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By Sujeet Singh.

Viking Confidential 1
Agenda
Pump Family tree
PD Pumps
PD vs Centrifugal
Pumping Technologies
Pumping Technology Selection
Gear vs Twin Screw

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Pump Family Tree

PUMPS

POSITIVE
KINETIC
DISPLACEMENT

REGENERATIVE
CENTRIFUGAL ROTARY RECIPROCATING
TURBINE

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Rotary Pump Family Tree

ROTARY

FLEXIBLE CIRCUMFERENTIAL
GEAR VANE LOBE SCREW PISTON
MEMBER PISTON

FLEXIBLE
INTERNAL BLADE SINGLE SINGLE AXIAL SINGLE
TUBE

FLEXIBLE
EXTERNAL BUCKET MULTIPLE MULTIPLE RADIAL MULTIPLE
VANE

FLEXIBLE
ROLLER
LINER

SLIPPER

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Centrifugal Pump principle

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Centrifugal Pump principle

A centrifugal pump generates a low


pressure area in the impeller to draw
fluid in. (The same as a PD Pump)

The fluid velocity is increased as it


travels outward along the Impeller.

Velocity is converted to pressure in


the diffuser or volute. The pump is a
pressure source.

Centrifugal pumps generate head (pressure) and flow results

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Rotary PD Pump principle

A Positive Displacement (PD)


pump displaces a known quantity
of liquid with each revolution of
the pumping elements. This is
done by trapping liquid between
the pumping elements and a
stationary casing

PD pumps generate flow and pressure is a result

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Centrifugal / PD Comparison

PUMP PRINCIPLE
PUMP Kinetic Rotary
CHARACTERISTICS (Centrifugal) (Positive Displacement)
Typically water-thin Typically lubricating liquids
Viscosities Handled
30-3,000 SSU (1-750 cSt) 30-Millions SSU (1-1M cSt)
Low High
Pressure
Up to 500 PSI (34 BAR) Up to 3,000 PSI (200 BAR)
High Medium
Speed
1150-3450 RPM 1750 RPM or less
High Medium
Capacity
To 100,000 GPM (20k M/hr) To 12,000 GPM (2800 M/hr)
Rapidly drops with increasing
Efficiency Relatively High
viscosity / pressure

Performance (Flow) Smooth Smooth

Suction Characteristics Not Self Priming Very Good

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Relating Factors

Change Slip Flow NPSHr Power

Clearance - -

Viscosity

Diff. -
Pressure
Speed -

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Review When to use PD Pumps
Low NPSH or Suction Lift Applications
High Viscosity Applications
High Pressure Applications
Low Flow, High Head Applications
Flow Rate Control Required (Metering)
Variable Service Conditions (Pressures, Viscosities,
etc.)
Energy Usage Concerns (Efficiency)
Shear Sensitive Liquids

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Internal Gear Pump

Advantages
Only two moving parts.
Only one stuffing box.
Bi-Directional
Can Handle Suction Lift Condition
Constant and even discharge regardless of pressure
conditions. Operates well in either direction. Disadvantages
Low NPSH required.
Single adjustable end clearance. Usually requires moderate speeds.
Easy to maintain. Medium pressure limitations- upto14bar
Flexible design offers application customization One bearing runs in the product pumped
Overhung load on shaft bearing

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External Gear Pump

Advantages Disadvantages
Can handle high pressure-upto 300bar
Only one stuffing box. Not good for handling abrasive liquids
Only Opposite ports are possible

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Lobe Pump Operating Principle

Advantages
Pump can be put to CIP & SIP
Low shear good for shear sensitive liquids Disadvantages
No Metal to Metal contact inside the pump
Requires two seals and Pump has to be usually
Can handle large solids without damaging
dismantled to service seals
No bushing running in the pumping liquid
Timing gears are required-needs skilled servicing
Low suction lift with thin liquids
Lower pressure rating due to overhung load- 28 bar max
Wear can not be compensated and trilobe pumps lose
efficiency faster

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Vane Pump Operating Principle

Advantages

Good for thin volatile liquids


Can handle high pressure with thin liquids-upto Disadvantages
14 bar with 0.5 cps
Not good for handling high viscosities
Wear is self compensated by vanes
Not good for handling abrasive liquids
Good for truck mounting

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Progressive Cavity Pump Operating Principle

Advantages
Slurry handling in ceramic, paint, ink and mining
industry
Paste handling in food industry
Latex/rubber handling

Disadvantages

Can not run dry


Not for high temperatures
Hard to maintain
Expensive to repair
More space required
Stuffing box on suction side

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Twin Screw Pump Operating Principle
Advantages
Can handle high pressure- upto 100 bar
Available for very high flows-upto 2800m3/hr
Can run at high speeds

Disadvantages
Min Two seals
Seals exposed to full discharge pressure
Timing Gears
No wear compensation

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Three Screw Pump Operating Principle
Advantages
Can handle high pressure- upto 140 bar
Can run at high speeds
Non Pulsating flow

Disadvantages
Good for only Lubricating Liquids
Not good for very High Viscosity
Relatively Complex design
Can not handle solids

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Pumping Technologies Selection
SERVICE PARAMETERS
Principle High Flows Low Flows High High
Pressure Temperatur
e
Internal Gear 364 M3/Hr 0.11M3/hr 17 bar 425C
External Gear 340 M3/hr 0.00023M3/hr 210 bar 260C

Vane 455 M3/Hr 0.31 M3/hr 14 bar 185 C


Lobe 182 m3/Hr 0.31M3/hr 28 bar 210C
3 Screw 216 M3/Hr 0.063M3/hr 180 bar 260C
2 Screw 2800 M3/hr 20 GPM 80 bar 340C
Progressive Cavity 545M3/Hr 0.063M3/hr 110 bar 175C
Hydraulic Diaphragm 40M3/Hr 0.000063 M3/hr 410 bar 100C
Air Diaphragm 60M3/Hr 0.0315 m3/hr 7 bar 100C
(AOD)

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Pumping Technologies Selection
Liquid Characteristics and Run Condition

Principle High Low Dry Multiphase


Viscosity Lubricity Run
Internal Gear Excellent Good Short No
External Gear Excellent Good Short No
Vane Fair Excellent Short No
Lobe Excellent Excellent Yes Yes
3 Screw Good Poor Short No
2 Screw Good Excellent Yes Yes
Progressive Cavity Excellent Good No Yes
Hydraulic Diaphragm Fair Excellent Yes Yes
Air Diaphragm (AOD) Fair Excellent Yes Yes

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Pumping Technologies Selection
Nature of Liquid

Principle Abrasive Liquids Liquids w/ Solids Shear


Sensative
Internal Gear Yes No Yes
External Gear No No No
Vane No No No
Lobe Yes Yes Yes
3 Screw No No No
2 Screw Yes Yes Yes
Progressive Cavity Yes Yes Yes
Hydraulic Diaphragm Yes Yes Yes
Air Diaphragm (AOD) Yes Yes Yes

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Pumping Technologies Selection
Service Condition Other Requirements

Principle Smooth Output Seal less Option Sanitary


Option
Internal Gear Steady Output Yes Yes
External Gear Steady Output Yes NSF Options
Vane Steady Output Yes NSF Options
Lobe Slight Pulsing No Yes
3 Screw Steady Output Yes No
2 Screw Steady Output No Yes
Progressive Cavity Steady Output No Yes
Hydraulic Diaphragm Pulsed Output Inherently Sealless Yes
Air Diaphragm (AOD) Pulsed Output Inherently Sealless Yes

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Gear Pump benefits over Twin Screw pumps
Point Gear Pump Twin Screw Pump Viking Benefit

Design

Seal Only one seal Min two or four Seals Low operating cost
in a pump

Seal Plan for PSII triple seal Complicated seal Low initial and
double seal replaces double seal plans required operating cost
No Seal Plan required

Seal Pressure Exposed to 70% 0f Exposed to full Lesser chance for


discharge pressure discharge pressure seal failure

Timing Gear No timing Gear Timing gear required Easy to maintain

Wear Clearance b/w rotor No option No need to replace


Compensation and head plate can Rotors unlike
be adjusted screws .Lower
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Gear Pump benefits over Twin Screw pumps

Point Gear Pump Twin Screw Pump Viking Benefits

Design

Speed & Relatively low speed Relatively running at Lesser NPSHa.


NPSHR hence low NPSHr higher speed hence Extended parts life
more NPSHr

Initial cost Relatively less for Relatively more Lower initial cost
same capacity

Rotor / Screw Relatively lesser for Relatively more for Lower maintenance
replacement Rotor and idler screws cost
cost

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Questions?
2
4

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