC (Employer Sanctions
ohne rechtmigen Aufenthalt Directive) E
EL
Broader term F
ES empleo ilegal denacional detercer pas illegal employment
ensituacinirregular G
ET ebaseaduslikult riigis viibiva kolmanda riigi kodaniku
Related terms
ebaseadusliku ttamise vimaldamine
FI laittomasti oleskelevan kolmannen maan kansalaisen
employer sanction H
illegal employment of a legally staying
FR
laiton tynteko
emploi illegal dun ressortissant depays tiers
third-country national
third-country national found
I
ensjour irrgulier
GA fost neamhdhleathach nisinaigh tr tr at tobeillegallypresent J
ilthair go neamhdhleathach
HU illeglisan tartzkod harmadik orszgbeli Note K
llampolgrok illeglis foglalkoztatsa The term itself has been slightly modified from the Employer
IT lavoro illegale diun cittadino diun paese terzo Sanctions Directive definition inorder tobe more explicit. L
irregolarmente soggiornante
LT neteistai alyje esanio treiosios alies pilieio M
nelegalus darbas
LV tres valsts pilsoa, kas nelikumgi uzturas valst, N
nelikumga nodarbintba
MT Impjieg illegali ta ittadin(a) minn pajji terz O
residenti bmod regolari
NL illegale tewerkstelling van illegaal verblijvende P
derdelanders
PL nielegalne zatrudnienie obywatela pastwa trzeciego
przebywajcego nielegalnie
Q
PT emprego deimigrantes ilegais
RO angajarea ilegal astrinilor cuedere ilegal R
SK neleglne zamestnvanie neoprvnene
sazdriavajcich ttnych prslunkov tretch krajn S
SL nezakonita zaposlitev dravljana tretje drave,
kinezakonito prebiva T
SV olaglig anstllning avtredjelandsmedborgare som
vistas olagligt U
NO ulovlig sysselsetting avtredjestatsborgere
uten lovlig opphold (b) / ulovleg sysselsetjing V
avtredjestatsborgarar utan lovleg opphald(n)
W
X
Y
Z

155
I BG

CS
illegal employment of a legally staying
third-country national


neoprvnn zamstnvn oprvnn pobvajcho
Definition
Employment ofalegally staying third-country national working
outside the conditions oftheir residence permit and / or without
sttnho pslunka tet zem awork permit. This issubject toeach Member States nationallaw.
DE illegale Beschftigung eines Drittstaatsangehrigen
mit rechtmigem Aufenthalt Source
EL Derived byEMN from definition ofillegal employment
inArt.2(d) ofCouncil Directive 2009/52/EC (Employer Sanctions
ES empleo ilegal denacional detercer pas ensituacin
Directive)
deresidencia legal
ET seaduslikult riigis viibiva kolmanda riigi kodaniku
Broader term
ebaseadusliku ttamise vimaldamine
illegal employment
FI laillisesti oleskelevan kolmannen maan kansalaisen
laiton tynteko
FR emploi illgal dun ressortissant depays tiers
ensjour rgulier
GA fostaocht neamhdhleathach nisinaigh tr tr at
ilthair goneamhdhleathach
HU jogszeren / leglisan tartzkod harmadik
orszgbeli llampolgrok illeglis foglalkoztatsa
IT lavoro illegale diun cittadino diun paese terzo
regolarmente soggiornante
LT teistai alyje esanio treiosios alies pilieio
nelegalus darbas
LV tres valsts pilsoa, kas likumgi uzturas valst,
nelikumga nodarbintba
MT Impieg illegali ta ittadin(a) minn pajji terz residenti
bmod irregolari
NL illegale tewerkstelling van legaal verblijvende
derdelanders
PL nielegalne zatrudnienie obywatela pastwa trzeciego
przebywajcego legalnie
PT emprego ilegal
RO angajarea ilegal astrinilor cuedere legal
SK neleglne zamestnvanie oprvnene
sazdriavajcich ttnych prslunkov tretch krajn
SL nezakonita zaposlitev dravljana tretje drave,
ASYLUM AND MIGRATION GLOSSARY 3.0

kiprebiva zakonito
SV olaglig anstllning avtredjelandsmedborgare som
vistas lagligt
NO ulovlig sysselsetting avtredjestatsborgere
med lovlig opphold (b) / ulovleg sysselsetjing
avtredjestatsborgarar med lovleg opphald(n)

156
A
immigrant
B
BG Definition
CS pisthovalec / imigrant In the global context, anon-resident (both national oralien) C
DE Zuwanderer (EU acquis), Einwanderer, Immigrant arriving inaState with the intention toremain for aperiod
EL exceeding ayear. D
ES inmigrante In the EUcontext, aperson who establishes their usual resi-
ET sisserndaja dence inthe territory ofaMember State for aperiod that is, oris E
FI maahanmuuttaja / siirtolainen expected tobe, ofat least 12months, having previously been
FR immigrant F
usually resident inanother Member State orathird country.
GA inimirceach
HU bevndorl
IT immigrante
Source G
Global context: UNRecommendations on Statistics ofInternational
LT imigrantas
LV imigrants
Migration H
EU context: Art.2(b) and (f) ofRegulation (EC) No862/2007
MT
NL
Immigrant(a)
immigrant (Migration Statistics) I
PL imigrant
PT imigrante Broader term J
migrant
RO imigrant
SK prisahovalec (national law) / imigrant K
SL priseljenec Related terms
SV invandrare emigrant
L
NO innvandrer (b) / innvandrar(n) immigration
short-term migrant M
N
immigration O

BG Definition
P
CS pisthovalectv / imigrace In the global context, the act ofarriving inaState with the inten-
DE Zuwanderung (EU acquis), Einwanderung, tion toremain for aperiod exceeding one year.
Q
Immigration In the EUcontext, the action bywhich aperson establishes their
EL usual residence inthe territory ofaMember State for aperiod R
ES inmigracin that is, oris expected tobe, ofat least 12months, having previ-
ET sissernne ously been usually resident inanother Member State orathird S
FI maahanmuutto
country.
FR immigration T
GA inimirce
Source
HU bevndorls U
Global context: UNRecommendations on Statistics ofInternational
IT immigrazione
Migration
LT imigracija
LV imigrcija
EU context: Art.2(b) ofRegulation (EC) No862/2007 (Migration V
MT Immigrazzjoni Statistics)
NL immigratie
W
PL imigracja Broader term
PT imigrao migration X
RO imigraie
SK prisahovalectvo (national law) / imigrcia Narrower term Y
SL priseljevanje EU Immigration Portal
SV invandring Z
NO innvandring Related terms
emigration
immigrant

157
I BG
CS
DE
Immigration Liaison Officer

imigran styn dstojnk
Verbindungsbeamter fr Einwanderungsfragen
Definition
A representative ofone ofthe Member States, posted abroad
bythe immigration service orother competent authorities
EL () inorder toestablish and maintain contacts with the authorities
ES oficiales deenlace deinmigracin ofthe host country with aview tocontributing tothe prevention
ET Euroopa sissernde sideametnik and combating ofirregular migration, the return ofirregular
FI maahanmuuttoalan yhdyshenkil migrants and the management oflegal migration.
FR officier deliaison Immigration
GA Oifigeach Idirchaidrimh Inimirce (ILO)
Source
HU bevndorlsi sszekt tiszt(visel)
Art.1(1) ofCouncil Regulation (EC) 377/2004 (Immigration
IT funzionario dicollegamento incaricato
Liaison Officer Regulation)
dellimmigrazione
LT imigracijos ryi palaikymo pareignas
LV imigrcijas sadarbbas koordinators
Synonyms
ILO
MT Uffijal tal-Kollegament Responsabbli
national liaison officer
gallImmigrazzjoni (UKRI)
state liaison officer
NL immigratieverbindingsfunctionaris,
(syn.:immigratieverbindingsambtenaar;
indailypractice:ILO) Related terms
Information and Coordination Network
PL oficer cznikowy ds. imigracji
PT Oficial deligao deimigrao forMember States Migration Management
RO ofier delegtur peprobleme deimigraie Services
(indailypractice ILO) European Agency for the Management
SK imigran styn dstojnk ofOperational Cooperation atthe
SL Uradnik zazvezo zapriseljevanje ExternalBorders ofthe Member States
SV sambandsman fr invandring oftheEuropeanUnion
NO kontaktperson med ansvar for immigrasjon
Notes
1.Immigration liaison officers are tocollect information con-
cerning illegal immigration for use either atoperational level
orat strategic level, orboth. Such information could substan-
tially contribute tothe activities ofFrontex relating torisk anal-
ysis; closer cooperation between different immigration liaison
officers networks and Frontex should beestablished tothat
effect, asimmigration liaison officers shall also beconsidered
the liaison officers who are dealing with immigration issues
aspart oftheir duties.
ASYLUM AND MIGRATION GLOSSARY 3.0

2.The immigration liaison officers could beposted tothe


national consular authorities ofMember States inthird coun-
tries orto the relevant authorities ofother Member States, but
also tothe competent authorities ofthe third countries, aswell
asto international organisations for areasonable time period
tobe determined bythe posting Member State.

3.Anamendment toRegulation (EC) 377/2004modifying


itsArticles 3, 4and 6was adopted asRegulation (EU)
No493/2011on5April 2011.

158
A
immigration programme
B
BG Definition
CS program migrace Programme tofacilitate migration which isorganised orsup- C
DE Zuwanderungsprogramm / Einwanderungsprogramm ported with the assistance ofagovernment, governments oran
EL international organisation, asopposed tospontaneous migra- D
ES programa deinmigracin tion, which isunaided.
ET rndetoetusprogramm E
FI maahanmuutto-ohjelma Source
FR programme dimmigration F
Developed byEMN
GA clr inimirce
HU bevndorlsi programot
IT programma per limmigrazione
Related term G
spontaneous migration
LT imigracijos programa
LV imigrcijas programma
H
MT
NL
Programm ta immigrazzjoni
immigratieprogramma I
PL program imigracyjny
PT migrao assistida J
RO program deimigraie
SK program prisahovalectva / imigran program K
SL program priseljevanja
SV invandringsprogram L
NO program for innvandring
M
N
immigration quota O

BG Definition
P
CS imigran kvta A quota established for and bythe country, normally for the pur-
DE Zuwanderungsquote / Einwanderungsquote poses oflabour migration, for the entry ofimmigrants.
Q
EL /
ES cuota deinmigracin Source R
ET sissernde piirarv Developed byEMN
FI maahanmuuttokiinti S
FR quota dimmigration
Broader terms
GA cuta inimirce labour migration T
HU bevndorlsi kvta
quota
IT quota (per immigrati) U
LT imigracijos kvota
LV imigrcijas kvota
Note
MT Kwota ta immigrazzjoni
In the EUcontext, such quotas are primarily used for third- V
NL immigratiequota country nationals only.
PL kwota imigracyjna
W
PT quota deimigrao
RO cot deimigraie X
SK prisahovaleck kvta / imigran kvta
SL kvota zapriseljevanje Y
SV invandringskvot
NO innvandringskvote Z

159
I BG
CS
DE
indirect discrimination
/
nepm diskriminace
mittelbare Diskriminierung
Definition
A situation inwhich anapparently neutral provision, criterion
orpractice would put persons ofaracial orethnic origin atapar-
EL ticular disadvantage compared with other persons, unless that
ES discriminacin indirecta provision, criterion orpractice isobjectively justified byalegiti-
ET kaudne diskrimineerimine mate aim and the means ofachieving that aim are appropriate
FI vlillinen syrjint and necessary.
FR discrimination indirecte
GA idirdheal indreach
Source
HU kzvetett diszkriminci
Art.2(b) ofCouncil Directive
IT discriminazione indiretta
2000/43/EC (Racial Equality Directive)
LT netiesiogin diskriminacija
LV netiea diskrmincija
MT Diskriminazzjoni indiretta
Broader term
principle ofequal treatment
NL indirecte discriminatie
PL dyskryminacja porednia
PT discriminao indirecta Related terms
institutional discrimination
RO discriminare indirect
structural discrimination
SK nepriama diskrimincia
SL posredna diskriminacija
SV indirekt diskriminering
NO indirekte diskriminering
ASYLUM AND MIGRATION GLOSSARY 3.0

160
A
informal economy
B
BG Definition
CS ed ekonomika All economic activities byworkers and economic units that are C
DE informelle Wirtschaft / Schattenwirtschaft inlaw orin practice not covered orinsufficiently covered
EL byformal arrangements. D
ES economa informal
ET varimajandus Source E
FI epvirallinen talous / pime talous Para. 3ofILO Resolution concerning Decent Work and the
FR conomie informelle F
Informal Economy, 2002
GA geilleagar neamhfhoirmiil
HU szrke gazdasg
IT economia informale
Synonyms G
black market
LT elin ekonomika
LV neforml ekonomika
clandestine employment H
MT
NL
Ekonomija informali
informele economie Related terms
informal
I
PL gospodarka nierejestrowana employment
PT economia informal informal sector J
RO economie informal
SK tieov ekonomika / ed ekonomika Notes K
SL neformalna (siva) ekonomija 1.Activities within the informal economy are not covered bylaw,
SV informell ekonomi which means that they are operating outside ofthe formal reach L
NO uformell konomi / parallell konomi ofrelevant legislation; orthey are not covered inpractice, which
means that, although they are operating within the formal reach M
ofthe law, the law isnot applied ornot enforced, orthe law dis-
courages compliance because itis inappropriate, burdensome N
orimposes excessive costs.
O
2.This applies tothird-country nationals, too.
P
Q
R
S
T
U
V
W
X
Y
Z

161
I BG
Information and Coordination Network for Member States
Migration Management Services



Definition
A secure web-based information and coordination network for
the rapid information exchange between Member States on
CS Informan akoordinan s pro sluby zen irregular migratory flows and phenomena, and the return
migrace lenskch stt (ICONet) ofillegal residents.
DE Informations- und Koordinierungsnetz fr
dieMigrationsbehrden der Mitgliedstaaten Source
EL Derived byEMN from Art.1ofCouncil Decision 2005/267/EC
ES ICONet
ET liikmesriikide migratsiooniteenistuste info-ja
Synonym
koordineerimisvrgustik
ICONet
FI tieto- jakoordinointiverkosto maahanmuuton
hallinnasta vastaavia jsenvaltioiden viranomaisia
Related terms
varten (ICONet)
European Agency for the Management
FR Rseau dinformation etde coordination scuris
ofOperational Cooperation atthe
connect linternet pour les services destats
membres chargs de la gestion des flux ExternalBorders ofthe Member States
migratoires(ICONet) oftheEuropeanUnion
Immigration Liaison Officer
GA ICONet
mutual information mechanism
HU a tagllamok migrcikezelsi szolglatainak
informcis skoordincis hlzata
IT Rete diInformazione eCoordinamento per iServizi Notes
diGestione dellImmigrazione degli Stati Membri 1.The ICONet was established in2005within the framework
(ICONet) ofthe Councils comprehensive plan tocombat illegal immigra-
LT Informacijos irkoordinavimo tinklas, skirtas valstybi tion and trafficking ofhuman beings.
nari migracijos valdymo tarnyboms
LV Informcijas unkoordincijas tkls dalbvalstu 2.The elements for information exchange shall include atleast the
migrcijas prvaldes dienestiem following: (a) early warning system onirregular immigration and
MT Netwerk ta Informazzjoni uKoordinazzjoni gas- facilitator networks; (b) network ofimmigration liaison officers;
Servizzi dwar estjoni ta Migrazzjoni fl-Istati Membri (c) information onthe use ofvisas, borders and travel documents
(ICONet) inrelation toillegal immigration; and (d) return-related issues.
NL ICONet
PL ICONet / nousual translation
PT ICONet
RO Reeaua deinformare icoordonare aserviciilor
demanagement almigraiei din statele membre
(ICONet)
ASYLUM AND MIGRATION GLOSSARY 3.0

SK Informan akoordinan sie pre sluby riadenia


migrcie lenskch ttov / ICONet
SL Informacijska inkoordinacijska mrea slub drav
lanic zaupravljanje migracije
SV ICONet
NO ICONet

162
A
integration
B
BG Definition
CS integrace In the EUcontext, adynamic, two-way process ofmutual C
DE Integration accommodation byall immigrants and residents ofMember
EL States. D
ES integracin
ET limumine Source E
FI kotouttaminen / kotoutuminen Action 1, section 2ofCommunication onaCommon Agenda for
FR intgration F
Integration, COM(2005) 389final
GA imeascadh
HU integrci
IT integrazione
Narrower terms G
Common Basic Principles
LT integracija
LV integrcija
Handbook onIntegration H
European Website onIntegration
MT
NL
Integrazzjoni
integratie
National Contact Points onIntegration I
PL integracja
PT integrao Related terms J
adaptation
RO integrare
SK integrcia host society K
SL integracija / vkljuevanje reintegration

SV integration L
NO integrering Notes
1.Art.79(4) ofthe TFEU gives the legal base for Union activities M
onintegration. The promotion offundamental rights, non-
discrimination and equal opportunities for all are key integration N
issues.
O
2.AtEU level, integration policy isdeveloped within the frame-
work ofCommon Basic Principles CBP (of which the broad
definition above isthe first one).
P

3.For more information, see European Website onIntegration:


Q
http://ec.europa.eu/ewsi/en/mandate.cfm
R
S
T
U
V
W
X
Y
Z

163
I BG
CS
DE
intercultural dialogue

mezikulturn dialog
interkultureller Dialog
Definition
An open and respectful exchange ofviews between individuals
and groups with different ethnic, cultural, religious and linguistic
EL backgrounds and heritage onthe basis ofmutual understanding
ES dilogo intercultural and respect.
ET kultuuridevaheline dialoog
FI kulttuurienvlinen vuoropuhelu Source
FR dialogue interculturel
Section 1.4ofCouncil ofEurope: White Paper onIntercultural
GA idirphl idirchultrtha
Dialogue, May 2008
HU interkulturlis prbeszd
IT dialogo interculturale
Notes
LT tarpkultrinis dialogas
1.Intercultural dialogue has long been aprinciple supported
LV starpkultru dialogs
bythe European Union and its institutions. The year 2008was
MT Djalogu interkulturali
NL interculturele dialoog designated European Year ofIntercultural Dialogue (EYID)
PL dialog midzykulturowy bythe European Parliament and the Member States. Itaimed
PT todraw the attention ofpeople inEurope tothe importance
RO dialog intercultural ofdialogue within diversity and between diverse cultures.
SK medzikultrny dialg / interkultrny dialg
SL medkulturni dialog 2.For more information, see Evaluation ofthe European Year
SV interkulturell dialog ofIntercultural Dialogue, 2008 (COM/2010/03561 final).
NO interkulturell dialog
ASYLUM AND MIGRATION GLOSSARY 3.0

164
Intergovernmental Consultations on Migration,
A
Asylum and Refugees
B
BG , Definition
An informal, non-decision making forum for intergovernmental C
CS Mezivldn konzultace kmigraci, azylu auprchlictv information exchange and policy debate onissues ofrelevance
DE Zwischenstaatliche Beratungen ber Migration, tothe management ofinternational migratory flows, which D
Asylund Flchtlinge brings together the participating states, the United Nations High
EL Commissioner for Refugees, the International Organization E
ES Consultas Intergubernamentales sobre Asilo, for Migration and the European Commission.
Refugioy Migracin F
ET valitsustevahelised konsultatsioonid rnde-,
Source
varjupaiga- japagulasteemal
Website ofthe IGC G
FI IGC (Euroopan, Pohjois-Amerikan jaAustralian
turvapaikka-, pakolais- jasiirtolaispolitiikkoja
ksittelevt hallitustenvliset neuvottelut)
Synonym H
IGC
FR Consultations intergouvernementales sur les
politiques dasile, derfugis etde migrations I
GA Comhairlichin Idir-Rialtasacha maidir lehImirce,
Notes
Tearmann agus Ddeanaithe 1.The starting point for the IGC was aconference held inMay J
HU Kormnykzi Tancskozs / Egyttmkds 1985under the auspices ofthe UNHCR. While historically
aMigrcirl saMenekltgyrl focused onasylum issues, IGC has moved towards greater dis- K
IT Consultazioni Inter-Governative inmateria cussion and exchange ofdata ongeneral migration policies
diImmigrazione, Asilo eRifugiati since2006. L
LT Tarpvyriausybins konsultacijos migracijos,
prieglobsio irpabgli klausimais 2.For more information onparticipating states etc., see the IGC M
LV Starpvaldbu konsultcijas par migrcijas, website: http://www.igc.ch/
patvrumaunbgu jautjumiem N
MT Konsultazzjonijiet Intergovernattivi
fuqMigrazzjoni,Ail uRifujati O
NL IGC (BE syn.: Intergouvernementeel Overleg
overmigratie, asiel envluchtelingen) P
PL midzyrzdowe konsultacje nt. migracji,
azyluiuchodcw
PT consultas intergovernamentais sobre migraes,
Q
asiloerefugiados
RO Consultri interministeriale cuprivire lamigraie, R
azilirefugiai
SK Medzivldne konzultcie omigrcii, S
azyleauteencoch
SL Medvladna posvetovanja omigraciji, azilu inbeguncih T
SV Intergovernmental Consultations onMigration,
Asylum and Refugees U
NO Flernasjonal informasjonsutveksling om migrasjons,
asyl- og flyktningsprsml V
W
X
Y
Z

165
I BG
CS
DE
internal EU border

vnitn hranice EU
EU-Binnengrenze
Definition
Schengen Member States common borders, including land bor-
ders, river and lake borders, sea borders and their airports, river
EL ports, sea ports and lake ports.
ES frontera interior (UE)
ET Euroopa Liidu sisepiir Source
FI EU:n sisraja Derived byEMN from Art.1ofRegulation (EC) No562/2006
FR frontire intrieure delUE
(Schengen Borders Code)
GA teorainn inmhenach AE
HU bels hatr
Synonym
IT frontiera interna UE
internal Schengen border
LT vidaus siena
LV ES iekj robea
MT Konfini (Il-) interni / Fruntiera (Il-) interna tal-UE
Related terms
border control
NL EU binnengrens
external EUborder
PL granica wewntrzna UE
irregular entry
PT fronteira interna
legal entry
RO Frontier intern UE
refusal ofentry
SK vntorn hranica E
SL notranja meja EU Schengen Borders Code

SV inre grns
NO grense mellom Schengen-medlemsland Notes
1.IEand UKdo not participate inthe Schengen Area.

2.BG, HRand ROare Schengen candidate countries.

3.IS, LI, NO and CH are also Schengen Member States, although


they are not EUMember States.

4.For updated information onmembership tothe Schengen


Area, see the DGHOME website: http://ec.europa.eu/dgs/
home-affairs/what-we-do/policies/borders-and-visas/schengen/
index_en.htm
ASYLUM AND MIGRATION GLOSSARY 3.0

166
A
internally displaced person
B
BG Definition
CS vnitn pesdlen osoby A person orgroups ofpersons who has been forced orobliged C
DE Binnenvertriebener toflee orto leave their homes orplaces ofhabitual residence,
EL inparticular asaresult ofor inorder toavoid the effects D
ES poblacin desplazada internamente ofarmed conflict, situations ofgeneralised violence, violations
ET riigisiseselt mberasustatud isikud ofhuman rights ornatural orhuman-made disasters, and who E
FI maan sisll siirtymn joutunut henkil /maan have not crossed aninternationally recognised State border.
sisinen pakolainen F
FR personne dplace lintrieure deson propre pays
Source
GA duine easitithe de thr
HU bels meneklt
Art.2ofUN Guiding Principles onInternal Displacement G
IT sfollato interno
LT viduje perkeltasis asmuo
Synonym H
IDP
LV
MT
iekzem prvietota persona
Persuna sfollata internament / fpajjiha stess I
NL in eigen land ontheemd persoon Broader term
PL osoba przesiedlona wewntrznie displaced person J
PT deslocado interno
RO persoan strmutat intern Related terms K
defacto refugee
SK vntorne vysdlen osoba
SL notranje razseljena oseba (NRO) environmentally displaced person
L
SV internflykting
NO internt fordrevet person (b) / internt fordriven Note M
person(n) For more information, see the website ofthe Internal Displace-
ment Monitoring Centre (IDMC): http://www.internal-displace- N
ment.org/about-us
O
P
International Organization for Migration
Q
BG Definition
CS Mezinrodn ogranizace pro migraci An intergovernmental organisation inthe field ofmigration dedi- R
DE Internationale Organisation fr Migration cated toensuring the orderly and humane management ofmigra-
EL tion, topromote international cooperation onmigration issues, S
ES Organizacin Internacional para las Migraciones toassist inthe search for practical solutions tomigration problems
ET Rahvusvaheline Migratsiooniorganisatsioon
and toprovide humanitarian assistance tomigrants inneed, T
FI Kansainvlinen siirtolaisuusjrjest
bethey refugees, displaced persons orother uprooted people.
FR Organisation internationale pour les migrations U
GA an Eagraocht Idirnisinta umImirce
Source
HU Nemzetkzi Migrcis Szervezet
Website ofthe International Organisation ofMigration V
IT Organizzazione Internazionale per leMigrazioni
LT Tarptautin migracijos organizacija
LV Starptautisk Migrcijas organizcija Related terms W
United Nations High Commissioner forRefugees
MT Organizzazzjoni (L-) Internazzjonali gall-Migrazzjoni
NL Internationale Organisatie voor Migratie X
PL Midzynarodowa Organizacja doSpraw Migracji Notes
PT Organizao Internacional para as Migraes 1.The agency was created in1951. Y
RO Organizaia Internaional pentru Migraie 2.Itis one ofthe main inter-governmental organisations inthe
SK Medzinrodn organizcia pre migrciu field ofmigration and works closely with governmental, inter- Z
SL Mednarodna organizacija zamigracije governmental and non-governmental partners.
SV International Organization for Migration 3.For further information, see the website ofIOM:
NO Den internasjonale migrasjonsorganisasjonen https://www.iom.int/cms/about-iom

167
I BG
CS
DE
international protection

mezinrodn ochrana
internationaler Schutz
Definition
In the global context, the actions bythe international community
onthe basis ofinternational law, aimed atprotecting the funda-
EL mental rights ofaspecific category ofpersons outside their
ES proteccin (internacional) countries oforigin, who lack the national protection oftheir own
ET rahvusvaheline kaitse countries.
FI kansainvlinen suojelu In the EUcontext, protection that encompasses refugee status
FR protection internationale
and subsidiary protection status.
GA cosaint idirnisinta
HU nemzetkzi vdelem
Source
IT protezione internazionale
Global context: UNHCR Master Glossary ofTerms
LT prieglobstis
EU context: Derived byEMN from Art.2(a) ofDirective 2011/95/
LV starptautisk aizsardzba
EC (Recast Qualification Directive)
MT Protezzjoni internazzjonali
NL internationale bescherming
PL ochrona midzynarodowa Broader term
protection
PT proteco internacional
RO protecie internaional
SK medzinrodn ochrana Narrower terms
SL mednarodna zaita refugee status
SV internationellt skydd subsidiary protection
NO internasjonal beskyttelse (b) / internasjonalt vern(n)
Related terms
asylum
Geneva Convention of1951and
Protocolof1967
humanitarian protection
temporary protection
United Nations High Commissioner
forRefugees
ASYLUM AND MIGRATION GLOSSARY 3.0

168
A
intra-corporate transferee
B
BG - Definition
CS vnitropodnikov pevdn pracovnk A third-country national subject toatemporary secondment C
DE innerbetrieblich versetzte Person from anundertaking established outside the territory
EL - ofaMember State and towhich the third-country national D
ES trabajador transnacional isbound byawork contract toan entity belonging tothe under-
ET ettevttesisene leviimine taking orto the same group ofundertakings which isestablished E
FI sisisen siirron saanut tyntekij / yrityksen inside this territory.
tilapisesti toiseen maahan lhettm tyntekij F
FR personne faisant lobjet dun transfert temporaire
Source
intragroupe
Derived from Arts. 3(b) and 3(c) ofProposal for aDirective G
GA aistr ionchorparideach
onconditions ofentry and residence ofthird-country nationals
HU vllalaton bell thelyezett szemly
IT lavoratore straniero distaccato (persona trasferita
inthe framework ofan intra-corporate transfer (COM(2010) H
378final)
LT
allinterno della stessa societ inun altro paese)
bendrovs viduje perkeliamas asmuo I
LV uzmuma ietvaros prcelts darbinieks Note
MT addiem trasferit minn post gal ieor talistess The World Trade Organisations (WTO) General Agreement J
kumpanija // Trasferiment intra-korporattiv onTrade inServices (GATS), liberalises trade inservices, including
taaddiem the temporary movement ofnatural persons asservice suppliers. K
NL binnen een onderneming overgeplaatste persoon Mode 4refers tothe presence ofpersons ofone WTO member
PL pracownik przenoszony wewntrz przedsibiorstwa inthe territory ofanother for the purpose ofproviding aservice. L
PT pessoas transferidas temporariamente pela empresa Itdoes not concern persons seeking access tothe employment
RO transferat intra-corporaie market inthe host member, nor does itaffect measures regard- M
SK pracovnk presunut vrmci spolonosti ing citizenship, residence oremployment onapermanent basis.
SL oseba premeena znotraj podjetja For more information, see http://www.wto.org/english/tratop_e/ N
SV fretagsinternt frflyttad person serv_e/mouvement_persons_e/mouvement_persons_e.htm
NO utstasjonert arbeidstaker (b) / utstasjonert O
arbeidstakar(n)
P
Q
R
S
T
U
V
W
X
Y
Z

169
I BG
CS
DE
intra-EU mobility

mobilita vrmci EU
EU-Binnenmobilitt
Definition
Action ofpersons (EU nationals orlegally resident third-country
nationals) undertaking their right tofree movement bymoving
EL from one EUMember State toanother.
ES movilidad intracomunitaria
ET Euroopa Liidu sisene liikuvus Source
FI EU:n sisinen liikkuvuus Derived byEMN from the definition ofright tofree movement
FR mobilit intra-UE
inthe EMN Glossary
GA gluaisteacht san AE
HU EU-n belli mobilits
Synonyms
IT mobilit intra-UE
EU mobility
LT judumas ESviduje
free movement
LV ES iekj mobilitte
Inter-EU migration
MT Intramobbilt fl-UE
Intra-EU migration
NL mobiliteit binnen deEU
intra EU / EFTA-mobility
PL mobilno wewntrzunijna
third-country national mobility
PT
RO mobilitate intra UE
SK mobilita vrmci Eurpskej nie / mobilita vrmci E Broader term
SL notranja mobilnost vEU right tofree movement
SV EU-intern rrlighet
NO mobilitet mellom EUs medlemsland Notes
1.Free movement / intra-EU mobility isavailable under two dif-
ferent schemes. The first scheme isavery open one and appli-
cable toEU citizens who benefit from full freedom ofmovement.
The second scheme concerns migrant workers. Rules applicable
here are less generous and limited tospecific categories
ofthird-country nationals, i.e. long-term residents, highly skilled
workers, researchers and students.

2.Through separate agreements between the EUand IS, LI, NO


and CH, the same rights tofree movement apply totheir citizens
and their territories.
ASYLUM AND MIGRATION GLOSSARY 3.0

170
A
irregular entry
B
BG Synonym
CS neoprvnn vstup nazem illegal entry C
DE irregulre Einreise
EL Broader term D
ES entrada irregular irregular migration
ET ebaseaduslik (riiki) sisenemine E
FI laiton maahantulo Related terms
FR entre irrgulire border F
control
GA iontril aimhrialta external EU border
HU szablytalan hatrtlps
IT ingresso irregolare
internal EU border G
legal entry
LT neteistas atvykimas
LV nelikumga ieceoana
Schengen Borders Code H
MT
NL
Dul irregolari
illegale binnenkomst Notes I
PL nieregularny wjazd 1.The European Commission favours nowadays the term irreg-
PT entrada irregular ular entry (e.g. see: DGHome e-Library Glossary) instead J
RO ofillegal entry.
SK neleglny vstup / neoprvnen vstup K
SL ilegalen vstop / nedovoljen vstop 2.Art.5ofthe Schengen Borders Code states that for stays not
SV olaglig inresa exceeding three months per six-month period, the entry condi- L
NO irregulr innreise tions for third-country nationals shall bethe following:
M
(a) they are inpossession ofavalid travel document ordoc-
Definition uments authorising them tocross the border; N
In the global context, crossing borders without complying with the
necessary requirements for legal entry into the receiving State. (b) they are inpossession ofavalid visa, ifrequired pursuant
toCouncil Regulation (EC) No539/2001listing the third
O
In the Schengen context, the entry ofathird-country national
into aSchengen Member State who does not satisfy Art.5ofthe countries whose nationals must bein possession ofvisas
Schengen Borders Code. when crossing the external borders and those whose nation-
P
als are exempt from that requirement (17), except where they
Source hold avalid residence permit;
Q
Global context: Definition for illegal entry inArt.3(b) ofthe
Protocol against the Smuggling ofMigrants byLand, Sea and Air, (c) they justify the purpose and conditions ofthe intended stay, R
Supplementing the UNConvention against Transnational and they have sufficient means ofsubsistence, both for the
Organized Crime duration ofthe intended stay and for the return totheir coun- S
Schengen context: Developed byEMN try oforigin ortransit toathird country into which they are
certain tobe admitted, orare inaposition toacquire such T
means lawfully;
U
(d) they are not persons for whom analert has been issued
inthe Schengen Information System for the purposes V
ofrefusing entry;
W
(e) they are not considered tobe athreat topublic policy,
internal security, public health orthe international relations X
ofany ofthe Member States, inparticular where noalert has
been issued inMember States national data bases for the Y
purposes ofrefusing entry onthe same grounds.
Z
3.For more information, see Regulation (EC) No562/2006
(Schengen Borders Code): http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/
LexUriServ.do?uri=CELEX:32006R0562:EN:NOT

171
I BG
CS
DE
irregular migrant

nelegln migrant
irregulrer Migrant
Source
Global context: Derived byEMN from IOM Glossary onMigration,
2nd. Ed. 2011
EL EU context: Derived byEMN from the definition ofillegal stay
ES inmigrante ensituacin irregular inArt.3ofDirective 2008/115/EC (Return Directive)
ET ebaseaduslik sisserndaja
FI laittomasti maassa oleskeleva henkil Synonyms
FR migrant ensjour irrgulier clandestine migrant
GA imirceach neamhrialta illegal migrant
HU irregulris migrns
insufficiently documented migrant
IT migrante irregolare
migrant inan irregular siuation
LT neteistas migrantas
migrant with irregular status
LV nelikumgs migrants
unauthorised migrant
MT Migrant(a) irregolari
undocumented migrant
NL illegaal verblijvende migrant
PL migrant nieregularny
PT imigrante irregular Broader term
migrant
RO migrant ilegal
SK neleglny migrant /
migrantbezplatnhopovolenianapobyt Narrower term
SL ilegaln migrant / nezakonit priseljenec third-country national found
SV irreguljr migrant tobeillegallypresent
NO irregulr migrant
Related terms
apprehension
Definition irregular migration
In the global context, aperson who, owing toirregular entry, overstay(er)
breach ofacondition ofentry orthe expiry oftheir legal basis
for entering and residing, lacks legal status inatransit orhost Notes
country. 1.The IOM definition covers inter alia those persons who have
In the EUcontext, athird-country national present onthe terri- entered atransit orhost country lawfully but have stayed for
tory ofaSchengen State who does not fulfil, orno longer fulfils, alonger period than authorised orsubsequently taken upunau-
the conditions ofentry asset out inthe Schengen Borders thorised employment.
Code, orother conditions for entry, stay orresidence inthat
Member State. 2.The term irregular ispreferable toillegal migrant because
the latter carries acriminal connotation, entering acountry inan
irregular manner, orstaying with anirregular status, isnot
ASYLUM AND MIGRATION GLOSSARY 3.0

acriminal offence but aninfraction ofadministrative regula-


tions. Apart from this, juridically and ethically, anact can
belegal orillegal but aperson cannot. Thus more and more the
term migrant inan irregular situation ormigrant with irregular
status ispreferred.

3.The European Commission has used the term third-country


national found tobe illegally present orillegally resident /
staying third-country national inlegislation.

4.The Council ofEurope differentiates between illegal migration


and irregular migrant. Referring toResolution 1509 (2006)
ofthe Council ofEurope Parliamentary Assembly, illegal
ispreferred when referring toastatus orprocess, whereas
irregular ispreferred when referring toaperson.

172
A
irregular migration
B
BG Broader term
CS nelegln migrace migration C
DE irregulre Migration
EL Narrower terms D
ES inmigracin irregular irregular entry
ET ebaseaduslik rnne irregular stay E
FI sntjen vastainen maahanmuutto secondary movement of migrants
FR migration irrgulire F
GA imirce aimhrialta
Related term
HU irregulris migrci
IT migrazione irregolare
irregular migrant G
LT neteista migracija
LV nelikumga migrcija
Notes H
1.There isnouniversally accepted definition ofirregular migra-
MT
NL
Migrazzjoni irregolari
irreguliere migratie (not currently used; tion. From the perspective ofdestination countries itis entry, I
morecommon isillegale migratie) stay orwork inacountry without the necessary authorisation
PL migracja nieregularna ordocuments required under immigration regulations. From the J
PT migrao irregula perspective ofthe sending country, the irregularity is, for exam-
RO migraie ilegal ple, seen incases inwhich aperson crosses aninternational K
SK neleglna migrcia boundary without avalid passport ortravel document ordoes
SL ilegana migracija / neregulirana migracija / not fulfil the administrative requirements for leaving the country. L
nedovoljena migracija There is, however, atendency torestrict the use ofthe term
SV irreguljr migration tocases ofsmuggling ofmigrants and trafficking inpersons. M
NO irregulr migrasjon
2.Defining irregular migration has been the subject ofconsider- N
able debate. Terms such asillegal, undocumented, non-docu-
Definition mented, and unauthorised migration can have different
O
Movement ofpersons toanew place ofresidence ortransit that connotations innational policy debates. Due tothis and the
takes place outside the regulatory norms ofthe sending, transit assocation with criminality the term illegal migration should
and receiving countries. beavoided, asmost irregular migrants are not criminals. Being
P
inacountry without the required papers is, inmost countries, not
Source acriminal offence but anadministrative infringement.
Q
Derived byEMN from IOM Glossary onMigration, 2nd. ed.
2011and DGHome e-Library Glossary 3.While the UNuse the term irregular orundocumented R
migration, the European Commission favoured for along time
Synonyms the term illegal immigration, but more recently refers toirreg- S
clandestine migration ular migration aswell.
illegal immigration T
illegal migration 4.The Council ofEurope differentiates between illegal migration
unauthorised migration and irregular migrant. Referring toResolution 1509 (2006) U
undocumented migration ofthe Council ofEurope Parliamentary Assembly, illegal
ispreferred when referring toastatus orprocess, whereas V
irregular ispreferred when referring toaperson.
W
X
Y
Z

173
I BG
CS
DE
irregular stay

neoprvnn pobyt
irregulrer Aufenthalt
Definition
The presence onthe territory ofaMember State, ofathird-coun-
try national who does not fulfil, orno longer fulfils the conditions
EL ofentry asset out inArt.5ofthe Schengen Borders Codeor
ES estancia irregular other conditions for entry, stay orresidence inthat Member State.
ET ebaseaduslik (riigis) viibimine
FI laiton oleskelu Source
FR sjour irrgulier
Art.3 (2) ofDirective 2008/115/EC (Return Directive)
GA cuairt aimhrialta
HU szablytalan tartzkods
Synonym
IT soggiorno irregolare
illegal stay
LT neteistas buvimas
LV nelikumga uzturans
MT Qagda / Waqfa / jara irregolari
Broader term
irregular migration
NL illegaal verblijf
PL nieregularny pobyt
PT permanncia irregula Related terms
irregular entry
RO edere ilegal
overstay(er)
SK neoprvnen pobyt (national law) / neleglny pobyt
SL ilegalno prebivanje / nedovoljeno prebivanje third-country national found
SV olaglig vistelse tobeillegallypresent
NO irregulrt opphold (b) / irregulrt opphald(n)
Note
The European Commission favours nowadays the term irregular
stay (e.g. see: DGHOME e-Library Glossary) instead ofillegal
stay which was the term used inthe Directive 2008/115/EU
(Return Directive).

ius sanguinis
BG no translation Definition
CS ius sanguinis The determination ofapersons nationality onthe basis ofthe
DE Abstammungsprinzip / Ius sanguinis nationality oftheir parents (or one parent orone particular par-
EL ; ius sanguinis ent) atthe time ofthe target persons birth and atthe time
ES ius sanguinis ofacquisition ofnationality bythe target person (the two points
ET vereigus
ASYLUM AND MIGRATION GLOSSARY 3.0

intime are different incases ofacquisition after birth).


FI periytymisperiaate
FR droit dusang Source
GA ius sanguinis EUDO Online Glossary onCitizenship and Nationality
HU ius sanguinis (vr szerinti leszrmazs elve)
IT ius sanguinis Synonym
LT kraujo teis jus sanguinis